Components of royal jelly: I. Identification of the organic acids
This present work characterizes the fatty acid constituents of the lipid fraction of royal jelly. Among the organic acids found after fractionation by thin layer chromatography of the corresponding methyl esters, the following compounds were identified by combined GC-MS: saturated and unsaturated linear fatty acids, saturated and unsaturated linear and branched dicarboxylic acids, mono-and dihydroxy acids. The most common characteristic of the organic acids was that most contained 8 or 10 carbon atoms, whether saturated or unsaturated, linear or branched.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant properties of synbiotic product, Lactobacillus acidophilus supplemented with 2.5% royal jelly in skim milk and Bifidobacterium bifidum supplemented with 7.5% royal jelly in skim milk, using DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay, reducing power, total antioxidant in linoleic acid system and formation of diene-conjugation assay. Results showed that the synbiotic effect of royal jelly and probiotic bacteria provided substantial antioxidant activities. Milk samples fermented by B. bifi dum supplemented with 7.5% royal jelly and L. acidophilus supplemented with 2.5% royal jelly exhibited high scavenging activity with 96.8 and 93.3%, respectively, at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. IC50 values were estimated at 226.7 μg/mL for B. bifidum supplemented with 7.5% royal jelly and at 210.2 μg/ml for L. acidophilus supplemented with 2.5% royal jelly. On the other hand, L. acidophilus supplemented with 2.5% royal jelly and B. bifidum supplemented with 7.5% royal jelly exhibited significantly high reducing power at a concentration of 1000 μg/mL. The percentages of peroxide inhibition of L. acidophilus supplemented with 2.5% royal jelly and B. bifidum with 7.5% royal jelly were 52% and 42%, respectively. Significant inhibitions were found in the formation of conjugated diene at 66.9% and 65.8% for L. acidophilus with 2.5% royal jelly and B. bifidum with 7.5% royal jelly, respectively. These results were compared with standards BHT, ascorbic acid and Trolox.0Comments 0Citations
- "The identifi cation of this fraction and specially the arrangement and quantitative ratios of free organic acids, is believed to represent the criteria of choice for recognizing the authenticity of RJ and for confi rming and quantifying the claimed existence of royal jelly in other products. Besides the free fatty acids, the lipid fraction consist of some neutral lipids, sterols (including cholesterol) and an unsaponifi able fraction of hydrocarbons similar to beeswax extracts [Lercker et al., 1981 [Lercker et al., , 1982 [Lercker et al., , 1984 [Lercker et al., , 1993. The total carbohydrate content of royal jelly was 14.07% (Table 1 ) and mostly consisted of fructose and glucose. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Social caste determination in the honey bee is assumed to be determined by the dietary status of the young larvae and translated into physiological and epigenetic changes through nutrient-sensing pathways. We have employed Illumina/Solexa sequencing to examine the small RNA content in the bee larval food, and show that worker jelly is enriched in miRNA complexity and abundance relative to royal jelly. The miRNA levels in worker jelly were 7-215 fold higher than in royal jelly, and both jellies showed dynamic changes in miRNA content during the 4(th) to 6(th) day of larval development. Adding specific miRNAs to royal jelly elicited significant changes in queen larval mRNA expression and morphological characters of the emerging adult queen bee. We propose that miRNAs in the nurse bee secretions constitute an additional element in the regulatory control of caste determination in the honey bee.0Comments 15Citations
- "Female caste determination has traditionally been ascribed to special properties of royal jelly, which is fed in copious amounts to prospective queen bee larvae, thereby ensuring attainment of the royal status, whereas the less sophisticated diet enjoyed by the rest of the brood leads to the worker bee fate . Careful analysis of the royal jelly [3,4,5,6,7,8] has failed to identify any specific, nonnutritional ''queen-making'' factor, and the prevailing view is that nutrient-sensing pathways [9,10,11,12] translate the dietary status of the larvae into differences in physiology and gene expression [13,14,15,16,17,18] that are ultimately fixed by epigenetic modifications of the larval genomes [19,20,21,22,23]. Masaki Kamakura recently found that a specific factor in royal jelly, royalactin, drove queen development through an Egfr-mediated signaling pathway . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The author focuses on the biological significance of ω-oxidation of fatty acids. Early studies revealed that there is a subsidiary pathway for β-oxidation of fatty acids when β-oxidation is blocked. Many studies demonstrated that the ω-oxidation serves to provide succinyl-CoA for the citric acid cycle and for gluconeogenesis under conditions of starvation and diabetes. Acylglucosylceramides which are composed of linoleic acid, long chain ω-hydroxy fatty acids, eicosasphingenine (or trihydroxyeicosasphingenine) and glucose, are responsible for normal epidermal permeability function in the skin. It is observed that ω- and (ω-1)-oxidation of fatty acids are related to energy metabolism in some laboratory animals such as musk shrews and Mongolian gerbils. Studies confirmed that ω- and (ω-1)-oxidation of fatty acids play crucial roles in the production of insect pheromones of honeybees and in the formation of biopolyesters of higher plants. In addition, the biological significance of ω-oxidation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes is described.(Communicated by Tamio Yamakawa, M.J.A.).0Comments 1Citation
- "The biological significance of ω- and ω-type oxidation of fatty acids has been reported in insects and plants. Lercker et al.64) reported that ω-hydroxy fatty acids were the most abundant components in royal jelly which is essential for biochemical and physiological importance of this substance. Royal jelly is produced by worker bees and fed to queen bees.64) "