Structural determination and uses of Jojoba oil
The predominating molecular species in jojoba oil iscis-13-docosenylcis-11-eicosenoate (erucyl jojobenoate), ranging from 31% to 45% of the extracted seed oil. Other alcohol/acid combinations contribute to the C42 molecular chain length so that this fraction constitutes a low of 41% to a high of 57% of the total wax esters. The positions of the exclusivelycis ethylenic bonds in the alcohol and acid moieties of the wax esters are 99% ω-9 and 1% ω-7. Only 2% of the alcohol and acid moieties were saturated when analyzed after saponification of the oil. Triglycerides were detected by gas chromatography in all of the more than 200 natural jojoba oil samples tested, a few of which had substantially more than the normal 1%. Among the many uses of jojoba oil cited here, the two most promising are the sulfurized oil as extreme-pressure/extreme-temperature lubricant additive and the natural or refined oil formulated into cosmetic products.
- "Jojoba seed is rich in liquid wax, commonly mistaken for " jojoba oil " (Van Boven et al., 1997). More than 60% of this mixture of esters contains cis-11-eicosenoic (jojobenoic) acid (C20) (Miwa 1984). Jojoba liquid wax contains a natural anti-oxidant postulated to be an allylic derivative of hydroxytoluene (Kampf et al., 1986). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated vegetable oils, petroleum waxes and commercial non-edible gelling agents to understand factors affecting the gelation ability of a gelator. Sunflower wax (SW) showed the most promising results and all SW samples from three different suppliers could make a gel with concentrations as low as 0.5 wt%. Candelilla wax and rice bran wax also showed good gelation properties, which, however, varied with different suppliers. Gelation ability of a wax is significantly dependant on its purity and detailed composition. A wax ester with longer alkyl chains has significantly better gelation ability toward SBO than that with shorter alkyl chains indicating that the chain length of a component in a wax such as wax ester is an important factor for gelation ability. The SW–SBO organogel showed increased melting point with increased SW content, showing the melting point range from about 47 to 65 °C with 0.5–10 wt% SW. The effects of cooling rate on crystal size and firmness of a gel were investigated. The dependence of firmness on cooling rate was so significant that the desired texture of an organogel could be achieved by controlling the cooling rate in addition to controlling the amount of gelling agent. This research reveals that a small amount of food grade plant waxes including SW may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat.0Comments 34Citations
- "information provided by other researchers and suppliers of the materials13141516171819. Most of the waxes showed different minimum quantities required for gelation with different suppliers implying that the gelation property of a wax is sensitive to minor components and impurities. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The wound healing properties of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) liquid wax (JLW) were studied in vitro on HaCaT keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts, which are involved in wounded skin repair. JLW cytotoxicity was evaluated by the crystal violet staining and the neutral red uptake endpoint. Induction of wound healing by JLW was assessed by scratch wound assay on cell monolayers. The involvement of signaling pathways was evaluated by the use of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA and of kinase inhibitors, and by Western blot analysis of cell lysates using anti-phospho antibodies. Collagen and gelatinase secretion by cells were assayed by in-cell ELISA and zymography analysis, respectively. Cytotoxicity assays showed that the toxic effects of JLW to these cells are extremely low. Scratch wound experiments showed that JLW notably accelerates the wound closure of both keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The use of inhibitors and Western blot revealed that the mechanism of action of JLW is strictly Ca(2+) dependent and requires the involvement of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and of the p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs. In addition, JLW was found to stimulate collagen I synthesis in fibroblasts, while no effect was detected on the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinases by HaCaT or fibroblasts. Taken together, data provide a pharmacological characterization of JLW properties on skin cells and suggest that it could be used in the treatment of wounds in clinical settings.0Comments 25Citations
- "Jojoba seeds contain a light-gold liquid wax ester, chemically similar to sperm whale's spermaceti, which is the primary storage lipid of the plant (Naqvi and Ting, 1990; Van Boven et al., 1997). Jojoba liquid wax (JLW, also known as jojoba oil) makes up 50% of the seed's dry weight, and as much as 97% of it consists of a mixture of esters of long chain fatty alcohols and long chain fatty acids (Miwa, 1984; Yaron et al., 1982). A non-saponifiable fraction, mainly composed of phytosterols , has also been characterized (Van Boven et al., 1997). "