ChapterPDF Available
A preview of the PDF is not available
... But in other cases, the depiction of the soil (as a surface or a soil profile in the paintings) is remarkable, even when the focus is on another subject. Feller et al. (2010) distinguish three motifs of soil profile representation in paintings from the Renaissance: ...
... The mandragora root is thick, hairy and forked, and in a humanoid form. The roots of the Mandragora genus (mandrake) were extensively used by alchemists and in magic rituals based on their psychotropic properties (see Feller et al., 2010, p. 12, Fig. 1.6). 1 The mandrake was also a religious symbol for Christians, for whom it was linked to Genesis and aspects of Christ's life (for further details, see Feller et al., 2010). ...
... While painters of genres past used their medium to document specific land formations and land use practices (Van Breemen, 2010;Zika, 2001;Feller et al., 2010), painters of the European Abstract tradition used soil materials more abstractly to explore the physical qualities of a given place rather than to realistically represent it. This turn towards abstract painting must be understood as a backlash against established norms of visual expression dominant in the 19th century salons. ...
Article
Full-text available
The range of art forms and genres dealing with soil is wide and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in cinema, architecture and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and cinema are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, with, or featuring soil or soil conservation issues, created by artists, and occasionally scientists, educators or collaborative efforts thereof.
... But in other cases, the depiction of the soil (as a surface or a soil profile in the paintings) is remarkable, even when the focus is on another subject. Feller et al. (2010) distinguish three motifs of soil profile representation in paintings from the Renaissance: ...
... The mandragora root is thick, hairy and forked, and in a humanoid form. The roots of the Mandragora genus (mandrake) were extensively used by alchemists and in magic rituals based on their psychotropic properties (see Feller et al., 2010, p. 12, Fig. 1.6). 1 The mandrake was also a religious symbol for Christians, for whom it was linked to Genesis and aspects of Christ's life (for further details, see Feller et al., 2010). ...
... While painters of genres past used their medium to document specific land formations and land use practices (Van Breemen, 2010;Zika, 2001;Feller et al., 2010), painters of the European Abstract tradition used soil materials more abstractly to explore the physical qualities of a given place rather than to realistically represent it. This turn towards abstract painting must be understood as a backlash against established norms of visual expression dominant in the 19th century salons. ...
Article
Full-text available
The material and symbolic appropriations of soil in artworks are numerous and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in film, architecture, and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and film are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, and with soil as a contribution to raising soil awareness.
... On the other end of the spectrum that impacts foreign policy lies the vision of "soil" in a scientific meaning as an independent work of art (Feller et al. 2009), which is also useful to bridge the communication gap and enhance awareness in the general public about the importance of soil. Art can be used to reclaim the image of soil and enhance awareness about its cultural, aesthetical and ecological values (Toland and Wessolek 2010). ...
... Art can be used to reclaim the image of soil and enhance awareness about its cultural, aesthetical and ecological values (Toland and Wessolek 2010). Several essential ecosystem services of soil (e.g., growth medium, habitat, archive, geomembrane, filter of pollutants) are now widely used as a matter of artistic expression and public discourse, and for promoting cultural values (Toland and Wessolek 2010;Feller et al. 2009). The emerging concept of "Peak Soil" (Leahy 2008) is based on the probabilistic model of the Hubbert Curve (Michel 2011). ...
Article
The strong soil–peace link is governed by the need for finite, but essential, resources intricately connected with ecosystem services and functions. Access to adequate and nutritious food is essential to human wellbeing, peace and tranquillity. The relation between soil/environmental scarcity and conflict is complex, and security can only be universal, rather than local or regional, in the present era of globalization. Civil strife and conflict can be caused by both resource paucity and rapacity. Anthropogenic perturbations leading to soil degradation, climate volatility and growing human demands (e.g., food, energy, water, minerals) derived from soil are potential flash points triggering violence at local, regional and global scales. Among different types of drought, pedological and agronomic droughts are triggered by soil degradation, decline in available water capacity of the root zone and changes in the hydrological cycle. Several regions with unstable governments are prone to water scarcity and conflicts. Soil affects world peace through its impact on the quest for victuals, which enhances the relevance of the “Peak Soil” concept. Economic development and environmental enhancement must go hand in hand, and the highest priority must be given to development of the ecosphere. Depicting soil as a work of art for portraying cultural, aesthetical and ecological values can increase public awareness. A Greener Revolution can be ushered in through judicious soil and environmental governance. Maintaining peace and harmony necessitates that soil resources are used, improved, restored and never taken for granted.
... Soil enjoys a special place in landscape painting (Zika 2001, Feller et al. 2010) and its representation throughout art history has been analyzed (Busch 2002, Hartemink 2009, van Breemen 2010 as well as taken on as an expressive medium within the soil science community (e.g., paintings by Gerd Wessolek, Jay Stratton Noller, and Ken van Rees). Given its primary position in art history, painting can provide relatively easy access to the complex world of contemporary art. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
... Soil enjoys a special place in landscape painting (Zika 2001, Feller et al. 2010) and its representation throughout art history has been analyzed (Busch 2002, Hartemink 2009, van Breemen 2010 as well as taken on as an expressive medium within the soil science community (e.g., paintings by Gerd Wessolek, Jay Stratton Noller, and Ken van Rees). Given its primary position in art history, painting can provide relatively easy access to the complex world of contemporary art. ...
Chapter
de Künstlerische Projekte können eigenständig zu einer kollektiven Bodenbewusstseinsbildung und zur Vermittlung von Bodenwissen beitragen. Eine sinnliche und eindrückliche Bodenwahrnehmung, wie sie in den hier erwähnten künstlerischen Auseinandersetzungen beispielhaft evoziert wird, kann in der Öffentlichkeit zu einem gesteigerten Verantwortungsgefühl für die Belange des Bodenschutzes führen. Künstlerische Methoden ergänzen den technologisch-wissenschaftlichen Bereich der Bodenwahrnehmung (Soil Sensing) mit dem Ziel einer ganzheitlichen Betrachtung des Bodens als Körper. In diesem Kapitel befassen wir uns mit künstlerischen Fallbeispielen, in welchen Sinneswahrnehmung als zentrales Mittel zur Steigerung eines Bodenbewusstseins eingesetzt wird. Abstract en Artistic projects can independently contribute to raising soil awareness as well as generating and communicating soil knowledge. A multisensory perception of soil, as evoked in the artistic examples described here, can lead to an increased sense of responsibility for soil health among the general public. Artistic methods complement the techno-scientific field of soil sensing and soil morphometrics with the aim of connecting human bodies to soils as natural bodies. In this chapter, we look at artistic case studies that focus on different aspects of sensory perception as a central means of increasing soil awareness.
Article
L’optimisation de la production agricole a longtemps été le seul but de la recherche agricole, notamment dans les pays du sud où la demande en aliments et en matières premières augmente rapidement et où les sols souvent dégradés fournissent peu d’éléments nutritifs. La nécessité d’un changement de paradigme est maintenant pleinement acquise. L’objectif premier reste l’augmentation des rendements mais cette intensification doit reposer sur de nouvelles bases plus économes en intrants et moins nocives pour l’environnement, et elle doit répondre aux contraintes locales (climat, sociétés). La notion d’intensification écologique repose sur les fonctionnalités de l’agroécosystème, le renforcement des interactions biologiques au sein de l’agrosystème et la biodiversité fonctionnelle. Mes recherches portent sur le rôle des interactions biologiques dans les cycles biogéochimiques des sols. Mes premiers travaux ont concerné le phosphore (P), élément nutritif essentiel à la croissance des plantes, mais dont la faible disponibilité dans les sols tropicaux limite la productivité des systèmes cultivés. Mes activités plus récentes se sont focalisées sur le carbone et l’azote, avec un focus sur les sorties gazeuses (N2O). Elles ont été développées dans le cadre d’un partenariat avec les institutions de Recherche locales, d’abord à Madagascar puis au Sénégal. Mes modèles d’étude privilégiés ont été l’agriculture de conservation (semis direct sous couverture végétale, SCV) à Madagascar et l’agroforesterie (association culturale d’arbustes sahéliens et de céréales) en Afrique de l’Ouest. Mon ambition est d’identifier, dans les systèmes cultivés à bas intrants des Sociétés du Sud, les processus écologiques susceptibles d’être optimisés afin de capturer les synergies potentielles ou d’offrir les meilleurs compromis possibles entre maintien de la productivité agricole, atténuation des gaz à effet de serre, et moindre vulnérabilité face aux changements climatiques.
Article
Full-text available
The rise of industrial agriculture paired with a global demographic shift of populations from rural to urban settings has diminished everyday interaction with soil for most members of society. This has led to a deterioration of the aesthetic image and cultural value of soil. Among other efforts to increase soil awareness, concerned artists have been reclaiming the image of soil as a culturally, aesthetically and ecologically invaluable common good. From the early environmental art of the 60s and 70s to more recent artworks on urban and industrial brownfields, soil functions such as growth medium and habitat, archive and contamination filter have become subject matter for artistic expression and public discourse. In the following paper we present soil in the context of the environmental arts movement as well as art in the context soil science. How can art contribute to soil conservation – both with the aim of generating greater public understanding and promoting cultural values, but also by developing creative methods to directly confront problems such as contamination, erosion, or humus loss? Based on a brief review of well-known artworks, a survey of soil scientists, interviews with artists, and our own creative field experiments, we address the use of art in bridging communication gaps between soil conservation and the general public. Introduction Cultural utilization of soil as expressive media, e.g. as pigment (see Ugolini 2010), sculptural or structural material, predates its appropriation for agriculture. While aesthetic uses of soil may be identified throughout human history, the rise of industrial agriculture paired with a global demographic shift of populations from rural to urban settings has diminished everyday interaction with soil for most members of modern society. In the absence of aboriginal or agricultural relationships with the earth, the aesthetic value and cultural context of soil deteriorates and the psychological gap between human populations and the earth widens. The image and identity of soil is reduced to dirt. Despite this lack of appreciation, current soil conservation relies almost exclusively on soil scientific principles. In so doing, it neglects cultural values and strategies, which could improve human perception and also ideally human treatment of soil. In recent years several publications have addressed this issue by encouraging stronger integration of soil science in education from kindergarten through university (Herrmann 2006; Smiles et al. 2000), better public reference tools (Van Baren et al. 1998), consideration of social and cultural research (Greenland 1991; Minami 2009; Winiwarter 2006) and the introduction of art as a tool of environmental communication and consciousness-raising (Feller, Lardy and Ugolini 2010; Van Breemen 2010; Toland and Wessolek 2010). This last point is the focus of our present inquiry.
Le paysage dans l’art. Traduit de l’italien par M. Orcel
  • E Carli
Transcendental Magic its Doctrine and Ritual by Eliphas Levi
  • E Levi
La rose et la mandragore. Plantes et jardins médiévaux. Fr
  • J Bourin
The image of soil in landscape art, old and new
  • H Jenny
Histoire de l’idée de nature
  • R Lenoble
Principes d’agronomie
  • Demolon Ph