Sleep disorders and behavioural problems among 8- to 11-year-old children

Article · November 2005with44 Reads
DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-054X.2005.00073.x
Abstract
Question of the study: To assess the prevalence of sleep disorders in 8- to 11-year-old children and their relation to behavioural problems. Study design: A population based, cross-sectional survey was carried out among fourth-grade elementary school children in Cologne, Germany. A total of 8599 children were enrolled. Parent-completed and children-completed questionnaires were used to ascertain sleep disorders and behavioural problems. Results: In all, 4531 questionnaires were completed. Parent-reported sleep onset delays were frequent with 6% of the children, problems to sleep through the night with 3%, daytime sleepiness with 1%. Children-reported sleep onset delays were frequent with 10%, problems to sleep through the night with 6%, and daytime sleepiness with 3%. Children with these sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness had an increased risk of emotional problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems, and social difficulties compared with children without sleep disorders or daytime sleepiness. Conclusions: Sleep disorders are common among 8- to 11-year-old children. To assess the prevalence of sleep disorders among school children, parent-completed and children-completed questionnaires are necessary. Sleep onset delays, problems to sleep through the night, and daytime sleepiness among children are associated with an increased risk of behavioural problems.
    • Children in the age range of our sample are often asked to report their sleep behavior (e.g., Meijer, 2008; Spilsbury et al., 2005). They tend to identify more sleep problems than their parents, especially problems with falling asleep and restless sleep (Owens et al., 2000; Wiater et al., 2005). Our items were pretested in a study with 75 elementary school children (five occasions) and had to be brief and easy for children.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Recent studies have suggested substantial fluctuations of cognitive performance in adults both across and within days, but very little is known about such fluctuations in children. Children's sleep behavior might have an important influence on their daily cognitive resources, but so far this has not been investigated in terms of naturally occurring within-person variations in children's everyday lives. Methods In an ambulatory assessment study, 110 elementary school children (8–11 years old) completed sleep items and working memory tasks on smartphones several times per day in school and at home for 4 weeks. Parents provided general information about the children and their sleep habits. Results We identified substantial fluctuations in the children's daily cognitive performance, self-reported nightly sleep quality, time in bed, and daytime tiredness. All three facets were predictive of performance fluctuations in children's school and daily life. Sleep quality and time in bed were predictive of performance in the morning, and afternoon performance was related to current tiredness. The children with a lower average performance level showed a higher within-person coupling between morning performance and sleep quality. Conclusions Our findings contribute important insights regarding a potential source of performance fluctuations in children. The effect of varying cognitive resources should be investigated further because it might impact children's daily social, emotional, and learning-related functioning. Theories about children's cognitive and educational development should consider fluctuations on micro-longitudinal scales (e.g., day-to-day) to identify possible mechanisms behind long-term changes.
    Article · Jul 2014
    • The underlying reasons may be biological differences between sexes, which requires further investigation. The present study confirmed the associations between sleep disturbances and emotional/behavioral problems [2,282930313233. In addition to the high prevalence of sleep disturbances among the current sample, they also presented widespread emotional/behavioral problems.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The study aimed to (1) characterize sleep patterns and sleep disturbances among Chinese school-aged children, (2) determine the prevalence of their short sleep duration and sleep disturbances based on clinical cutoffs, and (3) examine possible factors (socio-demographic factors and emotional/behavioral problems) that are associated with sleep disturbances. Methods: A large representative sample of 912 children aged 6-14years was recruited from Shenzhen, China. Their parents completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: The mean bedtime was 9:45pm (SD=1h 11min), mean wake-up time was 7:03am (SD=31min), mean sleep duration was 9h 14min (SD=46min), and 23.8% of the children had sleep duration <9h. Overall, 69.3% of the children suffered from global sleep disturbances (CSHQ total score >41). Bedtime resistance (22.9%), sleep anxiety (22.1%), sleep duration (21%) and daytime sleepiness (20%) were the most prevalent sleep disturbances; followed by sleep disordered breathing (12.1%), parasomnias (9.4%), sleep onset delay (6.9%), and night waking (5.2%). The prevalence of specific sleep disturbances ranged from 3.2% (falling asleep while watching television) to 81.9% (awakening by others in the morning). Correlations between most domains of sleep disturbances and emotional/behavioral problems were statistically significant (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that gender (β=0.10, p<0.01), school grade (β=-0.09, p<0.05), co-sleeping (β=0.25, p<0.01), emotional symptoms (β=0.24, p<0.01), conduct problems (β=0.09, p<0.05), and hyperactivity (β=0.17, p<0.01) accounted for significant variance in CSHQ total score. Conclusions: Short sleep duration and sleep disturbances are prevalent among Chinese school-aged children. Sleep disturbances are associated with gender, school grade, co-sleeping, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012
    • Auch in der Studie von Kraenz et al., die einen selbstkonzipierten Fragebogen einsetzten , gaben 9,9% befragter Eltern von Schulanfängern an, ihr Kind leide unter Einschlafproblemen, und 8% gaben Durchschlafprobleme an [15] . Für die 8- bis 11-jährigen Kinder wurden von 6–10% der befragten Eltern häufiges Vorkommen von Einschlafstörungen und häufige Durchschlafstörungen bei 3–6% der Kinder genannt [35] . In einer weiteren Publikation dieser Arbeitsgruppe wurden bei etwa 5% der Einschulungskinder von den Eltern häufige Einschlaf-sowie Durchschlafprobleme beschrieben [17].
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increasing number of children have sleep problems, especially insomnia. Psychic and performance impairments are frequent consequences. The family’s pediatrician is often the first person consulted for help. Data, collected using a questionnaire, are based on a sample of 167 pediatricians. They estimate that 3.3% of their cases suffer from insomnia. Despite a high assessment of parents’ burden, only 9.6% recommend consulting a psychologist, while 20% suggest naturopathic remedies or herbal sedatives. Pediatricians should explicitly check for sleep problems. Sleep-related diagnostics and counseling should be essential components in pediatric training.
    Article · Jun 2010
    • It may be plausible to assume that children with more behavioral and sleep problems are less motivated to take part in the survey, which would result in an underestimation of actual sleep problems in young school children. However, compared to other similar studies, these dropout rates appear to be common (e.g.,[42]53%;[22]46.9%;[40]67.3%). In conclusion, our Austrian (Salzburg) survey study confirms the high prevalence of sleep problems as well as the associations between sleep problems and daytime sleepiness with behavioral problems in 8to 11-year-old children.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010
    • Among recent findings, a cross-sectional, questionnairebased study of data from 4531 children aged 8 to 11 years concluded that sleep disorders were common among 8-to 11-year-old children, and that sleep onset delays, problems of sleeping through the night, and daytime sleepiness were associated with increased risk of behavioral problems. It is important to note that these behavioral problems included emotional problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems, and social difficulties (Wiater et al., 2005).
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was twofold: to assess psychological functioning, interactional competencies, and sleep patterns in children and adolescents with cleft lip and palate (CLP), and to compare these results with those from age- and gender-matched controls. It was hypothesized that participants with CLP would exhibit greater difficulties in psychological functioning, more interactional difficulties, and poorer sleep patterns than those without CLP. Thirty-two children and adolescents with CLP and 34 controls were recruited. Ages ranged from 6 to 16 years. For psychosocial assessment, the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and a questionnaire on interactional competencies (PIELCQ) were completed; for sleep assessment, a sleep log was completed for seven consecutive nights. Results: Participants with and without CLP did not differ with respect to emotional problems, conduct problems, or hyperactivity. With respect to interactional competencies, participants with CLP were six times more likely to report difficulties. Unfavorable sleep patterns were associated with psychosocial strain but not with the presence of CLP. Results indicate that children and adolescents with CLP may report that they have sleep irregularities as often as those without CLP. In adolescence, the presence of CLP may be associated with increased difficulties. Consequently, skill training to improve context-related social competencies may be appropriate.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2009
    • Overall, more research is needed looking into the discrepancies between children's and parents' ratings regarding the occurrence of nightmares in order to support the hypothesis of Schredl and Pall- mer [35] that non-reporting is the major underlying factor in the parental underestimation. This might also play a role in other sleep complaints (the data regarding sleep disorders of this sample are presented elsewhere [42]). One might also speculate that the child's estimates of nightmare frequency or daytime behavior might be biased or deficient, which means that more sophisticated methods of eliciting these variables are necessary, e.g., interviews or sleep dia- ries.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the relationship between daytime symptomatology and nightmare frequency in school-aged children by eliciting daytime symptoms and nightmare frequency from children directly in addition to questionnaires completed by their parents. A sample of 4,834 parents and 4,531 of their children (age range: 8-11 years) completed each a sleep questionnaire and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). The results of the study clearly indicate that there is an underestimation of nightmare frequency in the parents' ratings compared to the children's data (effect size: d = 0.30) and the closeness between influencing factors and nightmare frequency is considerably higher for the data based on the children's responses; the proportion of explained variance was twice as high. Therefore, it seems important for research and clinical practice to not to rely on parents' information but to ask the children about the occurrence of nightmares.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2008
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