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An Integrative Theory of Intergroup Conflict

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... Tendo isso em vista, nesta pesquisa, buscou-se responder à seguinte pergunta: como é a experiência do consumidor pobre ao ser estigmatizado no encontro de serviços e que tipo de estratégias de resposta são originadas nesse processo? Para responder a tal questão, este estudo está fundamentado: a) na Teoria da Identificação Social (TAFJEL; TURNER, 1979), que auxilia a explicar a razão pela qual existe discriminação a partir da categorização de grupos na sociedade; e b) nos antecedentes da satisfação do consumidor (também conhecidos como Paradigma da Satisfação do Consumidor), abordando especificamente: i) a Teoria da Desconfirmação das Expectativas (OLI-VER; DESARBO, 1988), que sustenta que o grau de satisfação do consumidor é determinado pela comparação entre o desempenho percebido do produto ou serviço e a expectativa do consumidor, ii) a Teoria da Assimilação (OLIVER; DESARBO, 1988), que assume que os indivíduos relutam em aceitar discrepâncias com relação a posições previamente assumidas; iii) a percepção de injustiça, interpretada com base na Teoria da Equidade (ADAMS, 1963); e iv) a Teoria da Atribuição (OLIVER; DESARBO, 1988), que propõe que as saídas podem ser entendidas como sucesso ou falha, trazendo à tona inferências de causalidade -de modo que o consumidor pode, por exemplo, colocar a culpa da sua insatisfação no vendedor que sugeriu determinada opção de produto ou serviço. ...
... Os relatos apresentados a seguir são consistentes com a Teoria da Identificação Social (TAJFEL; TURNER, 1979), que sugere que a discriminação envolve medo e intenções antagonistas contra grupos inferiorizados. Essa atitude contra indivíduos com aparência ou linguagem diferentes é "percebida" rapidamente pelos estigmatizados, bem como a presença de um reconhecimento da inferioridade, como é possível observar a seguir: ...
... A discriminação perante outras pessoas é agravada quando estas são amigos ou familiares, pois envolve o sentido de pertencimento e de colocar em risco sua posição na sociedade, explicado pela Teoria de Identificação Social (TAJFEL; TURNER, 1979). ...
Article
This article focuses on low-income consumers facing social stigma in service encounters with contact employees. Research have regarded the income-consumers from the disadvantaged perspective but few from the stigmatized perspective. The literature tends to propose direct functional relationships between emotions and coping processes. Further studies suggested that emotional and cognitive appraisals interact to influence consumers' choice of coping strategies. Our study was designed using Critical Incident Technique and Content Analysis in 210 low income individuals. The results state the existence of that stigmatized behavior beyond the legitimate expected interaction between the parties involved. The construction of the stigma model evolution illustrated this research.
... When customers make consumption decisions, they associate relevant brands with environmental protection and health, and they trust and identify more with brands that are more socially responsible. Moreover, according to the social identity theory (SIT) [28,29], consumers will classify themselves as group members through self-categorization [30,31] and show consistent cognition, values or behavior norms with them (e.g., being socially responsible, supporting environmental protection) [32,33]. From the perspective of SIT, we hold that social identity reflects the consistency between consumers' expectations and perceptions of CSR strategy and helps better understand consumers' BER participation intention and the process and results of responding to CSR strategy. ...
... According to social identity theory [28,29], people identify with a brand when they believe it can maintain and enhance their self-esteem. Because consumers identify with the brand, participating in the brand's journey of "doing good" can be a way to demonstrate the customer's ego, enhancing their self-image. ...
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Customer participation in brand environmental responsibility is necessary for enterprises and consumers to co-create value. However, it is not yet clear why some corporate social responsibility (CSR) communications are more effective in attracting higher customer participation in a digitally transparent environment. Based on signal theory and social identity theory, this study examines the impact of the interactive effect of CSR strategy (proactive vs. reactive) and transparency signals (high vs. low) on customer trust (perceived integrity and perceived competence), customer–brand identification, and participation intention in brand environmental responsibility. We conduct a 2 × 2 study with 140 respondents. The findings reveal a significant interaction effect of CSR strategy and transparency signals on perceived integrity, perceived competence, and participation intention in brand environmental responsibility. Mediation analysis reveals that the impact of CSR strategy on participation intention is serially mediated via perceived trust and customer–brand identification and varies across different transparency levels.
... In case, if there was no possibility to divide participants in accordance with the rules, we asked them (or part of them) to repeat the group-choice procedure without announcing the bids and the results of the previous group division. The participants get to choose a group, which easily satisfies the minimal group requirement and social identity theory [25,26]. After the groups were formed, the ingroups were allowed to socialize, communicate, and decide on the group name (Group Socialization), whereas members of the out-group were not allowed to talk with each other and were separated from each other and the in-groups. ...
... As a result, participants were divided into two groups of six players. Here, the participants also get to choose a group, which easily satisfies the minimal group requirement and social identity theory [25,26]. During this phase, Socialized Game with a Fee participants played the PD and IG with a random human partner from their group of four. ...
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This paper examines how the group membership fee influences the formation of groups and the cooperation rate within the socialized groups. We found that monetary transactions do not ruin the establishment of social ties and the formation of group relations.
... These difficulties could arise from utilizing words or concepts that are not understood by other team members (Carlile, 2002) or differing opinions on how to accomplish the task (Kilduff et al, 2000). Additionally, interacting with people different than oneself can negatively impact group dynamics by introducing tension stemming from perceived in-versus out-group differences (Ellemers et al, 2013;Stets and Burke, 2000;Tajel and Turner, 1979;Van Knippenberg et al, 2004). Regardless of the source of the coordination difficulties, diverting resources towards resolving personal conflicts and procedural misunderstandings ultimately lowers team performance Lubatkin et al, 2006). ...
... However, behavioral integration involves being open and sharing information with other team members (Hambrick, 1997;Tjosvold et al, 2014). Teams with a shared identity will view members as part of the in-group thereby facilitating openness and acceptance of others (Sethi et al, 2001;Tajel and Turner, 1979). Accordingly, shared identity should mediate any effect of shared knowledge on behavioral integration. ...
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Relying on teams can lead to better performance than relying on individuals but poor integration or team coordination can undermine performance. While extant research focuses on the role a shared team identity has on team performance, this work investigates whether and how having a shared task-relevant identity and knowledge, like project management, can positively affect behavioral integration, and ultimately team performance. Therefore, the aim of this work is twofold, first, to determine whether and how shared task-relevant identity and knowledge can affect behavioral integration. Second, to understand the process through which shared knowledge can improve team performance. To this end, we implement two field experiments wherein randomly assigned teams work on (1) a short-term project (Study 1); (2) a medium-term project (Study 2). Our study suggests that only shared task-relevant identity levels lead directly to higher behavioral integration and not having shared task-relevant knowledge. However, we show that having task-relevant knowledge motivates team members to take on the task’s identity. Lastly, we find that behavioral integration mediates the shared task-relevant identity and team performance relationship. Overall, our results shed new light on team performance and formation. In particular, we demonstrate that shared identity plays a crucial role in how teams function. The implications of this work are discussed in terms of team selection and management. For instance, when forming teams it may not be enough to select members based on what they know but one should consider who they think they are.
... The more people feel attached to a group, the more willing they are to defend it. 68 This may be due to internal desires and feelings of appropriateness: the 'pleasure of agency' Elizabeth Wood 69 found among rebel-supporting campesinos during El Salvador's civil war. But groups also control their membership though social pressure. ...
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Counter-state actors often supply services to foster civilian support. Yet little work explores the civilian ‘demand-side’ of this interaction. This paper examines how civilians navigated between overlapping state and counter-state services during a case of non-violent competitive statebuilding. Between 1989 and 1998, a Kosovar-Albanian ‘parallel state’ provided education, healthcare, and justice as part of a strategy to secede from Serbia. It finds that two factors are key: the level of group solidarity individuals are subject to, and the unique characteristics of the services they are receiving. Increased group solidarity constrains how individuals decide between providers, yet the extent to which this impacts choice depends on the characteristics of different services. Education is collectively delivered and tied to nation-building; decisions depend on social norms. Healthcare is individual and immediate; decisions are rooted in trust. Justice varies between discreet civil cases where people can ‘shop around’, and criminal cases, which can comprise highly visible, collective events with significant social pressure. Understanding how solidarity and service characteristics intersect is key to understanding the demand-side of competitive statebuilding.
... This result is somewhat challenging to interpret given the lack of a common denominator between areas, but the variation could be attributed to social identities and group categorization. Social identity theory suggests that individuals identify with their own group via social categorization, which spurs in-group favoritism and out-group hostility (Tafjel and Turner, 1979). Cyberbullying represents a form of inter-group conflict, such as masculinity vs. femininity (Case 1-education), rich vs. poor (Case 2-entertainment), and home country vs. other country (Case 5-sport). ...
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As a worldwide epidemic in the digital age, cyberbullying is a pertinent but understudied concern—especially from the perspective of language. Elucidating the linguistic features of cyberbullying is critical both to preventing it and to cultivating ethical and responsible digital citizens. In this study, a mixed-method approach integrating lexical feature analysis, sentiment polarity analysis, and semantic network analysis was adopted to develop a deeper understanding of cyberbullying language. Five cyberbullying cases on Chinese social media were analyzed to uncover explicit and implicit linguistic features. Results indicated that cyberbullying comments had significantly different linguistic profiles than non-bullying comments and that explicit and implicit bullying were distinct. The content of cases further suggested that cyberbullying language varied in the use of words, types of cyberbullying, and sentiment polarity. These findings offer useful insight for designing automatic cyberbullying detection tools for Chinese social networking platforms. Implications also offer guidance for regulating cyberbullying and fostering ethical and responsible digital citizens.
... Young adults' decisions to start and continue to smoke to develop desired social identities demonstrate that smoking is "socially addictive" and not just biologically addictive [6,66]. This finding is congruent with Social Identity Theory which postulates that social identification with an 'in-group' is of emotional significance to an individual and that such membership enhances their self-esteem [76,77]. Here, the process of in-group assimilation leads to pressure to conform to the in-group's norms, i.e. peer pressure to smoke. ...
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Background This meta-ethnography investigates how young adults describe their tobacco use, smoking identities and pathways into and out of regular smoking, to inform future smoking prevention and harm reduction interventions. Methods Eight databases were systematically searched using keywords and indexed terms. Studies were included if they presented qualitative data from young adults aged 16–25 reporting smoking histories and/or smoking identities from countries culturally similar to the UK. A systematic and rigorous meta-ethnographic approach was employed, consistent with Noblit and Hare’s methodology. Results Thirty papers were included. Reasons stated for taking up smoking and becoming a smoker included alleviating stress, transforming one’s identity, and coping with the transition to further education, employment or leaving home. Many used smoking to aid acceptance within new peer groups, particularly when alcohol was present. Smoking was also perceived as an act of resistance and a coping mechanism for those with marginalised identities. Barriers to quitting smoking included young adults’ minimisation or denial of the health risks of smoking and not identifying with “being a smoker”. Conclusions This meta-ethnography may provide a blueprint to inform the development of health and wellbeing interventions designed specifically for young adults. Smoking cessation interventions should be co-designed with young adults based on their perceived needs, resonant with their desire to quit in the future at key milestones. Harm reduction interventions should address the social aspect of addiction, without reinforcing stigma, particularly for those with marginalised identities.
... 56 The agent's self-concept would be impacted by the perception of the status ranking of his group: lower status, lower selfimage and self-esteem; higher status, boosted self-image and self-esteem. 57 Given that crucial link between self-concept, self-esteem and identity conferred by group membership, the upholding of the status of the group would be an important objective for social agents. 58 Thus, self-esteem, considering its commingling with social identity, would be a significant motivation to actively respond in specific ways to distressing evidence of the low social status of one's group, by either defecting to join another higher-status social unit or acting to change the disadvantageous terms of the comparison. ...
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Our model of radicalization articulates three readings of the phenomenon: (1) the rationality of the radicalized agent, (2) the prime mover explaining important facets of the phenomena, and (3) the strategic typification of concerns for the persuasion of wider audiences. We show that the rationality of the radicalized agent can be characterized as the calibration of specific parameters that determines a modality of thought, the R.A.S.H. mentality, which accounts for essential aspects of the radicalized mind. We propose further to reorient the causal arrow that has been privileged in the models of radicalization so far by linking radicalization to the experience of envy, an evolved emotion that motivates individuals to monitor their surroundings, to assess the prosperity of others, and to seek the elimination of differences. We conclude with the process of typification, which consists in widening the reach of concerns by simultaneously eliminating the particulars of the personal situation motivating the radicalized agent and evoking collective circumstance templates belonging to a repertoire of universal social forms.
... Our own view of identity has been informed through a wide variety of research in several linguistic interdisciplinary fields. Such work includes social identity theory (Mayerhoff 1996;Mayerhoff and Niedzielski 1994;and Tafjel and Turner 1997); models of identity (Le Page and Tabouret-Keller 1985) and local identity (Crystal 2004 andHassan 2010;and Al-Halawani 2010) gender identities (Valentine 2009) in sociolinguistics; and hybrid identity (Jaff 2000) in bilingual linguistics and metalinguistic cultural repertoire, among others. Butcholtz and Hall (2005) provide a framework for the analysis of identity in sociocultural linguistic approach which relates here. ...
Article
The paper discusses the question of Linguistic identity in the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (henceforth CCASG). The notion of identity is analysed with reference to linguistic practices as a sociocultural means of communication. The existing register is a natural outcome on which the vast and fast process of modernization is reflected. The paper discusses a corpus of the Gulf register to seek an answer for the question of how the Arabic Gulf native identity impacts the English linguistic practice, as an interdisciplinary and integrative part in the sociocultural approach. Arabic meets with English as a global non-native variety of English and results in the new Gulf code. The result of the examination of linguistic practices confirm that identity in the Gulf reflects a cultural transformation and does not resist the new linguistic and sociocultural system. The selected theoretical framework for the analysis is drawn from a variety of linguistic sub-disciplines and research traditions. The sociocultural approach is selected for this study as it is the most applicable.
... However, BIRGing does not require that one see one's successful group members as similar to oneself. Major theories of social identity (social identity theory, Tafjel & Turner, 1979; terror management theory, Solomon et al., 1991) posit identification with a good group as a universal psychological need separate from mere sociability. Introverts may engage less energetically in social activities including parties and dating (Paunonen, 2003), but this does not mean that they are apathetic about their social identity. ...
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Four experiments explored how extraversion’s connection with self-esteem may depend on specific self-enhancement strategies. Participants’ self-esteem threatening feedback indicating that they had performed poorly on a vocabulary or emotional intelligence test. In Experiment 1, participants ( N = 80) were randomly assigned to either a control condition (no self-enhancement) or a downward social comparison condition. The procedures for Experiments 2 ( N = 470) and 3 ( N = 514) were similar, adding a self-serving attribution condition (Experiments 2 and 3) and Basking-in-Reflected-Glory (BIRG) condition (Experiment 3). Across the experiments, extraversion was more related to self-esteem under downward social comparison versus other conditions. BIRGing produced higher self-esteem in Experiment 3 across extraversion levels. Experiment 4 ( N = 355) focused on downward social comparison versus control, and provided evidence that an increased perception of being similar to the comparison targets may partially explain extraversion’s self-esteem link. Theoretical implications concerning both extraversion and self-enhancement are discussed.
... This finding supports the idea of the Social Identity Theory where individuals tend to conform and self-categorize themselves according to members of an ethnic group. 53 In addition, it also reflects that ethnic identity is fluid and changing depending on one's surrounding. 54 Along with their ethnic identity development, some respondents have shared the stories of their upbringings that filled with a sense of confusion and insecurity about their identity. ...
Article
The qualitative study described in this paper aims to explore perceptions and challenges associated with a bi-ethnic identity in a multi-ethnic country. Sample of this study was recruited by snowball sampling technique. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen Chindian adolescents. Results yielded a number of themes related to the perceptions of being a Chindian (i.e., enjoy the best of both worlds, peer acceptance, and sense of pride) as well as challenges (i.e., phenotype ambiguity, social insensitivity, situational ethnicity, and identity crisis). More research is required to identify ways to overcome challenges associated with bi-ethnic identity and to examine how these challenges would affect identity formation.
... 27 Ta jfel and Tu rner define social identity as "those aspects of an individual's self-image that derive from the social categories to which he perceives himself as belonging". 28 A deep level of selfidentification by individuals "with the relevant in-group" is essential for the group to function. When members are unable to achieve and maintain a positive social identity, they either leave the group or try to differentiate it from other groups in order to "achieve superiority over an out-group on some dimension." ...
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Hesder yeshivot are post-high-school institutions within a unique branch of the IDF where religious Zionist yeshiva students spend part of their army service engaged in higher Torah learning and the remainder doing active military service. The hesder (meaning “arrangement” in Hebrew) yeshivot provide a solution to the long-debated issue of army service for religious youth, but they also play an important role as agents for social change in religious Zionist society. The article traces the history of the first hesder yeshviot during the 1960s and 1970s, based on hitherto unexplored archival sources, and assesses their influence on Religious Zionism and the extensive social and religious changes they introduced.
... Research in social psychology examined the role of social categorization to understand the nature of social prejudice. 16 According to Social Identity Theory 17 and Social Categorization Theory, 18 individuals, placing the self in the center, categorize the group containing the self as 'in group' and other groups as 'out group,' which eventually shapes the nature and the extent of their social prejudice. Positive evaluations of in groups and lack of positive affect towards outgroups lead to prejudice. ...
Article
This article investigates the perceptions of mainstream Turks in Turkey towards Turkish (re)migrants from West European countries. It seeks to gain insight into themes and issues emerging in the cultural contact of (re)migrants with Turks back in Turkey and to elucidate the dimensions of the perceived stigmatization of Turkish (re)migrants. By using an original survey instrument, the items of which were generated based on the semi-structured interviews with 53 informants, data were collected from 606 Turkish informants. Based on the survey results, a model was developed and validated. The results of the study are discussed within the frameworks of intergroup relations and social categorization of the social identity approach.
... Byrne and Nelson 1965). The GATE also relates to the social identification theory through its in-group-out-group distinctions (Tafjel and Turner 1979). Hence at the visitation stage, the multidimensional nature of the GenE scale can be useful in explaining levels and types of interaction/participation between tourists-hosts and tourists-host culture. ...
Article
The tourism phenomenon essentially entails a quest and encounter with the otherness, which are often articulated in the traveler’s involvement with worlds, values, and lives of those inhabiting other cultures. Tourists however, as ordinary people, are not immune to intergroup biases, which constitute important behavioral determinants. Drawing on seminal accounts from intercultural communication, marketing, and psychology, the authors propose a Generalized Approach to Tourist Ethnocentrism (GATE) which considers biased perceptions toward out-group members and their culture, while moving beyond the traditional scope of the home country’s economy. Additionally, the study explored and modeled the Generalized Ethnocentrism (GenE) scale for application in tourism research. A second data set (n=302) further confirmed the psychometric properties, along with the fit and robustness of the proposed model. The GenE is presented to tourism research as a Type II reflective first-order formative second-order construct, whose causal indicators include cultural bias and personal prejudice. Research implications are discussed.
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Despite evidence that the gender gap in the labour market favours men, aggregate findings from correspondence studies show that women are more likely than men to be invited for a job interview. We hypothesize that the predominance of women among recruiters may explain this somewhat puzzling finding; recruiters may favour applicants of their own gender. We use the data from a large‐scale correspondence study to test this hypothesis. As expected, we find that female applicants are more likely to receive callbacks for interview. We also see that in our sample the majority of contact persons responsible for the recruitment process are female. More importantly, we find that if recruiter and applicant are of the same gender, then the likelihood that the applicant will be invited for an interview increases. These findings reveal the gender favouritism at the selection stage in the labour market.
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Research on discriminating behavior against ethnic minorities in everyday situations is still a rather under-researched field, since most prior research on ethnic discrimination focuses on housing markets, job markets, criminal justice, institutions or discourses. This article contributes toward filling the research-gap on everyday discrimination by bringing together prior research from sociology and social-psychology, including threat and competition theories from integration research, social identity theory, particularism-universalism theory and experimental findings on fairness norms. It conceptually advances the field by combining them into an integrated interdisciplinary approach that can examine discriminating behavior in everyday situations. This approach studies the dynamics of ingroup-outgroup relationships, fairness norms and threat in regard to negative behavior toward others (e.g., a neighbor). In particular, it focusses on the dynamics under which negative behavior is more likely toward an ethnic outgroup-person than an ingroup-person (i.e., discriminating behavior). To scrutinize the expectations derived within this framework, a factorial survey experiment was designed, implemented and analyzed (by means of multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions and average marginal effects). The survey experiment presents a hypothetical scenario between two neighbors in order to measure the effects and dynamics of ingroup-outgroup relationships, fairness norms and threat on behavior. While no significant outgroup-effect can be found in the general analysis of the main effects, more in-depth analyses show an interplay of situational cues: Outgroup-discriminating behavior becomes significantly more likely when the “actor” has low general fairness norms and/or when threat-level in a situation is low. These results foreground the importance of interdisciplinary in-depth analyses of dynamics for understanding the conditions under which discriminating behavior takes place in everyday situations—and for deriving measures that can reduce discrimination.
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L'idéologie néolibérale est fréquemment théorisée comme un facteur de dépolitisation des citoyens. Néanmoins, les travaux explorant empiriquement ses effets sur des attitudes et des comportements politiques sont rares. Cette thèse a donc pour objet l'étude des implications psychosociales de l'idéologie néolibérale, comprise comme un ensemble de valeurs (i.e., idéographie) conditionnant une conception particulière de la personne (i.e., conception néolibérale du sujet). Afin d'éclairer la manière dont cette idéologie peut influencer les attitudes des personnes (e.g., justification du système) et leurs comportements politiques, 9 études ont été menées. Les deux premières études ont mis en évidence l'association entre l'adhésion aux valeurs néolibérales, la justification du système et les comportements politiques (i.e., manifestation et vote). Consécutivement, 5 études expérimentales ont été réalisées afin de vérifier la nature causale de la relation entre l'idéologie néolibérale et la justification du système. Plus encore, ces études visaient à éclairer le rôle du contrôle personnel perçu comme mécanisme explicatif de cette relation. Les résultats ne permettent pas de conclure sur l'ensemble de la médiation mais étayent l'hypothèse selon laquelle le contrôle personnel perçu constitue un antécédent à la justification du système. Enfin, les deux dernières études expérimentales explorent les effets de l'idéologie néolibérale et de la justification du système sur les intentions comportementales des sujets face à des problématiques systémiques (i.e., inégalités de genre et crise climatique). Les résultats indiquent que l'idéologie néolibérale, en tant qu'idéologie justificatrice, favorise des réponses individuelles, normatives et non-disruptives. Dans son ensemble, cette thèse fait apparaitre que l'idéologie néolibérale favorise un « citoyen minimal », figure individualisée polarisée autour de la liberté individuelle, à l'opposé d'un « citoyen agent social » polarisé autour de la liberté politique.
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Background Sports marketing is distinct from other consumer products, and that producers of sport experience cannot foresee the outcome, certain events are unpredictable, and results are unknown. Aim The study purpose was to examine and review identity and sports marketing in Africa. Methods The study used qualitative data and relevant literature reviews, using past literally works and secondary data. Results The study showed that the distinction between personal and social identity is frequently misleading, hiding both the parallels and linkages between two ostensibly different levels of identity. Moreover, the sports sector has the potential to contribute to Africa's industrial prosperity significantly. Findings of these results related to personal (self) and social identity and other practical implications are discussed. Conclusion The study concluded that positive self-identity helps African athletes to have a positive image about themselves which enhances their sporting performance, thereby leading to sporting progress in Africa.
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Does the decline in party identification lead to a decrease or an increase in affective polarization? In recent years, research about affective polarization has increased, asking whether contemporary publics polarize in terms of their affective evaluations of the opposite party. Evidence shows that, at least in some cases, there are signs of increased polarization. At the same time, however, there is evidence of a decline in party identification, suggesting that the parties no longer attract people's hearts and minds. These two results might conflict. However, whether and how affective polarization and declining partisanship are related has received little attention. To address this issue, in this article, we investigate how much affective polarization there is in Chile, how it has changed over time. We use survey data from Chile between 1990 and 2021, a country that has shown a profound and constant loss in partisanship. First, we show that affective polarization varies over time and that, at the aggregate level, the decline in partisanship does not impact affective polarization. Second, the groups that show higher polarization also change: if by 1990 the more polarized were people identifying with left-wing parties, by 2021, affective polarization is similar across groups, including those who do not identify with political parties.
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People around the globe are affected by disasters far beyond the disaster properties. Given that certain social groups are affected disproportionately, disasters need to be considered as political events which may cause political actions. Therefore, we aim to discuss, from a social psychological perspective, how and why protests might occur during or after a disaster. We argue for an elaborated model of collective action participation suggesting that disasters enhance the predictors of protest mobilization and participation though emerged or enhanced social injustice. We also suggest that disaster properties can be used to delegitimise protests and social movements, limiting the mobilization and collective resilience during and after a disaster. Finally, we discuss the gaps in current research and emphasize the need for more attention to the disaster-protest link as we can expect more disasters due to climate crisis, likely to lead to more protests and political collective action.
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Affective polarization refers to people having favorable attitudes toward their preferred political parties, or inparties, along with their supporters, and negative attitudes toward other parties, or outparties, and their supporters. Originally an American concept, there is now growing interest in studying (AP) in European countries characterized by multiparty systems. So far, researchers have primarily focused on like-dislike ratings when measuring affect, which has relegated another important aspect to the background, namely attitudes toward ordinary supporters of parties. Open questions also remain relating to how political ingroups and outgroups should be conceptualized in situations with large numbers of relevant political parties. We examine these puzzles using data from an online panel in Finland. First, we measure partisan social distance, or feelings toward interacting with supporters of different parties, in addition to commonly used like-dislike ratings of parties. We find that social distance differs from party like-dislike ratings in that respondents are less likely to report animosity toward outparty supporters. Second, we measure multiple party identification based on party support and closeness, and find that people commonly have not one, but many potential inparties. Finally, we build two individual-level AP measures and apply them using both like-dislike ratings and social distance scales. One of the measures is based on identifying a single inparty, while the other takes the possibility of multiple inparties into account. We find that choosing which type of attitude to measure is more consequential for the outcome than how partisanship is operationalized. Our results and discussion clarify relationships between AP and related constructs, and highlight the necessity to consider the political and social context when measuring AP and interpreting results.
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There are minority and stigmatized groups who face particular challenges to their full participation in society. This study’s objective was to conduct a systematic review to determine theoretical and methodological underpinnings in behavioral economics that explain how stigmatization emerges within the relationship processes and social structures of individuals. Data from 1940 to 2019 were sourced from 12 relevant electronic databases such as Scopus and Web of Science. Following PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews, 26 studies out of 3459 met the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies applied experimental economics and were published between 2002 and 2018. Overall, the articles focus their research on the experiences of discrimination based on stereotypes and test their hypotheses through economic games. The data synthesis seems to reveal weak conceptual clarity, circular reasoning, and a hint of the problem of infinite regress. Thus, these issues open new and exciting avenues for future research to explore via an array of experimental applications.
Chapter
Organisations consist of people, and people are beings guided not only by rational cognitive processes but also by emotions and seemingly irrational motives based on affect. This chapter elucidates the matter of intra- and interpersonal emotion regulation at work through the prism of employees and their leaders. It provides a critical overview of multiple aspects of the topic, outlining their importance in terms of subjective wellbeing in the workplace and objective performance at work as well as contemporary theoretical frameworks and empirically-based practical solutions. It helps readers to understand conscious and subconscious processes of regulating own and others' emotions in occupational settings, and the authors explain various subsequent outcomes for organisations and their employees.
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Social identities create distance and obstacles in communication among members of different cultural groups in organizations. Past research suggested that an inclusive cultural identity can help reduce the negativity among groups. An interview study with participants (N=20) from both China and the United States was included to demonstrate the effects of the inclusive cultural identity on reducing communication disconnect in intergenerational communication. The study explored roles of generational identities in communication between the Millennials and Baby Boomers in organizations using social identity theory. The results revealed that Chinese participants had a stronger national cultural identity than their American counterparts. The stronger national cultural identity weakened subcultural differences based on generational identities and reduced the intergroup negativity. Based on the findings of the study, the chapter gave some practical suggestions for leaders to enhance intergroup communication in diverse organizations.
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A person's intelligence level positively influences his or her professional success. Gifted and highly intelligent individuals should therefore be successful in their careers. However, previous findings on the occupational situation of gifted adults are mainly known from popular scientific sources in the fields of coaching and self-help groups and confirm prevailing stereotypes that gifted people have difficulties at work. Reliable studies are scarce. This systematic literature review examines 40 studies with a total of 22 job-related variables. Results are shown in general for (a) the employment situation and more specific for the occupational aspects (b) career, (c) personality and behavior, (d) satisfaction, (e) organization, and (f) influence of giftedness on the profession. Moreover, possible differences between female and male gifted individuals and gifted and non-gifted individuals are analyzed. Based on these findings, implications for practice as well as further research are discussed.
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Velhices invisibilizadas: desafios para a pesquisa em Psicologia
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Sports fans are known to engage in BIRGing, or basking in reflected glory after their team wins, and CORFing, cutting off reflected failure following a team loss. These phenomena are related to social identity theory, which examines how group memberships shape a person's self-image. This chapter explores how media-attentive sports fans internalize victory and externalize defeat by charting the simultaneous developments in the 1970s of social identity theory, advanced by European social psychologists, and BIRGing and CORFing, which are rooted in a landmark study on college students wearing school-identifying apparel after the university football team won. The chapter also examines how social identity has served and can continue to be utilized as the theoretical backbone for research on mass-mediated sports fandom.
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The present research explores gender, cosplay, and media fandom in a media fan convention context. Researchers for the present study surveyed 227 attendees at two media fan conventions. As expected, convention attendees found the words “nerd” and “geek” to be badges of honor. Contrary to research expectations, women rated themselves higher as fans than men. Women did, as expected, see fandom as an escapism opportunity more so than men. Male cosplayers thought they looked more like their costume character, but female cosplayers thought they shared their character's personality and were more likely to refer to themselves as “we.” Cosplayers were more likely to tie their fandoms to their friends' enjoyment of it and to tie their fandom to sharing it with large groups of people more so than non-cosplayers. Cosplayers also rated their fandom as being a good time more than non-cosplayers and their fandom as improving their self-esteem more than non-cosplayers. Implications are discussed.
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Islamophobia is a reality today that finds its manifestations at different levels of society and has been researched through diverse gendered, ethnic, and regional perspectives. The sensitivity of the topic has resulted in limited work around exploring consequences of Islamophobia on Muslim children. As religiously charged crimes against Muslims in the West continue to grow, Islamophobia has crept into the schools, classrooms, and playgrounds of many countries and needs to be recognized and effectively mitigated. Based in a child rights-based context, this chapter is a review of empirical literature that attempts to characterize and theorize Islamophobia to understand why and how it affects the lives of Muslim children. It accounts for varied Islamophobic experiences that children encounter in regions of North America and Europe. It is inferred that educational institution cannot be isolated from global incidents of Islamophobia and become sites for further propagating racist sentiments. The chapter ends with school social work model directed towards prevention and reduction of Islamophobia.
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Resumo Este artigo discute o conceito de “acesso” no contexto da etnografia. A concepção de Schatz do acesso como a identificação do ponto de observação mais próximo é o fundamento da discussão sobre 15 meses de trabalho de campo realizado em Myanmar para um estudo de experiências de encarceramento que obteve pouco acesso a essas instituições. O artigo vai além de uma compreensão de acesso definida em termos de um foco em dentro e fora e demonstra como acessar um campo a partir de vários pontos de observação possibilita várias perspectivas e qualifica compreensões nuançadas. O artigo demonstra como espaço, tempo e relações interpessoais afetam os pontos de observação acessíveis ao pesquisador. Adicionalmente, ele conclui que trabalhar com egressos prisionais após sua liberação oferece pontos de observação potencialmente claros que são inacessíveis dentro de prisões.
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