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Chemical composition of extracts from shungite and "Shungite water"

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A chemical analysis of aqueous extracts from shungite-III from the Zazhogino deposit (Republic of Karelia) and of natural water contacting with shungite rocks was made. The chemical composition and bactericide properties of “shungite water” were studied.
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... The antioxidant activity of shungite may be due to the presence of various components in its composition. Previously, it was shown that the composition of shungite includes carbon, including in the form of fullerenes [22], silicates, as well as trace elements Fe, Ti, V, Ni, Cu, and Zn, represented mainly by sulfides (pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite), and oxides (rutile) [23]. The antioxidant properties of fullerenes have been established both in in vitro and in vivo experiments [24]. ...
... In [27], it was shown that antitumor drugs could be designed on the basis of endometallofullerenes. Thus, polyhydroxylated endohedral fullerene CdC 82 (OH) 22 forms particles about 22 nm in size in a physiological solution. Such particles at a dose of 10-7 mol/kg exhibit high antineoplastic activity in mice. ...
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This study reveals that fossil shungite samples exhibit antioxidant activity, can reduce oxidized components, and bind to free radicals. A sample of Sh20 (size fraction—20 µm) (1.30 mg equivalents of ascorbic acid/g of shungite; 3.46 mg equivalents of trolox/g of shungite; 0.99 mg equivalents of quercetin/g of shungite) had the maximal activity according to the amperometric method. The obtained data indicate that shungite has antioxidant properties, but these are approximately 1000 times less pronounced than those of quercetin. A ShT20 sample (size fraction—20 µm + heat treatment) was found to have the highest antioxidant activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and cytotoxicity. Further studies, including the optimization of the antioxidant extraction conditions of shungite, and the analysis of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the obtained extracts, are required for a more accurate interpretation of the results. Shungite can be applied as an alternative to activated carbon in water purification, due to its absorption, catalytic, antioxidant, regenerating, and antibacterial properties, as well as its high environmental safety and relatively low cost. It is possible to identify new structural forms of carbon within, and other valuable properties of, shungite substance, which will make it possible to create effective technologies for the practical use of shungite rocks, particularly in the production of fullerenes and other carbon nanoclusters.
... The shungite water can be classified as ferric mineral water with the average content of Fe +3 of about 76 mg/L (up to 2,600 mg/L). It also includes rather high concentrations of Al, Cu, Ni, and Zn: up to 220, 20, 48, and 230 mg/L, respectively (Tsarfis, 1991;Charykova et al., 2006). ...
... During contact with water, fullerenes together with C and trace elements pass into the water in minor doses (Rysyev, 2001). Antibacterial properties of the shungite water can be connected with the high concentrations of heavy metals (Charykova et al., 2006). ...
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Natural geochemical anomalies can both adversely and positively affect human health influencing the balance of trace elements in the organism. It is obvious that content of trace elements in a particular terrain is controlled by a combination of various climatic and landscape characteristics, which, in turn, depend on the geological, mineralogical, and geochemical features of bedrocks, as well as endogenous and exogenous geological processes. Endemic diseases usually exemplify links between human health and geological processes. On the other hand, humans have used geological products for healing since time immemorial. A major portion of both endemic-disease areas and balneological resorts are located within geodynamically active regions. This chapter consists of three parts. In the first part, we present a model for the development of geochemical halos in geodynamically active regions. We distinguished three interrelated ore-forming systems playing a crucial role in the epigenesis: catagenetic, exfiltration, and infiltration. Fluid degassing via faults is the main factor responsible for the concentration of elements, mineralization, and formation of ore deposits. In the second part, we review health effects of natural abnormal concentrations of trace elements (i.e., F, Si, Co, Zn, As, Se, Sr, I, and U), Rn, and volcanic gases in the environment. In the third part, we address healing effects of natural geological products, such as mineral and thermal waters, clays, muds, moor, sapropel, sands, flints, shungite, salt, and shilajit. An assessment of health risks or benefits caused by geological materials should be started with the study of geological settings responsible for the concentration of trace elements and their geochemical features. It is important to map territories in terms of both epidemiological and balneological states, and to model their spatio-temporal dynamics under distinct environmental scenarios.
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Shungite is a natural carbon containing material that is widely used in water treatment. Scientific research shows that shungite has good adsorption properties towards various organic compounds and heavy metals, as well as exhibiting antibacterial properties. Unfortunately, at the same time shungite releases various chemical elements into the water, including heavy metals. In this study changes in concentration of various heavy metals during drinking water treatment with one commercial and one non-commercial shungite sample were determined. Also sorption of Cu(II) with initial concentration of 2,500 μg/L onto shungite was investigated. The results showed that various heavy metals like nickel, copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, chromium and arsenic are leaching from shungite into water. Lead and cadmium exceeded the maximum acceptable concentration in drinking water for a few days, but nickel exceeded for up to 2 weeks. At the same time shungite showed good adsorption properties towards copper. Nevertheless, before using shungite in drinking water treatment, it would be advisable to assess the necessity and/or wash shungite with larger volumes of water for a longer period of time than is written in the instructions.
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Systematic and regular epidemiological studies on endemic diseases and the natural environment in Russia and NIS are scarce and sporadic. However, there have been some studies of the links between health of the population and the geological background. Information on fluorine, iodine, arsenic, selenium, and other elements’ behavior in natural environment and their effect on human health is presented in this chapter and is the first attempt to synthesize the interdisciplinary knowledge on some geological factors which affect human health in Russia and NIS. Also anthropogenic factors are mentioned, however, of geological origin. Currently, the most important areas of the study in the field of Medical Geology in Russia – NIS are • Geological and geochemical aspects of medical geology in terms of modeling and mapping of the spreading of endemic diseases, toxic elements, such as uranium, fluoride, radon, arsenic, in subsurface, geosphere, and the atmosphere, and its effect on human health. • Urban and mining medical geology. • Crystal chemistry and crystal genesis of biogenic minerals of different origin. • The therapeutic usage of the minerals in terms of biological functions of the elements metals in medicine and industry, and economic minerals in medicine. This chapter, written by leading experts of Russia and NIS, will be of interest to a wide audience of geologists, geochemists, physicians, as well as historians.
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Shungitonosnye porody Karelii (Shungite Rock of Karelia), Petrozavodsk: Karel'sk
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