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Electromagnetic and plasma processes in the Sun-Earth system: To the 70th anniversary of IZMIRAN (A Review)

  • Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation Russian Academy of Sciences
ISSN 00167932, Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 2009, Vol. 49, No. 6, pp. 691–702. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.
Original Russian Text © V.D. Kuznetsov, 2009, published in Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiya, 2009, Vol. 49, No. 6, pp. 723–735.
In 2009, IZMIRAN commemorates two jubilee
dates: 70 years from the institute foundation and
50 years from the day when the institute entered into
the Academy of Sciences.
The institute was organized in 1939 on the basis of
Pavlovsk (Slutsk in 1918–1944) magnetic observatory
near Leningrad, which continued geomagnetic obser
vations started in St. Petersburg in 1835 [Raspopov
et al., 2009]. The institute was titled the Research
Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism (NIIZM). During
the Great Patriotic War, the institute was evacuated to
the Urals. The building of Pavlovsk observatory was
completely destroyed, and the observatory territory
was insufficiently “pure” for highaccuracy magnetic
measurements. Troitsk village (later known as Aka
demgorodok; now, Troitsk scientific city), located at
40th km of the Kaluzhskoe highway, where the unfin
ished building of Moscow geophysical observatory was
located, was a new residence of the institute. At the
same time, the branch of the institute was organized in
Leningrad. Nikolai Vasil’evich Pushkov, a noted scien
tist in the field of terrestrial magnetism and solar–ter
restrial physics, a founder of the institute, was its first
director and headed the institute until 1969.
In 1959, the institute entered into the USSR Acad
emy of Sciences and was titled the Institute of Terres
trial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radiowave Propa
gation (IZMIRAN).
The journal
Geomagnetism and Aeronomy
established next year on the initiative of IZMIRAN in
order to publish results of solving different problems in
solar–terrestrial physics. At present, this journal is one
of the leading scientific periodicals in this field.
In 2004, the Presidium of the Russian Academy of
Sciences named the institute after Nikolai Vasil’evich
At present, IZMIRAN includes the St. Petersburg
Branch with the observatory in Voeykovo village, Len
ingrad region; the Western Division in the Kaliningrad
region with the observatory in Ul’yanovka village; the
Vladikavkaz Division; and the expedition point in
Karpagory, Arkhangelsk region.
The institute activity and achievements before 1989
are presented in [
, 1989], which is
dedicated to the 50th anniversary of IZMIRAN. Here
we present the most significant trends and results of
institute activity for the last 20 years.
First of all, we should note that the complex studies
of various phenomena and physical processes in the
Sun–Earth system, which have been performed from
the foundation of the institute, remain one of the spe
cific features of the institute. It is necessary to partici
pate in numerous programs and projects together with
many other institutes in order to perform comprehen
sive studies in the scope of the main IZMIRAN trends:
the study of such global systems as the Sun, the helio
sphere, the Earth’s magnetosphere and ionosphere,
etc. Various observations and measurements, their
methods, and operation with large sets of various data
are the specific features of the studies performed at
IZMIRAN, supported by the theoretical works and
the development and implementation of purposeful
experiments and programs. The theoretical works in
such main fields of institute activity as radiophysics,
astrophysics, physics of plasma, and magnetic hydro
dynamics have been continued for the last years.
In the field of magnetic studies,
the institute has
continued studying the properties of magnetic fields of
the Earth and planets in the Solar System, theoreti
cally studying the mechanisms by which magnetic
fields are generated in the space and deep in the plan
ets, conducting magnetometric experiments based on
quantum phenomena, and developing and producing
the magnetometric equipment.
Electromagnetic and Plasma Processes in the Sun–Earth System:
To the 70th Anniversary of IZMIRAN (a Review)
V. D. Kuznetsov
Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radiowave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Troitsk, Moscow oblast, 142190 Russia
Received May 27, 2009
PACS numbers:
96.60.j; 91.25.r; 41.20.jb
Vol. 49
No. 6
The theoretical works on the generation of mag
netic fields of the planet and the Sun have been con
tinued. The MEGA asymptotic algorithm, which
made it possible to analytically reveal predominant
dynamic structures and critical conditions of magnetic
field generation in a kinematic approximation of mean
magnetic fields, was developed. Based on the observa
tional data, this algorithm made it possible not only to
successfully describe the physical nature of the known
equatorial wave of the solar magnetic field activity but
also to reveal previously insufficiently studied physical
nature of the polar wave and active longitudes. The
prediction of the Neptune’s magnetic field structure,
completely confirmed by the Voyager satellite pass,
was a vivid example of the MEGA algorithm applica
tion. The next works studied the completely selfcon
sistent nonlinear set of equations of the planetary heat
and mass transfer and magnetism, which formed the
basis for a pronounced progress in the theory of mag
netic field generation by convective heat and mass
transfer in the interior of the planets. The analytical
solution to the classical MHD problem of a rapid and
almost rigid corotation of a conducting spherical fluid
layer in a strong potential magnetic field, modeling a
planet’s core, was obtained. The excitation thresholds
and evolutionary and critical spatial–temporal char
acteristics of convection in the presentday and
ancient liquid cores of the Earth, Venus, Mars, and
planet’s satellites similar to the Earth were asymptoti
cally and numerically determined. The dynamic
regimes, flow velocities, entropy, and magnetic fields
in liquid cores of Jupiter, Saturn, and the Earth were
estimated based on the presentday numerical
dynamo models and observational data. Unusual (as
compared to the Earth’s magnetic field) magnetic
fields of Uranus, Neptune, Mercury, and possibly
Ganymede were explained by the previously unexam
ined balance of buoyancy, inertia, and the Lorentz
force deep in the interior of these planets.
A pronounced progress in studying terrestrial mag
netism is related to processing the data of the satellite
survey of the geomagnetic field components (the Mag
sat, Oersted, and CHAMP loworbiting satellites),
which was performed with a high accuracy and almost
completely covers the Earth’s surface. Such data qual
itatively changed the possibilities of the spherical har
monic modeling of the magnetic potential, and made
it possible to improve the geomagnetic field models
and study in detail the anomalous magnetic field. The
data accuracy reached several nanoteslas, which made
it possible to obtain highaccuracy global models. At
the same time, highfrequency deviations of data from
global models made it possible to construct field
anomalies with an extension of
km and smaller.
These regional anomalies formed the reliable basis for
geological exploration near the Earth. From the end of
the 20th century to the present, these satellite surveys
have been continuously conducted, which made it
possible to construct the secular variation models. The
classes of models with different spatial–temporal
characteristics were distinguished. Abrupt changes in
the secular variations made it possible to calculate the
spatial–temporal structure of the matter motion on
the liquid core surface and to compare this structure
with the variations in the Earth rotation pole. A com
parison of the global field anomalies with the 60year
variations showed that the latter originate at the
boundaries between the global anomalies, which indi
cates that the 60year variations originate in the form
of isolated matter rushes through the Earth’s liquid
core. The global Brazilian anomaly was a specific
island drifting westward between global anomalies sta
ble in time.
The works on the usage of satellite data in the global
magnetovariation sounding of the Earth have been
continued. The method for detecting threedimen
sional conducting structures was developed and
approved. This method formed the basis for one of the
four declared aims of a new geomagnetic multisatel
lite mission SWARM (the European Space Agency
prepares this mission for flight in 2011) aimed at
detecting threedimensional inhomogeneities in the
Earth’s mantle.
New approaches to a joint geophysical interpreta
tion of balloon and satellite data were developed. The
method for detecting magnetic anomalies from satel
lite measurements of the total field was created based
on the Magsat satellite data. The elimination of the
effect of variable magnetic fields on detected anoma
lies was studied especially thoroughly. As a result, the
scalar and vector maps of the anomalous magnetic
field were constructed for the European region and
adjacent and other territories. Several intense mag
netic anomalies, conforming magnetic inhomogeneity
of these regions coinciding with the dimensions of
their tectonic formations, were revealed and specified.
The model of the anomalous magnetic field, which
makes it possible to obtain scalar and vector field maps
at different heights and to analyze the field spatial
structure for the considered territories, was created
based on the harmonic expansion on the surface of a
spherical sector.
The spatial–temporal structure of the three
dimensional (oceanic) induction effect in fields of the
polar electrojet was quantitatively studied based on the
satellite magnetovariation measurements. The per
formed modeling indicated that this effect in the polar
regions is quite substantial (in contrast to the negligi
ble induction effect of the equatorial electrojet) since
the current systems are located mostly above the con
ducting ocean. The induction effect is more pro
nounced in the southern polar cap because the volume
of oceanic water masses in this region is larger than
such a volume in the northern polar cap. This effect is
important in studying the ionospheric current sys
tems, specifically, the observed difference in ampli
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No. 6
tudes and geometry between the polar current systems
in the northern and southern polar caps.
It was indicated that the induction effect in signals
from the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) is negligible on
continents (about 1% of the external field). At alti
tudes of the CHAMP satellite (
~ 400 km), the EEJ
induction effect is insignificant over continents and
oceans. The results make it possible to consider that
one can entirely ignore the induction effect, which was
previously considered to be about a third of the exter
nal signal (by analogy with the Sq signal), when con
structing the EEJ current system based on the ground
or satellite geomagnetic data. An anomalous behavior
of the daily variation in the magnetic field vertical
component at observatories in southern India, located
below the equatorial electrojet, which was detected
more than 50 years ago (and is still actively discussed),
was explained. Such an anomalous behavior is nothing
else but the oceanic effect in solar diurnal variations,
and the EEJ signal does not play a pronounced role in
the formation of this anomalous effect.
The pioneer balloon experimental measurements
of the geomagnetic field vertical gradients in the
stratosphere were performed using a balloon magnetic
gradiometer. This device has no analogs in the world
practice of geomagnetism and was developed exclu
sively at IZMIRAN. The methods for detecting the
field of magnetic anomalies from the data of balloon
gradient magnetic surveys were created, and the
amplitude spectrum of magnetic anomalies along the
balloon pass trajectory from Kamchatka to the Volga
region (where the regional and longwave magnetic
anomalies were detected) was studied. Different
(including spectral) methods were used to study the
parameters of the sources of these anomalies. The
results of these studies made it possible to increase the
spatial accuracy in studying the depth structure of the
Earth’s crust and in constructing the crust magnetic
Thus, based on the uptodate satellite and balloon
geomagnetic measurements, it became possible to
reach satisfactory agreement between the experimen
tal data and the theoretical models of geomagnetic
field generation and to progress in studying magnetic
properties of the Earth’s crust, magnetic anomalies,
and other features of the geomagnetic field distribu
At present, IZMIRAN together with the Geophys
ical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences pre
pare for publication the geomagnetic field atlas based
on all available data beginning from the 15th century.
The stateoftheart models, satisfactorily describ
ing observed regularities, were developed when the
variations in the geomagnetic field and current sys
tems, caused by the nonstationary solar wind and
active phenomena on the Sun, were studied. The geo
magnetic variations, which are controlled by the solar
wind parameters, were detected at high latitudes of the
Northern and Southern hemispheres. The model of
the outer part of the geomagnetic field as well as the
models of the electric field in highlatitude iono
spheres, threedimensional systems of the magneto
spheric–ionospheric currents, and ionospheric
plasma convection were created based on these varia
tions. These IZMIRAN (IZMEM) models can be
used by all researchers and are generally recognized.
In the scope of the developed new model of the
geomagnetospheric magnetic field, it was indicated
that, during magnetic storms, the magnetotail current
system generates a magnetic disturbance comparable
in amplitude with a disturbance generated by the ring
current, located in the region of the Earth outer radia
tion belt. This changes the geophysical concept that
the magnetospheric ring current is the main consumer
of the magnetospheric energy during a magnetic storm
and the main generator of the
The model UT variation in the
) auroral
electrojet activity indices, which makes it possible to
correct these indices depending on the season and
number of observatories, the data of which were used
to calculate the standard
, and
indices, was
obtained based on the presentday models of the cur
rent systems during substorms. The correction also
takes into account a change in the spatial position of
these observatories relative to the auroral electrojets
during magnetic storms.
From 1995 to 2000, the geomagnetospheric mag
netic field was measured using IZMIRAN magnetom
eters (an FM3 magnetometer on the Tail Probe
spacecraft and an IMAP3 magnetometer on the
Auroral Probe spacecraft, developed together with the
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) in the scope of the
INTERBALL space project (Institute of Space
Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI RAN) is
the parent organization). The obtained magnetic data
together with the plasma measurements made it possi
ble to study the fine structure of the outer boundaries
and layers of the magnetosphere, including the
detached bow shock, magnetopause, magnetosheath,
and boundary layer. The flux transfer events (FTEs),
related to the processes of impulsive magnetic recon
nection in the magnetosheath and magnetosphere, as
well as the fieldaligned currents, flowing along the
geomagnetic field lines in the auroral regions of the
magnetosphere, were studied.
The integrated bases of online data, available via
the Internet and completed with the data from mag
netic observatories and satellites, play an increasing
role in the region of polar geomagnetic studies. In this
direction the corresponding research groups of the
institute started using digital data and became familiar
with the Internet. The open database on groundbased
magnetic measurements was created and is main
tained (, regular
Vol. 49
No. 6
determinations of the IMF sector structure are contin
ued (, and
the interactive MATLAB Server was created in order
to process and analyze data (http://matlab.izmi The electronic bulletin of new
information in solar–terrestrial physics
(, where
much attention is paid to the information component
of the presentday studies in the field of geomagnetism
and aeronomy and to current news, has been pub
lished since 2002.
The institute has continued developing and creat
ing the magnetometric equipment to be used in geo
magnetic groundbased and satellite measurements,
space planetary studies, medicine, magnetobiology,
From the beginning of the 1990s to the present,
IZMIRAN together with other organizations has cre
ated more than 30 types of different magnetometric
devices, including proton and fluxgate magnetome
ters, quartz magnetovariation stations, variablefield
magnetometers, and other devices designed in order to
perform research works in the fields of geophysics,
medicine, and magnetobiology and to conduct the
electromagnetic monitoring of the environment. The
devices were used at magnetic observatories and under
the conditions of the field geophysical works. The spe
cial class of diagnostic magnetometers—magnetic
storm indicators—was created in order to operate
under room conditions and has been successfully used
for many years at certain clinics and medical enter
prises of Moscow and other cities.
The Quartz magnetovariation stations, created at
the institute, has a high stability of the metrological
parameters (first of all, stability of zero), which is of
prime importance for magnetic observatories and
autonomous variation stations. The dynamic range of
device measurements has been substantially increased
nT), the resolution has been increased (to
0.1 nT), and the range of frequency characteristics has
widened (to 15 Hz). The device series, manufactured
by the institute and called Quartz3EM (about 40 dig
ital magnetovariation stations), has been widely used
in Russia and abroad. Fore example, the auroral zone
is completely covered by these stations from Cape
Uelen in the Far East to Sodankylá observatory in Fin
land. Seven stations successfully operate in Antarctica,
including two stations at Mirny observatory, one sta
tion at Novolazarevskaya, and two stations at Vostok,
where the works are performed together with Ameri
can colleagues from the Michigan University in the
scope of the joint project “Studying HighLatitude
Geomagnetic Phenomena.” The Russian participants
of this project are the Arctic and Antarctic Research
Institute (AANII) and IZMIRAN. Vostok observatory
transmits online information to the Global Center of
Data (USA).
Based on the tested and adequately operated
Quartz3 digital magnetovariation station, IZMIRAN
develops a new version of a similar station (Quartz4),
designed in order to continuously measure and register
(in the digital form) longperiod variations in the mag
netic induction vector of the Earth’s field at the net
work of Russian magnetic observatories and under the
conditions of unmanned or rarely controlled observa
tion points. This station measures the values of varia
tions in three components of the Earth’s field mag
netic induction vector and the temperature of quartz
magnetic measuring converters in real time and accu
mulates these data in the solidstate memory in the
digital form. The specific feature of the Quartz4 sta
tion consists in that this station is a highstable, intel
lectual, and computerized device of a new generation,
which makes it possible to use various computer pro
grams and scheme parameters, perform digital pro
cessing and filtering of data during measurements, and
integrate data into the INTERMAGNET interna
tional data acquisition system.
The following series of magnetometric devices has
been developed for marine magnetic measurements,
medicine and magnetobiology, and electromagnetic
monitoring of the environment under the conditions
of increased noise and a weakened geomagnetic field
(hypogeomagnetic field): a Gradimag fluxgate gradi
entometer, an MPMG02 marine towed magnetome
ter–gradiometer, handled and pedestrian magnetom
eters of the Magic series, intellectual magnetometers
of the Impedance and Gipomag series, variometers–
magnetometers of the IDL series, et al. All these
devices are used in different spheres of activity and
studies in order to measure constant and variable mag
netic fields and to analyze their spectral and spatial
characteristics. The best samples of the IZMIRAN
magnetometric devices were regularly demonstrated at
the exhibitions organized by the Russian Academy of
New most sensitive magnetometric devices based
on superconducting quantum interference sensors
(SQISs), operating at a boiling temperature of liquid
helium (4.2 K), are developed to be used in the field of
quantum and cryogenic magnetometry. In the 1990s,
SQIS magnetometers were created for geophysical
studies and were used to measure Schumann reso
nances of the Earth–ionosphere cavity. Extremely
lownoise amplifiers with a current resolution better
, which can be used as the first cascade
of signal multiplication from thinfilm microbolome
ters in submillimeter receivers utilized in radio astron
omy, were developed and created based on SQISs
cooled to temperatures lower than 1 K. Based on a
hightemperature directcurrent SQIS, IZMIRAN
together with the Geological Faculty of Moscow State
University developed and manufactured the first in
Europe scanning SQIS magnetometer aimed at study
pA/ Hz
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No. 6
ing magnetic fields of scattering of small and submag
netic samples at a liquid nitrogen boiling temperature
(77 K). A scanning SQIS magnetometer was used to
study magnetic properties of hightemperature super
conducting materials, ultrathin ferromagnetic films,
elements with a gigantic magnetic impedance, ensem
bles of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, etc.
The method of optical pumping in pairs of alkali
metals is used to develop and create a magnetocardio
graph for early recognition of heartdiseases; the
model of this device was created, and clinical trials are
A new trend in studying the Earth’s crust and upper
mantle, using the method of deep electromagnetic
sounding with the help of industrial power lines (PLs),
which was formed more than 30 years ago, has been
recently developed. For this purpose, the St. Peters
burg Branch of IZMIRAN together with the Kola Sci
entific Center developed a generator measuring com
plex based on industrial PLs and an Energy1 genera
tor, which has no direct analogs in the world practice.
In addition to the solution of the fundamental prob
lems of deep sounding the Earth’s crust and upper
mantle, this complex can be used to develop the sys
tems of electromagnetic monitoring of seismic cen
ters, to improve the systems of LF communication
with underground objects for the purposes of mine
geophysics and Emergency Control Ministry, and to
perform deep studies during exploration of hydrocar
bonates. The sounding method, taking into account
the effect of bias currents and the ionosphere, was
developed. New information about the nature and
structure of electric conductivity of the Baltic (Fen
noscandinavian) Shield lithosphere at depths of up to
50–70 km and about the fluid regime, temperature,
and stress–strain state of the Earth’s interior was
obtained based on the sounding data. A new geoelec
tric layer of dilatant–diffusion conductivity (the DD
layer) was detected at depths of 3–10 km, and new
estimates of the boundaries where the lithospheric
substance changes from the brittle state into the
pseudoplastic one were obtained.
Previously detected effects of origination of ULF
electromagnetic radiation during preparation of
strong earthquakes made it possible to develop the
ULF method of magnetic location of such radiation
sources. The method makes it possible to determine
the location and to study the dynamics of external
(ionospheric) and internal (lithospheric) sources of
magnetic disturbances. To implement this method,
the St. Petersburg Branch of IZMIRAN created a
unique geophysical complex Source1 with highsen
sitivity magnetometers, which was successfully tested
at the boundary between the continental and oceanic
blocks of the Earth’s crust in the seismic zone of
Japan. Local anomalies of geomagnetic disturbances
in seismic zones before strong earthquakes (
were studied, and the appearance of local anomalies of
ULF geomagnetic disturbances 1.5–2 months and 1–
2 day before strong earthquakes at a distance of ~40–
90 km from their epicenters was determined. The
region of impending strong shocks was determined for
six cases with a lead time of 2–3 weeks.
At present, IZMIRAN performs regular measure
ments of the geomagnetic field at the observatories in
Troitsk (Moscow region), Voeykovo (near St. Peters
burg), Ul’yanovka (near Kaliningrad), and Karpagory
(Arkhangelsk region).
In the field of studying the ionosphere and radiowave
IZMIRAN continued investigating the
ionospheric plasma, improving the experimental
radiophysical equipment and methods for diagnosing
the ionospheric plasma, performing complex experi
ments, developing the radiowave propagation theory,
and constructing models of the ionosphere and mag
netospheric–ionospheric phenomena.
To perform experimental studies of the ionospheric
plasma, the institute developed the series of automated
digital ionospheric stations (ionosondes) (Soika6000,
Bazis, Parus), which are used to regularly measure the
state of the ionosphere by the methods of vertical,
oblique incidence, and backscatter oblique incidence
pulse sounding. A multifrequency facility, which
makes it possible to simultaneously register the Dop
pler frequency shift of signals reflecting from the cor
responding ionospheric layers, was created in order to
diagnose the dynamic processes proceeding in the ion
ospheric plasma. The experimental facility for multi
frequency phase sounding the ionosphere, based on
the method of spectral–phase analysis of impulse
coherent radiosignals, was for the first time created at
IZMIRAN. This facility made it possible to simulta
neously measure real radiowave reflection heights at
eight frequencies with a high accuracy. Certain new
developments in this field are referred to below.
In 2006, regular control of the state of the iono
sphere, using the vertical sounding method, was
recommenced. The Parus digisonde was included into
the roundtheclock monitoring at an interval of
15 min. The emitted power of impulse ionosonde sig
nals is 12–15 kW, which makes it possible to trace the
ionospheric plasma density distribution even during
strong disturbances.
The data of measurements are represented on the
institute site, and ionograms reduced according to
URSI are every day transmitted to the B2 Global data
center. The data processing is automated.
The institute continued developing the methods for
diagnosing ionospheric disturbances. The hardware–
software complexes for diagnosing sudden ionospheric
disturbances, related to different factors of the solar–
terrestrial coupling and, first of all, to variations in the
solar X rays and ultraviolet and ingression of corpuscu
lar fluxes, were developed on the basis of the Soika
ionospheric complex. The multifrequency Doppler
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measurements in the regime of vertical sounding,
together with the registration of HF signals from a
number of broadcasting station on the paths of oblique
incidence sounding, made it possible to collect infor
mation about spatial scales of disturbances. Iono
spheric effects of numerous solar flares were registered
and studied in such a way. Certain ionospheric distur
bances were characterized by pronounced vertical
extension (from the
region to the
layer) and a syn
chronous oscillatory character of variations in the
Doppler frequency shift of sounding signals, the posi
tive initial phase of which indicated that a disturbing
factor propagated downward and resulted in an
increase in electron density.
The Soika complex was used to diagnose artificial
plasma formations, which originated during injection
of charged particles from the Mir space platform. In
such formations electron density disturbances could
reach 50% of the background value, and their lifetime
was 12 h.
The experimental complex for HF radiolocation of
artificial ionospheric irregularities was developed and
manufactured. The complex is an integrated system,
composed of two multifrequency transmitters of
coherent radiowaves (located in Kaliningrad and
Troitsk) and multichannel receivers in Troitsk, for
monostatic HF radiolocation at a sliding frequency.
IZMIRAN together with the Radiophysical Research
Institute (NIRFI) experimentally studied the effects
of generation of artificial ionospheric turbulence
under the action of powerful radiowaves and obtained
new data on the effect of regular refraction on the con
ditions of optimal radiolocation of irregularities above
the Sura radar.
A new method for measuring the drift velocity of
artificial smallscale irregularities, based on the multi
position Doppler radiosounding of the region where
the ionosphere is artificially disturbed, was tested dur
ing the Sura experiments. Two pairs of HF radars with
a bistatic configuration were used: Kaliningrad–
Sura–IZMIRAN and Exact Time Station (Moscow)–
Sura–RostovonDon. As a result, it was established
that artificial ionospheric irregularities at the
altitudes can have a horizontal drift velocity of 50–
110 m/s and can change direction from eastward to
westward during an hour, when the ionosphere is
heated by a powerful HF wave.
The institute continued studying the state of the
ionosphere and radiowave propagation conditions in
this region, depending on solar activity and geomag
netic field variations. The complex studies of electro
magnetic phenomena in the ionospheric plasma and
their complex interaction have been performed at the
The longterm (on the climatic scale) trends in the
parameters of the neutral and charged components of
the upper atmosphere (ionospheric plasma), indepen
dent of the 11year solar activity variations, have been
analyzed. It was indicated that the critical frequencies
of the midlatitude ionospheric
regions (alti
tudes of 100–120 and 250–350 km) exerted longterm
variations of the atmospheric nature in the second half
of the 20th century. These variations were alternate,
and their velocities were many times (sometimes to an
order of magnitude) as high as the velocities depen
dent on the growth rate of the greenhouse gas (
) content in the atmosphere. The altitudes of
the H
layer were subjected to the same substantial and
alternate variations. The ion and gas composition at
altitudes of 100–350 km also varied, and these varia
tions exceeded the model estimates, which were based
on the observed rates of variations in the greenhouse
gas content in the surface atmosphere. Specifically, it
was indicated that the concentration of molecular
oxygen at altitudes of 100–110 km and the concentra
tion of atomic oxygen at altitudes of 250350 km have
decreased for the last years in several regions of the
Northern Hemisphere. The performed analysis made
it possible to conclude that the trends in the upper
atmosphere are much more pronounced than in the
lower atmosphere, and the model concepts, according
to which greenhouse gases are the main sources of the
observed climate change, should be specified.
The institute successfully continued studying the
formation and dynamics of the ionosphere based on
an analysis and systematization of experimental data
and using the ionospheric models developed at IZMI
RAN, including the global selfconsistent model of
the thermosphere, ionosphere, and protonosphere
(the GSM TIP model). The researchers from IZMI
RAN quantitatively interpreted the known regularities
of changes in the ionosphere under different heliogeo
physical conditions (winter anomaly, equatorial
anomaly, dynamics of the ionosphere during intense
substorms and storms in the magnetosphere) and
found out the following new properties of the iono
sphere: the longitudinal effect in the localization of the
main ionospheric trough; the origination of an addi
tional, the socalled ring, ionospheric trough
(together with the researchers from the Space
Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, IKI
RAN); and the wavelike longitudinal structure of the
lowlatitude ionosphere. Based on the generalization
of the explicit form of electron thermal conductivity,
our researchers explained anomalously high electron
temperatures in the plasmasphere, theoretically
explained the disappearance of the ionospheric
layer at high latitudes, constructed the pattern of the
global ionospheric response to intense substorms in
the magnetosphere, justified the key role of the solar
impact in the longterm variations in the topside ion
osphere, developed the method of short and long
term prediction of the ionosphere, and practically
implemented these methods.
Vol. 49
No. 6
Preliminary conclusions that the global circula
tion, generating largescale (from 70 to 350 km in alti
tude and up to several thousand kilometers in longi
tude) quasistationary irregularities of the ionospheric
plasma, can exist in the upper atmosphere were drawn
based on an analysis of the data, previously obtained
during the experiments in the water area of the world
ocean with the help of the research vessels of the Rus
sian Academy of Sciences and Hydrometeorological
Service as well as the satellite measurements and the
data from the global network of stations, where vertical
sounding was performed and ionospheric absorption
of radiowaves was measured.
The relation between the physical phenomena
observed in the ionosphere, stratosphere, and tropo
sphere (which represent a unified medium) was theo
retically studied. These studies made it possible to
develop the electrodynamic model of the effect of
intense seismic and meteorological processes in the
lower atmosphere on the ionosphere. Such processes
are preparation of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions,
and typhoons; dust storms; thunderstorm activity; and
manmade disasters. In the scope of the model, the
ionosphere is affected by the conductivity current that
flows in the atmosphere–ionosphere circuit and orig
inates as a result of turbulent transfer of charged aero
sols, their interaction with atmospheric ions during
injection of radioactive substances, and modification
of atmospheric conductivity. The model is experimen
tally based on the satellite and groundbased registra
tion of plasma and electromagnetic disturbances and
on the measurements of soil gas injection into the
atmosphere and the level of atmospheric radioactivity.
A growth of injection of active substances into the
atmosphere and their convective upward transport
were taken as input model parameters. The following
new physical phenomena were found out during the
studies: the instability of acoustic gravity waves in the
ionosphere under the action of the electric field, the
formation of narrowband spectra of the magnetic field
ULF oscillations by gyrotropic waves, and distur
bances of the bottomside ionosphere when the electric
current flows in this region. The performed studies
made it possible to explain as if independent phenom
ena on different time scales based on a unified stand
point, e.g., the origination of ULF oscillations of the
magnetic field and plasma density, which are regis
tered on a satellite, with increasing electric field. The
mechanism by which the electric field vertical compo
nent on the Earth’s surface is limited as a result of the
field feedback with the extraneous current was found
out. Since variations in the electric field on the Earth
are limited and can be smaller than background distur
bances, the satellite methods for recording the field
related to seismic activity have an advantage over the
groundbased methods. In addition, field strengthen
ing in the ionosphere can be controlled based on the
registration of the plasma and electromagnetic effects
caused by the response of this region to such a
strengthening. As a result of strengthening of a seismi
callyinduced electric field, the ionosphere can be the
field sensor and operate together with groundbased
measuring facilities. The conclusions that follow from
the model can made it possible to search for precursors
of the typhoon catastrophic phase, develop satellite
methods for controlling volcanic activity intensifica
tion, and predict strong volcanic eruptions hazardous
to airplane flights.
The satellite studies of the ionosphere, magneto
sphere, and nearEarth plasma were continued in the
scope of the following projects: “Active” (Intercos
mos24 satellite launched in 1989), APEX (Active
Plasma Experiments, Intercosmos25, 1991), and
COMPASS2 (Complex Orbital MagnetoPlasma
Autonomous Small Satellite, Small Satellite, 2006).
The VLF effects of an underground nuclear explo
sion on Novaya Zemlya of October 24, 1990, (broad
band data) were found out from the Intercosmos24
satellite data. Anomalously large absolute values of the
field electric component in the ELF range (narrow
band data) were for the first time observed during
typhoons mainly above the equatorial Pacific. The
spectra of whistlers during the pass over seismic
regions under different conditions were also analyzed.
This analysis made it possible to separate the seismic
and geomagnetic effects in the ionospheric
Active experimental injections of plasma beams
into the ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma were
performed on Intercosmos25 (APEX). In the series
of the groundbased–satellite measurements, the
tomographic reconstructions of the ionospheric pro
files were obtained in real time; inclined ionospheric
troughs (electron density depletions) were revealed at
middle and high latitudes; numerous natural iono
spheric phenomena (the main ionospheric trough,
plasma blobs, equatorial anomaly, and plasma emis
sions at gyrofrequency harmonics) were diagnosed;
and the ionospheric measurements were performed
during heating by powerful HF waves over the region
of operation of radiophysical facilities; and the effect
of a nontunnel propagation of radiowaves through the
wave ionospheric barrier was registered.
In 1998, the State Prize in the field of science and
engineering was awarded to V.N. Oraevsky, a director
of IZMIRAN, and Yu.Ya. Ruzhin, Dr. Sc. (Phys.–
Math.) in the group of authors for the development of
the methods of satellite radio tomography of the iono
sphere and the creation of the network of radio tomo
graphic complexes.
The amplitude–frequency characteristics of VLF
waves were also measured during the injection of
plasma beams. The generation of VLF waves was
accompanied by the acceleration of highenergy elec
trons and ions, the fluxes of which were registered on
the Magion3 subsatellite, to energies of 500–700 keV.
Vol. 49
No. 6
Such a generation of highenergy charged particles
was found out for the first time. The fluxes of electrons
with lower energies were also registered. This pointed
to resonance mechanisms by which the generated
waves interacted with background plasma particles
during injection of electrons. The generation of HF
waves was registered at the injection point on the main
satellite and the Magion3 subsatellite. Interesting and
promising results, related to the formation of specific
electromagnetic plasma structures, which induce
electromagnetic fields in the VLF range similarly to a
VLF antenna in plasma, were obtained in the regime
of modulated beam injection. Injection of electrons in
a nonmodulated regime results in HF pumping in the
injection region and in subsequent relaytrace pump
ing of the wave energy into the LF spectral region,
thereby increasing LF turbulence.
The method for measuring ionospheric parameters
and studying different ionospheric phenomena,
caused by natural and anthropogenic factors, were
developed and tested in the experiments on the COM
PASS2 small satellite (2006–2007).
Thus, the electric and electromagnetic processes in
the nearEarth atmosphere in the Kamchatka seismic
region were studied in the scope of the joint ground
based and satellite measurements, performed together
with the Institute of Cosmophysical Research and
Radiowave Propagation, Far East Division, Russian
Academy of Sciences (IKIR DVO RAN). The aim of
these measurements was to study the lithosphere–
atmosphere–ionosphere relations during preparation
of earthquakes. The measurements of the variations in
the quasistatic electric field strength, the intensity of
natural VLF emissions (
= 20–20 000 Hz), and the
geomagnetic field variations made it possible to study
the effects of different sources (meteorological, geo
magnetic, and seismic). Different types of atmo
spheric waves were detected in the power spectra of
these variations: internal gravity waves (IGWs,
0.5–3.5 h), tidal thermal waves (
= 4–24 h), and
planetary waves (
> 24 h), which can be considered as
an experimental confirmation of the fact that the
lithospheric–ionospheric coupling can be imple
mented through IGWs. It was established that oscilla
tions with
= 0.5–1.5 h are amplified during the
earthquake preparation phase, and their source is
localized in the nearEarth atmosphere. Waves with
such periods can penetrate to the altitudes of the ion
ospheric dynamo region (
~ 120–130 km). Oscilla
tions with
= 1.5–3.0 h are amplified at high geomag
netic activity. The source of these oscillations is local
ized in the dynamo region of the polar ionosphere or
When propagation of whistlers was studied at an
altitude of 400 km based on the COMPASS2 small
satellite, it was established that the LF branch of a sig
nal reaches zero frequency during a finite time under
certain conditions rather than tends to a nonzero
The effect of the telluric currents in the Earth’s
conducting lithosphere, induced during solar–diurnal
geomagnetic variations, on the geodynamic processes
was considered when the lithosphere–ionosphere
coupling was studied. Largescale currents, covering
areas of several millions of square kilometers, are
almost homogeneous and penetrate the lithosphere to
depths of 100 km. It was indicated that the interaction
between these currents and the main geomagnetic
field can create mechanical moments (due to the
Lorentz force), the energy of which is comparable
with the growth of the tectonic deformation energy.
Thus, it is not improbable that earthquakes can locally
be initiated by the telluric currents caused by geomag
netic variations.
In the field of ionospheric radio propagation, the
effective numerical methods for calculating wave fields
were developed based on the parabolic equation and
the theory of smoothly irregular waveguides, the
asymptotic theory of global propagation of decametric
waves was created, and the ray structure of the iono
spheric HF radio channel and the evolution of Gauss
ian radiowave beams in the Earth–ionosphere
waveguide were studied. To solve the practical prob
lems of ionospheric radio propagation, the numeri
cal–analytical models of the largescale ionospheric
structure were developed, the mechanisms and anom
alous propagation modes were studied, and the back
scatter oblique incidence radio propagation in the ion
osphere with an anomalous signal delay was described.
To calculate the propagation of UHF waves over the
Earth’s surface, the numerical algorithms were devel
oped; the transparency boundary conditions, modu
lating emission into the free space, were proposed; and
the effect of the topography on wave propagation was
studied. The trajectories of HF wave propagation and
Doppler frequency shifts on extremely long paths
(Moscow–Antarctica) were studied, and the maps of
the wave intensity distribution were constructed. For
the purpose of practical application, the radiowave
propagation in waveguides of the complex profile and
the propagation of extremely broadband pulses along
the Earth’s surface were studied, new methods for cal
culating modern elements of fiber and Xray optics
were developed, the method of parabolic equation was
generalized for the problems of diffraction in angular
regions (diffraction and wave emission in a wedge
shaped region), and the analytical theory of phase syn
chronism was developed as applied to the problems of
wave propagation in periodic mediums.
Subsurface radio sounding was pronouncedly
developed in order to study the soil structure and to
search and identify subsurface objects. Georadars of
the Grot and Loza series, which were widely used in
engineering geology, archeology, ecology, construc
tion, and other fields of activity, were developed and
Vol. 49
No. 6
manufactured (together with OOO VNIISMI) for this
purpose. The inverse problem of subsurface sound
ing—the reconstruction of the subsurface medium
structure based on the data of impulse sounding—was
studied. The development of the holographic subsur
face radar model continues these works.
At present, IZMIRAN continues studying the ion
osphere based on the regular vertical sounding of the
ionosphere using the Bazis, Parus, and DPS4 ion
osondes in Troitsk; the SP3M ionosonde at Voeykovo
observatory near St. Petersburg; and the AIS ion
osonde at the observatory near Kaliningrad. The ion
osphere and radiowave propagation are studied using
the LFM facility for oblique incidence sounding
(Troitsk), Soika multichannel facility for Doppler
phase sounding of the ionosphere (Troitsk), RFIM
facility for eightfrequency Doppler monitoring of the
ionosphere on paths of oblique incidence radiowave
propagation (Troitsk), Zond facility for backscatter
oblique incidence sounding (near Kaliningrad), and
Mitsar transmitter; the series of ionospheric experi
ments is prepared for implementation on the IS Rus
sian segment.
2.3. In the field of solar–terrestrial physics,
RAN continued observing the Sun in the optical and
radio ranges and studying active phenomena on the
Sun and their impact on the nearEarth space and
geomagnetic activity. For the last time, the institute
has widened the direction of its space studies: IZMI
RAN headed two largescale space projects on study
ing the Sun (CORONASI and CORONASF), which
were parts of the CORONAS program (Complex
Orbital NearEarth Observations of Solar Activity).
Using the CORONASF satellite data, IZMIRAN
in cooperation with other institutions studied coronal
mass ejections (CMEs) and related highlygeoeffec
tive manifestations of solar activity. It was established
that the process of large CME eruption involves the
structures of the global solar magnetosphere, the spa
tial extension of which considerably exceeds the
dimensions of active regions and usual activity com
plexes. In this case the observed largescale regions
with decreased brightness of the extreme UV and soft
X rays (dimmings) visualize the structures involved in
the CME process and are apparently formed are a
result of opening (stretching) of the magnetic field
lines and plasma outflow from transient coronal holes.
The process of substantial reconstruction of the mag
netic field, partial opening of field lines, and matter
outflow (accompanying CME) proceeds not only in
the corona but also in cold plasma of the transition
The MHD model of ejection of twisted magnetic
tubes from the solar atmosphere, which describes the
observed phenomena of eruption of isolated magnetic
loops identified as CMEs, was developed.
The longterm studies of largescale magnetic
fields were conducted, and their key role in the forma
tion of the solar activity phenomena (sunspots, active
regions, flares, coronal holes, etc.) was indicated.
Background smallscale magnetic fields and the
behavior of magnetic helicity on the Sun’s surface in
an activity cycle were studied in detail. It was estab
lished that the helicity distribution in a cycle corre
sponds to the Parker theory, and helicity in the North
ern Hemisphere was negative independently of the
Hale polarity variations in sunspots in going from
cycle 22 to cycle 23.
Interplanetary MHD disturbances near the Earth
and their relation to possible solar sources (filaments,
coronal holes, flares, and heliospheric streamers) were
analyzed and classified. It was established that simple
isolated MHD disturbances are mostly related to fila
ments, and the combination of the above four sources
takes place for more complex MHD disturbances;
only filaments are present in all possible types of com
plex flows in this case. Such an exclusive role of active
filaments in the formation of the structure and dynam
ics of nearEarth MHD disturbances makes it possible
to assume that plasma in these filaments is one of the
main sources of sporadic solar wind streams near the
Based on a complex analysis of one of the most
powerful solar proton events (January 20, 2005)
according to the data of the CORONASF satellite
and groundbased observations of microwave radio
bursts and proton fluxes, it was established that the
time profiles of the flare gamma and radio emission
from the flare region, caused by accelerated electrons
and protons, were similar and closely interrelated.
Thereby, electrons and protons were accelerated in the
same source in the active region immediately during
the flare rather than in the bow shock propagating in
the corona before CME.
The Sun brightness fluctuations in the range of
wavelengths from UV to IR were observed on the
CORONASI and CORONASF satellites, using a
DIFOS photometer, and the global oscillations of the
Sun were studied. The power spectra of the global
oscillations were constructed, and the
modes with
powers of
= 0, 1, and 2 were registered. The fre
quency splitting of
modes as a result of solar rotation
was experimentally indicated. The presence of non
cophasal longperiod variations in the amplitudes of
global solar oscillation
modes, reflecting the internal
dynamic of the Sun, was found out. It was established
that the amplitude of global oscillations in the UV
spectral region pronouncedly increases.
The Governmental Prize in the field of science and
engineering for 2008 was awarded to V.D. Kuznetsov,
a director of IZMIRAN, and A.I. Stepanov
, Cand.
Vol. 49
No. 6
Sc. (Phys.–Math.) in the group of authors for the
works in the scope of the CORONASF project.
For the last years, IZMIRAN has developed the
following promising solar space projects: the Interhe
lioprobe project for studying the Sun from small dis
tances and the Polar–Ecliptic Patrol (PEP) project for
global observations of the Sun and heliospheric distur
bances and for studying solar sources of the space
IZMIRAN organized the following expeditions
aimed at observing total solar eclipses and the solar
corona: to Cherskii village (Kolyma), 1990; La Pas
(Mexico), 1991; Brazil, 1994; Vietnam, 1995; Pervo
maiskii village (Chita region), 1997; Guadeloupe,
1998; Bulgaria and Romania, 1999; Angola, 2002;
Northern Caucasia, 2006; and Western Siberia, 2008.
As a result of these expeditions, the unique photo
graphs of the solar corona were obtained, and the
corona structure during different solar cycle phases
was studied. A new component of the solar corona
emission (
corona), related to sublimation of inter
planetary dust in the nearSun space, was detected in
the joint experiment, performed by IZMIRAN and
Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Moscow State
University (GAISh MGU), as result of the interfero
metric observations of the nearSun sky during the
total solar eclipse of February 26, 1998. The resonance
emission of ionized calcium, with the Doppler shift
corresponding to the orbital motion of planets in the
Solar System, is an indicator of the
corona. The
interferometric observations of luminosity of solid
substance sublimation products in the vicinity of the
Sun were performed during the next five total solar
eclipses. An analysis of the results led to the conclu
sion that the solidstate component of the nearSun
medium is distributed extremely irregularly.
IZMIRAN continued observing cosmic rays (CRs)
on the ground and studying their variations. These
studies include the development of the theory of mete
orological and geomagnetic effects, originating when
relativistic charged particles cross the Earth’s atmo
sphere and magnetosphere; the usage of relativistic
particles in sounding the magnetospheric current sys
tems; and the effect of CRs on the ionosphere and
radiowave propagation.
In 1997, IZMIRAN became the first organization
in the world that presented CR variations, measured
on the Earth, in the Internet. Continuous CR observa
tions has been recently renewed at Mirny station (Ant
The methods and theories developed at IZMIRAN
make it possible to use the presentday global network
of CR stations as a unified multidirectional planetary
detector, moving in the space and constantly sounding
(with the help of CRs) the dynamic processes of ener
getic particle propagation and acceleration and the
electromagnetic and radiation conditions in the vicin
ity of the Earth and in the entire heliosphere in a wide
range of energies.
The important studies of CR propagation in the
interplanetary medium were performed. The effects of
precursors in the CR intensity before the appearance
of interplanetary shock waves near the Earth were
studied. Relativistic charged particles are used to
sound the structure of solar matter ejections. The
kinetic theory of the CR propagation and intensity
fluctuation in interplanetary magnetic fields was
developed. The theory of relativistic particle anisotro
pic diffusion in the heliosphere was developed; and
CR interplanetary modulation was modeled taking
into account the effects of delay, real changes in the
solar magnetic field, and solar activity. The theory of
nonlinear interaction between CRs and the solar wind
was constructed. The characteristics of CR density
and anisotropy were obtained for each hour during the
last 50 years; the database, including all Forbush
effects and largescale solar wind disturbances for the
last five solar cycles, was created; and the relation of
CR anisotropy to the parameters and longperiod
behavior of the interplanetary medium was studied.
In the field of theoretical studies in CR astrophys
ics, the model of CR propagation in the Galaxy was
constructed, and the coefficients of CR transfer in the
interstellar medium were determined; the models of
the galactic wind, accelerated by the CR pressure,
were developed taking into account the flux instability
of relativistic particles escaping from the Galaxy;
anomalous CR diffusion in random interstellar and
interplanetary magnetic fields was calculated; CR
acceleration in supernova remnants was studied, tak
ing into account strong nonlinearity of relativistic par
ticle acceleration near the bow shock front; and the
flux of highenergy CRs, accelerated in galactic clus
ters and propagating in the expanding Universe filled
with the background emission, was calculated.
The climatic response of the Earth to the longterm
variations in solar activity was studied. Based on a
complex analysis of paleoclimatic data and paleodata
on solar activity variations (variations in the concen
tration of
C and
Be cosmogenic isotopes in terres
trial archives), it was indicated that the secular and
quasibicentennial variations in solar activity intensely
affected the climate during the historical period and in
the past (to several hundred years ago). This result is of
importance when the longterm climatic changes in
the present epoch are interpreted. It was indicated that
the maximum of the quasibicentennial solar cycle,
the decline phase of which is now observed, took place
at the end of the past century–beginning of the present
century. This makes it possible to consider that the sta
bilization of the global temperatures in the last years at
a continuing increase in the greenhouse gas concen
tration is related to such a circumstance. The experi
mental data indicate that the effect of longterm solar
activity on climatic changes is related to modulation of
Vol. 49
No. 6
CR fluxes, which in turn affect cloudiness and the
aerosol content of the lower atmosphere. The esti
mates indicate that solar activity can be responsible for
about 50% of an increase in the global temperatures in
the past century before 1960 and about 30% after 1970.
This result is substantial for understanding the role of
natural and anthropogenic factors in global warming
in the present epoch.
The works of the IZMIRAN Center for Predicting
Geophysical Conditions have developed intensely and
have been of prime importance. This Center predicts
solar activity, radiation conditions in the nearEarth
space, and geomagnetic conditions, using the accu
mulated experience of the institute activity in the field
of solar–terrestrial physics and space weather studies.
This information is transmitted to the organizations of
Roskosmos and other departments and is used when
carrier rockets are launched from the Baikonur and
Plesetsk sites and to control the ISs and satellites, the
state of patients in medical institutions during mag
netic storms, and safe functioning of extensive surface
conducting systems (pipelines, power lines, etc.). For
a wide range of customers, information of the Center
is available on the Internet site (http://forecast.izmi and by telephone (495) 7754357. About 1500
customers from Russia and other countries every day
refer to information from the Center.
The theoretical works, directly related to the main
trends of the institute in the fields of theoretical astro
physics, plasma physics, radiophysics, etc., were per
formed in addition to the experimental studies.
The restrictions on the magnetic field in the radia
tion zone (RZ) of the Sun were obtained in the theo
retical works, using observational data. The presence
of assumed magnetic fields in the central regions of the
Sun results in the origination of magnetic gravity
waves, which in turn cause density disturbances in RZ,
affecting neutrino oscillations if the lengths of a MHD
wave and neutrino oscillation (
100–200 km) coin
cide (parametric resonance). A global analysis of the
neutrino data makes it possible to obtain restrictions
on the wavelengths of density disturbances and their
amplitude in RZ for such HF oscillations independent
of purely gravitational
modes. The largescale mag
netic field in the Sun’s central regions is also the pos
sible source of the observed frequency shift of oscilla
tions, which were found experimentally and are global
solar oscillation
mode candidates. Based on the
observed magnetic frequency shift of the dipole mode
= 1) of the radial order
= –10 (mode ), it was
obtained that the field value is
~ 2500
kG. For LF
modes of the order
> 20, the magnetic field value
corresponding to the same 1% frequency shift is much
smaller (
kG). These limitations on the mag
netic field value in the Sun’s central regions are in
agreement with the previous restrictions on the mag
netic field obtained from a global analysis of the effect
of density MHD disturbances on neutrino oscillations
in the Mikheev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein model.
The kinetic theory of spatial–temporal nonlocal
fluctuations in collisional plasma was developed, and a
new method of remote diagnostics of local plasma gra
dients in plasma was proposed. It was indicated that
the amplitude and width of spectral lines of plasma
fluctuations depend on the imaginary part of plasma
permittivity and on the space–time derivatives of its
real part. Asymmetry of spectral lines with respect to
the frequency sign reversal appears in a spatially inho
mogeneous plasma, and measurement of this asym
metry can be a measure of local gradients in plasma.
The nonlinear wave processes were studied. The
oneparametric trajectory variation principles for
propagation of powerful wave beams and waves in
nonlinear mediums with an internal structure, includ
ing the generalization of the Ferma principle for the
case of nonlinear mediums (according to which total
beam intensity plays the role of parameter) were
found. The analytical methods in the theory of local
ized wave processes were developed, and new asymp
totic methods (substantially widening the range of
solvable wave problems) were found.
The MHD description of collisionless plasma with
the usage of 16 moment equations of transport, which
result in anisotropic MHD with heat flows, was con
sidered. New additional compressible modes, which
are symmetric about the external magnetic field direc
tion (i.e., waves propagate along and against the mag
netic field with different velocities), were found and
studied. Both types of instabilities—aperiodic and
oscillatory—are possible in the region of mode inter
action. A new instability type, the increment of which
exceeds the maximum of a usual firehose instability,
originates during the resonance interaction between
three inverse modes under the conditions of origina
tion of a classical firehose instability. The results can
be used to describe wave phenomena in such mediums
as plasma of the solar corona, solar wind, and mag
This paper presents only some data obtained at
IZMIRAN, which give insight into the institute activ
ity for the last 20 years.
The members of the institute actively participate in
the international scientific organizations and confer
ences, are heads and members of several scientific
councils and organizations, participate in the imple
mentation of important international scientific pro
grams and projects: International Heliogeophysical
Year (2007), International Year of Astronomy (2009),
CAWSES (Climate And Weather of the Sun–Earth
System) International Program, and others.
V.D. Kuznetsov, a director of IZMIRAN, is a member
Vol. 49
No. 6
of the SCOSTEP (Scientific Committee on Solar–
Terrestrial Physics) International Scientific Organi
IZMIRAN celebrates its 70th jubilee as a mature
scientific organization with the established scientific
trends, the urgency and availability of which is time
I thank the following members of IZMIRAN for
the help in writing this paper: V.V. Belyi, Yu.A. Burtsev,
G.V. Givishvili, V.P. Golovkov, S.A. Gudoshnikov,
M.G. Deminov, A.N. Zaitsev, K.G. Ivanov, V.Yu. Kim,
A.N. Kozlov, V.V. Kopeikin, Yu.A. Kopytenko,
I.V. Krasheninnikov, A.V. Kuvshinov, A.E. Levitin,
V.V. Lyubimov, Yu.V. Maslennikov, Yu.M. Mikhailov,
I.A. Molotkov, V.N. Obridko, A.V. Popov, O.M. Ras
popov, A.I. Rez, Yu.Ya. Ruzhin, V.B. Semikoz,
V.M. Sorokin, V.A. Styazhkin, V.V. Fomichev, B.P. Fi
lippov, S.V. Filippov, Yu.P. Tsvetkov, and V.G. Yanke.
Electromagnetic and Plasma Processes from the Sun to the
Earth’s Core
, Ed. by V. V. Migulin (Nauka, Moscow,
1989) [in Russian].
O. M. Raspopov, Yu. A. Kopytenko, M. A. Efendieva, and
V. V. Meshcheryakov, “Development of Geomagnetic
Studies in Russia from the Beginning of Observations to
1918,” Ist. Nauk Zemle
(1), 18–43 (2009).
Full-text available
This paper describes the basic and applied research rationale for the organization of IZMIRAN and provides insight into the 75 years of the Institute's activities and development. Historically, early magnetic measurements in Russia were developed largely to meet the Navy's navigation needs and were, more generally, stimulated by the Peter the Great decrees and by the foundation of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1724. The paper examines the roles of the early Academicians in developing geomagnetism and making magnetic measurements a common practice in Russia. The need for stable radio communications prompted ionospheric and radio wave propagation research. The advent of the space era and the 1957-1958 International Geophysical Year Project greatly impacted the development of IZMIRAN and spurred the creation of a number of geophysical research institutes throughout the country. Currently, the research topics at IZMIRAN range widely from geomagnetism to solar-terrestrial physics to the ionosphere and radio wave propagation, and its primary application areas are the study and forecast of space weather, an increasingly important determining factor in ever-expanding ground- and space-based technologies (space navigation and communications, space activities, etc.).
Development of Geomagnetic Studies in Russia from the Beginning of Observations to 1918
  • O M Raspopov
  • Yu A Kopytenko
  • M A Efendieva
  • V V Meshcheryakov
  • O. M. Raspopov
O. M. Raspopov, Yu. A. Kopytenko, M. A. Efendieva, and V. V. Meshcheryakov, "Development of Geomagnetic Studies in Russia from the Beginning of Observations to 1918," Ist. Nauk Zemle 2 (1), 18-43 (2009).
Scientific Committee on Solar– Terrestrial Physics) International Scientific Organii zation. IZMIRAN celebrates its 70th jubilee as a mature scientific organization with the established scientific trends, the urgency and availability of which is timee proved
  • Kuznetsov Of
  • Scostep
KUZNETSOV of the SCOSTEP (Scientific Committee on Solar– Terrestrial Physics) International Scientific Organii zation. IZMIRAN celebrates its 70th jubilee as a mature scientific organization with the established scientific trends, the urgency and availability of which is timee proved.