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Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility: A Scale Development Study

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Abstract

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is one of the most prominent concepts in the literature and, in short, indicates the positive impacts of businesses on their stakeholders. Despite the growing body of literature on this concept, the measurement of CSR is still problematic. Although the literature provides several methods for measuring corporate social activities, almost all of them have some limitations. The purpose of this study is to provide an original, valid, and reliable measure of CSR reflecting the responsibilities of a business to various stakeholders. Based on a proposed conceptual framework of CSR, a scale was developed through a systematic scale development process. In the study, exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the underlying factorial structure of the scale. Data was collected from 269 business professionals working in Turkey. The results of the analysis provided a four-dimensional structure of CSR, including CSR to social and nonsocial stakeholders, employees, customers, and government.

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... Consistent with the emphasis on different stakeholders, CSR can be viewed as having different facets relating to the target stakeholder. Within the present study, we consider CSR towards employees, customers, society, and government (Turker, 2009b). Ghosh and Gurunathan (2014) found employee perceptions of CSR to society and to customers positively influenced employees' job embeddedness, which in turn had a negative relationship with intention to quit. ...
... The diversity of CSR definitions reflect different types of stakeholder groups. The present study adopts the definition of CSR by Turker (2009b), which proposes that CSR include four dimensions, namely CSR to employees, CSR to society, CSR to customers, and CSR to government. We define these dimensions and hypothesize their relations to job embeddedness and organizational identification in the following sections. ...
... Employee perceptions of their employer's CSR activities will shape their perceptions of the kind of organization for which they are working. In this section, we consider how each of the CSR dimensions proposed by Turker (2009b) might be expected to impact organizational identification. We start with CSR to employees. ...
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This article aims to investigate the impact of employee perceptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on job embeddedness under the drastic circumstances of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study also investigated the role of organizational identification as a psychological mechanism linking employee perceptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to job embeddedness. Survey data were collected from 325 employees in banking industry of China and analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Results revealed that CSR to employees and organizational identification were positively and significantly related to job embeddedness, while CSR to customers, CSR to government, and CSR to society did not significantly predict job embeddedness. Organizational identification fully mediated the relationship between CSR to customers, CSR to government, CSR to society and job embeddedness, and partially mediated the relationship between CSR to employees and job embeddedness. The results suggest engaging in CSR activities can lead employees to identify themselves with the organization and enhance their embeddedness. The article concludes with several implications for practice and recommendations for future research.
... On the face of it, public service motivation (PSM) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) would not go together as the first is essentially about government entities, i.e., public service and the second is more concerned with private, for-profit corporations behaving as good citizens in a community. However, as De Roeck et al. (2016) noted, companies are beginning to use CSR as part of a broader strategy to improve stakeholders' attitudes based on organizational efforts to improve the well-being of others and to preserve the natural environment for future generations (D'Aprile & Talò, 2014;Turker, 2009). Thus, while many (or even most) companies use CSR with the intention of increasing revenue and profit, government entities may use similar strategies to help their communities, improve their image, and promote public values (Jorgensen & Bozeman, 2007). ...
... Although PSM and CSR are distinct, and even seemingly divergent constructs, both ideas offer explanations for how employees' prosocial activities may be related through the lens of organizational identity. This study also answers the call for research to examine CSR in different contexts (Turker, 2009), by examining the effects of CSR on city employees' organizational identity and engagement. ...
... Freeman (2010) proposed expansion of the definition to include groups who can affect or be affected by the organization. Stakeholders have been classified as internal and external (Turker, 2009) or direct and indirect (D'Aprile & Talò, 2014). Stakeholder groups affected by an organization's CSR initiatives include clients/customers, shareholders, employees, local governments, the general public, and disadvantaged individuals who are recipients of CSR efforts (Turker, 2009). ...
Article
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This quantitative study investigated the effects of a city’s social responsibility activities on public employees’ organizational identity and engagement to determine if the effects are similar to those found for employees working in the private sector. Research has consistently shown the positive effects of corporate social responsibility efforts on private sector employees’ attitudes and behaviors; however, researchers warn against applying theories developed in the private sector to the public sector without acknowledging the unique motives that attract individuals to the public sector. For example, studies show individuals with higher public service motivation (PSM) are attracted to the public sector because they identify with those in need and prefer helping others through their jobs. Although PSM and social responsibility are distinct, and even seemingly divergent constructs, both constructs offer explanations for how employees’ prosocial activities may be related through the lens of organizational identity, yet studies to-date have not examined the impact of organizational social responsibility (OSR) activities on public sector employees’ attitudes. Our findings revealed employee perceptions of the city’s social responsibility efforts predict employees’ organizational identity and organizational identity fully mediates the relationship between perceptions of social responsibility and employee engagement, suggesting organizational identity develops before employee engagement and could be considered an antecedent of engagement. These results imply that a public agency’s social responsibility initiatives may provide a mechanism for increasing employee engagement. Implications for public managers and theory are discussed.
... Two of the most prominent stakeholders include the community and the employees of the firm (Turker, 2009). Firms perform various CSR activities including peripheral and embedded CSR activities to engage their stakeholders. ...
... Peripheral CSR was measured using the scale developed by Turker (2009). Six items measured social and non-social CSR (CSR to community-based on a 5-point Likert scale with anchors ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree). ...
... The results indicate a direct as well as a mediating relationship between embedded CSR and the turnover intentions, whereas in the case of peripheral CSR, we observed an insignificant relationship between peripheral CSR and the turnover intention and a full-mediated relationship between peripheral CSR and the turnover intention through OCB. Prior research have studied how employee satisfaction is influenced by CSR (Brammer et al., 2007;Turker, 2009); however, relatively how important the embedded CSR is as compared to the peripheral CSR for employee's turnover remains undiscovered, and our research adds to the limited understanding of stakeholders' responses to the tradeoffs between the selfdirected and other-directed CSR. We address a theoretical concern of finding common grounds in stakeholders with competing interests. ...
Article
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) remains a topic of interest for both theory and practice due to its multifaceted avenues and potential for growth. We have chosen embedded CSR and peripheral CSR measures to evaluate how these activities affect the employee turnover intentions via a mediation mechanism of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In doing so, this study addresses important stakeholder concerns and provides meaningful managerial contributions for the employers to encourage more employee participation (through lowering turnover intention) toward sustainable corporate performance. This study incorporates four hypotheses that are tested in a structural equation modeling framework by employing Warp-PLS software. Data were collected from 297 employees working in firms that are renowned for their CSR initiatives. We found support for our key hypotheses leading to strong theoretical contributions to the stakeholder theory. We have addressed the main issues of stakeholders’ response to the CSR tradeoffs and have tried to develop a deeper understanding of managers in initiating peripheral and embedded CSR activities for their firms.
... A RSC refere-se ao comportamento empresarial com vistas a impactar os stakeholders positivamente, indo além dos interesses econômicos da empresa. É uma responsabilidade da empresa em relação a seus stakeholders (stakeholder social primário e secundário e stakeholder não-social primário e secundário) (Turker, 2009). As relações entre RSC e CO podem trazer ganhos para as organizações e a sociedade. ...
... Embora o desempenho seja importante, as empresas devem considerar as necessidades de seus stakeholders e agir de forma responsável. Turker (2009) argumenta que a Responsabilidade Social Corporativa (RSC) se refere ao comportamento da empresa com o objetivo de impactar seus grupos de interesse de forma positiva, indo além dos interesses econômicos da organização. O autor se refere a RSC como uma responsabilidade da empresa em relação as suas partes interessadas (stakeholders sociais primários e secundários e stakeholders não-sociais primários e secundários) (Turker, 2009). ...
... Turker (2009) argumenta que a Responsabilidade Social Corporativa (RSC) se refere ao comportamento da empresa com o objetivo de impactar seus grupos de interesse de forma positiva, indo além dos interesses econômicos da organização. O autor se refere a RSC como uma responsabilidade da empresa em relação as suas partes interessadas (stakeholders sociais primários e secundários e stakeholders não-sociais primários e secundários) (Turker, 2009). Os stakeholders sociais primários envolvem entidades humanas e são aqueles com impacto direto nos relacionamentos da organização, enquanto os sociais secundários têm impactos menos diretos, como no caso da sociedade civil, dos negócios em geral e de outros diferentes grupos de interesse. ...
Article
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RESUMO Este artigo oferece uma avaliação dos efeitos da percepção dos empregados a respeito das práticas de Responsabilidade Social Corporativa (RSC) sobre o Comprometimento Organizacional (CO) nas empresas têxteis de uma região relevante para a produção têxtil na América Latina (Estado do Ceará, Brasil). Trata-se de uma pesquisa quantitativa, que utiliza métodos de análise fatorial exploratória e confirmatória e modelos de equações estruturais para identificar os efeitos das práticas de RSC sobre o CO, realizada com 539 empregados de três empresas diferentes. Os resultados mostram que as práticas de RSC orientadas para os empregados, clientes, fornecedores e governo têm um impacto positivo no comprometimento afetivo/normativo, enquanto as práticas de RSC para a sociedade e o meio ambiente têm um impacto negativo. As práticas de RSC voltadas aos empregados também afetam seu comprometimento instrumental, mas práticas de RSC com outros focos não tiveram a mesma influência. Os resultados mostram ainda que as grandes empresas têxteis tendem a adotar mais práticas de RSC, influenciando mais significativamente o comprometimento de seus empregados.
... Literatürde; dört boyutlu (Maignan ve Ferrel, 2000;Turker, 2009) ve beş boyutlu (Perez, Martinez ve Rodriguez del Bosque, 2013) farklı KSS ölçekleri bulunmaktadır. Bununla birlikte diğer değişkenlerle ilişkilerinin incelendiği birçok çalışmada (Adiwijaya ve Fauzan, 2012; Ahmad vd., 2020; Ali vd., 2020; Atsan, 2017;Battal ve Karabey, 2020;Gao ve He, 2017;Gürel, 2012;İman Çam, 2010;Kerse ve Seçkin, 2017;Liu vd., 2021;Selek, 2019;Sönmez, 2017;Su vd., 2017;Subba ve Kumar, 2018;Uzunkaya, 2019;Zhigang vd., 2020) KSS bütün bir yapıda ele alınmış, yani alt boyutları olsa da değişken düzeyi toplam skor üzerinden hesaplanmıştır. ...
... Bununla birlikte diğer değişkenlerle ilişkilerinin incelendiği birçok çalışmada (Adiwijaya ve Fauzan, 2012; Ahmad vd., 2020; Ali vd., 2020; Atsan, 2017;Battal ve Karabey, 2020;Gao ve He, 2017;Gürel, 2012;İman Çam, 2010;Kerse ve Seçkin, 2017;Liu vd., 2021;Selek, 2019;Sönmez, 2017;Su vd., 2017;Subba ve Kumar, 2018;Uzunkaya, 2019;Zhigang vd., 2020) KSS bütün bir yapıda ele alınmış, yani alt boyutları olsa da değişken düzeyi toplam skor üzerinden hesaplanmıştır. KSS düzeyi öğrencilerin (Uzunkaya, 2019), müşterilerin (örn.: Adiwijaya ve Fauzan, 2012; Akbaş Tuna vd., 2019; Kim, Yin ve Lee, 2020;Maignan, 2001;Perez ve del Bosque, 2015;Su vd., 2017;Zhigang vd., 2020), yöneticilerin (örn.: Maignan ve Ferrel, 2000) ve çalışanların (örn.: Ahmad vd., 2020; Ali vd., 2020; Battal ve Karabey, 2020;Demir ve Türkmen, 2014;Gao ve He, 2017;Gürel, 2012;İman Çam, 2010;Kerse ve Seçkin, 2017;Kunda vd., 2019;Liu vd., 2021;Selek, 2019;Sönmez, 2017;Subba ve Kumar, 2018;Turker, 2009;Zhang vd., 2021) algıları üzerinden ölçümlenebilmektedir. Ayrıca yazında KSS kavramı; kurumsal sosyal performans (corporate social performance) (örn.: Akdoğan, 2020; Griffinn ve Mahon, 1997) ve kurumsal vatandaşlık/şirket vatandaşlığı (corporate/firm citizenship) (örn.: Maignan ve Ferrel, 2000;Maignan, 2001) kavramlarıyla benzer içerikte kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışma kapsamında KSS kavramı; Maignan ve Ferrel (2000) ile Maignan (2001)'in çalışmalarından hareketle ele alınmaktadır. ...
Article
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This study investigated the relationships among “perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR)”, “employees’ positive affect”, and “their altruistic behavior”. Dataset of the study consisted of 133 questionnaires which were gathered from doctors working in two private hospitals in Ankara. Data input and analysis of the research were done with IBM SPSS v.24 software program. “Exploratory factor”, “internal consistency”, “Pearson correlation”, “hierarchical regression” and “Sobel test in an interactive environment” analyses were employed in this study. In terms of participants the results suggest that doctors’ perception of CSR has a direct, significant, and positive effect on their positive affect at the workplace. And then, their positive affect has a direct, significant, and positive effect on their altruistic behavior. However, perceived CSR indirectly influences doctors’ altruistic behavior only through their positive affect in a significant and positive way. In other words, positive affect has a full mediating role in the mechanism established within the scope of the study. Based on the results, we argue that it is possible to boost the positive effects of both positive affect and altruistic behavior on the hospital and thus to contribute to the hospital by raising the level of doctors’ altruistic behavior thanks to the enhancing effect of an increase in doctors’ perception level of CSR on their level of positive affect at the workplace. Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, altruistic behavior, positive affect, stakeholder theory, social identity theory
... Story et al. [32] classified CSR as either internal or external. Internal CSR refers to the company's responsibilities to internal stakeholders, such as improving working conditions [33]. External CSR is an organization's responsibilities to stakeholders outside its organizational boundaries, such as the government, clients, local communities, business partners, and society [33]. ...
... Internal CSR refers to the company's responsibilities to internal stakeholders, such as improving working conditions [33]. External CSR is an organization's responsibilities to stakeholders outside its organizational boundaries, such as the government, clients, local communities, business partners, and society [33]. Both internal and external CSR may induce cynicism from stakeholders [34]. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has created tremendous challenges for organizations’ corporate social responsibility (CSR), communication, and relationship management with internal stakeholders such as employees. This study conducted an online survey of 466 employees working for large Chinese corporations during the pandemic. A structural equation model based on insights from expectancy violation theory was used to examine how negative violation valence increases employees’ turnover intention as mediated by uncertainty, CSR cynicism, and distrust. The survey results showed that employees’ negative violation valence positively influenced their uncertainty about their organizations’ CSR activities, which fostered their cynicism about CSR and distrust of their organization. Employees’ CSR cynicism increased their distrust toward their organizations, which increased their turnover intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed as well.
... The items of these variables were adapted from different published sources. For instance, to measure employees' CSR perceptions, we adapted the well-known scale of Turker [103], which included seventeen items. Among these, six items were related to employees' general CSR perceptions: "This hotel makes investment (especially energyspecific) to create a better life for future generations." ...
... Corporate Social Responsibility by Turker [103] This hotel participates in activities that aim to protect and improve the quality of the natural environment This hotel makes investments (especially energy-specific) to create a better life for future generations This hotel implements special programs to minimize its negative impact on the natural environment This hotel targets sustainable growth, which considers the future generations This hotel supports the non-governmental organizations that work in the problematic areas This hotel contributes to the campaigns and projects that promote the well-being of society This hotel encourages its employees to participate in voluntary activities This hotel's policies encourage the employees to develop their skills and careers The management of this hotel is primarily concerned with the employees' needs and wants This hotel implements flexible policies to provide a good work environment and life balance for its employees The managerial decisions related to the employees are usually fair This hotel supports employees who want to acquire additional education Pro-environmental behavior (electricity-related items) by Blok, et al. [104] I check whether thermostats are set correctly in my office I wear more/less clothes instead of putting the heating/cooling on. I make sure that heating/air conditioning is off or reduced outside working hours. ...
Article
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Mitigating environmental crises requires efforts to reduce carbon emission at every level and segment of an economy. In this respect, the energy sector is blamed for increasing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) throughout the globe. Specifically, it was specified that electrical energy contributes to 35% of the world’s GHG emissions. Without a doubt, the topics related to clean and green energies remained a part of academic discussion; however, a critical knowledge gap exists in most studies. That is, most of the prior literature focused only on the production side (supply side) of electrical energy, neglecting the consumption side (consumption at the level of individuals). Given that a significant amount of electricity has been consumed by the individuals in buildings (homes, offices, or others) for heating and cooling purposes, it is important to promote a target-specific (energy-specific) pro-environmental behavior (TSPEB) of individuals. However, such a debate did not receive any significant attention previously. Further, psychological factors such as employees’ environmental commitment (EEC) and green self-efficacy (GSE) were identified as critical mediators to drive different employees’ outcomes, but the mediating effect of EEC and GSE was not tested earlier to foster TSPEB in a CSR framework. The data for the current work were collected from employees of different hotels in a developing country by employing a survey strategy (n = 383). The structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data, which confirmed that hospitality employees’ CSR perceptions could improve TSPEB. The statistical results also confirmed the significant mediating effects of EEC and GSE. The finding of this study will help the hospitality sector to improve its efforts for de-carbonization by improving the energy consumption behavior of employees as an outcome of CSR.
... The attention on the sustainability issues has been paid during the last century Turker (2009a). According to Arli and Lasmono (2010), 1930s is considered as the starting point of CSR literature because the debates on the vitality of transparency and accountability issues have been started. ...
... Studies like Mishra and Suar (2010); Blasi et al. (2018) and Javed et al. (2020) can provide insights into testing CSR-FP based on a micro level data. Literature agrees on the fact that CSR is a multidimensional construct (Turker, 2009a;Costa and Menichini, 2013;Okan et al., 2015;Blasi et al., 2018); however, inherently structured proxy variables used to measure CSR on macro or meso level are destined to fail in forming a comprehensive multifactorial CSR construct. ...
Chapter
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Production processes of the companies result in certain externalities to various stakeholders. CSR is a way to enhance social, economic, and environmental performance and make up for the damage occurred by the production processes and during continuation of the interrelationships with the stakeholders. More than that, CSR is a value co-creation that improve the well-being of the society, at large. Literature has been dealing with the concept of CSR in a narrow perspective and focusing on its effect on financial performance, which causes to a methodological myopia. Although a set of inconsistencies in this relationship have been detected by various studies, reasons lying behind them have not been subject to detailed research. This conceptual study aims to fill this research gap in the literature by speculating on the possible causes leading to these inconsistencies. In the light of the findings of this study, a set of propositions are developed for the future studies on CSR.
... 191). In terms of employees as stakeholders, employees' perceived CSR has been referred to as a subjective perception of CSR [31][32][33]. Whereas CSR is an organisational-level concept, employees' perceived CSR is an individual-level concept from the employee's perspective. Employees evaluate the social responsibility of their leader or organisation as a concern for the collective welfare or employees' interests [31]. ...
... Employees' perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR): six items developed by Turkey [33] were used to measure how employees perceive CSR. One sample item was "Encourages its employees to participate in voluntary activities". ...
Article
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In the face of increasing environmental pressures, environmentally friendly behaviour can help companies achieve truly sustainable growth. The issue of how to promote environmental behaviour among employees is a new challenge for leaders. However, studies do not systematically reveal the mechanisms of the effects of self-sacrificial leadership on employees’ organisational citizenship behaviour for the environment (OCBE). Based on social learning theory and the attitude–behaviour–context model, we investigated the impact of self-sacrificial leadership on employees’ OCBE by focusing on the mediating role of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) as perceived by employees, and the moderating role of the pro-environmental organisational climate (PEOC). The results of a field survey of 461 employees (small- and medium-sized enterprises) in China indicate that self-sacrificial leadership was positively related to employees’ OCBE; this relationship was partially mediated by employees’ perception of CSR. Moreover, PEOC strengthened the effect of employees’ perceived CSR on OCBE, and the mediating effect of employees’ perceived CSR on the relationship between self-sacrificial leadership and OCBE. Our findings not only help scholars understand the mechanism of the effect of self-sacrificial leadership on employees’ OCBE, but also provide insights for recommending integrated management models, social responsibility, and environmental protection.
... One advantage of using the pre-established instrument is that they have their pretested reliability and validity (Hyman et al., 2006). Thus, the authors used the pre-existing scale of ML-CSR from the study of Turker (2009b). This scale was composed of twelve statements. ...
Article
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Due to globalization, a dynamic business environment, and stiff rivalry, the importance of employee creativity (EC) has increased in the current era more than ever before. The hotel sector has no exception, rather the need for creativity is high in this sector because most hotels operate in ways that are easy to imitate. Recently, researchers have paid attention to micro-level corporate social responsibility (ML-CSR) and have linked it to achieve different employee-related outcomes such as EC. However, the above relationship was less explored in a hospitality context. To bridge this gap, the current analysis aims to investigate the relationship of ML-CSR and EC with the mediating effect of work engagement (WE) in the hotel sector of a developing country. The study also attempts to extend the boundary of social identity theory in a collectivistic culture to explain the link between ML-CSR and EC. The data were collected from hotel employees (n = 461) and were analyzed with the help of structural equation modeling. The findings validated that ML-CSR positively influenced EC, and WE mediated this relationship. The current work offers different contributions to the theory and the field which are discussed in detail.
... (Ashforth and Mael, 1989;Peterson, 2004). Employees that have a positive attitude toward corporate social responsibility activities are more likely to be committed to the company (Brammer et al., 2007;Turker, 2009 ...
Article
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The literature on green human resource management and its impact on employee eco-friendly behaviour, employee environment-friendly response, and organizational sustainability is scarce and rarely explored by researchers. This empirical study reports how an employee's eco-friendly behaviour, employee environment-friendly response through green human resource management enhances the organizational sustainability and employees' green behaviour. Organizational sustainability is a multidimensional concept that embodies social, environmental and economic objectives. The results indicate that green human resource management enhances employee eco-friendly behaviour, and employee environment-friendly response. A statistically significant impact of green human resource management on organizational sustainability was observed. The data were analyzed using the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Abstract-The literature on green human resource management and its impact on employee eco-friendly behaviour, employee environment-friendly response, and organizational sustainability is scarce and rarely explored by researchers. This empirical study reports how an employee's eco-friendly behaviour, employee environment-friendly response through green human resource management enhances the organizational sustainability and employees' green behaviour. Organizational sustainability is a multidimensional concept that embodies social, environmental and economic objectives. The results indicate that green human resource management enhances employee eco-friendly behaviour, and employee environment-friendly response. A statistically significant impact of green human resource management on organizational sustainability was observed. The data were analyzed using the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). All three variables are statistically significant and predict organizational sustainability. A structured undisguised questionnaire was used to collect the data for this empirical study, publishing the questionnaire on google forms and providing a link to 5000 information technology employees. The 984 responses received and 924 valid responses were used and subjected to PLS-SEM analysis. This study recommends that the information technology policymakers should consider incorporating green human resource policies for green organizations and promote organizational sustainability.
... We used seven-point Likert scales (1 = 'strongly disagree' to 7 = 'strongly agree') for measuring the main independent variables. To measure CSR, we applied the widely used CSR scale measuring CSR to society, the natural environment, future generations, and non-profit organizations [46]. To determine the reliability and validity of the measure, we conducted a principal component factor analysis by varimax rotation. ...
Article
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Responsibility and sustainability are today a key part of doing business globally. However, the attention of scholars and policymakers has mainly been on large multinational enterprises, with small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) receiving less attention. Recent studies have noted the importance of learning for SMEs to engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR), but it is not yet known how the learning orientation of SMEs impacts their CSR, and how the development impacts the internationalization and performance of SMEs, which are research gaps that recent studies have noted. Shedding light on those dynamics is also important from a practical perspective since in most countries SMEs constitute a large majority of firms in both amounts and total employment. The present study contributes by illustrating how CSR impacts different types of performance in SMEs, and how the learning orientation of SMEs predetermines their CSR. Regression analyses conducted on an empirical sample of Finnish SMEs indicate that CSR in SMEs has an impact on certain types of performance and that their learning orientation determines their CSR. Therefore, the study contributes to the literature on responsibility and sustainability in SMEs, and to that SME internationalization, by shedding light on the antecedents and outcomes of CSR for SMEs.
... The four variables of this study were measured by adapting items from different sources [31]. In this respect, Turker's [120] CSR scale is one of the most cited scales to measure the CSR perceptions of employees and customers. Originally, this scale consisted of seventeen items; however, considering the focus of this study and the suggestions of the field experts, we used only twelve items in this study. ...
Article
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The hospitality sector, especially the hotel business, is at a crossroads. Dynamic business environments, rivalries, and isomorphisms in service operations are significant challenges for hotel enterprises. Fostering employee creativity is undoubtedly something that can well position a hotel in the face of competition. Research shows that corporate social responsibility (CSR) perceptions of employees for an enterprise can motivate them to be engaged in creativity. At the same time, it has also been mentioned that corporate leaders could significantly influence the behavior of employees. Nevertheless, employee creativity in a CSR framework has not been well-explored in a hospitality context. Moreover, the role of leadership, especially inclusive leadership styles, has been less discussed to spur employee creativity from a CSR perspective. To bridge the above knowledge gaps, this study investigates the relationship between CSR and employee creativity with the mediating effect of inclusive leadership in the hotel industry of a developing economy. Moreover, the conditional indirect effect of employee polychronicity was also tested in the proposed mediated relationship. For data collection, an adapted questionnaire was taken into consideration by employing a paper–pencil method (n = 427). A hypothetical model was refined and validated through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results confirmed that CSR can drive employee creativity significantly, and inclusive leadership partially mediates this relationship. It was also realized that polychronicity has a significant conditional indirect effect on the above-mediated relationship. These outcomes contribute to improvements in the hotel management, as well-designed CSR activities both improve the hotel’s image as an ethical enterprise and increase creativity among employees.
... To measure the mediator Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), a 15-item 5point Likert scale will be used, adapted for the family business context (Turker, 2009). The items measure CSR toward society, future generations, nongovernment organizations, employees, customers, and the natural environment. ...
Conference Paper
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Nowadays tourism industry has changed into an influential phenomenon in the world economy, in a way that most countries consider this as the main source of income, occupation, development in the private sector, and development in fundamental structures. Meanwhile, urban tourism is the most popular and eminent kind of tourism, in a way that considering cities special position in most successful countries in the field, the city is the foundation and basis for tourism development. The present investigation tries to evaluate and analyze existing challenges of tourism, and provide appropriate solutions based on the country's economical, cultural and social conditions through the contrastive study of scientific findings regarding urban tourism in Iran, especially in the Tabriz metropolis.
... Obviously, it is difficult to identify reliable determinants of CSR disclosure practices, whatever method is used, because each method has its own limitations. Therefore, no single method, in itself, is perfect (Wolfe & Aupperle 1991;Turker 2009;de Leaniz & del Bosque 2013). ...
Thesis
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Using an experimental format, this thesis explores these influences/motivations, both individually and jointly, by considering two factors—corporate culture (considering and comparing Islamic financial institutions [IFIs] and conventional financial institutions [CFIs]) and audience (limited to investors/shareholders and the general public as stakeholders) and type of CSR disclosure and assurance. The study was conducted in a developing country - Kuwait.
... Today's CSR definition encompasses not only corporate charity but also ethical behavior toward all stakeholders. According to the stakeholder theory, CSR is described as corporate behavior involving an organization's ethical and responsible behavior toward all stakeholders (Aktan & B.rü, 2007;Türker, 2009). Stakeholder theory is a great tool for evaluating CSR efforts since it helps to comprehend the dimensions of CSR operations. ...
Article
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The disastrous economic, health, and social impact of the pandemic once again highlighted the need for helping each other during crises. This study aims to explore the CSR effort of the top corporation in Thailand to help the society in need. To pursue that goal, the news and media section of 42 SET50 indexed companies was explored utilizing the content analysis method. The findings reveal that several corporations exhibit great commitment toward society to fight against adversity caused by Covid-19 through different kinds of CSR actions. 120 types of community CSR activities were discovered, then those are divided into nine categories and three themes. According to the content analysis 76.2% of the company conducted Local community support CSR, 85.71% conducted medical support CSR, and 26.2% conducted administrative support CSR. The research also remarks on key theoretical and practical implementation based on the findings of this study. This study might be beneficial for the sustainability policymakers and HR departments of the corporations to draw and implement CSR plans.
... To measure the variables of this study (CSR, PEB, ESTFL, and GPOS), we adapted the items from different published and reliable sources. In this respect, the variable of CSR was measured by using 12 items from the famous scale of Turker [95]. Indeed, this scale includes a total of 17 items; however, considering the context of this study, we only considered 12 items that were related to general CSR perceptions and employee-related CSR policies of an organization. ...
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Tourism and hospitality have been recognized as leading economic sectors globally. Before the outbreak of COVID-19, it was estimated that the tourism and hospitality sector was growing by around 4% each year. Although the economic-efficiency-led hypothesis of the tourism and hospitality sector is strong, there is another perspective related to tourism and hospitality. That is, tourism and hospitality are not as “green” as they were supposed to be. Indeed, this sector is known for its outsized carbon footprint. It is estimated that, if not managed efficiently, the GHG contribution of the tourism sector will grow in the future. Specifically, the hotel business accounts for 1% of total global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), which is huge. Responding to these significant issues, this study investigates the relationship between the corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities of a hotel enterprise and employees’ pro-environmental behavior (PEB). The mediating role of environmental-specific transformational leadership (ESTFL) and the moderating role of green perceived organizational support (GPOS) were also tested in the above relationship. The data were collected by the employees through a self-administered questionnaire. The hypothesized relations were statistically investigated by using structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings revealed that CSR activities of a hotel not only influence employees’ PEB directly, but the mediating role of ESTFL was also significant. At the same time, the conditional indirect role of GPOS was also confirmed. This study offers different theoretical and practical insights, which have been discussed in detail.
... To measure the variables of this analysis, we adapted measures from different sources. In this regard, to measure the variable of the CSR, we adapted the famous Turker scale [72]. Basically, this scale consisted of different items to measure employees' perceptions and customers' perceptions of different CSR activities for an organization. ...
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Buildings worldwide use a large amount of energy and, hence, contribute to increasing the level of greenhouse gases emission (GHG). It was realized that most electrical energy is used in buildings for heating, cooling, and ventilation purposes. To deal with environmental issues, the concepts of renewable energies and clean or green energy sources have been a part of academic discussions. A review of the literature unveils that most of the prior research in the GHG domain focused on the production side of producing renewable energy by opting for different cleaner energy sources (for example, solar energy). Although such studies have contributed significantly to advancing the field, it is also important to change the energy consumption behavior at the level of individuals for decarbonization. However, such a debate to promote the pro-environmental behavior (PEB) of employees from the perspective of energy consumption remains an understudied area. Against this backdrop, this research was carried out to promote PEB at the level of employees through corporate social responsibility (CSR) and green organizational practices in the healthcare sector of an emerging economy. The current research also focused on personal employee values, especially altruistic values, to spur their PEB. The data for the current work was collected from employees of different hospitals by employing a survey strategy (n = 441). To analyze the data, structural equation modeling was considered. The results showed that CSR directly and indirectly (via green organizational practices) influences employees’ PEB, whereas the altruistic values of employees produce a significant conditional indirect effect on the above relationship. The current research offers different implications for theory and practice, which are discussed in detail.
... (Ashforth and Mael, 1989;Peterson, 2004). Employees that have a positive attitude toward corporate social responsibility activities are more likely to be committed to the company (Brammer et al., 2007;Turker, 2009 ...
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The literature on green human resource management and its impact on employee eco-friendly behaviour, employee environment-friendly response, and organizational sustainability is scarce and rarely explored by researchers. This empirical study reports how an employee's eco-friendly behaviour, employee environment-friendly response through green human resource management enhances the organizational sustainability and employees' green behaviour. Organizational sustainability is a multidimensional concept that embodies social, environmental and economic objectives. The results indicate that green human resource management enhances employee eco-friendly behaviour, and employee environment-friendly response. A statistically significant impact of green human resource management on organizational sustainability was observed. The data were analyzed using the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Abstract-The literature on green human resource management and its impact on employee eco-friendly behaviour, employee environment-friendly response, and organizational sustainability is scarce and rarely explored by researchers. This empirical study reports how an employee's eco-friendly behaviour, employee environment-friendly response through green human resource management enhances the organizational sustainability and employees' green behaviour. Organizational sustainability is a multidimensional concept that embodies social, environmental and economic objectives. The results indicate that green human resource management enhances employee eco-friendly behaviour, and employee environment-friendly response. A statistically significant impact of green human resource management on organizational sustainability was observed. The data were analyzed using the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). All three variables are statistically significant and predict organizational sustainability. A structured undisguised questionnaire was used to collect the data for this empirical study, publishing the questionnaire on google forms and providing a link to 5000 information technology employees. The 984 responses received and 924 valid responses were used and subjected to PLS-SEM analysis. This study recommends that the information technology policymakers should consider incorporating green human resource policies for green organizations and promote organizational sustainability.
... Acknowledging the importance of pre-established scales from the perspective of reliability and validity (Hyman et al., 2006;Ahmad et al., 2021e;Murtaza et al., 2021), the authors felt the employed scales were quite suitable to serve the purpose of the current survey. In this vein, the famous CSR scale developed by Turker (2009) was considered by the authors. Indeed, this scale has been widely used by different scholars to operationalize the construct of CSR from the perception of employees. ...
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The Islamic Republic of Pakistan has been a mere victim of climate change in recent years. The country needs emergency measures at every level to mitigate environmental dilapidation. The role of enterprises in the country’s environmental efforts is critical. In this regard, the hotel sector is known for its outsized carbon footprint. Knowing this, the current study aims to improve a hotel enterprise’s environmental performance (ENP) as an outcome of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The study also considers the mediating role of pro-environmental behavior (PEB) of employees and the moderating role of altruistic values (ALT). A hypothesized model was developed, which was validated by employing the structural equation modeling technique. The empirical results confirmed that CSR, directly and indirectly (through PEB), positively induces the ENP of a hotel enterprise. Whereas the conditional indirect role of ALT was also found significant. The study offers different implications for theory and practice, among which one important takeaway for the hotel sector is to realize the importance of employees to spur ENP of a hotel enterprise through their eco-friendly behavior. At the same time, the current work also advances the theory by highlighting the moderating role of ALT between the indirect relationship of CSR and ENP.
... The constructs of the current work were operationalized by employing the scales from different sources. For example, the CSR scale was taken from the seminal work of Turker (2009 can be cited. More specifically, the study of Lee (2021a) mentioned that internal CSR activities of an organization can urge employees to act as advocate for their organization. ...
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Considering the stiff competitiveness situation in every sector, promoting the advocacy behavior of employees is of seminal importance for an organization. With this regard, the hospitality sector has no exceptions, however, a review of the prior literature uncovers that most of the prior studies on advocacy behavior were conducted from the standpoint of consumers, and the role of employees’ advocacy behavior, especially in the context of the hospitality sector, remained an understudied area. Research also shows that the corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts of an organization can significantly influence employees’ behavior but the relationship of CSR to spur employees’ advocacy behavior was not discussed earlier. Against this knowledge gap, the current work aims to investigate the relationship between CSR and employees’ advocacy behavior in the hotel sector of a developing economy with the mediating effect of employees’ engagement. A hypothesized model was developed, which was validated by collecting data from different hotel employees through a self-administered questionnaire. The findings offer different theoretical and practical implications. Theoretically, one important implication was that the CSR perceptions of hotel employees can drive their advocacy behavior. Practically, the study implicates that hotels can improve their reputation significantly by converting their employees into advocates, as the personal information source is preferred over company-generated information sources. Moreover, the CSR commitment of a hotel can lead the employees to a higher level of engagement, which then motivates them to act as advocates.
... Moreover, measuring CSR activities and their relationship to performance, management and sustainable growth is also of great interest to academia and business (Korhonen, 2003;Cho et al., 2020;Hernández-Perlines, Ariza-Montes, & Araya-Castillo, 2020;Kamran et al., 2020;Muñoz, Fernández, & Salinero, 2020;Partalidou, Zafeiriou, Giannarakis, & Sariannidis, 2020;Ye, Kueh, Hou, Liu, & Yu, 2020;Zafar & Sulaiman, 2020). Both business and academia are interested in measuring what CSR brings to the company and its stakeholders (Panayiotou, Aravossis, & Moschou, 2009;Turker, 2009) and how its influence attempts to improve the environment (Shahzad et al., 2020). One way to measure the return on the implementation of CSR is by detecting its impact on economic variables (from image, reputation, innovation and business expansion, reducing share volatility or increasing longterm profitability), social variables (such as improving the retention of internal talent or improving relations with society) and company policies (to improve relations with the government) (Lu et al., 2020). ...
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The aim of this work is to show whether a continuous strategy in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) over time brings efficiency and profitability to the company's operations. The methodology used in this paper is based on two sets of variables: the scoring for 27 listed companies present in the Spanish MERCO Corporate Responsibility and Governance Ranking (MERCO CR&G Ranking), and their share price in the Spanish open stock market for said companies from 2011 to 2019. These variables are compared with regressive, autoregressive and moving average econometrical methods over time. Results reveal that: (i) there is a directly proportional relationship between CSR, measured by the MERCO CR&G Ranking, and the share price; (ii) such relationship loses relevance when considering the economic context; (iii) the great progress of CSR in terms of management, transparency, measurement , environment and governance translates into a crucial contribution to the efficiency and sustainable growth of the company.
... Answers were given on a six-point scale (1 = strongly disagree to 6 = completely agree). CSR attitudeswas measured by Turker's (2009) importance of CSR scale to assess individuals' orientation toward corporate social responsibility. The items were: Being socially responsible is the most important thing a firm can do, Social responsibility of a firm is essential to its longterm profitability, The overall effectiveness of a business can be determined to a great extent by the degree to which it is socially responsible, Social responsibility is critical to the survival of a business enterprise, and business has a social responsibility beyond making profit. ...
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The sharing economy is attracting increasing research attention. However, scholarly knowledge lacks understanding about the individuals who are the key players in this emerging phenomenon. This study uses an explorative approach to investigate the individual‐level characteristics of sharing economy users and providers. We analyze a sample of 1170 respondents and reveal that socio‐demographics (gender, age, and education), personality traits (Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness), and attitudes (interdependent self, materialism, sharing economy support, and perceived public value contributions) are significantly associated with people's activities in the sharing economy. Our results shed new lights into the academic debate about individual drivers of the sharing economy.
... Hospitals aim for high levels of customer satisfaction while meeting economic objectives and improving their reputation in the market (Sontaite, 2015). To achieve customer loyalty, some of a hospital's most important activities include providing specific goods and services to customers at a price commensurate with the level of income, providing honest and reliable advertisements about corporate products, and having a permanent response to solving customer problems and responding to inquiries and complaints (Turker, 2009). As noted, hospitals should provide medical services, medicines, and facilities to patients at the right price rather than exaggerate the price of treatment or health care (Turyakira et al., 2014). ...
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With the increase risks associated to COVID-19 all over the world, many firms in different sectors have participated by providing immediate assistance to relief the pandemic’s negative effects, this paper explores the role of Egyptian private hospitals’ social responsibilities in comfort undesirable impacts of the COVID-19. Based on the collected data from 303 workers in private hospitals (doctors, nursing staff, and administrative staff), the results show that Egyptian private hospitals that are socially committed to their employees are likely to apply the activities of overcoming COVID-19 compared with those activities applied to their patients and the external parties (government, community, and the environment). This requires increasing private hospitals’ attention to their societal role towards patients and other external parties that deal with them.
... Six items were adapted to measure the IT capabilities from the work of Saraf et al. (2007); Muhanna and Dale Stoel (2010). The measures used for the CSR comprising 11 items to measure green CSR from Turker (2009). A five 5-point Likert scale was used to measure all items of the respective measures and adapted in the CPEC context. ...
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This study develops a conceptual framework and investigates green human resource practices (GHRM)—green recruitment and selection, green training and development, and green reward and compensation? effects on pro-environmental psychological climate and pro-environmental behavior, which cause green corporate social responsibility (GCSR). We employ information technology (IT) capabilities as a moderator between the GHRM and pro-environmental behavior. It applies a convenience sampling technique and survey questionnaire to collect data from 388 employees at CPEC projects. Results demonstrate that GHRM positively influences pro-environmental psychological climate and pro-environmental behavior that significantly develops GCSR. IT capabilities significantly moderate the relationships between GHRM and pro-environmental behavior. The study findings add to the body of green HRM practices, strategic management, and information processing and policy makers better postulate, align, and exercise their green HRM practices for its synergetic effects for green CSR and sustainability. We also acknowledge some limitations and provide future directions.
... Economic sustainability was measured via four items, whereas social and environmental sustainability via five items. The items were followed by (Turker, 2009;Wijethilake, 2017). ...
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The swift decline in the quantity and quality of natural resources and the public’s increased awareness about it is putting steep pressure on manufacturing and services firms to follow eco-friendly practices. The United Nations has made it imperative for organizations to ensure sustainability in their operations. This study investigates whether the quality management system within an organization helps them achieve environmental innovation and sustainable development goals? It also examines does environmental innovation facilitates firms in achieving sustainable development goals? Six quality management practices are taken from the American “Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award”; environmental innovation includes product and process innovation, and corporate sustainability includes environmental, social, and economic dimensions. The authors followed the non-probability convenience sampling technique to collect data from the junior, middle, and senior managers from medium and large-size services and manufacturing firms from July 2019 to October 2019. The structural analysis indicated that quality management facilitates firms to achieve their environmental innovation and sustainability goals; environmental innovation significantly enables organizations to achieve sustainability goals. Dimensional analysis indicated that quality management significantly impacts all studied dimensions. However, environmental innovation is found to have an insignificant impact on social sustainability. The findings of this study provide valuable insights to the managers of the manufacturing and services firms concerning eco-innovation and sustainability goals and conclude by offering recommendations for future studies.
... There are two ways to measure CSR from the stakeholder's perspective: objective and subjective measurement. The objective method measures whether the CSR program affects each stakeholder (Hawn and Ioannou, 2016), and the subjective method measures how well a CSR program that affects stakeholders is in place (Turker, 2009;Du et al., 2011). Although objective measurement is good for comparing CSR performance among companies, it is insufficient for reflecting the perception of CSR. ...
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Stakeholder interest in the accuracy of Environment Social and Governance (ESG) data and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) authenticity has increased, as more companies are disclosing their ESG data. Employees are one of the most important stakeholders of a company, and they have access to more CSR information than other external stakeholders. Employees have a dual role of observing and participating in CSR. Employee perceptions of CSR authenticity play a key role in the positive effects of CSR. In this study, the research model was analyzed through multilevel analysis to contribute to the literature on the mechanism by which CSR affects employees’ job attitudes and perceptions of CSR authenticity. First, hypothesis testing confirmed that external CSR is positively associated with employees’ perceptions of CSR authenticity. Second, CSR authenticity mediates a positive relationship between external CSR and emotional commitment. As the direct effect of external CSR on emotional commitment was not statistically significant, it could be confirmed that the full mediation relationship was significant through CSR authenticity. This study makes three theoretical contributions to the literature on employees’ perceptions of CSR. First, it examines the mechanism of the impact of CSR on employees. By examining the mechanism by which employees recognize and interpret CSR, this study attempts to uncover the black box that CSR affects employees. Second, this study contributes to the literature on CSR authenticity by explaining the mediating role of CSR authenticity in the relationship between CSR and employee job attitudes through construal level theory. Finally, this study contributes to the employee-based CSR literature by analyzing the effect of CSR as an organizational-level variable on emotional commitment as an individual-level variable through multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM).
... Another stream of research that emphasizes the multidimensionality of CSR has identified the relationship between CSR components and AOC. Internal and external CSR have showed positive effects on organizational commitment (Brammer et al., 2007) as well as CSR to social and non-social stakeholders, to employees and customers (Turker, 2009a). Additionally, AOC has been found to be influenced by CSR related to education and training, human rights, health, safety at work, work life balance and diversity at work (Al-bdour et al., 2010), by CSR with the community, consumers, and employees (Farooq et al., 2014), by CSR with employees, customers, and the government (Hofman and Newman, 2014) and CSR oriented to health, safety, education, and training (Thang and Fassin, 2017). ...
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Organizations and their leaders are challenged to assume a responsible behavior given the increase of corporate scandals and the deterioration of employee commitment. However, relatively few studies have investigated the impact of responsible leadership (RL) on employee commitment and the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in this relationship. Using the social identity theory this article examined the mediating effect of CSR practices in the relationship between RL and affective organizational commitment (AOC). Data collection was done through a paper survey completed by 309 full-time Colombian employees. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results showed that CSR fully mediated the influence of RL on AOC. Thus, RL is an effective mechanism to develop CSR practices that in turn increase the levels of AOC of employees.
... An organization needs to behave based on values such as honesty, equality, and commitment to the footprint of its actions and decisions (Turker 2009). To this aim, the department can follow certain ethics by making a mechanism to promote, monitor, and control those ethical codes; developing ethical codes for decision-making and interaction with others for each of the stakeholders (students, faculty, and staff); reporting non-ethical behaviors and actions in the department (Maignan and Ferrell 2000); observing ethical principles in research such as referencing, privacy in interviews, questionnaires, records, photography, filming, etc.; preventing conflicts of interest in evaluating the performance of students and faculty members, dissertations, articles, and urban projects; and paying attention to ethical issues in carrying out professional projects outside the university including financial issues, minorities, etc. ...
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There is a need for a model for urban design education due to its responsibility for the impact on the society and environment according to the twenty-first-century paradigm shift in higher education toward the social responsibility of universities. As an academic discipline concerned with the built environment, urban design can have a pivotal role in meeting the university social responsibility goal of promoting sustainable development. This article aims to provide the background for redesigning and adapting the educational program of urban design to the social responsibility approach. To this end, the study proposes a social responsibility-based model for urban design education through expert discussion in order to operationalize the responsibility of urban design toward the environment and society. The model is a process-oriented one consisting of four steps, namely, values, management, practices, and impacts.
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This study examines the impact of corporate social responsibility on organisational citizenship behaviour, work engagement, and job embeddedness. Structural equation modeling tests were conducted on 522 responses gathered from telecommunications companies in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The results depicted that corporate social responsibility improvements have positive effects on organisational citizenship behaviour, work engagement, and job embeddedness. Further observations depicted an insignificant positive partial causal path between corporate social responsibility, work engagement, and organizational citizenship behaviour. This study's novelty elements are inherent in its potency to examine the causal path between corporate social responsibility, work engagement, and organizational citizenship behavior. This study contributes to the literature by further expanding job embeddedness theory and proposing a comprehensive job embeddedness framework that researchers and practitioners can adopt in future research.
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The article is devoted to the study of social investment as elements of labor costs to ensure sustainable human development at the corporate level. Based on the generalization of approaches to understanding and evaluating social investment, concepts of sustainable human development and social responsibility of the organization, it is proposed to consider certain elements of labor costs as internal social investment to ensure sustainable human development. The purpose of the study is to analyze internal social investment in the structure of labor costs, identify key issues and areas for improvement to ensure sustainable human development at the corporate level. The scientific novelty of this work is the substantiation of the methodological approach to the study of labor costs in terms of separation in their structure of internal social investment to ensure sustainable human development in the context of the concept of social responsibility of the organization. This allows to analyze the overall dynamics and structure, sectoral and regional disparities in internal social investment of companies as elements of labor costs, to identify the main problems of social investment in sustainable human development at the corporate level and suggest the ways to improve labor cost statistics, in particular, to improve mechanisms of social dialogue in terms of concluding collective agreements and contracts. To achieve this goal, the following research methods are used: comparative and statistical analysis of data, graphical method of presenting results for quantitative assessment and study of the dynamics of labor costs; methods of system approach, logical analysis, induction and deduction, generalization and analogy in substantiation and development of a methodological approach to the definition of internal social investment at the corporate level as elements of labor costs. Global and European approaches to understanding social investment, sustainable human development, and social responsibility of the organization and labor costs are generalized. Based on the national and international statistics, the dynamics and structure of labor costs by type of economic activity, size of enterprises and regions of Ukraine, their sectoral and regional disparities are analyzed, and the main problems of social investment of sustainable human development at the corporate level are identified. The directions of improvement of statistics of labor costs are proposed, in particular for increase of efficiency of mechanisms of social dialogue in the part of the conclusion of collective agreements and agreements.
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To develop a better way of assessing the sustainability efficiency (SE) and profitability efficiency (PE) of mining multinational enterprises (MNEs), the two‐stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) network model is proposed. The study shows that slack‐based models (SBM) can strengthen the previous and present measurements of the mining industry. When we assess the SE and PE of 53 mining MNEs from 2016 to 2019, the overall efficiencies of both the sustainability and profitability of mining MNEs are not higher than 70%. Such results are shown to be helpful for suggesting that global mining companies need to improve their efficiencies. This study addresses filling the research gap in the literature review about SE positively and significantly influencing PE with the moderating effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in mining MNEs. The result reveals that higher sustainability yields higher returns to the companies. In other words, MNEs have improved their SE to achieve a higher PE. Furthermore, the value of SE significantly influences PE regardless of whether the moderating effect, CSR, is higher or lower. The results show that a higher governance pillar score (GPS) and social pillar score (SPS) lead them to have greater profitability. However, a higher Environmental Pillar Score (EPS) tends to create a weaker relationship between SE and PE. We addressed a few interpretations of why higher EPS negatively influences profitability. Nevertheless, our study strongly recommends companies to increase their CSR score. Last, this study proves that all hypotheses are supported.
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Purpose The objective of the study is to investigate whether hospitality leaders feel there is a circular economy (CE) created through corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives and whether these initiatives improve quality of work life (QWL) for employees. A qualitative, case study approach was adopted which included a set of standardized questions as a discussion tool to explore senior hospitality professionals' perceptions of their companies' CSR initiatives and connection between CSR and QWL. Design/methodology/approach A series of interview questions consisting of seven open-ended questions and four Likert-type scale questions were formulated to explore how the representatives from case study companies implement CSR initiatives in the workplace. The questions were also used to probe the impact of CSR initiatives on QWL for employees and additionally, respondent views on aspects of the CE. Findings Examines the impact of hospitality and tourism on the environment and also its employee retention challenges. Interviews conducted with three managers reveal awareness of the potential QWL benefits of CSR practices. Findings suggest that successful, on-the-ground practice involves adapting corporate principles for each property. Originality/value The article showcases three interviews with senior employees from different properties in different world regions. The aim being to probe, how they approach their CSR strategies and the impact on QoL. While there is much interest in these issues, comparatively little has been published to-date on the relationships between CSR and QoL.
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Purpose orporate social responsibility (CSR) is an evolving concept which is increasingly being adopted by companies with the purpose of creating sustained organizational growth. However, while the impact of CSR practices on employees' behaviors and attitudes has been recognized over the years, the relationship between CSR practices and employee performance remains underexplored. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on social identity theory and using the partial least squares structural equation method, this research examines the impact of CSR practices on employees' performance in a sample of 171 employees belonging to the construction industry. Findings The findings do not support the existence of a direct relationship between employees' perception of CSR and their performance; instead, they indicate that this relationship is mediated by job satisfaction and organizational trust. Research limitations/implications The data concerns employees' self-reported measures on their perceived CSR and the study was conducted in a single industry. Practical implications Adopting CSR initiatives in company strategies is worthy as the perceptions of employees and their performance is positively influenced by their organization's CSR activities. Managers should properly communicate and involve internal stakeholders in socially responsible practices to increase their awareness. Originality/value This article analyzes the impact of employees' perception of CSR on employees' performance through the roles of employee organizational trust and job satisfaction as mediating variables in a highly socially pressured industry such as construction.
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Employee retention is emerging as a critical issues impact on the competitive advantage. Internal corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been creating so much attention in the minds of employees during the recent years. Thus, the chapter is based on three objectives: First, it explores the relationship between internal CSR and employee retention. Second, it identifies how intrinsic motivation mediates the relationship between internal CSR and employee retention. Finally, it determines the internal CSR activities which the apparel industry should pay more attention to in order to better employee retention. Primary data were collected by using questionnaires, and the results of the study indicated that there is a positive relationship between internal CSR and employee retention. Moreover, intrinsic motivation partially mediates the relationship between the internal CSR and employee retention. The findings of the study identify the internal CSR activities which the apparel industry should pay more attention to in order to develop retention programs in the future.
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This chapter presents elements of a student-faculty collaborative research that quantitatively examined the predictive relationships of retail employees' perceptions of corporate social responsibility (PCSR) and organizational identification (POI) on their perceptions of ethical organizational behavior (PEOB). One hundred and eighteen retail employees from 20 companies in the United States Virgin Islands (USVI) participated in an online survey. While no predictive relationship was found, the findings of this study identified significant relationships between retail employees PCSR, POI, and perceived ethical organizational behavior PEOB. The strongest association was discovered between PCSR and POI. Thus, this chapter spotlights a need for retail organizations to focus on the potential of employees' PSCR and POI in creating more authentic and responsible organizational environment.
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On the path to industrialization, companies sought to create value for customers, shareholders, and owners. The relentless pursuit of profitability violated the rights of some community members and provoked several protests against the violation of human rights and negligence of environmental issues. Companies first understood these problems and accepted the demands of stakeholders. However, following the closure of many businesses that were not socially responsible, companies decided to apply general principles to create a good social image. Therefore, they stopped the protests against them by preventing the emergence of social problems and severe consequences of companies' actions towards society and nature. These events led to the introduction of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Accordingly, companies attempted to take action and create a good social image of themselves by spending some money before being obliged by the law and society to deal with the negative social and environmental consequences of their activities. The problem was that companies spent only part of their profits on projects that they thought would receive the most significant social feedback. However, in traditional charitable CSR efforts, it is often impossible to undertake an activity and measure its tangible social outcomes in the long run. Companies must pursue a strategic concept that produces sustainable social changes by engaging different company segments and stakeholders. This concept is called corporate social innovation (CSI). This study defined the concept of CSR and showed how the definitions and concepts and corporate trends have shifted from CSR to CSI over the course of time.
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Green purchase behavior emerges in the agri-food sector with the increasing awareness of the negative environmental impacts of agricultural production intensification. The agri-food sector responds to consumers’ demand for green products by either implementing social responsibility practices, such as environmental protection activities, to construct a “green” image/brand, or using green marketing strategies to boost sales. Amongst all the marketing strategies, value co-creation is regarded as an innovative strategy to incorporate consumer ideas and address consumer needs. To understand the role of value co-creation in the relationship between corporate social responsibility and green purchase behavior, this study employs a structural equation model to test for the inter-correlations of the three using the sample data drawn from an online survey in China. The results show corporate social responsibility influences green purchase behavior through the cognitive mechanism of value co-creation. Food safety concern has a role in positively moderating the impact of corporate social responsibility and value co-creation activities on green purchase behavior. Understanding the role of value co-creation may assist policymakers in designing supporting policy for developing an efficient and innovative channel connecting the agri-food sector and consumers to build consumer confidence in the green food market.
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This research paper investigated the influence of corporate social responsibility on brand loyalty. The objectives used in the study were to determine the relationship between corporate social responsibility and brand loyalty at Econet Wireless to establish whether clients are aware of CSR activities of Econet Wireless or not. Causal research design was used for the first objective and descriptive research design was used for the second objective. Simple random sampling technique was used to determine the elements to be included in the sample and a sample size of 384 calculated using Saunders formulae was used. The researcher used questionnaires to collect data which were administrated electronically in line with COVID-19 regulations. The findings of the research revealed that The Cronbach Alpha coefficient to test the reliability of the measurement scales was used to determine the impact of corporate social responsibility (employee, ethical, legal and social responsibility) on brand loyalty. The reliability constructs accepted should be above 0.7. Henceforth, all the four variables were reliable as they have Cronbach Alpha values above 0.7 With the exception of social responsibility which is at 0. 682.. Regression analysis was performed to test the predictive power of CSR practices (independent variable) on brand loyalty. The results showed that there is a strong positive relationship between CSR and brand loyalty. This was shown by the standardized coefficient, which is 0.618, (p=.00, t=15.263). This indicates that brand loyalty is influenced to a greater extent by corporate social responsibility as shown by the Beta value of 0.618, which is above 0.6 the standard acceptable. More so legal responsibility contributes more to brand loyalty with a mean value of 21.5885 followed by ethical responsibility with a mean value of 18.7422, followed by employee responsibility with a mean value of 18.0052 for employee responsibility, and lastly. The results discovered that there is a strong inverse relationship between brand loyalty and employee relationship. This is shown by the standardized coefficient which is -0.532, (p=.00, t=-12.293). This indicates that brand loyalty is not influenced by corporate social responsibility as shown by the Beta value of -0.518. In addition, it means that a negative change in brand loyalty will cause a negative change in brand loyalty and the opposite is equally true .CSR practices and brand loyalty has a correlation coefficient of 0.618** which is positive, moderate and statistically significant [r=0.618 ,p<0.01 (p=0.001).High levels of CSR practices are positively associated with moderate levels of improvement in sales performance as loyal customers are overwhelmingly more profitable than other customers because loyal customers do more for a business than purely generating revenue during purchases. Hypothesis testing was done in order to choose amongst two competing hypotheses about the value of a population parameter... The hypothesis testing reveals that clearly there is a strong positive relationship between CSR and brand loyalty. This is shown by the standardized coefficient, which is 0.618, (p=.00, t=15.360). This indicates that brand loyalty is influenced to a lesser extent by corporate social responsibility as shown by the Beta value of 0.618, which is below 0.7. In addition, it means that a positive change in CSR will cause little or no change in brand loyalty and the opposite is equally true, therefore H1 was rejected.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the role and impact of state regulation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) spending on company actions and to examine whether making mandatory CSR encourages businesses to engage in social welfare projects. Additionally, the authors also investigate whether these CSR expenditures can enable India to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030. Design/methodology/approach CSR expenditure data from the government repository of 22,531 eligible companies in India were studied from FY2014–2015 to FY2019–2020. CSR spending is further classified according to development areas of Schedule VII of the Companies Act, 2013, and mapped with the SDGs to see which ones the corporations have prioritized. Findings CSR spending increased from INR 10,066 crore in 2014–2015 to INR 24,689 crore in 2019–2020. Companies have prioritized CSR expenditure on education, followed by health care and rural development. The number of companies spending more than the mandated expenditure increased by around 75% from 2014–2015 to 2019–2020. However, the “comply or explain” approach of the law has led to a major number of companies spending zero on CSR. Companies have generally concentrated on moving CSR funds to designated funds rather than using them for capacity development to instill social responsibility culture. Originality/value This study provides evidence of the impact of mandatory CSR expenditure on welfare activities and SDGs. Unlike previous research, the results of this study are based on CSR expenditures rather than voluntary CSR scores.
Article
Prior confronting findings on the association between corporate social responsibility and profitability show that some aspects remain to be clarified about this binomial. Contributing to this body of research is particularly interesting in the case of the exporters to understand the role that corporate social responsibility may play in improving export performance. This study aims to determine the impact of firms' corporate social responsibility efforts on their export performance by examining innovation and the legal form of the organization as factors that could affect this relationship. Using data from 107 agri‐food companies, we found that corporate social responsibility has no direct effect on export performance. However, our results show that innovation serves as a mediator in this relationship. It was also found that companies that adopt associative legal forms (i.e., cooperatives) benefit more from their social responsibility practices than companies that adopt non‐associative legal forms.
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The article evaluates the influence of corporate social responsibility awareness (CSR) on employee engagement and retention. Adopting the exploratory factor regression method through four CSR factors, with the data collected from 228 employees in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the study shows that there are two components of CSR affecting employee engagement and retention, namely responsibility towards the government and responsibility towards customers; in which, that towards the government has a stronger impact. The research results can serve as a useful basis for SMEs to refer to and develop CSR strategies to improve loyalty, employee engagement and retention with the organization, thereby helping enterprises steadily hold human resources, maintaining sustainable business performance.
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Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the gateway to welfare economy according to the socially responsible organizations and people can influence practices of corporate towards social responsibility by putting pressures on them through their consumption patterns. But, does CSR actually influence consumption patterns of people? In the present study, by conducting survey using a structured questionnaire and then employing regression analysis on data generated from customers of two FMCG majors of India; empirical evidences on positive impact of CSR on brand image have been detected. Keywords: CSR, Brand Image, Social Welfare, Regression Analysis
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Kurumsal sorumluluk kavramı, küreselleşme sürecinin hız kazanması ve toplumun şirketlerden beklentilerinin artması ile eş zamanlı olarak yaygınlaşmış bir anlayıştır. Kurumsal sorumluluk, kurumların iş dünyası ile ilgili tüm süreçlerinde ekonomik, çevresel ve toplumsal faydayı gözetmesi olarak özetlenebilir. Çağdaş kurumsal sorumluluk kavramı ile şirketler, ölçülebilir hedefler koymakta ve finansal kazanımlar elde etmeye çalışmakta, dolayısıyla öz çıkarlarını korumaktadır. Türkiye gibi ülkelerde ise kültürel değerler, dini inançlar ve geleneksel unsurlar gibi finansal çıkar hedefi olmayan etkenler veya bir diğer söylemle kültürel etkenler, kurumsal sorumluluk anlayışına etki etmektedir. Bu etki özellikle küresel piyasalardan daha az etkilenen ve yerel değerleri daha fazla yansıtan küçük ve orta büyüklükteki işletmelerde (KOBİ’lerde) daha belirgindir. Bu tezin amacı, Ankara’da üretim sektöründe faaliyet gösteren KOBİ’lerde, kültürel değerler, dini inançlar, Ahilik kurumu ve vakıf kurmak gibi geleneksel hayırseverlik unsurlarından oluşan kültürel etkenlerin kurumsal sorumluluk anlayışına nasıl etki ettiğinin anlaşılmasıdır. Çalışma kapsamında gerçekleştirilen nitel saha araştırmasının bulguları, Ankara’daki KOBİ’lerin, kurumsal sorumluluk kavramı ile ilgili olabilecek uygulamaları, ağırlıklı olarak finansal-olmayan etkenler ile ilişkili olarak algıladıklarını göstermektedir. Bu noktadan hareketle, geleneksel hayırseverlik ve doğru iş yapma anlayışı ile çağdaş kurumsal sorumluluk kavramı arasında güçlü bağlantılar kurulabileceği öngörülebilir. Diğer yandan, kurumsal sorumluluk kavramının kültürel etkenlere bağlı olarak algılanması, küreselleşme süreciyle yaygınlaştığı halde yeni yerelliklerin meydana gelmesine sebep olan bu kavramın kapsamının daralması riskini taşımaktadır.
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This paper assesses the effects of employee perception of corporative social responsibility (CSR) practices on organizational commitment (OC) in textile companies located in the Brazilian state of Ceará - a relevant region for the textile industry in Latin America. The research used a survey to collect data from 539 employees working in three companies, adopting a quantitative approach based on structural equation modeling. The results show that CSR practices geared toward employees, clients, suppliers, and government positively impacted affective/normative commitment, whereas CSR practices geared toward society and the environment impacted commitment negatively. Also, CSR practices focused on employees affected their continuance commitment, while CSR practices focused on other stakeholders did not present the same impact. Finally, the findings show that large textile companies tend to adopt more CSR practices, which significantly influences employee commitment.
Article
Purpose Building on the scant literature on how foreign subsidiaries strategize Cause-Related-Marketing (CRM) to gain legitimacy and acceptance in host markets, this paper investigated the impact of two CRM components (post-crisis recovery, CSR activities) on subsidiary performance and future opportunities in China, a country whose institutional development lags behind its economic achievements. The study also investigated the moderating effects of strategic mindset and subsidiary empowerment on CRM effects, issues highly relevant to MNCs and their subsidiaries. Design/methodology/approach To minimize common method variance, the study adopted a multi-informant firm executive survey design that included responses from a director and a manager from 230 foreign subsidiaries operating in China. The director-level respondents assessed Firm Competences, Organizational Ties, Subsidiary Performance and Future Opportunities. The manager-level respondents assessed CSR activities (Legal, Ethical and Philanthropic CSR) and other operational measures. Findings The two CRM components affected Subsidiary Performance (sales, shares and profit) and Future Opportunities in different ways as postulated by legitimacy theory. While Post-crisis Recovery enhanced Subsidiary Performance (sales), it could not enhance Future Opportunities by itself unless the subsidiary received headquarters empowerment. Interestingly, only Ethical and Philanthropic CSR activities with enhancement from Strategic Mindset mattered to Future Opportunities. Originality/value The research unfolded key elements in how foreign subsidiaries planned CRM strategies to gain legitimacy and acceptance in a host market with less-developed institutions, thereby addressing a gap in the literature. It also showed how firms internalize CRM and became receptive to social sentiments of a significant host market.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is understanding how companies can improve sales force performance is a key issue. Despite this, the study of the impact that corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices might have on salespeople’s performance has been neglected in the sales literature. Design/methodology/approach Using data provided by 176 salesperson–supervisor dyads and through structural equation modeling and conditional process analysis, empirical evidence confirms the hypotheses. Findings Certainly, the findings confirm that salespeople’s performance is influenced by their CSR perception, not directly but through their pride and organizational commitment. Furthermore, the results improve when considering the intervention of a responsible leader. The paper also identifies the management implications and makes some recommendations for upcoming studies. Originality/value This paper contributes to fill this gap by examining the effect of salespeople’s CSR perception on their job performance through organizational pride and organizational commitment. Additionally, it is suggested that the exercise of responsible leadership by the supervisor strengthens the previous indirect relationship, moderating the influence of salesperson’s organizational pride on their commitment.
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Resumen: Los contenidos sobre la Responsabilidad Social que se enseñan en las universidades impactan indirectamente sobre su aplicación en las empresas, porque esos contenidos influyen en la forma como los futuros líderes empresariales interpretan y aplican este concepto. La investigación se diseñó con el objetivo de evaluar si coinciden o divergen los conocimientos y opiniones sobre la Responsabilidad Social Interna adquiridos por estudiantes de diferentes universidades. Se aplicó, en forma auto-administrada, un cuestionario estructurado a una muestra no probabilística de estudiantes de tres universidades radicadas en: Colombia, España y Uruguay. Se utilizaron baterías de indicadores que miden: 1) la forma como los estudiantes interpretan el concepto de Responsabilidad Social Interna, 2) su conocimiento sobre las funciones que debe cumplir el área de recursos humanos cuando se aplica la Responsabilidad Social y 3) sus opiniones sobre los beneficios que genera la Responsabilidad Social Interna para la relación de las empresas con sus empleados. En este documento se presentan resultados basados en información preliminar. Se encontró que existen, entre los estudiantes de las tres universidades, diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la forma de interpretar la Responsabilidad Social Interna, pero no ocurre lo mismo con su conocimiento sobre las funciones del área de Recursos y Humanos y en su opinión sobre los beneficios que ella genera.
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This contribution summarises the roles of economy, state and society in Turkey with respect to societys attitude toward business and attempts to explore how cultural characteristics of society may have an impact on CSR. We argue that the cultural characteristics combined with the economic fundamentals of Turkey do not encourage socially responsible behaviour of corporations beyond legal requirements and only to the extent that they are enforced. We conclude that the drivers for Corporate Social Responsibility in Turkey will be exogenous and institutional rather than endogenous and cultural.
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This article traces the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) from its post WWII beginnings in popularity up through the end of the 1990s. The article focuses on definitions or understandings of the concept/construct. It does not focus on actual company practices during this time as they were quite varied. (This article has been ranked #1 most read in the Business and Society journal for years now).
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The results of a survey of business professionals verified a relationship between perceptions of corporate citizenship and organizational commitment. More important, the results demonstrated that the relationship between corporate citizenship and organizational commitment was stronger among employees who believe highly in the importance of the social responsibility of businesses. The results also indicated that the ethical measure of corporate citizenship was a stronger predictor of organization commitment than the economic, legal, and discretionary measures. Last, the results revealed that the discretionary measure was more strongly associated with organizational commitment among female employees.
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Offered here is a conceptual model that comprehensively describes essential aspects of corporate social performance. The three aspects of the model address major questions of concern to academics and managers alike: (1) What is included in corporate social responsibility? (2) What are the social issues the organization must address? and (3) What is the organization's philosophy or mode of social responsiveness?
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Offered here is a conceptual model that comprehensively describes essential aspects of corporate social performance. The three aspects of the model address major questions of concern to academics and managers alike: (1) What is included in corporate social responsibility? (2) What are the social issues the organization must address? and (3) What is the organization's philosophy or mode of social responsiveness?
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Corporate governance is a concept that attracted the attention of jurists and economists in the US in the 1970s and 1980s. The concept then became widespread on the European continent in the 1990s. More recently, corporate governance elements have turned up in other fields as well. When applied to social institutions, this model is referred to as ‘social governance’. The (corporate) governance concept can be valuable in the social area. The debate on corporate governance is much more fundamental than the debate on the relationship between shareholders and management or between minority and majority shareholders. The essence of corporate governance can be found in the pursuit of a situation of ‘checks and balances’, which gives the stakeholders the possibility to complement and control each other. This article analyses the different stakeholders in the social area, their legitimisation as stakeholders and the practicability of a social stakeholder model.
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The purpose of this chapter is to outline the development of the idea of "stakeholder management" as it has come to be applied in strategic management. We begin by developing a brief history of the concept. We then suggest that traditionally the stakeholder approach to strategic management has several related characteristics that serve as distinguishing features. We review recent work on stakeholder theory and suggest how stakeholder management has affected the practice of management. We end by suggesting further research questions.
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This paper takes a snapshot of the role of economy, state and societal culture in shaping society's attitude toward business. It attempts to explore how cultural characteristics of the society may be related to the significance of the role stakeholders play in driving corporate behaviour. The paper is based on review of existing research on the cultural dimensions and attitudes of society, surveys on corporate disclosures, interviews and cumulative knowledge on the dynamics of economic and social development. The emergence of CSR discourse in emerging markets is heavily driven by external factors. Exemplified in the case of Turkey, economic fundamentals, and cultural dimensions of power distance and low individuality combined with strong collectivism do not relate to a strong societal influence on corporate behavior. We conclude that the drivers for CSR in Turkey and in countries with similar cultural characteristics and economic fundamentals will be exogenous and institutional rather than endogenous and cultural. The paper implies a stronger role for regulation and enforcement in driving corporate accountability and social performance as well as highlighting the importance of international community in rewarding or punishing social performance. The originality of the paper is in exhibiting the role of societal culture in shaping expectations from business and providing support for a stronger role on public enforcement and international monitoring. The paper would have value for regulators and international agencies.
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Corporate social responsibility is more than an expedient response to momentary social pressures. It is, instead, a manifestation of deep, farreaching social changes in our society. If it is indeed akin to the Industrial Revolution, then the implications for business of the new social responsibility may be very different from those usually forecast. © 1972, The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
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Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach was first published in 1984 as a part of the Pitman series in Business and Public Policy. Its publication proved to be a landmark moment in the development of stakeholder theory. Widely acknowledged as a world leader in business ethics and strategic management, R. Edward Freeman’s foundational work continues to inspire scholars and students concerned with a more practical view of how business and capitalism actually work. Business can be understood as a system of how we create value for stakeholders. This worldview connects business and capitalism with ethics once and for all. On the 25th anniversary of publication, Cambridge University Press are delighted to be able to offer a new print-on-demand edition of his work to a new generation of readers.
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Psychological research involving scale construction has been hindered considerably by a widespread lack of understanding of coefficient alpha and reliability theory in general. A discussion of the assumptions and meaning of coefficient alpha is presented. This discussion is followed by a demonstration of the effects of test length and dimensionality on alpha by calculating the statistic for hypothetical tests with varying numbers of items, numbers of orthogonal dimensions, and average item intercorrelations. Recommendations for the proper use of coefficient alpha are offered.
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Business for business' sake? Or must businessmen act as "social godfathers?" This article answers these questions and suggests ways that social responsibilities can be appraised objectively and met squarely.
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Longer-term performance effects of corporate illegality were investigated. Results show that firms experience lower accounting returns over five years and slower sales growth in the third through fifth year after a conviction. Stakeholders appear to paint all corporate wrongdoers with the same brush, ignoring the seriousness of illegalities, but responding strongly to multiple convictions for wrongdoing. Reduced financial performance does not deter subsequent illegality.
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Past studies as well as the opinion of some top executives have suggested that inertia or outright resistance from operating management often thwarts the good intentions of top management in defining and implementing policies of corporate social responsibility. On the basis that managerial attitudes may reflect or give rise to such inertia or resistance, a study was done among a sample of Fortune 500 executivesboth operating-level and top-level managers. As contrasted to some previous research and speculation, differences between the attitudes of operating managers and top managers were found to be surprisingly infrequent and small in magnitude. The results suggest that, as a result of several recent developments, the attitudes among managers at both levels have reached a high degree of consensus.
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Individuals, groups, and government units have developed considerable interested in evaluating the social performance of corporations. Evaluating corporate social performance (CSP) is important for researchers investigating the relationship between different organizational measures and CSP and for stakeholders employing social performance information in their decision making models. To assess CSP, an aggregate measure of CSP which incorporates both an independent assessment of actual performance and the individual value judgements of the stakeholder is needed. In this study, we propose a methodology for the development of a systematic measure of CSP using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. This multi-criteria decision making technique allows for the conversion of a multidimensional scale to a unidimensional scale, enabling analysis/comparison of companies both within the same industry and across industries. The technique is illustrated by developing a measure of CSP using several types of managers. The results indicate that there are large rank changes when individual value judgements are incorporated using relative importance weights.
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This article has two purposes. First, the author will provide a commentary on Donna Wood’s article on theory, research, passion, and integrity in business and society. This is in response to an invitation to serve as a raconteur onWood’s article. In fulfilling this role, the author will provide summary comments and then remark on each major section of her article. She provides a helpful and engaging overview of the business and society field that provides a backdrop for a consideration of Corporate Social Performance (CSP) theory and measurement. Second, the author will present what he considers to be a few key questions or issues that need to be addressed as we seek to advance CSP measurement.
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There is an impressive history associated with the evolution of the concept and definition of corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this article, the author traces the evolution of the CSR construct beginning in the 1950s, which marks the modern era of CSR. Definitions expanded during the 1960s and proliferated during the 1970s. In the 1980s, there were fewer new definitions, more empirical research, and alternative themes began to mature. These alternative themes included corporate social performance (CSP), stakeholder theory, and business ethics theory. In the 1990s, CSR continues to serve as a core construct but yields to or is transformed into alternative thematic frameworks.
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This article presents conclusions from a 10-year research program, the purpose of which has been to develop a framework and methodology, grounded in the reality of corporate behavior, for analyzing and evaluating corporate social performance. There are three principal sections: (a) a summary of the approaches, models, and methodologies used in conducting more than 70 field studies of corporate social performance from 1983-1993; (b) a discussion of the principal conclusions derived from the data that (1) corporations manage relationships with stakeholder groups rather than with society as a whole, (2) it is important to distinguish between social issues and stakeholder issues, and (3) it is necessary to identify the appropriate level of analysis in order to evaluate CSP; and (c) a discussion of propositions and areas for further research.
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This paper uses a stakeholder framework to review the empirical literature on corporate social performance (CSP), focusing particularly on studies attempting to correlate social with financial performance. Results show first that most studies correlate measures of business performance that as yet have no theoretical relationship (for example, the level of corporate charitable giving with return on investment). To make sense of this body of research, CSP studies must be integrated with stakeholder theory. Multiple stakeholders (a) set expectations for corporate performance, (b) experience the effects of corporate behavior, and (c) evaluate the outcomes of corporate behavior. However, we find that the empirical CSP literature mismatches variables in terms of which stakeholders are relevant to which kind of measure. Second, only the studies using market-based variables and theory show a consistent relationship between social and financial performance, particularly those showing a negative abnormal return to the stock price of companies experiencing product recalls. Although this paper shows that the CSP construct is not yet well-specified enough to produce stronger results, recent research suggests that much progress is being made both empirically and theoretically in developing valid and reliable measures of corporate social performance.
Takes as its departure point the criticism of Guthrie and Parker by Arnold and the Tinker et al. critique of Gray et al. Following an extensive review of the corporate social reporting literature, its major theoretical preoccupations and empirical conclusions, attempts to re-examine the theoretical tensions that exist between “classical” political economy interpretations of social disclosure and those from more “bourgeois” perspectives. Argues that political economy, legitimacy theory and stakeholder theory need not be competitor theories but may, if analysed appropriately, be seen as alternative and mutually enriching theories from alternative levels of resolution. Offers evidence from 13 years of social disclosure by UK companies and attempts to interpret this from different levels of resolution. There is little doubt that social disclosure practice has changed dramatically in the period. The theoretical perspectives prove to offer different, but mutually enhancing, interpretations of these phenomena.
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Classic and contemporary methods for analyzing construct validity are compared and contrasted through reanalyses of data from the organizational research literature to establish a basis for assessing the validity of measures used in organizational research. Campbell and Fiske's (1959) criteria are found to be lacking, particularly in their assumptions, diagnostic information, and power. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is shown to overcome most limitations inherent in Campbell and Fiske's procedures. Nevertheless, two potential shortcomings are identified with the CFA method: the confounding of random error with measure-specific variance and the inability to test for interactions between traits and methods. Three alternative methods are presented for addressing the former issue, and the direct product model is described as a solution to the latter. The techniques considered herein go farther than currently used procedures for enhancing our ability to ascertain the validity of variables commonly studied in organizational research.
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Psychological research involving scale construction has been hindered considerably by a widespread lack of understanding of coefficient alpha and reliability theory in general. A discussion of the assumptions and meaning of coefficient alpha is presented. This discussion is followed by a demonstration of the effects of test length and dimensionality on alpha by calculating the statistic for hypothetical tests with varying numbers of items, numbers of orthogonal dimensions, and average item intercorrelations. Recommendations for the proper use of coefficient alpha are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Strategic managers are consistently faced with the decision of how to allocate scarce corporate resources in an environment that is placing more and more pressures on them. Recent scholarship in strategic management suggests that many of these pressures come directly from sources associated with social issues in management, rather than traditional arenas of strategic management. Using a greatly improved source of data on corporate social performance, this paper reports the results of a rigorous study of the empirical linkages between financial and social performance. Corporate social performance (CSP) is found to be positively associated with prior financial performance, supporting the theory that slack resource availability and CSP are positively related. CSP is also found to be positively associated with future financial performance, supporting the theory that good management and CSP are positively related.© 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
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This paper attempts to synthesise the reports prepared by various authors, who live and work in their homeland in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), on the notion of "corporate social responsibility" ("CSR"). The reports are prepared as a prologue for a workshop organised by the World Bank (MDF5) which took plavece in Beirut in 2005. The authors come from different backgrounds. They were invited not to engage in an academic exercise but to capture and reflect upon the "realities" of the debate in their countries on the basis of their role as proactive participants. The objective was to detect common elements and patterns in the issues of and approaches to "CSR" in the MENA region. The authors were asked to use a common format for their reports, but left free in their approach.
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Based on an extensive review of the literature and field surveys, the paper proposes a conceptualization and operationalization of corporate citizenship meaningful in two countries: the United States and France. A survey of 210 American and 120 French managers provides support for the proposed definition of corporate citizenship as a construct including the four correlated factors of economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary citizenship. The managerial implications of the research and directions for future research are discussed.
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Recent years have seen dramatic changes in the attitudes and expectations brought to bear on companies. Over ten years of research at MORI has shown the increasing prominence of corporate responsibility for a wide range of stakeholders, from consumers and employees to legislators and investors.
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Most models of corporate social responsibility revolve around the controversy as to whether business is a single dimensional entity of profit maximization or a multi-dimensional entity serving greater societal interests. Furthermore, the models are mostly descriptive in nature and are based on the experiences of western countries. There has been little attempt to develop a model that accounts for corporate social responsibility in diverse environments with differing socio-cultural and market settings. In this paper an attempt has been made to fill this gap by developing a two-dimensional model of corporate social responsibility and empirically testing its validity in the context of two dissimilar cultures – Australia and Bangladesh. The two dimensions are the span of corporate responsibility (narrow to wider perspective) and the range of outcomes of social commitments of businesses (cost to benefit driven perspective). The test results confirm the validity of the two-dimensional model in the two environments. The Factor analysis revealed two leading dimensions. Cluster analysis pointed to two distinctive clusters of managers in both Australia and Bangladesh, one consisting of managers with a broad contemporary concept of social responsibility, and the other with a limited narrow view. The paper concludes that corporate social responsibility is two-dimensional and universal in nature and that differing cultural and market settings in which managers operate may have little impact on the ethical perceptions of corporate managers.
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The attitudes of 164 United States and 151 South African managers towards corporate social responsibility were assessed. The United States managers held significantly more favourable attitudes towards corporate social responsibility. In addition, they agreed with more pro-responsibility arguments, whereas the South African managers agreed with more anti-responsibility arguments. The United States managers felt that their society expected more corporate involvement in social responsibility activities than the South African managers felt was expected from their society. The results are explained in terms of the susceptibility of social responsibility attitudes to cultural norms and values — which reflect the different nature of the two societies.
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This paper examines the association between long-term compensation and corporate social responsibility (CSR) for 90 publicly traded Canadian firms. Social responsibility is considered to include concerns for social factors and the environment (e.g. Johnson, R. and D. Greening: 1999, Academy of Management Journal 42(5), 564-578; Kane, E. J. (2002, Journal of Banking and Finance 26:, 1919-1933; McGuire, J. et al. 2003, Journal of Business Ethics 45 (4), 341-359). Long-term compensation attempts to focus executives efforts on optimizing the longer term, which should direct their attention to factors traditionally associated with socially responsible executives (Mahapatra, S. 1984, Journal of Financial Economicsit 20, 347-376). As hypothesized, we found a significant relationship between the long-term compensation and total CSR weakness as well as the product/environmental weakness dimension of CSR. In addition, we found a marginally significant relationship between long-term compensation and total corporate responsibility. Our findings are that executives long-term compensation is associated with a firms environmental actions, and that firms that utilize long-term compensation are more likely to mitigate product/environment weaknesses than those that do not. Implications for practice and research are discussed.