Article

Helix induction potential of N-terminal α-methyl, α-amino acids

University of Padova
Letters in Peptide Science 04/1998; 5(2):105-107. DOI: 10.1023/A:1008873910529

ABSTRACT

A series of longer analogues of the C-peptide of RNAse A has been synthesized with the aim of assessing the helix induction potential in water of -methyl, -amino acids at the N-terminus of the chain. The circular dichroism data indicate that one isovaline residue is effective in increasing the helix content of the 13-residue peptide by about 7%.

0 Followers
 · 
3 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gene-encoded antimicrobial peptides are an important component of host defense in animals ranging from insects to mammals. They do not target specific molecular receptors on the microbial surface, but rather assume amphipathic structures that allow them to interact directly with microbial membranes, which they can rapidly permeabilize. They are thus perceived to be one promising solution to the growing problem of microbial resistance to conventional antibiotics. A particularly abundant and widespread class of antimicrobial peptides are those with amphipathic, alpha-helical domains. Due to their relatively small size and synthetic accessibility, these peptides have been extensively studied and have generated a substantial amount of structure-activity relationship (SAR) data. In this review, alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides are considered from the point of view of six interrelated structural and physicochemical parameters that modulate their activity and specificity: sequence, size, structuring, charge, amphipathicity, and hydrophobicity. It begins by providing an overview of how these vary in peptides from different natural sources. It then analyzes how they relate to the currently accepted model for the mode of action of alpha-helical peptides, and discusses what the numerous SAR studies that have been carried out on these compounds and their analogues can tell us. A comparative analysis of the many alpha-helical, antimicrobial peptide sequences that are now available then provides further information on how these parameters are distributed and interrelated. Finally, the systematic variation of parameters in short model peptides is used to throw light on their role in antimicrobial potency and specificity. The review concludes with some considerations on the potentials and limitations for the development of alpha-helical, antimicrobial peptides as antiinfective agents.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Biopolymers
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The preferred conformations of peptides heavily based on the currently extensively exploited achiral and chiral alpha-amino acids with a quaternary alpha-carbon atom, as determined by conformational energy computations, crystal-state (x-ray diffraction) analyses, and solution ((1)H-NMR and spectroscopic) investigations, are reviewed. It is concluded that 3(10)/alpha-helical structures and the fully extended (C(5)) conformation are preferentially adopted by peptide sequences characterized by this family of amino acids, depending upon overall bulkiness and nature (e.g., whether acyclic or C(alpha) (i) <--> C(alpha) (i) cyclized) of their side chains. The intriguing relationship between alpha-carbon chirality and bend/helix handedness is also illustrated. gamma-Bends and semiextended conformations are rarely observed. Formation of beta-sheet structures is prevented.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Biopolymers
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have analysed the toxicity of highly cationic, artificial alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides on blood cells to assess their suitability for systemic application. Flow cytometric methods, based on the uptake of propidium iodide, were used to obtain a rapid and quantitative estimate of membrane damage to resting and concanavalin A-activated mouse lymphocytes, which was further confirmed by morphological changes as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Membrane permeabilization appeared to correlate with structural characteristics, so that the peptide L-19(9/B), which contains helix-stabilizing aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) residues and is a potent antimicrobial, was also the most lytic towards both mouse lymphocytes and human erythrocytes. Reducing the propensity for helix formation in P19(8) resulted in a marked reduction in in vitro cytotoxicity. Changing the helical sense in D-P19(9/B) also resulted in a significant decrease in cytolytic activity towards both erythrocytes and leucocytes. A limited assessment in BALB/c mice confirmed a lower in vivo toxicity of P19(8) than L-P19(9/B). In a study of the systemic antimycotic activity of P19(8) in a mouse protection model, a modest prolongation in survival of Candida albicans-infected animals after intravenous administration was observed at 5 mg/kg peptide but not at higher doses. The implications of these observations for the systemic use of this type of peptide are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2002 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Show more