Article

Learner control in animated multimedia instructions

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Abstract

The interactivity principle in multimedia learning states that giving learners control over pace and order of instructions decreases cognitive load and increases transfer performance. We tested this guideline by comparing a learner-paced instruction with a system-paced instruction. Time-on-task and interactive behavior were logged, and were also related to interest, prior knowledge, and cognitive involvement. We successfully replicated the interactivity principle in terms of better transfer. However, this coincided with a large increase in time-on-task. Also, large individual differences existed in the use of learner control options, which were mostly unrelated to the other variables. Thus, the benefits of introducing learner control in multimedia learning are at the expense of learning efficiency, and it remains unclear for whom the interactivity principle works best. KeywordsMultimedia learning-Cognitive load-Learner control-Interactivity principle

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... D'autres auteurs, ont même retrouvé que l'interactivité augmente la charge cognitive sans améliorer les apprentissages (Pedra et al., 2015;Rey & Diehl, 2010;Schnotz et al., 1999) en engendrant par exemple un temps d'apprentissage plus long (Gerjets, Scheiter, Opfermann, Hesse, & Eysink, 2009;Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010). ...
... Selon la théorie de la charge cognitive, les vidéos peuvent être un matériel d'apprentissage plus efficace si les étudiants peuvent avoir le contrôle du rythme de présentation (Ayres & Paas, 2007a). Cependant, comme nous avons pu le voir précédemment, un niveau de contrôle trop complexe d'une visualisation dynamique, tel que interrompre, reprendre, changer de chapitre, changer la vitesse et la direction de la vidéo, induit une augmentation de la charge cognitive inutile qui va finalement diminuer l'efficacité du traitement par rapport à un contrôle minimal (Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010). En revanche, lorsqu'un apprenant a la possibilité d'avoir un contrôle minimal sur le rythme de défilement d'une animation ou d'une vidéo (interrompre et reprendre la vidéo), cela permet de diminuer la charge cognitive et d'améliorer l'efficacité de l'apprentissage. ...
... Malgré la généralisation de ces options d'interaction, l'utilisation des options de contrôle du rythme de présentation par l'apprenant a été rarement abordée dans les travaux de recherches. Seulement quelques rares études (e.g., Hasler et al., 2007;Schwan & Riempp, 2004;Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010) ont déjà exploré cette utilisation. Ce n'est pas parce que ces fonctionnalités sont disponibles qu'elles seront effectivement utilisées par les apprenants, surtout si ces derniers sont novices (Hasler et al., 2007). ...
Thesis
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Les vidéos sont de plus en plus utilisées dans l’enseignement. C’est également le cas dans la formation médicale et paramédicale et, entre autres, dans l’apprentissage de procédures qui seront à réaliser de manière différée. Malgré l’intérêt pédagogique qu’elles offrent aux apprenants, leur utilisation peut entrainer des difficultés spécifiques dans le processus d’apprentissage des utilisateurs en raison de la nature transitoire des informations fournies. Pour limiter la surcharge cognitive que cela peut engendrer, il est possible de laisser le contrôle du rythme de la vidéo à l’apprenant, avec un bouton pause sur l’interface du lecteur par exemple. Cependant, les modèles mentaux des apprenants novices peuvent ne pas être suffisamment pertinents pour savoir à quel moment de la procédure arrêter la vidéo. Ainsi, l’introduction d’une segmentation, avec des pauses imposées par le système à chaque étape de la procédure, peut s’avérer plus efficace lors d’un apprentissage d’une compétence clinique. Ces modalités de présentation de l’information ont été étudiées sous l’angle de la théorie de la charge cognitive et de la théorie cognitive de l’apprentissage multimédia. Une série d’études est menée afin de déterminer la manière dont il est préférable de présenter l’information délivrée par les vidéos pour faciliter son apprentissage. Nous avons tout d’abord vérifié que l’association de la segmentation au contrôle du rythme par l’apprenant améliore la qualité de l’apprentissage (expé. 1) et que cet effet positif était bien lié à la segmentation et non au temps d’exposition au matériel pédagogique (expé. 2) ou à la durée des pauses imposées (expé. 3). Enfin, deux autres modalités, permettant d’optimiser encore l’apprentissage, ont été testées. Alors que l’indiçage verbal n’a pas amélioré l’apprentissage (expé. 4), nous avons pu montrer qu’une incitation à faire des pauses lors de la consigne avait un effet positif sur les comportements des apprenants et sur la qualité de l’apprentissage (expé. 5). Les résultats de ces études sont discutés et des perspectives proposées.
... However, mixed findings were identified related to the effect of two types of controls on student learning. It remains unclear what kind of learner control works best (Tabbers and de Koeijer, 2010;Biard et al., 2018). ...
... Little is known regarding student learning in a series of instructional videos with different difficulty levels, which are quite common in practice. Some learning tasks were not authentic, for example, presenting the formation of lightning, which was quite basic, for university students (e.g., Tabbers and de Koeijer, 2010;Schroeder et al., 2020). Consequently, research results from the participants' responses might be subject to caution (Hummel et al., 2021). ...
... Third, the students in FLC spent significantly more time than those in HLC completing the video-based learning. This finding corroborated Tabbers and de Koeijer (2010), who found that giving learner control in multimedia learning could be at the cost of learning efficiency. It can be explained both by the instructor's observation during the study and the post-study interview. ...
Article
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Learner control is an important instructional design in video-based learning. This study assessed two conditions: a full learner control where learners direct their learning path, and a hybrid learner control where learners follow the instructor-set path but still enjoy certain aspects of control. Two groups of university students participated in this study by learning statistics through online video courses. The findings show that the full learner control condition attained higher learning performance than the hybrid learner control condition, but spent more time than the latter. The full learner control condition scored higher than the hybrid condition in the difficult sections of video-based learning; but no significant difference was found in the easy section. There was a significant difference between the two conditions in learning agency, but no differences in cognitive load and affective and cognitive engagement. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated differences between the full and the hybrid learner control conditions in the factors predicting overall scores. The findings carry important contributions and implications for the research and practice of instructional designs in online video-based learning such as MOOCs.
... Interactivity is accordingly established by introducing content delivery control (e.g., pacing and sequencing control devices), which enables learners to adapt the instructional pace to their individual cognitive needs. However, findings on the cognitive benefits of introducing interactivity into multimedia instructions have been inconsistent (Lin & Hsieh, 2001;Höffler & Schwartz, 2011;Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010). Researchers, therefore, suggested that interactivity should be examined in the context of specific learning environments and learner variables (Höffler & Schwartz, 2011;Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010). ...
... However, findings on the cognitive benefits of introducing interactivity into multimedia instructions have been inconsistent (Lin & Hsieh, 2001;Höffler & Schwartz, 2011;Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010). Researchers, therefore, suggested that interactivity should be examined in the context of specific learning environments and learner variables (Höffler & Schwartz, 2011;Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010). ...
... Research on the effectiveness of learner control in multimedia instructions has yielded mixed findings, indicating that interactivity is not always beneficial to learning (Lin & Hsieh, 2001;Höffler & Schwartz, 2011;Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010). Most studies have reported that using learner-controlled pacing and segmentation reduces cognitive load and increases transfer performance (e.g., Ertelt et al., 2005;Hasler, Kersten, & Sweller, 2007;Mayer & Chandler, 2001;Mayer, Dow, & Mayer, 2003;Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010). ...
Article
This study investigated how to create effective interactive video tutorials for learning computer-based tasks. The role of learner modality preferences was also considered. A 4 × 4 between-subjects factorial design was employed to examine the influence of instruction representational formats (noninteractive static, interactive static, interactive visual-only video with onscreen text, interactive video with audio narration) and learner modality preferences (visual, aural, read/write, multimodal) on instructional efficiency. Instructional efficiency was a combined effect of test performance and perceived cognitive load during learning. The results suggested that implementing interactivity into the video tutorials tended to increase transfer performance, and the role of modality preferences was related to learners’ perceived cognitive load. The significant interaction effect on transfer efficiency indicated: (a) the auditory preference tended to exhibit better transfer efficiency with the narrated video, and (b) the read/write preference tended to exhibit better transfer efficiency with both the noninteractive static format and the captioned video. This study highlighted the importance of considering individual differences in modality preferences, particularly that of auditory and read/write learners.
... Studies have shown that systempaced learning environments are cognitively demanding, since preventing re-inspection of learning material can inhibit comprehension (e.g., Hegarty 1992Hegarty , 2004Mason et al. 2013) and cause learners to overlook important information (Ainsworth and Van Labeke 2004). Additionally, a large body of evidence shows a beneficial impact of self-pacing when learning with computer-based environments (e.g., Höffler and Schwartz 2011;Mayer and Chandler 2001;Schwan and Riempp 2004;Tabbers and de Koeijer 2010). For example, there is some evidence that self-pacing promotes the generation of mental models (Schnotz and Lowe 2008). ...
... • According to Tabbers (2002) and Tabbers et al. (2001) a spoken narration is beneficial when learning in a system-paced design, while a written text modality is more advantageous in a self-paced design. Other studies show a general beneficial effect of self-pacing (e.g., Mayer and Chandler 2001;Schwan and Riempp 2004;Tabbers and de Koeijer 2010). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the role of visual/verbal cognitive style and interactivity level in dynamic and non-dynamic multimedia learning environments. A group of 235 biology students learned about photosynthesis either from a computer-based animation or a series of static pictures with spoken explanatory text. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: with or without the possibility to pause, to play, or to fast-forward/rewind the learning environment (self-paced versus system-paced condition). Participants obtained better results when learning with the system-paced environment than with the self-paced one. A significant triple interaction between cognitive style, type of pacing, and type of visualization showed that highly developed visualizers learned poorer with self-paced static pictures than with system-paced static pictures. There were no significant effects regarding verbal cognitive style. Results shed more light on the relation between different levels of interactivity and visual cognitive style, when learning from static pictures.
... Also, they are able to go back in the material and restudy the given information, thereby clarifying possible misunderstandings or gaps in their knowledge. As a consequence, user pacing usually leads to increases in learning time (Boucheix & Schneider, 2009;Kriz & Hegarty, 2007;Tabbers & de Koeijer, 2010), which are also associated with improvements in performance (Boucheix & Schneider, 2009;Mayer & Chandler, 2001;Tabbers & de Koeijer, 2010). Moreover, Schmidt-Weigand, Kohnert, and Glowalla (2010) contrasted different system-controlled presentation speeds for learning with multimedia and found that when given more time for learning, students invested this time in intensifying their viewing of the animation and integrating it with text, as revealed by their eye movements. ...
... Also, they are able to go back in the material and restudy the given information, thereby clarifying possible misunderstandings or gaps in their knowledge. As a consequence, user pacing usually leads to increases in learning time (Boucheix & Schneider, 2009;Kriz & Hegarty, 2007;Tabbers & de Koeijer, 2010), which are also associated with improvements in performance (Boucheix & Schneider, 2009;Mayer & Chandler, 2001;Tabbers & de Koeijer, 2010). Moreover, Schmidt-Weigand, Kohnert, and Glowalla (2010) contrasted different system-controlled presentation speeds for learning with multimedia and found that when given more time for learning, students invested this time in intensifying their viewing of the animation and integrating it with text, as revealed by their eye movements. ...
Article
The signaling principle recommends emphasizing relevant aspects of a multimedia message by means of signals (e.g., color coding). We determined the effectiveness of signals that highlight correspondences between text and pictures as well as possible boundary conditions by means of a meta-analysis. To this end, 58 potentially relevant articles were identified in a comprehensive search. After rating the studies based on inclusion criteria and correcting for biases, 27 studies were included in the meta-analysis yielding 45 pairwise comparisons with N = 2464 participants. Domain-specific prior knowledge, pacing of the materials, pictorial format, mapping requirements, and distinctiveness of signals were coded as moderators. For transfer and comprehension performance a positive small-to-medium effect size (r = .17, 95% CI [0.11, 0.22]) favoring signaled multimedia material was found, which was moderated by prior knowledge. The findings support the effectiveness of the signaling principle in particular for learners with low prior knowledge.
... Another issue that has seldom been addressed up to now in research on interactive videos is learners' use of control features. Despite its importance, only a handful of studies (e.g., Hasler et al., 2007;Schwan & Riempp, 2004;Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010) have ever assessed this use. Just because these features are available does not mean that they will actually be used by learners-especially if they are novices (Hasler et al., 2007). ...
... Moreover, as the learning environment we used in this study was very simple, in terms of learner control, the impact of combining imposed pauses and segmentation with more complex control options will have to be assessed in future studies involving both novices and more experienced learners. It should, however, be borne in mind that if controls are too complex (stop, play, next chapter, control of speed, control of direction), they may induce considerable cognitive load and lead to a decrease in learning efficiency (Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010). In a future study, it would be interesting to specifically measure the learners' perceived cognitive load, to assess the impact of using control options. ...
Article
Videos are increasingly being used in education and training,but can lead to specific difficulties in terms of users' learning processes, owing to the transient nature of the information that is delivered. To cope with potential cognitive overload, learner controls can be provided (e.g., pause button), but novice users' mental models may not be sufficiently relevant for them to know when to halt the video. Given that procedural learning involves memorizing an organized and discrete sequence of behaviors, we tested the assumption that providing control buttons is not sufficient for novice learners, and introducing a system-paced interruption at each procedural step is far more effective, when it comes to learning a clinical skill. In the present study, 68 occupational therapy students were divided into three groups: noninteractive video, interactive video (with learner-paced control), and segmented interactive video (interactive video with system-paced interruptions). Results showed the superiority of the segmented format for procedural learning, but no significant difference between conditions for recall test. Users made very little use of the pause button when it was available. These findings support the importance of using segmented instructional videos to reinforce representations of procedures in memory for novice learners and reduce cognitive load.
... 2. Segmenting principle: 2-hour session is divided into 4 components, with 4 videos (50 minutes total) and intervening breaks. In addition, there were several pauses and start during each video, thus giving the learners, some controlling to pace these sessions [17,18]. ...
... Our Surgery II consists of 14 opera- 2. Personalization principle: The commentary also includes interactive discussion by asking direct questions. The interactive environment keeps the students involved in the session with better mental model and understanding [17]. ...
... Thus, Sinha et al. (2014) go on to describe click behaviors of the appetitive motivational systems as rewatching, seeking and scrolling back to clear up confusing concepts, and decreasing the playback speed, while click behaviors representing the aversive motivational system are skipping and increasing the playback speed. In a study on the effects of learner-controlled pacing while watching an instructional animated slide show, Tabbers and de Koeijer (2010) found that students' desire to learn more about the topic being covered had no effect on the amount of interaction behaviors (analogous with lecture behaviors, in this case) they exhibited while viewing the slides. ...
... These results indicate that more motivated students utilize lecture behaviors more frequently as part of their learning strategies in e-learning environments and that lecture behaviors may be viewed as a signal of a learner's willingness to engage with and understand the content being presented in a lecture video. The present results contradict those of Tabbers and de Koeijer (2010), who found no relationship between students' desire to learn more about a topic and the amount of lecture behaviors they exhibited while viewing media. Prior work has suggested that students prefer to have the option to exhibit lecture behaviors while watching course videos (i.e., learner-controlled pacing) and that doing so helps keep them focused and engaged, which may be considered aspects of motivation (Galbraith, 2004). ...
Article
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Cite as: Fanguy, M. Costley, J., Lange, C., Baldwin, M. & Han, S. (2018). The role of motivation in the use of lecture behaviors in the online classroom. ABSTRACT Aim/Purpose Extant research provides conflicting information regarding the role that lecture behaviors play within e-learning lectures. This study sought to understand what role motivation plays in increasing the likelihood that students engage in lecture behaviors in general, and how motivation affects the differing types of lecture behaviors. Background The growth of online learning has increased the importance of video lectures as a means of delivering content. As with offline lectures, students may find it useful to adapt and change the way they interact with lectures to improve their learning. One possible approach that allows students to effectively manage any challenges they have in understanding a lesson is to initiate lecture behaviors to alter the flow of information.
... This is because digital video segmentation gives the learner the opportunity to stop the flow of information when necessary, and allows him to process information more precisely, thus promoting the learning process [12]. Although a large number of studies in literature supported segmented instruction (SI) versus non-segmented instruction (NSI) [10,13,14], the comparison between segmented and non-segmented remains one of the variables that need to be studied within a context that necessitates interaction with other variables [15]. ...
... Segmentation also gives learners an opportunity to learn how to extract important information from a specific part before moving on to the next, as well as analyse the visual spatial structure of the content on the screen, which can be difficult to do when the display is constantly changing [42]. Several studies that were interested in segmentation processing versus non-segmentation processing have shown that segmentation process is very effective in developing the ability to acquire knowledge, apply new strategies [10], solving problems [14], enhance performance and conduct cognitive processes [43], and enhance the ability to recall [44]. ...
Article
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p>the current research aimed at identifying the relationship between segmentation of video clips (Segmented Video (SV) / Non-Segmented Video (NSV) and Question location (Pre-questions Preq / Post question Postq) through Mobile Video Platforms on affecting the Recall ability among some students of the College of Education. The semi-experimental approach was used as based on the factorial designs (2 × 2). The research sample consisted of (63) female students from the College of Education at the University of Jeddah and randomly distributed to the four specified research groups. A Recall test has been developed. Analysis of variance (one and two) (ANOVA), Partial Eta Squared, and Schiff's post hoc comparison were employed to analyze data. The results showed the effectiveness of the segmented videos as compared to the non-segmented videos, and of the pre-questions as compared to the post questions, it also showed the priority of the fourth treatment of the interaction between segmented videos and pre-questions locations as compared with other experimental treatments.</p
... One simple yet fundamental aspect in many games is the pacing. While presentation speed has been a topic of empirical investigation with regard to other types of instructional media such as instructional videos and animationsmostly leading to the conclusion to give learners control over the presentation speed (Hasler, Kersten, & Sweller, 2007;Karich, Burns, & Maki, 2014;Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010;Wouters, Paas, & Merriënboer, 2008), it has seldom been the focus of research on serious games. The reason for this might be due to the tendency that serious games have rarely employed fastpaced gaming formats such as jump-and-run-games, racing-simulations or ego-shooters, where slowing down is not an option (Boyle et al., 2016;Connolly, Boyle, MacArthur, Hainey, & Boyle, 2012). ...
... De Koning, Tabbers, Rikers, & Paas, (2011) have found no difference in learning gains between faster and slower pacing, both with or without cues. Many studies agree, however, that learner-controlled pacing seems to be beneficial when compared to system-controlled pacing (Hasler et al., 2007;Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010;Wouters et al., 2008). Few studies have focused on serious games however -although it has been proposed that the guidelines and concepts of cognitive load theory are equally relevant for the design and application of educational games (Huang & Johnson, 2009;Kalyuga & Plass, 2009). ...
Article
Background. To determine the optimal speed of computer-paced serious games, the interplay of cognitive load variables and game engagement variables can serve as combined criteria. Intervention. In order to test the effects of higher or lower game speeds on different types of cognitive load and engagement, the FRESH FOOD RUNNER game was developed, which teaches the harvest seasons of different fruits and vegetables. Method. In this study, N=58 6 th grade primary school students are randomly assigned to play the serious game FRESH FOOD RUNNER at different speeds. Pre-and post-tests are used to assess learning gains, in combination with rating scales for different types of cognitive load and game engagement. Results. Results show that highest learning gains and lowest levels of extraneous cognitive load are prevalent at medium speed settings, which are neither too fast nor too slow. A similar pattern is apparent for student ratings of game engagement. Discussion and Conclusion. In consequence, learning gains, cognitive load and engagement variables can be regarded as suitable criteria to determine the optimal speed of serious games.
... Learner control, refers to the degree to which learners control different instructional characteristics in a course or program (Reeves, 1993), and learner control may be an important manipulation of behavioral emotion design. Existing research regarding the effects of the learner-paced instruction in multimedia learning or computer-based learning focused more on cognitive outcomes (e.g., cognitive resources, learning performance) and interactive behaviors (e.g., time-ontask, number of clicks) (Mayer and Chandler, 2001;Mayer et al., 2003;Hasler et al., 2007;Gerjets et al., 2009;Tabbers and de Koeijer, 2010;Gong et al., 2017b;Rey et al., 2019). For example, a recent meta-analysis demonstrated that learner-paced instruction had significant positive effect on cognitive load, retention and transfer performance, and increased learning time (Rey et al., 2019). ...
... For example, a recent meta-analysis demonstrated that learner-paced instruction had significant positive effect on cognitive load, retention and transfer performance, and increased learning time (Rey et al., 2019). Tabbers and de Koeijer (2010) found that learner-paced instruction not only improved transfer performance, but also increased learning time. However, studies in this area rarely investigated the emotional outcomes. ...
Article
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Previous studies on multimedia learning have provided shreds of evidence for the positive effect of visually attractive emotional design on college students’ emotion and learning outcomes. However, the effect may vary among middle school students. The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of visual and behavioral emotional design on the emotional, motivational and cognitive outcomes of middle school students. In Experiment 1, 50 participants (ages 13–15) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: visual positive emotional design (colorful and anthropomorphic design) and visual neutral emotional design (achromatic and without anthropomorphic design). In Experiment 2, 173 participants (ages 13–16) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions created by the two factors: visual emotional design (positive vs. neutral) and behavioral emotional design (positive vs. neutral). The behavioral positive emotional design allows learners to interact with learning materials, whereas behavioral neutral emotional design only allows learners to watch learning video. Results showed that both visually attractive and behaviorally interactive design (visual positive emotion design and behavioral positive emotional design) had positive effect on learners’ positive emotions. Combining visual positive with behavioral positive emotional design could facilitate learning performance.
... Some studies found that increased student agency is associated with higher levels of motivation and involvement, and resulted in better learning outcomes (Snow et al. 2015;Rowe et al. 2011). Tabbers and de Koeijer (2010) demonstrated that giving students control over the pace and order of instructions in an animated multimedia presentation led to higher learning outcomes. Similarly, letting students customize game components has also shown to be positive for learning (Cordova and Lepper 1996;Snow et al. 2015). ...
... However, research suggests that increasing student agency may not be beneficial for all students (Katz et al. 2006). Agency may lead to non-optimal learning such as increased learning time (Tabbers & de Koeijer 2010), or to difficulties with selecting, organizing and integrating information (Mayer 2004;Kirschner et al. 2006). ...
Article
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Agency refers to the level of control the student has over learning. Most studies on agency in computer-based learning environments have been conducted in the context of educational games and multimedia learning, while there is little research done in the context of learning with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). We conducted a study in the context of SQL-Tutor, an ITS that teaches database querying, with students solving a fixed set of ten problems. Before each problem, students worked on a preparatory task, which could be presented as a worked example, erroneous example, or another isomorphic problem. There were two conditions in the study. In the High-Agency condition, students could select the type of preparatory task freely or skip it altogether. In the Low-Agency condition, an adaptive strategy selected preparatory tasks for students on the basis of their performance. The participants were classified as High Prior Knowledge (HPK) or Low Prior Knowledge (LPK), based on their scores on the pre-test. Due to the timing of the study, we had 40 participants who completed all elements of the study. The participants in both Low- and High-Agency conditions improved significantly from the pre- to post-test, and there was no difference between the LPK and HPK students on post-test scores. Therefore, we have not found an effect of agency on learning. The Low Agency condition was beneficial for both HPK and LPK students, while in the High Agency condition there was significant improvement between the pre- and post-test only for the LPK students. In the High-Agency group, the HPK students selected more challenging learning activities, but did not outperform LPK students on the post-test scores. The limitation of our study is the small sample size.
... To examine in what way learner control be used to lower the demand for cognitive resources of learners throughout the process of learning, the primary exploration depicts 'cognitive load theory' (Stiller et al., 2009). While learner regulation is supposed to enhance the cognitive effort of learners as learners are supposed to frame continuous decisions about how to continue with their learning process (DeRouin et al., 2004;Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007), in this regard, maximum studies record an inconsequential impact (Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010;Hasler et al., 2007;Swaak et al., 2001). ...
... The encouragement of activities is generally conceptualised as commitment to on-task or off-task or as task involvement (Brown, 2001). Theoretically, learner management improves the on-task focus of learners by demanding appropriate decision making (Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010). While Hasler et al. (2007) recorded that self-controlled learners displayed a high degree of on-task focus in a shared online course, other research (Bell & Kozlowski, 2008;Orvis et al., 2009) establish no important association between management of learners and motivation for assignments. ...
Chapter
Online education is not new to the twenty-first century, especially to higher education. It is known since early 2000 and continues. Traditional education is offered in all government institutions in India. However, in March 2020, Education turned 360° immediately after the COVID-19 pandemic, which allegedly originated in Wuhan city of China in late December 2019. Since then, all the Educational Institutions including schools, colleges, universities, coaching centers insisted to shut down for an unknown time by the government to maintain social distancing and mitigating COVID-19 spread. Due to this, the traditional system was bound to shift to Online Education (OE). In this chapter, challenges that occurred due to the immediate shift to the online education system are discussed.
... Adaptive learning environments vary in terms of the engagement afforded to the learner, ranging from highly interactive learning environments (Land, 2000) to highly structured environments in which the system controls the selection of each new activity with no input from the learner. Previous research has shown that an intermediate level of learner control and engagement is typically associated with better learning outcomes, such that learners exert some control over the pacing and selection of learning activities (Bradbury, Taub, & Azevedo, 2017;Cordova & Lepper, 1996;Sawyer, Smith, Rowe, Azevedo & Lester, 2017;Scheiter & Geriets, 2007;Tabbers & de Koeijer, 2010). Active engagement and control can lead to improved learning due to a number of different cognitive mechanisms (Markant, Ruggeri, Gureckis, & Xu, 2016). ...
Article
Adaptive learning uses computers to provide personalized learning pathways for students. This project explores the use of an adaptive learning module implemented in a sophomore level course for civil engineering technology and construction management students with an instructional focus on "Pumps." The research goal of this case study is to examine student learning and behavioral engagement when an adaptive learning module is introduced. The adaptive learning module was designed to engage students in personalized instruction and was used as a supplement to the instructor's in-class lectures on the topic. The researchers gathered and analyzed 42 students' learning data on learning, performance, and user pathways on the adaptive learning platform Smart Sparrow. In total, 81% of students demonstrated mastery across all modules by successfully answering all assessment questions. Furthermore, 65% interacted with at least one adaptive learning module due to assessment, and 24% had more than one interaction, suggesting students were able to efficiently resolve uncertainty within the lesson. Additionally, correct responses for students viewing adaptive content were associated with increased time spent reviewing adaptive content, demonstrating the usefulness of an adaptive learning program. Student responses to a follow-up survey reflect an overall positive experience and also highlight opportunities to improve the module in future iterations.
... In addition to images and animations, researchers have also examined the strategies of embedding questions or providing students with notes/handouts that align with the PowerPoint (Valdez, 2013). One way to reduce mental effort is to provide learners with a possibility to control the pace and sequence of processing the information (Tabbers & de Koeijer, 2010). That way, learners have the opportunity to adjust the presentation speed to their needs i.e., subjects make use of the possibility to select relevant information and to organize and integrate it into a mental model (Mayer & Chandler, 2001). ...
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When it comes to presenting research results, the usual approach is to use PowerPoint or similar slide applications, or to opt for alternative presentation tools. A central question is how well the knowledge is transferred and to what extent the target audience is addressed emotionally. Based on a 2*2 factorial design, the effects of presentation form (PowerPoint slide presentation vs. explainer video) and interaction (no interaction vs. interaction by means of additional questions on the topic) were investigated. Overall, the presentation factor is more important for learning success than the interaction factor and explainer videos perform significantly better than the PowerPoint presentation. This applies to the objective and subjective learning success, but also to the emotional appeal and the increase in engagement, interest and other cognitive activities. The effects of the interaction factor are relatively low, achieving minor improvements in combination with the PowerPoint presentation, while no statistically significant and relevant effects were found in combination with the explainer video.
... Technology provides access to a rich and diverse information environment, where information is conveyed through a variety of different representational formats (e.g., video, animation, 3D visualizations, spoken text; Mayer, 2014;Renkl & Scheiter, 2017;Scheiter et al., 2017). Unlike printed content, many of these representational formats are dynamic and interactive in that learners can control their presentation, choose from various display options, or even change the information that is being displayed (e.g., in the case of simulations; de Jong, 2006;Tabbers & de Koeijer, 2010). In addition, students can create their own representations by creating explanatory videos, drawings, or concept maps (Fiorella & Mayer, 2015). ...
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Effort students put forth when learning (EFF) is paramount to high achievement in an academic context. However, EFF has been shown to decrease over the course of a student’s school career. Using technology (i.e., computer-based technologies including digital [smart] devices like tablet computers) in classroom teaching might be a powerful way to cushion this effect as technology has the potential to promote effort-related learning processes. However, it is yet unclear how technology should be integrated into classroom teaching to promote sustainable effects because long-term studies in natural classroom scenarios are scarce. In this study, we analyzed both short-term (across 4 months) and long-term (across 16 months) changes in students’ EFF in mathematics and German as a language in a context in which teachers had begun to integrate technology (i.e., tablet computers) into their teaching. We used data from N = 1,363 seventh- to eighth-grade students in 28 schools. The schools were randomly assigned to either a tablet condition (teachers and students were given the opportunity to use tablet computers for one-to-one computing for teaching and learning) or a non-tablet condition. Changes in students’ EFF, assessed as cognitive engagement and academic effort, were analyzed with baseline latent change and multiple, multivariate linear regression models. In mathematics, short-term changes in EFF were more positive in the tablet than in the non-tablet condition and the higher the quality of technology integration in classrooms the more positive were long-term changes. In German, the more often tablet computers were used the more positive were short-term changes. The results underscore the importance of high-quality integration of technology in complex classroom environments but also demonstrate the need to examine domain-specific integration of technologies more intensively.
... It can also be used as a way to "flip" the classroom experience by giving students opportunities to encounter, explore, and reflect on ideas and concepts before they engage with them in the face-to-face classroom. Studies show that the online component of blended learning increases student agency (allowing them to control both instructional pacing and sequence), reduces distractions that are typical in classrooms or lecture halls, increases time-on-task, and improves student performance (Allen and Seaman 2010;Chen et al. 2010;Du 2011;Fulton 2012;Keller et al. 2009;Owen and Dunham 2015;Smith and Suzuki 2015;Smith and Smith 2012;Tabbers and Koeijer 2010). The flipped classroom model also allows instructors more face-to-face time "to dig deeper into the 'why' of the mathematics" (Ford 2015, p. 370). ...
Article
In this literature survey we focus on identifying recent advances in research on digital technology in the field of mathematics education. To conduct the survey we have used internet search engines with keywords related to mathematics education and digital technology and have reviewed some of the main international journals, including the ones in Portuguese and Spanish. We identify five sub-areas of research, important trends of development, and illustrate them using case studies: mobile technologies, massive open online courses (MOOCs), digital libraries and designing learning objects, collaborative learning using digital technology, and teacher training using blended learning. These examples of case studies may help the reader to understand how recent developments in this area of research have evolved in the last few years. We conclude the report discussing some of the implications that these digital technologies may have for mathematics education research and practice as well as making some recommendations for future research in this area.
... Such effects are not consistently found, however. There are also a considerable number of empirical studies that failed to find a positive effect of user control on learning (e.g., Boucheix and Guignard 2005;Chen, 2014;Kriz and Hegarty 2007;Lowe, 2004;Pedra et al. 2015;Tabbers and De Koeijer 2010). These studies point to the influence of prior knowledge as a mediating factor, and they speak to the functional usage of the control options. ...
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This study investigates the design and effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training. In accordance with demonstration-based training, the tutorial consisted of a series of task demonstrations, with instructional features added to enhance learning. An experiment is reported in which a demonstration-only control condition was compared with a demonstration-with-review condition. The review videos provided a recap to support retention of the procedure. Strict viewing conditions were imposed during training. Both learning and motivation were assessed. Participants were 55 students from primary and secondary schools in Germany. The outcomes showed that both tutorials significantly contributed to development of procedural knowledge and to motivation, and that the review tutorial surpassed the control. The discussion addresses the role of user control. In addition, with the effectiveness of reviews apparently becoming better established, the need arises for measures that can reveal the effects of reviews on observational learning processes.
... Second language requires that learners take ownership of learning activities through interaction, active participation and the use of the target language in a more authentic context ( [9], [10]). The traditional "chalk and talk" method which involves the teacher talking to students and writing notes on the chalkboard results in rote learning, learners' low level of retention, and passive learning [11]. ...
Thesis
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This Master Thesis presents the requirement analysis, design and implementation of an e-learning environment for helping children learning a foreign language by promoting communication and language development skills through a virtual collaboration environment in which children are encouraged to interact and communicate with other children from all over the world learning the same language. The system falls in the field of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) and is designed around the principles of active learning methodology, in which students are transformed from passive listeners to active participants, by engaging in different types of collaborating activities which exploit their surrounding environment and are not limited in a physical classroom. In the initial survey we performed, most of the responders agreed that both intercultural communicative competence and telecollaboration are important elements in foreign language teaching, a claim which is also confirmed by the existing scientific literature in this field of study. It is targeting Windows based desktops and tablets, and android based smartphones and tablets and its implementation took place by following a combination of Human Centered Design and the SCRUM agile software engineering methodology. It encompasses different distributed server side components to support different kind of activities, like the BigBlueButton server for synchronous activities (text/video chat, shared boards, etc) and the Moodle server for asynchronous activities (content sharing, forums, wikis, etc), integrated by a middleware component (management server) which is fully implemented in this Thesis. The system’s unique ability to load and integrate external modules developed by third parties, along with the fact that its source code is distributed as free software under an open source license, makes it a great candidate as a testbed for other researchers who need to explore fields related to active learning, collaborative learning activities and online multiplayer educational games, as they could be released from the burden of implementing low-level technical details like security, communications, video and audio streaming, etc. and could exclusively focus on their primary research field.
... After only a few minutes with "TapaCarp, " the students were able to complete complex activities, and judged the device useful and usable. Different studies have shown that increasing the control of the learner over a TUI resulted in better comprehension (Tabbers and de Koeijer, 2010), while reducing cognitive load (Hasler et al., 2007). TUIs are also beneficial for collaborative tasks with children, such as collaborative problem solving (Xie et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Special education teachers for visually impaired students rely on tools such as raised-line maps (RLMs) to teach spatial knowledge. These tools do not fully and adequately meet the needs of the teachers because they are long to produce, expensive, and not versatile enough to provide rapid updating of the content. For instance, the same RLM can barely be used during different lessons. In addition, those maps do not provide any interactivity, which reduces students' autonomy. With the emergence of 3D printing and low-cost microcontrollers, it is now easy to design affordable interactive small-scale models (SSMs) which are adapted to the needs of special education teachers. However, no study has previously been conducted to evaluate non-visual learning using interactive SSMs. In collaboration with a specialized teacher, we designed a SSM and a RLM representing the evolution of the geography and history of a fictitious kingdom. The two conditions were compared in a study with 24 visually impaired students regarding the memorization of the spatial layout and historical contents. The study showed that the interactive SSM improved both space and text memorization as compared to the RLM with braille legend. In conclusion, we argue that affordable home-made interactive small scale models can improve learning for visually impaired students. Interestingly, they are adaptable to any teaching situation including students with specific needs.
... INTRODUCTION Hasler et al., 2007;Clark & Mayer, 2008;Tabbers & de Koeijer, 2010 Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 7 ...
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The effectiveness of a learning depends on four main elements, they are content, desired learning outcome, instructional method and the delivery media. The integration of those four elements can be manifested into a learning modul which is called multimedia learning or learning by using multimedia. In learning context by using computer-based multimedia, there are two main things that need to be noticed so that the learning process can run effectively: how the content is presented, and what the learner’s chosen way in accepting and processing the information into a meaningful knowledge. First it is related with the way to visualize the content and how people learn. The second one is related with the learning style of the learner. This research aims to investigate the effect of the type of visualization—static vs animated—on a multimedia computer-based learning, and learning styles—visual vs verbal, towards the students’ capability in applying the concepts, procedures, principles of Java programming. Visualization type act as independent variables, and learning styles of the students act as a moderator variable. Moreover, the instructional strategies followed the Component Display Theory of Merril, and the format of presentation of multimedia followed the Seven Principles of Multimedia Learning of Mayer and Moreno. Learning with the multimedia computer-based learning has been done in the classroom. The subject of this research was the student of STMIK-STIKOM Bali in odd semester 2016-2017 which followed the course of Java programming. The Design experiments used multivariate analysis of variance, MANOVA 2 x 2, with a large sample of 138 students in 4 classes. Based on the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that the animation in multimedia interactive learning gave a positive effect in improving students’ learning outcomes, particularly in the applying the concepts, procedures, and principles of Java programming. The difference of students’ learning styles—visual or verbal, it can also gave the different effect in students' learning results acquisition. There was no interaction effect between the factors of visualization type and learning styles.
... Several past studies have explored the effects of agency, giving students control over the way they play an educational game. For example, [29] showed that allowing students control over the time in which they engage with different lessons in multimedia learning can lead to higher learning outcomes. Approaching agency from a different perspective, [3] allowed the customization of game icons and names in their fantasy-based arithmetic tutor, while [26] provided ingame currency, which could be spent on either personalizing the system interface or extra play. ...
Chapter
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A key feature of most computer-based games is agency: the capability for students to make their own decisions in how they play. Agency is assumed to lead to engagement and fun, but may or may not be helpful to learning. While the best learners are often good self-regulated learners, many students are not, only benefiting from instructional choices made for them. In the study presented in this paper, involving a total of 158 fifth and sixth grade students, children played a mathematics learning game called Decimal Point, which helps middle-school students learn decimals. One group of students (79) played and learned with a low-agency version of the game, in which they were guided to play all “mini-games” in a prescribed sequence. The other group of students (79) played and learned with a high-agency version of the game, in which they could choose how many and in what order they would play the mini-games. The results show there were no significant differences in learning or enjoyment across the low and high-agency conditions. A key reason for this may be that students across conditions did not substantially vary in the way they played, perhaps due to the indirect control features present in the game. It may also be the case that the young students who participated in this study did not exercise their agency or self-regulated learning. This work is relevant to the AIED community, as it explores how game-based learning can be adapted. In general, once we know which game and learning features lead to the best learning outcomes, as well as the circumstances that maximize those outcomes, we can better design AI-powered, adaptive games for learning.
... Studies have reported that learner-pacing with segmentation reduces cognitive load and increases transfer performance for dynamic visuals (e.g. Hasler, Kersten, & Sweller, 2007;Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010). ...
Article
The popularity of online learning has made web-based software training materials the primary learning resources adopted by computer users. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of various common representational formats of web-based instructions. The formats included static (textual manual with screenshots) and dynamic (animated demonstration, AD) instructions. The findings suggested that in learner-paced learning with sufficient learning time (a) both narrated and captioned AD formats tended to increase transfer performance; (b) the segmenting principle likely became less important for the static format; and (c) the modality principle likely became less important for the AD format. Implications for determining optimal AD segment length for student engagement and suggestions for possible factors to be included in future research are offered accordingly. © 2018
... Kriz and Hegarty (2007) as well as Boucheix and Schneider (2009) found no effect of user control during learning from an animation. Tabbers and de Koeijer (2010) found small transfer effects of user control, however, accompanied by large increases in learning time. In these studies, students were allowed to decide by themselves when to stop the animation and whether to replay certain segments. ...
Article
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Visual displays are very frequently used in learning materials. Although visual displays have great potential to foster learning, they also pose substantial demands on learners so that the actual learning outcomes are often disappointing. In this article, we pursue three main goals. First, we identify the main difficulties that learners have when learning from visual displays. Knowledge about these difficulties is an important basis for selecting appropriate support procedures. Second, we present an overview of empirically tested support procedures and the evidence about their effectiveness. We distinguish between material-oriented interventions and learner-oriented interventions. Material-oriented interventions are, for example, reducing the visual displays’ complexity, cueing/signaling, or physically integrating text and pictures. Learner-oriented interventions refer to the training of learning prerequisites, pre-training, and prompting. Third, we outline fruitful lines of further research with a specific focus on (a) the tentative explanations we provide on the basis of the best available evidence, (b) promising but not yet fully approved support procedures, and (c) important issues that have largely not been researched up to now.
... [23] and [24] stated that computer-based learning increases the effectiveness of teaching and learning process, in line with research conducted by [25], [26] which states that utilization technology in learning to facilitate the learning process, the use of technology in the learning process can be used in all subject areas such as biology, even in Deniz research the use of technology is used for the history lesson. The use of multimedia technology in any form is an attempt to ease cognitive burdens [27], [28]. Multimedia is the technology that can be used without looking at the learning model [21], [29]. ...
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There are three problems in teaching engineering, especially in the field of electricity, those are: (1) students are unable to read electricity wiring; (2) students do not understand the basic concepts of electricity; (3) students do not understand the basic concept of the relationship between the electrical components. The purpose of this article are: (1) to describe multimedia, especially interactive multimedia engine management systems, prior knowledge, problem-solving; (2) to describe the relationship between interactive multimedia and prior knowledge; (3) to describe the relationship between interactive multimedia and problem solving; and (4) to provide the concept of interactive multimedia engine management system. The collection of information in this article uses a literature review or library research. Problem-solving is an attempt to solve problems through high-level thinking (high order thinking). Prior knowledge is the initial knowledge students have when entering topics with the same background. The existence of interactive multimedia or multimedia has a positive impact on prior knowledge. Some interactive multimedia research has a positive impact on the ability of problem-solving.
... Specifically, for learner-paced instruction, learners have the opportunity to pause and continue the presentation based on their cognitive and learning needs, while system-paced instruction are timed and progress automatically. Some research suggests that giving learners control over the pacing of the material can be beneficial for transfer of knowledge (Hasler et al. 2007;Tabbers and de Koeijer 2010). Yet at the same time, this finding has not always been supported or deemed universally advantageous due to several factors including individual differences in learners (Höffler and Schwartz 2011) and the design of the learning environment (Rop et al. 2018). ...
Article
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Emotions can both facilitate and hinder learning. Emotional design features such as colors and shapes can be embedded in multimedia learning environments to manipulate learners’ affects and learning outcomes. However, some studies suggest that emotional designs promote learning, while others show that they hinder it. Although Brom et al. (Educational Research Review 25:100–119, Brom et al. 2018) published a meta-analysis on the use of emotional designs in multimedia learning, an updated search showed that more studies were published recently. Thus, the present meta-analysis is a replication and extension of Brom et al.’s (Educational Research Review 25:100–119, Brom et al. 2018) meta-analysis. A total of 28 articles yielded the following independent effect sizes for each outcome examined: retention (k = 28), transfer (k = 38), comprehension (k = 16), mental effort (k = 28), perceived difficulty (k = 19), change in positive affect (k = 25), intrinsic motivation (k = 28), and liking/enjoyment (k = 19). Results showed that including emotional designs enhanced learning outcomes (retention: g+ = 0.35; transfer: g+ = 0.27; comprehension: g+ = 0.29), change in positive affect (g+ = 0.09), intrinsic motivation (g+ = 0.15), mental effort (g+ = 0.11), liking/enjoyment (g+ = 0.10), and reduced perceived difficulty (g+ = − 0.21). Moderator analyses were conducted for retention, mental effort, intrinsic motivation, and positive affect, and findings showed that mean effect sizes were moderated by participant characteristics as well as methodological and contextual features of the studies. We discuss these findings as well as their theoretical and practical implications.
... Fast-paced presentations are a reason why students experience cognitive overload that can reduce learning performance, 41 whereas optimizing control of pace has been shown to improve learning. 42 The inclusion of explanation and reasoning in worked examples is associated with more effective imitation of subject matter experts and ultimately the organisation of knowledge. 28,43 A small number of respondents felt that the sound quality of recordings could be improved, reflecting the fact that technical issues are one of the most common drawbacks on the use of podcasts in education. ...
Article
Introduction Accurately completing pharmaceutical calculations is a core professional skill for pharmacists. To date, few studies have focused on to providing feedback on calculations, or the role of technology in feedback provision. This study aimed to develop a theory-informed video podcast-based method of providing formative feedback and evaluate student perceptions. Methods First-year pharmacy students (n = 53) completed a formative pharmaceutical calculations assessment. Two forms of feedback were designed and evaluated; typed solutions (traditional format commonly used/seen in textbooks) and video podcasts informed by instructional design theory (novel format). Results A survey was completed by 70% (37/53) of students. Specific features of video podcasts reported useful included hearing reasoning, and the ability to pause and rewind. Most (76%) reported positive attitudes towards video podcasts, considered them useful (75%) and helpful for learning (79%). A comparable number (76% and 71% respectively) felt positively about typed solutions. The majority (51%) preferred to receive both types rather than podcasts alone (24%), or typed solutions alone (8%). Free-text responses indicated both were used in different ways; typed solutions for quick verification and video podcasts for clarification. Conclusions Video podcasts appear to be a potentially helpful additional method of delivering feedback that afford specific advantages. They can be readily developed by faculty with minimal expense/difficulty. However, as respondents indicated that they used both kinds of feedback in different ways to support their learning, and indicated a preference to receive both types, they should be considered an addition rather than replacement for typed solutions.
... Previous studies concerning the pause effect in CLT have yielded inconsistent results (Hasler, Kersten, & Sweller, 2007;Lowe, 1999Lowe, , 2004Merkt, Ballmann, Felfeli, & Schwan, 2018;Schnotz, Bockheler, & Grzondziel, 1999;Schwan & Riempp, 2004;Tabbers & de Koeijer, 2010). We argue that these studies have limited power to explain the pause effect in medical training, as they all used linear tasks (e.g., learning from text and pictures, watching animations). ...
Article
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In medical training, allowing learners to take pauses during tasks is known to enhance performance. Cognitive load theory assumes that insertion of pauses positively affects cognitive load, thereby enhancing performance. However, empirical studies on how allowing and taking pauses affects cognitive load and performance in dynamic task environments are scarce. We investigated the pause effect, using a computerized simulation game in emergency medicine. Medical students (N = 70) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: simulation with (n = 40) and without (n = 30) the option to take pauses. All participants played the same two scenarios, during which game logs and eye-tracking data were recorded. Overall, both cognitive load and performance were higher in the condition with pauses than in the one without. The act of pausing, however, temporarily lowered cognitive load, especially during intense moments. Two different manifestations of the pause effect were identified: (1) by stimulating additional cognitive and meta-cognitive processes, pauses increased overall cognitive load; and (2) through relaxation, the act of pausing temporarily decreased heightened cognitive load. Consequently, our results suggest that in order to enhance students’ performance and learning it is important that we encourage them to utilize the different effects of pausing.
... A multimedia learning, as part of e-learning, will be effective when in the construction/development to successfully integrate its main elements, namely: the presence of the desired learning objective, content, strategies/methods of learning, and media delivery (Clark, 2008). The effectiveness of multimedia learning may be more increases, when in design and manufacture, also pay attention to accommodating the other aspects, for example: the learners learning style (Clark & Mayer, 2008); availability of control facility of learners or multimedia interactivity, which is useful in controlling the cognitive load of learners during a learning process (Tabbers & de Koeijer, 2010); content type (static/dynamic) which will be presented (Passerini, 2007); and content visualization type (static/animated) (Lin & Dwyer, 2010). Related to such matters, in the development of multimedia learning, certainly need to pay attention to the following points: (1) the development of the modern multimedia technologies that are able to support the development/learning with multimedia development faster, interesting and effective, (2) the conditions/criteria that must be met in order for the effectiveness of multimedia learning built/developed is reached, (3) associated with the delivery, the need for media content presentation with animated visualization (pointer animation) can be used in ways that are consistent with how does the human learn (principle of animation in learning via multimedia) (Clark & Mayer, 2008;Mayer & Moreno, 2003). ...
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This research was the development research, i.e. developing a multimedia interactive learning over a matter of principle, that is, Logic. The learning strategy follows the Merrill's strategy (in Component Display Theory or CDT, especially those related to the rule relation between display), and the principle of animation (pointer animation) in learning via multimedia (multimedia, modality principle, spatial and temporal contiguity). The software of its development using the Authoring tool Adobe Captivate 9. The results of this research were two effective interactive multimedia learning modules (computer-based and mobile-based) that had the quality of good—very good. With the modules, the learner will have the option of learning and be more motivated (via a computer or mobile device) to learn independently repeatable and meaningful, such that the ability of the learner in applying concepts, procedures and basic principles of Logic can be achieved.
Article
استهدف البحث الحالي قياس أثر اختلاف معدل تجزئة مقاطع الفيديو الرقمي (کبير – صغير) عبر التطبيقات النقالة على تنمية مهارات الحاسب الآلي والکفاءة الذاتية لدى طلاب السنة التحضيرية بجامعة جدة. استخدم البحث المنهج شبه التجريبي والتصميم التجريبي ذي المجموعتين التجريبيتين مع القياس القبلي والبعدي. طُبق البحث على عينة مکونة من (60) طالبًا خلال الفصل الاول للعام الدراسي 2017/2018م. وتمثلت أدوات البحث في اختبار تحصيل معرفي، وبطاقة ملاحظة الأداء المهاري، ومقياس الکفاءة الذاتية. اعتمد البحث على اختبار (ت) للوقوف على دلالة الفروق بين المجموعتين التجريبيتين، ومربع إيتا لقياس حجم الأثر. أسفرت نتائج البحث عن تفوق طلاب المجموعة التجريبية الأولى (الذين درسوا باستخدام مقاطع فيديو رقمي بمعدل تجزئة کبير) على طلاب المجموعة التجريبية الثانية (الذين درسوا باستخدام مقاطع فيديو رقمي بمعدل تجزئة صغير) في تنمية نواتج التعلم محل البحث الحالي؛ وهو ما يعکس فاعلية معدل التجزئة الکبير لمقاطع الفيديو الرقمي عبر التطبيقات النقالة في تنمية مهارات الحاسب الآلي بجانبيها المعرفي والأدائي والکفاءة الذاتية لدى طلاب السنة التحضيرية بجامعة جدة. في ضوء نتائج البحث، قدم الباحث مجموعة من التوصيات والمقترحات التي من شأنها الاهتمام والتوسع في استخدام مقاطع الفيديو الرقمي والتطبيقات النقالة بما يساهم في تحسين العملية التعليمية ونواتج التعلم المختلفة.
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of clickers, the communicative approach and the lecture method on the communicative competence development of learners who were taught English a second language (ESL). Ninety nine pupils from three primary schools participated in the study. Quasi-experimental non-randomised pre-test posttest control group design was adopted for the study. A battery of English Language Listening Tests and English Language Speaking Tests were used to measure pupils' communicative competence. Study's data were analysed using boxplot, paired samples t-test, Analysis of covariance and multiple regression analyses. Findings indicated that, there was a significant difference between the communicative competence pre-test and post-test scores of pupils in each of the groups. Furthermore, across the groups, there was a significant difference in pupils' communicative competence post-test scores based on the teaching strategy. Multiple regression analysis results revealed that 84.9% of the variance of pupils' communicative competence was accounted for by a combination of the predictor variables. Speaking skills was the potent contributor while gender did not make a significant contribution to the prediction of pupils' communicative competence in ESL classrooms. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
Article
In the early twenties of the last century Révész and Hazewinkel published their research on the learning impact of 'lantern slides and films'. A rereading of their work reveals early interest in experimental research to validate theoretical claims. By strictly focusing on the distinction between static and dynamic images the authors highlight the need to focus on relevant attributes in media-comparison research. Research on dynamic versus static images is even now not conclusive. Although not fully elaborated the work of Révész and Hazewinkel already show that a search for the best is vane. We have learned that this search is best replaced by a critical analysis of the circumstances under which static and/or dynamic images might be more beneficial. Reading the work of Révész and Hazewinkel reveals the mainly methodological progress made in educational research. It also shows that fundamental challenges remain largely unchanged.
Article
In the early twenties of the last century Revesz and Hazewinkel published their research on the learning impact of 'lantern slides and films'. A rereading of their work reveals early interest in experimental research to validate theoretical claims By strictly focusing on the distinction between static and dynamic images the authors highlight the need to focus on relevant attributes in media-comparison research. Research on dynamic versus static images is even now not conclusive. Although not fully elaborated the work of Revesz and Hazewinkel already show that a search for the best is vane. We have learned that this search is best replaced by a critical analysis of the circumstances under which static and/or dynamic images might be more beneficial. Reading the work of Revesz and Hazewinkel reveals the mainly methodological progress made in educational research. It also shows that fundamental challenges remain largely unchanged.
E-learning systems are considerably changing education and organizational training. With the advancement of online-based learning systems, learner control over the instructional process has emerged as a decisive factor in technology-based forms of learning. However, conceptual work on the role of learner control in e-learning has not advanced sufficiently to predict how autonomous learning impacts e-learning effectiveness. To extend the research on the role of learner control in e-learning and to examine its impact on e-learning effectiveness, this study reviews 54 empirical articles on learner control during the period 1996-2013. The findings are then applied to derive a conceptual framework as a reference model to illustrate how learner control affects e-learning effectiveness. The findings provide new insights into the role and different dimensions of learner control in e-learning with implications for learning processes and learning outcomes.
Chapter
Computer-based instruction (CBI) has the potential to help stakeholders meet new expectations regarding the academic achievement and educational outcomes of students receiving special education services. Part of the optimism about CBI’s transformative role in special education has focused on its potential to provide flexible materials and practices surrounding academic curricula. This chapter focuses specifically on academic instruction as implemented within CBI and as it relates to the largest group of students with disabilities in public schools: students with mild to moderate, or specific, learning disabilities. We first identify some priority concerns for students in special education that may be addressed by digital tools and technology-based solutions. We then review existing research literature to determine when and how technology may support the cognitive processes and learning outcomes of students in special education. Finally, we summarize the research findings into a set of practical recommendations based upon currently available evidence.
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Purpose Research examining learner control of adult web-based instruction has been inconsistent, showing both positive and negative effects on learning outcomes. In addition, the specific implementation decisions made across studies that are labeled “learner control” often differ dramatically. The purpose of the present study was to provide a theoretical framework by which to understand objective learner control and to empirically test it. Design/Methodology In this study, a nine-dimensional hierarchical framework of objective learner control was developed from an extensive literature review. This framework includes instructional control (skip, supplement, sequence, pace, practice, and guidance control), style control (i.e., control of aesthetic training characteristics), and scheduling control (time and location control). Hypothesized effects were tested meta-analytically. Findings Findings suggested that (1) types of learner control are almost always confounded in experimental learner control research; (2) objective learner control is not a multidimensional construct but instead of a set of related design choices; (3) across types, learner control is generally effective in skill training but varies greatly in knowledge training and in terms of reactions; and (4) sequence control is the only type that generally does not harm either learning or reactions across contexts. Implications Given the significant confounding present in most of the literature, learner control researchers are recommended to isolate specific control features. Practitioners should identify specific targeted outcomes and choose features according to those goals. Originality/Value This is the first study to propose and test a theoretically derived framework of objective learner control, providing a roadmap for research and state-of-the-art practice.
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Multimedia principles such as segmentation, learner control, and modality have been proposed to ensure animated demonstrations (AD) effectiveness. However, several studies that apply multimedia principles in different learning contexts with different learners have found boundary conditions for several effects. This study thus aimed to investigate different levels of learner control, segmenting, and modality effects on learning and cognitive load when AD was used as the before-class instructions in the flipped classroom, in which the boundary conditions include self-pacing and sufficient learning time. Two experiments (low control vs. high control) were conducted with a 2 × 2 (segmentation: nonsegmented vs. segmented; modality: narrated vs. captioned) between-subjects ANOVA design. A supplementary analysis across the two experiments was further conducted to distinguish between the main effects of learner control and segmentation. The findings of this study have important implications for the design of before-class instructions to enhance student engagement and understanding.
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Cognitive load theory assumes that cognitive demands that arise from the design of learning materials (known as extraneous load) are major obstacles in the learning process with (digital) media. Interactive digital media allow learners to utilize complex learning materials that respond to user input. However, recent research on cognitive load measurement has led to the question whether different survey instruments produce different measurements for extraneous load generated by interactive learning media. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated this question using digital visualizations. Most importantly, we found that two cognitive load questionnaires revealed divergent results regarding the extraneous load involved in learning with interactive visualizations. This finding indicates that different questionnaires may be needed for different types of tasks in technology‐enhanced learning settings. A more fundamental implication is that there needs to be greater consideration of different types of extraneous load.
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Background Instructional videos are increasingly employed in a physical education domain in order to enhance motor learning and self-motivational beliefs. However, evidence showed that videos are generally ineffective because they often create extraneous loads due to the information transience and passive processing of information. Purpose The current study investigates the effects of controlling the display of video on learning outcomes – expressed in terms of recall and transfer scores – and situational interest in physical education settings. Method 60 tenth-grade students (Mage = 15.90 years, SDage = 1.32 months; 30 boys and 30 girls) were instructed to study using either a continuous video (presented without pauses), a system-controlled video using predefined segments or a self-controlled video where the learner uses ‘stop’ and ‘play’ keys. Then, they were asked to perform the learning tests (i.e. game comprehension test and game performance test) and evaluate the situational interest of the learning materials (i.e. attention demand, challenge, exploration intention, instant enjoyment, novelty). Findings The results from one-way ANOVAs revealed that students performed significantly better on both recall and transfer post-tests when the video was either system-controlled or self-controlled, which suggested that studying a controlled video could decrease irrelevant cognitive load and so yield better learning performances. Concerning the situational interest variable, students in the self-controlled condition scored significantly higher on almost all dimensions of situational interest. Conclusion This study indicates that self-controlled video, as applied in this study, can be integrated in a physical education context to foster learning and enhance situational interest. The discussion advances several options for enhancing the effectiveness of instructional videos during physical education lessons.
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The increasing impact of social media on our lives has led to re-evaluation of the delivery methods of medical educational content by medical educators and researchers. Social media is being increasingly used for communication, sharing information and media, and having discussions related to the topics of interest by both undergraduate and postgraduate students. The main objective of this chapter is to analyse the benefits and challenges of using social media as a learning and teaching tool in medical education. Social media provides an exciting platform for medical communication and discussions. Educators can enhance the learning of all students by facilitating their engagement with, and increasing their accessibility to social media. With social media comes a way to provide students with instant feedback, the significance of which in medical education is well documented. However, one of the main limitations of social media is its dependence on internet access; there are many parts of the world in which internet is still not available, easily affordable, or restricted. Currently, there is more focus on developing guidelines on the use of social media for educators and students than there is on impact on learning. There is a need to address the gap in the literature on the beneficial effects of incorporating social media in the learning process. Additional studies should be conducted to compare the difference between traditional learning and learning through social media in medical education.
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E-learning platforms are experiencing major improvements in curriculum and corporate preparation. Through the development in online learning platforms, learning influence of the teaching phase has arisen as a core element in technology-based learning. However, the methodological work on the role of learner control in e-learning has not progressed enough to foresee how autonomous learning influences e-learning efficacy. In order to expand research on the function of learner control in e-learning and to analyse its effects on e-learning efficacy, this review explores literature on learner control to derive a conceptual construct as a theoretical model to explain how learning regulation impacts the success of e-learning. This review offers fresh insights into the function and aspects of learning regulation in online learning, with consequences for both learning processes and learning outcomes.
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Using schema theory as a framework, we view learning as an active, constructive process. It is affected not only by learners'' internal knowledge structures, but by the external constraints of the learning environment as well (Kozma, 1991). This article examines how different internal learner characteristics (e.g., prior knowledge, self efficacy and interest) and different external constraints (e.g., learner control, instructional design and level of control) influence the learning process. Specifically, we address learning from a variety of multimedia environments such as video, hypertexts, kiosks and other hypermedia within a schema theoretic approach that incorporates a constructivist view.
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Computer-based learning environments provide the possibility to present interactive animated pictures, which can be manipulated for active exploratory learning and which allow to display the dynamic behavior of a complex subject matter. Due to the large range of possibilities of exploratory interaction, such learning environments seem to be well suited for cooperative learning, where different learners analyse a subject matter from different perspectives. Knowledge acquisition from interactive animated pictures was compared with knowledge acquisition from static pictures in two empirical studies under the conditions of individual learning (Study I) and of cooperative learning (Study II). In Study I, learning with interactive animated pictures resulted in a better encoding of detail information, but did not have positive effects on performance in mental simulation tasks. In Study II, learning with interactive animated pictures resulted both in lower encoding of detail information and poorer results in mental simulations. These findings and the analysis of discourse protocols of the co-operation suggest that exploratory learning with interactive animated pictures is associated with extraneous cognitive load, which can be further increased by the co-ordination demands of co-operative learning. Although animated pictures provide external support for mental simulations, they seem to be not generally beneficial for learning, as they can prevent individuals from performing relevant cognitive processes.
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The cognitive load and learning effects of dual-code and interactivity—two multimedia methods intended to promote meaningful learning—were examined. In Experiment 1, college students learned about the causal chain of events leading to the process of lightning formation with a set of words and corresponding pictures (Group WP), pictures (Group P), or words (Group W). Some students were presented with the organized causal chain of events to study, whereas others were given a self-organization task. Consistent with a cognitive theory of multimedia learning, Condition WP was the highest in instructional efficiency for retention and transfer. However, contrary to our predictions, having students organize the multimedia materials was detrimental to transfer. Two follow-up experiments tested the hypotheses that the negative effects of interactivity were due to students' lack of time control (Experiment 2) and the form of feedback (Experiment 3). The findings showed that interactivity was effective when students were asked to evaluate their answers before receiving corrective feedback from the system.
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User's mental representations and cognitive strategies can have a profound influence on how they interact with computer interfaces (Janosky, Smith & Hildreth, 1986). However, there is very little research that elucidates such mental representations and strategies in the context of interactive hypermedia. Furthermore, interface design for hypermedia information presentation systems is rarely driven by what is known of users' mental models and strategies. This paper makes three contributions toward addressing these problems. First, it describes a novel cognitive model of comprehension of multimodal presentations for the specific application of explaining how machines work, and proposes guidelines for hypermedia design derived from this model. Since the development of this model draws heavily upon research in both cognitive science and computational modeling, a second contribution is that it contains a detailed review of literature in these fields on comprehension from static multimodal presentations. Third, it illustrates how cognitive and computational modeling are being used to inform the design of hypermedia information presentation systems about machines. This includes a framework for empirical validation of the model and evaluation of hypermedia design so that both theory and design can be refined iteratively.
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In 2 experiments, students received 2 presentations of a narrated animation that explained how lightning forms followed by retention and transfer tests. In Experiment 1, learners who were allowed to exercise control over the pace of the narrated animation before a second presentation of the same material at normal speed (part–whole presentation) performed better on transfer but not retention tests compared with learners who received the same 2 presentations in the reverse order (whole–part presentation). In Experiment 2, learners who were allowed to exercise control over the pace of the narrated animation across 2 presentations (part–part presentation) performed better on transfer but not retention tests compared with learners who received the same 2 presentations at normal speed without any learner control (whole–whole presentation). These results are consistent with cognitive load theory and a 2-stage theory of mental model construction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article concerns the effects of learner control in computer-assisted instruction (CAI). After reviewing previous reviews of research on the topic, twenty-four studies of learner control were subjected to meta-analysis. The results of both the review and meta-analysis are equivocal. Several reviews indicate that learner control works less well with younger, less able students. Other reviews indicate that, given optimal conditions, learner control can work with any students. The meta-analysis, however, yielded an average effect size that was small and negative suggesting that the average student would be slightly better off without it. Although learner control has theoretical appeal, its effects on learning seem neither powerful nor consistent.
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Presents a critique of published learner control studies that highlights problems with definitions of learner control, theoretical foundations, treatment duration, outcome measures, sample sizes, and conclusions. Recommendations are made concerning the exploration of alternative models for research focused on learner control and other aspects of computer-based instruction. (Contains 40 references.) (LRW)
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Students learned about electric motors by asking questions and receiving answers from an on-screen pedagogical agent named Dr. Phyz who stood next to an on-screen drawing of an electric motor. Students performed better on a problem-solving transfer test when Dr. Phyz's explanations were presented as narration rather than on-screen text (Experiment 1), when students were able to ask questions and receive answers interactively rather than receive the same information as a noninteractive multimedia message (Experiments 2a and 2b), and when students were given a prequestion to guide their self-explanations during learning (Experiment 3). Deleting Dr. Phyz's image from the screen had no significant effect on problem-solving transfer performance (Experiment 4). The results are consistent with a cognitive theory of multimedia learning and yield principles for the design of interactive multimedia learning environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In order to investigate the influence of learner-controlled pacing in educational animation on instructional efficiency, three versions of an audio-visual computer animation and a narration-only presentation were used to teach primary school students the determinants of day and night. The animations were either system-paced using a continuous animation, learner-paced using discrete segments or learner paced using ‘stop’ and ‘play’ buttons. The two learner-paced groups showed higher test performance with relatively lower cognitive load compared to the two system-paced groups, despite the fact that the ‘stop’ and ‘play’ buttons were rarely used. The significant group differences regarding test performance were obtained only for more difficult, high element interactivity questions but not for low element interactivity questions. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The construction of a high quality mental model from a complex visual display relies the capacity of learners to extract appropriate information from that display. Beginning students of meteorology complied written records of generalisations extracted from animated weather map sequences in order to prepare themselves for a subsequent prediction task. Analysis of these records revealed that much of the information extracted was perceptually salient rather than thematically relevant. This perceptual dominance effect was found for both visuospatial and temporal aspects of the display. The statements produced were deficient with regard to the causal explanations that would be necessary to build a satisfactory mental model of the depicted situation. These deficiencies involved both the proportion of causal material recorded and the attribution of causality on an everyday rather than a domain-appropriate basis. The limitations of the information extracted were interpreted as evidence of subjects' use of selective attention to control cognitive load in a complex, demanding processing situation and the effects of their lack of domain-specific background knowledge. Contrary to prevailing orthodoxies, the results raise the possibility that in some circumstances, animations may not be instructionally superior to static depictions because the processing demands involved can have negative effects on learning.
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Computer-based multimedia technologies allow designers to construct interactive and animated graphical presentations to communicate dynamic information. The conventional wisdom is that such presentations are more effective than printed materials. This paper presents research that critically examines this assumption. Design guidelines and principles were derived from a cognitive process model of multimodal comprehension. These guidelines and principles were used to create several expository presentations in two domains—the concrete domain of mechanical systems and the abstract domain of computer algorithms. A series of experiments evaluated the efficacy of these presentations and compared them with other kinds of presentations such as books, CD-ROMs and animations. The experiments also compared computer-based interactive graphical presentations and static printed presentations containing the same information. Experimental results suggest that the communicative efficacy of multimodal presentations is more related to their match with comprehension processes than with the interactivity and dynamism of the presentation media. The results support a model-based approach to the design of multimodal expository presentations of dynamic information. The comprehension model and corresponding design guidance should aid designers in building interactive graphical presentations that are more effective than intuitive designs in communicating dynamic content.
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Because animations can depict situational dynamics explicitly, they have the potential to help learners build coherent, high-quality mental models of complex change processes. Further, interactive animations provide opportunities for learners to deal with available information selectively and so avoid excessive processing demands. However, to be instructionally effective, the selected subsets of information must have high domain and task relevance. Approaches used by domain novices to interrogate an interactive animation of a complex dynamic system as they prepared for a subsequent prediction task were explored. Subjects searched the animation in order to learn generalizations upon which to base their predictions. Spatial and temporal strategies employed tended to be narrowly focused upon individual graphic features or localized groups while broader relational aspects required for coherence were neglected. The findings suggest that in order to build satisfactory mental representations from interactive animations, learners may require specific guidance regarding search strategies and targets.
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Graphics have been used since ancient times to portray things that are inherently spatiovisual, like maps and building plans. More recently, graphics have been used to portray things that are metaphorically spatiovisual, like graphs and organizational charts. The assumption is that graphics can facilitate comprehension, learning, memory, communication and inference. Assumptions aside, research on static graphics has shown that only carefully designed and appropriate graphics prove to be beneficial for conveying complex systems. Effective graphics conform to the Congruence Principle according to which the content and format of the graphic should correspond to the content and format of the concepts to be conveyed. From this, it follows that animated graphics should be effective in portraying change over time. Yet the research on the efficacy of animated over static graphics is not encouraging. In cases where animated graphics seem superior to static ones, scrutiny reveals lack of equivalence between animated and static graphics in content or procedures; the animated graphics convey more information or involve interactivity. Animations of events may be ineffective because animations violate the second principle of good graphics, the Apprehension Principle, according to which graphics should be accurately perceived and appropriately conceived. Animations are often too complex or too fast to be accurately perceived. Moreover, many continuous events are conceived of as sequences of discrete steps. Judicious use of interactivity may overcome both these disadvantages. Animations may be more effective than comparable static graphics in situations other than conveying complex systems, for example, for real time reorientations in time and space.
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In contrast to their traditional, non-interactive counterparts, interactive dynamic visualisations allow users to adapt their form and content to their individual cognitive skills and needs. Provided that the interactive features allow for intuitive use without increasing cognitive load, interactive videos should therefore lead to more efficient forms of learning. This notion was tested in an experimental study, where participants learned to tie four nautical knots of different complexity by watching either non-interactive or interactive videos. The results show that in the interactive condition, participants used the interactive features like stopping, replaying, reversing or changing speed to adapt the pace of the video demonstration. This led to an uneven distribution of their attention and cognitive resources across the videos, which was more pronounced for the difficult knots. Consequently users of non-interactive video presentations, needed substantially more time than users of the interactive videos to acquire the necessary skills for tying the knots.
Interrogation of a dynamic visualization during learning. Learning and Instruction
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Lowe, R. K. (2004). Interrogation of a dynamic visualization during learning. Learning and Instruction, 14, 257–274.
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