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Paracobitis nanpanjiangensis, a new loach (Balitoridae: Nemacheilinae) from Yunnan, China

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A new species of the genus Paracobitis, Paracobitis nanpanjiangensis is described from tributaries of the Nanpanjiang River drainage in China. It is distinguished from its congeners, except P. oligolepis and P. wujiangensis, by body scaleless or with rudimentary scales (caudal peduncle with several deeply embedded scales). It can be differentiated from P. wujiangensis by the complete lateral line (vs. incomplete), lower dorsal crest reaching the vertical of origin of anal fin (vs. shorter and higher dorsal crest not reaching the base of anal fin). It is distinguished from P. oligolepis by the following characters: branched dorsal fin with 81/2 (a few 91/2) rays (vs. 91/2), interspaces between bars in front of dorsal fin conspicuously thinner than those behind (vs. vermiform markings), dorsal head without vermiform markings or obscure (vs. clearly vermiform markings on dorsal head), vertebrae 4 + 36–38 (vs. 4 + 39–41). Keywords Paracobitis -Balitoridae-New species-Yunnan-China
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Paracobitis nanpanjiangensis, a new loach (Balitoridae:
Nemacheilinae) from Yunnan, China
Rui Min &Xiaoyong Chen &Junxing Yang
Received: 15 March 2009 / Accepted: 13 January 2010 /Published online: 11 February 2010
#Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010
Abstract A new species of the genus Paracobitis,
Paracobitis nanpanjiangensis is described from
tributaries of the Nanpanjiang River drainage in China.
It is distinguished from its congeners, except P.
oligolepis and P. wujiangensis, by body scaleless or
with rudimentary scales (caudal peduncle with several
deeply embedded scales). It can be differentiated from
P. wujiangensis by the complete lateral line (vs.
incomplete), lower dorsal crest reaching the vertical
of origin of anal fin (vs. shorter and higher dorsal crest
not reaching the base of anal fin). It is distinguished
from P. oligolepis by the following characters:
branched dorsal fin with 81/2 (a few 91/2) rays (vs.
91/2), interspaces between bars in front of dorsal fin
conspicuously thinner than those behind (vs. vermi-
form markings), dorsal head without vermiform mark-
ings or obscure (vs. clearly vermiform markings on
dorsal head), vertebrae 4+3638 (vs. 4+ 3941).
Keywords Paracobitis .Balitoridae .New species .
Yunnan .China
Introduction
Species of Paracobitis (Bleeker 1863), are compara-
tively large-sized loaches inhabiting fresh waters of
Asia and China. There are 17 valid species in the
world, with nine valid species in China (Fishbase
2009). However, arguments about the taxonomical
assignment of Chinese Paracobitis exist. Chinese
authors (e.g. Zhu 1989) place these Chinese fishes
in the genus Paracobitis by having a long adipose
crest of uniform depth. Foreign authors (e.g., Kottelat
1990;Bǎnǎrescu and Nalbant 1995) place them in a
distinct genusHomatula (Nichols 1925)mainly
because of the great geographic distance and a
disjunct distribution pattern between the Chinese and
the western Asian Paracobitis, but they have done so
without examining materials from both sides of the
broad geographic distribution. Before examining
materials of both China and West Asia, we follow
Zhu (1989) and use Paracobitis as the genus for the
fishes in China.
Among the Chinese Paracobitis species, there are
three blind fishes, P. longibarbatus (Chen et al. 1998),
P. maolanensis (Li et al. 2006), P. posterodarsalus
(Ran et al. 2006). Du et al. (2008) placed P.
longibarbatus in the genus Triplophysa. Romero et
al. (2009) pointed out that P. m a o l a n e n s i s was
Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:199204
DOI 10.1007/s10641-010-9587-z
Xiaoyong Chen and Junxing Yang have contributed equally to
this paper.
R. Min :X. Chen (*):J. Yang
State key laboratory of genetic resources and evolution,
Kunming Institute of Zoology,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
32 Jiao Chang Dong Road,
Kunming, Yunnan 650223, Peoples Republic of China
e-mail: chenxy@mail.kiz.ac.cn
R. Min
Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
10039 Beijing, Peoples Republic of China
probably a species of Triplophysa and distinct from
longibarbatus;P. posterodarsalus might be a junior
synonym of T. longibarbatus. Authors agree with the
opinions above mainly because P. maolanensis and P.
posterodarsalus share the following characters with T.
longibarbatus: scaleless, no externally visible eyes,
depigmented, caudal fin deeply forked, semi-transparent
body. These characters are distinguished from the genus
Paracobitis (Du et al. 2008). Therefore, only eight
species or subspecies of Chinese Paracobitis are
included in this study, i.e. P. variegatus variegatus
(Sauvage and Dabry de Thiersant 1874), P. potanini
(Günther 1896), P. anguillioides (Zhu and Wang 1985),
P. erhaiensis (Zhu and Cao 1988), P. oligolepis (Cao
and Zhu in Zheng 1989), P. wujiangensis (Ding and
Deng 1990), P. acuticephalus (Zhou and He 1993),
P. variegatus longidorsalis (Yang et al. 1994).
Eight valid species and subspecies of Chinese Para-
cobitis are included in this study: Paracobitis varie-
gatus variegatus (Sauvage and Dabry de Thiersant
1874), Paracobitis potanini (Günther 1896), Para-
cobitis anguillioides (Zhu and Wang 1985), Para-
cobitis erhaiensis (Zhu and Cao 1988), Paracobitis
oligolepis (Cao and Zhu 1989), Paracobitis wujian-
gensis (Ding and Deng 1990), Paracobitis acuticepha-
lus (Zhou and He 1993), Paracobitis variegatus
longidorsalis (Yang et al. 1994).
In 1994, a medium-sized loach was collected in the
Niujie River, a tributary of Nanpanjiang River,
Yunnan, China. In this study we describe it as a new
species and compare it to the other eight species and
subspecies of the genus Paracobitis in China.
Materials and methods
Measurements were made point to point with dial
calipers to 0.1 mm. All measurements and counts
followed Kottelat (1990). X-ray films were used to
count vertebrae and fin rays. Species of Paracobitis
examined belonged to the collections of the Kunming
Institute of Zoology (KIZ), and the Chinese Academy
of Sciences. We compared Paracobitis erhaiensis and
P. wujiangensis based on the initial description
because of the absence of reference specimens.
Abbreviations used in this paper are: D, number of
dorsal fin rays; A, number of anal fin rays; V, number
of ventral fin rays; P, number of pectoral fin rays; C,
number of caudal fin rays.
Paracobitis nanpanjiangensis sp. nov. (Fig. 1)
Holotype: KIZ 1994000023, 1 ex., 86.4 mm SL; from
Niujie River (24°5746.9N; 104°1309.2E), a
tributary of Nanpanjiang River, at Niujie village,
Luoping County, Qujing City, China, 1994, collected
by Li Weixian.
Paratypes: KIZ 19940000181994000022,
19940000241994000037, 19 ex., 64.789.4 mm
SL, data as for the holotype.
Etymology: From Latin, refers to the Nanpanjiang
River drainage.
Diagnosis: Differs from all congeners, except P.
oligolepis and P. wujiangensis, in having a nearly
scaleless body. It can be further distinguished from P.
wujiangensis by having a complete lateral line (vs.
incomplete), lower dorsal crest extending to the
vertical line of the anal-fin origin (vs.higher and
shorter dorsal crest not reaching to vertical line of anal-
fin base); it is further distinguished from P. oligolepis
by a less slender caudal peduncle (10.013.0 vs.9.0
10.0), regular bars on the body (vs.clearly vermiform
markings), branched dorsal fin rays 81/2 (a few 91/2)
(vs.91/2), vertebrae 4+3638 (vs.4+3941).
Description: General body features are shown in
Fig. 1. Morphometric data are given in Table 1. Body
elongated, anterior portion cylindrical, posterior com-
pressed. Dorsal profile slightly convex; ventral profile
almost straight. Anus close to anal fin base, one eye-
diameter distance.
Head slightly depressed. Snout pointed. Anterior
nostril forming a valve, appressed posterior nostril.
Eye ovoid, horizontal axis longest; midway from tip
to posterior margin of operculum, slightly close to tip.
Fig. 1 Paracobitis nanpanjiangensis (holotype KIZ
1994000023, 86.4 mm SL): alateral and bdorsal views
200 Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:199204
Table 1 Counts and morphometric characters of Paracobitis fishes
P. nanpanjiangensis P. oligolepis P. v. longidorsalis
a
P. v. variegatus
b
P. anguillioides P. acuticephalus P. erhaiensis
c
P. potanini P.
wujiangensis
d
n=20 n=4 n=32 n=146 n=11 n=1 n=19 n=5 n=7
Total length (mm) 77.0104.2 88.1129.4 81.4162.9 119.9 66.591.5 62.985.5 52.087.0
(93.5, 8.1) (103.8, 17.8) (110.3, 17.0) (73.1, 9.4)
Standard length (mm) 64.789.4 75.5114.2 70.0139.0 55.0148.5 69.1144.6 106.5 76.2100.6 42.072.0
(80.5, 6.9) (90.3, 16.7) (95.5, 24.1) (86.9, 10.5)
D IV, 81/291/2 III, 91/2 III, 91/2 III, 81/291/2 IIIIV, 81/2 III, 81/2 IV, 71/281/2 III, 81/2 IV, 81/2
AIIIII , 51/2 II, 51/2 III, 51/2 III, 51/2 IIIIV, 51/2 III, 51/2 IV, 51/2 III, 51/2 IV, 51/2
P I,10 I,10 I,1011 I, 911 I, 910 I, 10 I, 910 I, 910 I, 89
V I, 7 I, 67 I, 7 I, 67I,67 I, 7 I, 67I,67I,5
C 9+8 9+8 9+8 9+8 9+8 9+8 1417 9 +8
Vertebrae 4 + 3638 4 +3941 4+ 4244 4 +4144 4+ 40 4+ 4042 4 + 3738 4+3536 4 + 3334+1
In % standard length (SL)
Head length (HL) 22.025.0 22.025.0 18.323.9 15.522.7 20.024.0 21.0 22.524.1 23.026.0 22.725.0
(23.3, 0.7) (23.5, 1.3) (21.4) (17.6) (21.8, 1.0) (23.3) (24.2, 1.3)
Body depth (BD) 12.015.0 13.013.0 11.414.4 9.714.6 13.017.0 15.0 15.619.0 15.017.0 14.717.9
(13.1, 0.9) (12.9, 0.1) (13.0) (11.9) (14.8, 1.1) (16.9) (16.1, 0.5)
Depth of caudal peduncle (DCP) 10.013.0 9.010.0 10.412.3 8.612.7 10.014.0 9.0 13.016.0 12.516.4
(10.9, 0.7) (9.4, 0.5) (11.5) (10.4) (11.3, 1.0) (14.5, 1.2)
Length of caudal peduncle (LCP) 17.021.0 16.020.0 18.323.7 18.224.6 17.025.0 19.0 15.419.0 13.016.0 11.112.5
(18.7, 0.9) (17.3, 1.7) (19.6) (20.9) (19.6, 2.2) (17.2) (14.7, 1.0)
In % HL
Snout length (LS) 40.048.0 40.044.0 37.340.0 34.642.0 40.050.0 44.0 36.443.5 40.045. 35.747.6
(44.6, 2.1) (41.7, 1.6) (38.4) (39.2) (44.2, 2.7) (40.0) (42.5, 2.5)
Interorbital width (IW) 16.023.0 19.023.0 23.227.3 18.630.3 26.030.0 23.0 27.030.0 29.431.3
(19.4, 1.8) (21.4, 1.9) (25.0) (24.2) (27.6, 1.2) (29.0, 1.1)
Eye diameter (ED) 14.018.0 15.017.0 13.717.2 11.516.7 12.017.0 14.0 15.320.2 12.013.0 17.919.2
(16.1, 1.0) (16.1, 0.9) (14.9) (14.5) (13.8, 1.5) (17.2) (12.6, 0.5)
DCP/LCP 50.070.0 51.057.0 45.566.7 38.266.7 54.063.0 49.0 40.055.6 90.0106.0 47.655.6
(58.3, 5.1) (54.5, 2.8) (59.2) (57.9, 2.5) (47.6) (99.1, 7.9)
a,b
from Yang et al. (1994)
c
from Zhu and Cao (1988)
d
from Ding and Deng (1990)
The mean and SD (standard deviation) are in parentheses
Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:199204 201
Mouth inferior. Upper jaw with a processus dentiformis
(defined by Kottelat 1990), lower jaw with an
undeveloped notch. Three pairs of barbels. Inner
rostral barbels extending to mouth corner, not reaching
anterior margin of eyes; outer rostral barbels, extend-
ing to vertical line of anterior nostril or posterior
nostril. Maxillary barbels extending to vertical line
from middle to posterior margin of eye.
Body scaleless (in 20 specimens, only one having
several pieces of embedded scales on caudal peduncle
near lateral line). Lateral line complete and straight.
Vertebra 4 + 3638 (20 specimens).
Dorsal fin rays iv, 8 1/29 1/2. Dorsal-fin margin
convex. Tip of the dorsal fin extending beyond
vertical line of anus but not reaching anal-fin origin.
Pectoral-fin rays i, 10. Tip of pectoral fin longer than
halfway from its origin to pelvic-fin origin. Origin of
pelvic fin at vertical of 1st or 2nd branched dorsal fin
ray. Tip of pelvic fin more than half of the distance from
its origin to anal-fin origin, but not reaching anus (a few
specimen surpassing anus). Anal-fin origin closer to
pelvic-fin origin than to caudal-fin base.
Tip of anal fin reaching about midway of the
distance from anal-fin origin to caudal-fin base.
Caudal fin slightly emarginated. Ventral and dorsal
adipose crests supported by rudimentary rays, dorsal
crest long, extending to the vertical of anterior origin
of anal-fin base.
Color patterns (preserved in 75% alcohol):
Body brown. Dark brown bars present along lateral
body surface, bars in front of dorsal fin tending to
twisted Xshaped which formed two bars, and
usually two neighboring bars united in pairs at their
upper extremity and divided vertically on the lower
part of body; those behind dorsal-fin double wider
and regular, almost as wide as interspaces; width of
interspaces increasing from head to caudal.
Habitat: Slow flowing stream.
Distribution: Paracobitis nanpanjiangensis sp.
nov. is presently only found in a tributary of the
upper Nanpanjiang River drainage, Niujie River (24°
5746.9N; 104°1309.2E), at Niujie village,
Luoping County, China, (Fig. 2).
Discussion
Paracobitis fishes are widely distributed in China.
The new species and P. variegatus longidorsalis,P.
oligolepis occur in the same drainagethe Nanpan-
jiang River. The new species is clearly different from
P. v. longidorsalis and P. oligolepis in morphology.
Fig. 2 Distribution of Chi-
nese Paracobitis.Paracobi-
tis nanpanjiangensis sp.
nov. (), Paracobitis oligo-
lepis (), Paracobitis vari-
egatus variegatus (),
Paracobitis variegates
longidorsalis (), Paraco-
bitis wujiangensis (), Par-
acobitis potanini (),
Paracobitis erhaiensis (),
Paracobitis acuticephalus
() and Paracobitis anguil-
lioides (). ‥—‥National
boundaries, - - - - - - - - -
Province boundaries
202 Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:199204
Paracobitis nanpanjiangensis has a scaleless or
rudimentary body, the same as P. oligolepis. It differs
from P. oligolepis in having a less slender caudal
peduncle 10.013.0% SL vs.9.010.0%; vertebrae
4+3638 vs.4+3941; surface of pectoral fin and
dorsal fin without spots vs.spots present on dorsal
side; longer outer rostral barbels, extending to anterior
nostril vs.not; origin of pelvic fin under vertical line
of 1st or 2nd branched dorsal-fin rays vs.2nd or 3rd;
body with regular bars vs.vermiform markings;
dorsal head without vermiform markings or obscure
vs.with clear vermiform markings.
It can be further distinguished from P. v. long-
idorsalis by the following characters: lower jaw with
an undeveloped notch vs.smooth; anterior nostril
forming a valve vs.a short tube; axillary pelvic lobe
without a pointed tip undivided from body vs.a point
tip divided from body; origin of pelvic fin under
vertical line of 1st or 2nd branched dorsal fin rays vs.
origin of pelvic fin under vertical line of dorsal-fin
origin; maxillary barbels reaching vertical line of
middle or posterior margin of eye vs.reaching vertical
line of anterior or middle margin of eye; interspaces
between bars in front of dorsal fin conspicuously
thinner than those behind vs.quite uniform width; LS
40.048.0 % HL vs.37.340.0%; IW 16.023.0 %
HL vs.23.227.3%; vertebrae 4+3638 vs.4+4244.
Key to species of the genus Paracobitis in China*.
1(14) Lateral line complete, extending to caudal-
peduncle base; maxillary barbels short, extending
from anterior to posterior margin of orbital;
vertebra 4+3644.
2(5) Body scaleless or with rudimentary scales
present at caudal peduncle.
3(4) Body and head with vermiform markings,
dorsal fin and pectoral fin covered by small spots
on both sides; tip of pelvic fin quite far away
from anus, branched dorsal-fin rays 91/2, depth
of caudal peduncle 9.010.0% standard length,
vertebrae 4+3941, Yangzonghai Lake, Yunnan
Province......Paracobitis oligolepis (Cao & Zhu)
4(3) Body with regular vertical bars, and bars in
front of dorsal fin conspicuously thinner than those
behaind; no vermiform markings on parietal area or
obscure; tip of pelvic fin closing or reaching anus,
branched dorsal-fin rays 81/2 (a few 91/2), depth of
caudal peduncle 10.013.0% standard length,
vertebrae 4+3638, Nanpanjiang basin around
Luopin County, Yunnan Province..…….............
Paracobitis nanpanjiangensis sp. nov
5(2) Scales clearly present, covered posterior of
body at least.
6(9) Body depth extremely decreased posterior of
dorsal-fin base.
7(8) Head and belly in front of dorsal-fin
origin without scales; tip of pectoral fin
surpassing the half of the distance from its
origin to pelvic-fin origin; vertebrae 4+3738,
Erhai Lake, Yunnan Province……...……....
Paracobitis erhaiensis (Zhu & Cao)
8(7) Whole body covered by scales except head;
tip of pectoral fin not reaching the half of
distance from its origin to pelvic-fin origin;
vertebrae 4+4042, Haixihai Lake, Yunnan
Province..............................………….............
Paracobitis acuticephalus (Zhou & He)
9(6) Body depth quite uniform from head to tail.
10(13) Scales only present at posterior of body.
11(12) Anterior nostril situated at a valve; branched
dorsal-fin rays 81/2 (a few 91/2); maxillary barbels
reaching the vertical of middle or posterior margin
of eye; 14 vermiform markings on parietal area or
obscure, Jinshajiang basin, Weihe basin..........
Paracobitis variegatus variegatus (Sauvage &
Dabry)
12(11) Anterior nostril situated at a short tube;
branched dorsal-fin rays 91/2; maximum barbels
reaches the vertical from anterior margin to middle
of eye; numerous vermiform markings on top of
head, Nanpanjiang basin around Yiliang County
and Zhanyi County, Yunnan Province......
Paracobitis variegatus longidorsalis (Yang, Chen
&Kottelat)
13(10) Scales covered whole body except head,
snout blunt, wide head with inflated cheeks,
vertebra 4+ 40, Mekong basin, Salween basin
around Yunnan Province…………...................
Paracobitis anguillioides (Zhu & Wang)
14(1) Lateral line incomplete, stop at the vertical
of dorsal fin; maxillary barbels long, mostly
surpassing the posterior margin of orbital; verte-
bra 4+3336.
15(16) Scales present, covered whole body
except head and belly; dorsal crest high and
long, from dorsal-fin base to caudal-fin base,
Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:199204 203
Jinshajiang basin………………………………
………….............Paracobitis potanini (Günther)
16(15) Body scaleless or with rudimentary scales,
dorsal crest high and shot, upper crest not
reaching the posterior point of anal-fin base,
Wujiang basin……………………….............
.............Paracobitis wujiangensis (Ding & Deng)
* Modified based on Chen (1999)
Comparative materials
Paracobitis acuticephalus, holotype, KIZ 784141, 1
ex., 106.5 mm SL, collected in Lake Haixihai, Eryuan
County, Dali City, Yunnan Province, China in 1978.
Paracobitis anguillioides, KIZ 2005012635
2005012639, 5 ex., 86.8137.8 mm SL, collected in
Lincang City, Yunnan Province, China in 2005;
2008006532, 2008006534, 2008006535,
2008006539. 2008006542, 2008006543, 6 ex., 69.1
144.6 mm SL, collected in Eryuan County, Dali
Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China in 2008.
Paracobitis oligolepis, KIZ 1985000829, 1 ex.,
169.7 mm SL, 774557774560, 4 ex., 75.5
114.2 mm SL, collected in Zhanyi County, Yunnan
Province, China in 1985, 1977.
Paracobitis potanini, KIZ 200800645
2008006549, 5 ex., 62.985.5 mm SL, collected in
Yibin City, Sichuan Province, China in 2008.
Paracobitis variegatus longidorsalis,KIZ
874042874043, 874045874048, 874050, 874198
874216, 26 ex., 46.189.5 mm SL, collected in
Yiliang County, Yunnan Province, China in 1987.
Paracobitis variegatus variegatus, KIZ 82101110
8210117, 8210112082101127, 8210113482101145,
28 ex., 63.0119.0 mm SL, collextec in Yanjin and
Weixin County, Yunnan Province, China in 1982.
Acknowledgement We are deeply indebted to Li Weixian for
collecting specimens. The authors are grateful to Du Lina for her
valuable suggestions that greatly improved the manuscript. This
work was supported by National Basic Research Program of
China (2007CB411600), the National Natural Science Foundation
of China (30730017), and the Knowledge Innovation Program of
the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KSCX2-YW-Z-0922).
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Zootaxonomica Sinica 10(2):208220
204 Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:199204
... Homatula is restricted to China but is widely distributed in rivers, streams, and lakes. However, Homatula species rarely cross river distributions and are narrowly dispersed to limited geographical areas and drainages (Min et al. 2010(Min et al. , 2012(Min et al. , 2013Yang et al. 2017;Endruweit et al. 2018;Li et al. 2019). Currently, 20 valid species are recognized (Fricke et al. 2021), including five species in the Yangtze River, i.e., H. variegata (Dabry de Thiersant, 1874), H. wujiangensis (Ding and Deng, 1990), H. berezowskii (Günther, 1896), H. guanheensis Zhou, Ma, Wang, Tang, Meng andNie, 2021 andtype species H. potanini (Günther, 1896); one species in the Yellow River, i.e., H. laxiclathra Gu and Zhang, 2012; four species in the Lancangjiang River, i.e., H. anguillioides (Zhu and Wang, 1985), H. acuticephala (Zhou and He, 1993), H. pycnolepis Hu andZhang, 2010, andH. ...
... Currently, 20 valid species are recognized (Fricke et al. 2021), including five species in the Yangtze River, i.e., H. variegata (Dabry de Thiersant, 1874), H. wujiangensis (Ding and Deng, 1990), H. berezowskii (Günther, 1896), H. guanheensis Zhou, Ma, Wang, Tang, Meng andNie, 2021 andtype species H. potanini (Günther, 1896); one species in the Yellow River, i.e., H. laxiclathra Gu and Zhang, 2012; four species in the Lancangjiang River, i.e., H. anguillioides (Zhu and Wang, 1985), H. acuticephala (Zhou and He, 1993), H. pycnolepis Hu andZhang, 2010, andH. wuliangensis Min, Yang andChen, 2012; three species in the Nujiang River, i.e., H. anteridorsalis Li, Che and Zhou, 2019, H. cryptoclathrata Li, Che and Zhou, 2019, H. nigra Li, Che and Zhou, 2019; four species in the Red River, i.e., H. disparizona Min, Yang and Chen, 2013, H. change Endruweit, 2015, H. wenshanensis Li, Yang, Li and Liu, 2017and H. coccinocola Endruweit, Min and Yang, 2018 and three species in the Nanpanjiang River, i.e., H. oligolepis (Cao and Zhu, 1989), H. longidorsalis (Yang, Chen and Kottelat, 1994) and H. nanpanjiangensis (Min, Chen and Yang, 2010). Several Homatula species are also found in lake systems, including H. acuticephala in Haixihai Lake, H. anguillioide in Erhai Lake, and H. oligolepi in Yangzonghai Lake. ...
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Analyses of morphological and molecular data from specimens of Homatula from China reveal an undescribed species which lives in the Nanpanjiang River, the upper Pearl River, and indicate that H. acuticephala is a synonym of H. anguillioides . The new species is collected from Yunnan, China. It differs from its congeners by having a naked and robust body, developed adipose crests (depth of caudal peduncle in the percent of its length:70.53–78.48), a median notch on the lower jaw, a median gap on the lower lip, short barbels with maxillary barbels extend posteriorly reaching the anterior edge of eyes, vertebrae 37–38, completed lateral line. New species differs from other species of Homatula by 0.05–0.11 in K2P distance of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1. Phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 indicate that new species formed a sister group to co-drainage species. Based on both morphological and molecular results, we confirm that the validation of this undescribed species named H. robusta sp. nov. and describe it.
... The genus Homatula was described by Nichols (1925) as a subgenus of Barbatula with the type species being Nemacheilus potanini Günther 1896 from Minjiang (a tributary of Jinsha River, Sichuan, China). Because species of Homatula have adipose keels along the dorsal and ventral margins of the caudal peduncle highly resembling those of Paracobitis Bleeker 1863, many researchers have treated Homatula as a synonym of Paracobitis and traditionally ascribed all Chinese nemacheiline species with adipose keels of this nature to Paracobitis (Zhu & Wang 1985; Zhu & Cao 1988; Zhu 1989; Chu & Chen 1990; Ding & Deng 1990; Zhou & He 1993; Min et al. 2010). However, the type species of Paracobitis, as designated by Bleeker 1863, is Cobitis malaptera Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846 from Syria. ...
... Considering these morphological differences and the great geological disjunction by the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, we follow the suggestion of Kottelat (1990) and Bǎnǎrescu and Nalbant (1995) to treat these species as two independent lineages: all species endemic to the western slope of the Plateau as Paracobitis, and all species endemic to the eastern slope of the Plateau as Homatula. Thus far, a total of 11 valid species of Homatula have been reported from the eastern slope of the Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau, China: H. anguillioides (Zhu & Wang 1985), H. acuticephala (Zhou & He 1993), H. erhaiensis (Zhu & Cao 1988), H. variegata (Sauvage & Dabry 1874), H. longidorsalis (Yang et al. 1994), H. oligolepis (Cao & Zhu in Zheng et al. 1989), H. potanini (Günther 1896), H. wujiangensis (Ding & Deng 1990), H. nanpanjiangensis (Min et al. 2010), H. pycnolepis (Hu & Zhang 2010), H. laxiclathra (Gu & Zhang 2012). Herein, we describe an additional species of Homatula. ...
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A new species of Homatula, Homatula wuliangensis, is described from the Lancang River of the Wuliang Mountain, Pu- Er City, Jingdong County, Yunnan Province, China. Homatula wuliangensis sp. nov. is readily distinguished from other species of Homatula by the combination of several morphological characters, including a long upper lobe of the caudal fin relative to the lower lobe, high and long dorsal adipose crest, series of 22-26 very closely aligned body markings, body scaled, and 41-42 vertebrae. In addition, H. wuliangensis differs from the similar species H. anguillioides in having short-er barbels, spots on the caudal fin, the origin of the pelvic fin under the last simple dorsal-fin ray, and a pointed axillary pelvic lobe divided from the body. The new species is further distinguished from the similar species H. pysnolepis in hav-ing shorter barbels, lacking a notch on the lower jaw, and lacking vermiform markings on top of the head.
... No specimens of Homatula were collected from the main stream of the Lixian-jiang, Lancang-jiang, and Nu-jiang nor their large tributaries. The loaches of Homatula only inhabit mountain streams with rapid or gentle currents, vauclusian springs, underground rivers connected to streams, and ditches near villages and farmland [2,[5][6][7][8][24][25][26][27][28]. The water in their habitat is clear and pollution-free. ...
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Based on the morphological comparisons and molecular results, three new species of Homatula , i.e., H . geminusclathratus sp. nov., H . microcephala sp. nov., and H . longibarbatus sp. nov., have been described and named from the Lancang-jiang (the upper Mekong River) and the Chuan-he (the upper Black River, a tributary of the Red River) basins. The loaches of Homatula from the Lancang-jiang and the Chuan-he can be distinguished via morphology, genetics, and geographic distribution. All of the 10 recorded species distributed in the Nu-jiang (the upper Salween River), the Lancang-jiang, and the upper Black River share the following combination of character states: whole body, except head, densely scaled; lateral line complete; and a short adipose crest along the dorsal midline of the caudal peduncle, anteriorly not reaching vertically through the anal-fin origin. Species with these characters are called the densely-scaled group of Homatula . The three newly described species belong to the densely-scaled group of Homatula . Based on molecular phylogenetics, these Homatula species form a monophyletic group that can be divided into two clades, the densely-scaled group and the non-densely-scaled group. The densely-scaled group of Homatula includes 13 species occurring between the Nu-jiang and the upper Black River. The non-densely-scaled group is non-monophyletic and includes 14 species that are distributed in the Red, Pearl, Yangtze, and Yellow River basins. Species of the non-densely-scaled group are clustered into four sub-clades that are constrained to the four river basins. Homatula exclusively inhabits mountain streams with rapid or gentle currents, vauclusian springs, underground rivers connected to streams, and ditches near villages and farmland. No specimens of Homatula were collected from the main streams of Lixian-jiang, Lancang-jiang, and Nu-jiang as well as their large tributaries. Small environmental changes in the habitat of Homatula , such as water pollution or extensive human use, can lead to species/population extinction. Effective conservation of rare and endemic fishes, like loaches of Homatula , entails systematic observations and more targeted protection.
... Despite the monophyletic nature of Homatula recovered in molecular phylogenetic analyses (Endruweit et al., 2018;, the taxonomy of this genus is far from well understood. The past decade has witnessed the discovery and description of many new species (Endruweit, 2015;Endruweit et al., 2018;Hu & Zhang, 2010;Li et al., 2019;Min et al., 2010;Min et al., 2013;Min et al., 2022;Nguyen et al., 2021;Zhou et al., 2021). ...
Article
Despite the wide recognition of Homatula variegata (Dabry de Thiersant, 1874) as a valid Chinese loach, its type locality, identity and distribution still remain contentious. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochrondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene for samples from all known range of the species demonstrated that three distinct species are involved. Morphological comparisons, coupled with examination on the types, confirmed that H. variegata s. str. is characterized by having a sparsely‐scaled predorsal body, an adipose crest along the dorsal midline of the caudal peduncle that extends forwards to the vertical through the posterior end of the anal‐fin base, and a broadly rounded caudal fin. It is found merely in the Wei‐He of the Huang‐He basin. The Jinsha‐Jiang population, previously misidentified as H. variegata, represents a distinct species, for which H. oxygnathra is the available name. Homatula laxiclathra, endemic to the Wei‐He, is also a valid species distinct from H. variegata. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Three Homatula species have been reported from the Nanpanjiang River, i.e., H. oligolepis (Cao & Zhu, 1989), H. longidorsalis (Yang, Chen & Kottelat, 1994) and H. nanpanjiangensis (Min, Chen & Yang, 2010). In 2009, a medium-sized loach was collected from Luoping County, Yunnan Province, China, which belongs to the Nanpanjiang River drainage. ...
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Based on morphological and molecular analysis of Homatula species distributed in the Nanpanjiang River in Yunnan, China, we described a new species, Homatula robusta sp. nov. It differs from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: naked and robust body with well-developed crests (caudal peduncle depth as a percentage of its length: 70.5–78.5%); lateral line complete; median notch on lower jaw; median gap on lower lip; three pairs of short barbels, with maxillary barbels extending posteriorly to anterior edge of eyes; branched dorsal-fin rays 8½; and vertebrae 37–39. It can further be distinguished from H. nanpanjiangensis by several differences of the caudal skeleton such as the number of hypural elements, the presence of epurale and the shape of neural and haemal spines. Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene indicated that the new species represents an independent lineage. It is separated from other Homatula species by a minimum of 5.3% Kimura-2-parameter distance in the COI gene. Furthermore, we confirmed that Homatula wenshanensis should be a member of Homatula based on both skeleton and molecular evidence.
... H. anguillioides (Zhu & Wang 1985), H. pycnolepis Hu & Zhang 2010, H. wuliangensis Min, Yang & Chen 2012, and H. erhaiensis (Zhu & Cao 1988). Homatula longidorsalis (Yang, Chen & Kottelat 1994), H. nanpanjiangensis (Min, Chen & Yang 2010), and H. oligolepis (Cao & Zhu 1989) Species of the genus Homatula usually do not occur in abundance. In some instances, they coexist with other nemacheilid loaches such as Schistura. ...
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Homatula coccinocola, new species, is described from a Red River affluent in Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan, China. The combination of a fully scaled body, a notched lower jaw, 4+42–44 vertebrae, 11 pectoral-fin and 8 pelvic-fin rays, and a color pattern of 16–19 brown, somewhat straight and vertically solid bars on a beige background distinguishes the new species from its congeners. The generic diagnosis of Homatula is revised.
... Members of the genus Paracobitis Bleeker, 1863 are comparatively large-sized loaches with a long dorsal dermal crest, inhabiting freshwaters of western Asia (Banarescu and Nalbant 1964;Bănărescu and Nalbant 1995;Nalbant and Bianco 1998;Nguyen 2005;Prokofiev 2009;Min et al. 2010;Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015;Azimi et al. 2015aAzimi et al. , 2015bAzimi et al. , 2015c. There are twelve valid species of the genus Paracobitis in the world, which eleven of them are reported from Iran (Kottelat 2012;Coad 2016;Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2014;Freyhof et al. 2014;Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015). ...
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This study was carried out to provide a detailed osteological structure of the newly described crested loach, Paracobitis persa. For this purpose, ten specimens were collected from the Malsosjan spring, in the Kor River basin and fixed in 5% buffered formalin. After clearing and staining, their skeletal structure was examined. The results were compared to the other members of the family Nemacheilidae particularly P. hyrcanica and P. iranica. Based on the results, P. persa can be distinguished from other members of this family by a combination of characters, including having lacking sesamoid ossifications, having six hypurals, a triangular-shaped lateral ethmoid with pointed ends, alveolar bony capsule, no contact between retroarticular and dental, lack of the pre-ethmoid-I and basibrancial-4.
... The loaches with a high dorsal dermal-crest have been placed in the genus Paracobitis Bleeker, 1863 for many years, specifically those from Central Asia (Banarescu and Nalbant, 1964), Vietnam (Nguyen, 2005), the Middle East (Prokofiev, 2009) and China (Min et al., 2010). The genus Paracobitis was appointed by Bleeker (1863) for Cobitis malapterura. ...
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Paracobitis vignai is a Nemacheilid loach endemic to the Sistan basin. It occurs in the Helmand River and its related reservoirs in Sistan-va-Baluchistan Province in southeastern Iran and probably in Afghanistan. This species is currently endangered due to habitat loss or degradation, damming and droughts. Therefore, this paper reviews the available data on taxonomy and distribution of P. vignai, provides its morphometric features, and recommends actions for its conservation.
... Family Nemacheilidae has the greatest diversity in Iranian fresh waters after Cyprinindae (Nelson, 2006; JouladehRoudbar et al., 2015). The loaches with a longdorsal dermal crest have been placed in the genus Paracobitis Bleeker, 1863 for many years, specifically those from Central Asia (Banarescu and Nalbant, 1964), Vietnam (Nguyen, 2005), the Middle East (Prokofiev, 2009) and China (Min et al., 2010). The genus Paracobitis was appointed by Bleeker (1863) for Cobitis malapterura. ...
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This study was carried out to describe of osteological structure of the newly described crested loach, Paracobitis hircanica Mousavi-Sabet et al., 2015. For this purpose, ten specimens were collected from the Zaringol River, in the southeastern Caspian Sea basin. After clearing and staining, osteologicl characteristics were examined. The obtained results showed that the P. hircanica is osteologicaly characterized by plate-like protrusion in epibranchial-4, no sesamoid ossifications, five hypurals, free and long epural, no connection between retroarcticulare and dental, loss of preethmoideum-I and basibranciale-4, alveolar bony capsule and presence of the manubrium.Our Nature (2015), 13(1): 8-18
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The genus Homatula belongs to the order Cypriniformes and family Nemacheilidae. Nichols (1925) set up the genus as a subgenus of Barbatula by the type species of Nemacheilus potanini . Currently, it is recognised as a valid genus. Nineteen valid species have been already reported in the drainage of the Yellow, Yangtze, Pearl, Lancang, Red and Nujiang Rivers. H. variegata , H. longidorsalis , H. berezowskii and H. potanini are distributed in the Yangtze River drainage in China. H. laxiclathra is mainly distributed in the Weihe River, a tributary of the Yellow River. The remaining species are mainly distributed in the rivers of Yunnan Province. Homatula guanheensis sp. nov., a new species, is described from the Guanhe River of the HanJiang River drainage (a tributary of the Yangtze River), Xixia County, Henan Province, China. It can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: the vertical brown bars on the body are wider than their interspaces, numbering 19–22; predorsal body partially scaled; the lateral line complete; adipose crest on caudal peduncle not reaching forward; the position of the anal-fin origin and the intestinal form. The new species displays distinct molecular divergence in the Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and Cytochrome b (Cyt b ) genes.
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The loach genus Oreonectes is reviewed in this study. Six valid species are recognized, including two new species. Oreonectes polystigmus sp. nov., and Oreonectes microphthalmus sp. nov. are described from the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Among its congeners, O. polystigmus is most similar to O. platycephalus in morphology. It can be distinguished from all its congeners by an incomplete lateral line with 6-8 pores; a cephalic lateral-line system with 7 supraorbital and 4+7 infraorbital pores; sexual dimorphism (males have a genital papilla located immediately posterior of the anus, and the gonad is opened at the end of a fleshy prominence); and a body with many differently shaped spots. Oreonectes microphthalmus is most similar to O. furcocaudalis in morphology. It can be distinguished from all congeners by its degenerate eyes, which only have black pigment; a cephalic lateral-line system with 2+2 supratemporal, 7 supraorbital, 3+0 infraorbital and 8 preoperculomandibular pores; and an incomplete lateral line with 3 pores. A key to all valid Oreonectes species is provided. The validity of some related species is discussed. Nemacheilus liboensis, Oreonectes liboensis and Oreonectes translucens are all proved to be synonyms of Paracobitis longibarbatus, and Paracobitis longibarbatus is actually a species of Triplophysa.
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During February and March 1995, a Slovenian caving expedition led by Andrej Mihevc in association with the Institute of Karst Geology from Guilin explored the karst region in Libo County, south of Guizhou, a province in China. During the expedition, 3 blind loach specimens were collected by Gregor Aljancic. They have been recognized as a new species of the genus Paracobitis: P. longibarbatus, sp. nov. The new species possesses the following characters: adipose keel is present along the dorsal and ventral edge of caudal peduncle, depth of adipose keel less than half of depth of caudal peduncle; nostrils are situated closely together, the anterior nostril formed into a tube with a long nostral barbel. These characters indicate that it belongs to the genus Paracobitis, regardless of the presence of a nostral barbel at the terminal of nostral tube. Similar nostral tube was observed also in P. variegates longidorsalis Yang et al. The eyes and pigment are disappeared as the result of convergent evolution adapting to the lightless habitat. The same convergent phenomena are prevalent in the cavefishes of Cobitidae and Cyprinidae. This new species is the first blind loach in the genus Paracobitis, representing a specialized lineage of the genus. It is related to epigean P. variegatus longidorsalis which occurs in the same basin, Xijiang Basin. The new species can be easily distinguished from all congeneric species by the following characters: eyes and pigment disappeared, anterior nostril tube-like with a nostral barbel at the terminal; barbels, pectoral and pelvic fins well elongated; posterior margin of caudal fin strongly concave. The entrance of the cave in which cave fish were caught is located approximately 13 km NE from the town Liho. The entrance is situated about 500 m above sea level. Near the entrance passage, the stream ends in an 90 m long and 2-5 m wide sump lake. The rate of now was about 10 L/s. The bottom of the lake was covered with sand and rock. The expedition team visited the cave three times. Each time they counted up about 10 specimens of fishes, half of which stayed on the bottom of the initial part of the lake. Light from the entrance shaft does not reach the water, so the fish live in total darkness. Despite their reduced eyes, it seems that light disturbs animal. When pointing at them with a torch they withdrew from the field of light. Although lightless and food shortage in cave habitat are the major environmental stress to the survival of the fishes, they are also the important factors affecting the evolution of cavefishes. After the epigean ancestor was brought by water current into the subterrestrial river, the process of its morphology specialization (e. g., the convergent characters mentioned above) began to adapt to the cave habitat. In addition to the convergent characters mentioned above, some morphological specialization are unique to P. longibarbatus in comparison to its epigean congeneric species, these are demonstrated as following. (1) Paired fins are greatly elongated. Paired fins function as balance and direction control as well as motivation (Meng et al., 1987). The paired fins of cavefishes are supposed here to have some sensory function because the elongation of paired fins is particularly prevalent in cavefishes, for example Triplophysa xiangxiensis whose pectoral fin extends posteriorly beyond the anal fin origin. (2) Both rostral and maxillary barbels are well developed. Barbels play a role in taste senses, a structure of food detecting. The anterior rostral barbel is particularly elongated in P. longibarbatus, being about 50% the head length. In its epigean congeneric species, the length of anterior rostraI barbel is less than 20% the head length. After the eyes do not work in the lightless habitat, it is essential for the sensory function of barbels to be strengthened. The similar elongation of barbels has been observed in Triplophysa gejuensis and Triplophysa shilinensis. (3) Top of nostril tube is prolonged into a nostral barbel. In the subfamily Nemacheilinae, only a few taxa such as the genera Lefua and Oreonectes possess a nostral barbel. All previously reported species of Paracobitis have no nostral barbels. The anterior and posterior nostrils of Lefua and Oreonectes are separated with a short distance. The nostrils of the new species are set closely together, the same situation occurs in all Paracobitis species. This indicates that the new species is related to and should be assigned to the genus Paracobitis. The nostril barbel of the new species is interpreted here as an indepently acquisitive structure pararell to Lefua and Oreonectes. (4) Formation of some unique structures. Morphological structure of cavefishes is specialized to various magnitudes in adaptation to lightless habitats. The interspecific difference in the magnitudes of specialization is usually not linked to the difference in caves and represent stages in subterrestrial life history of cavefishes. Some highly specialized cavefishes have evolved some unique structures, such as the sensory buds, ridges or tiny sensory processes on head of Amhlyopsis spelaeus, Stygicola dentatus. Some cave-dwelling Sinocyclocheilus species have produced unique horn-like projection from the rear of head. In the new species, a transparent oval area is present posterodorsally to the gill opening. This structure has been observed only in the new species. It is supposed here to represent a unique sensory organ.
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China has 92 described species of hypogean (cave and artesian) fishes. That is nearly one third of all the described hypogean fish species (299), more than any other country. Of all Chinese hypogean fishes 56 species show troglomorphisms, i.e., adaptations that have been correlated to the hypogean environment such as reduction and/or loss of eyes, pigmentation, and the gas bladder. Additionally, two other characters seem to be unique to some Chinese hypogean species: presence of a horn-like structure and hyperdevelopment of the dorsal protuberance similar to a humpback. Despite the fact that the first written account of a cave fish was for species found in China in 1540 (Romero 2001; and Introduction to this special volume), almost all the new descriptions have taken place in the last 20years mostly in papers written in Chinese and/or in journals of difficult access outside China. This paper summarizes all the knowledge we have on the hypogean fishes of China and puts them in context regarding all the hypogean fishes in the world. KeywordsHypogean fishes-Biodiversity-Systematics-Taxonomy-Geographical distribution; convergent evolution
Article
The loach genus Oreonectes is reviewed in this study. Six valid species are recognized, including two new species. Oreonectes polystigmus sp. nov., and Oreonectes microphthalmus sp. nov. are described from the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Among its congeners, O. polystigmus is most similar to O. platycephalus in morphology. It can be distinguished from all its congeners by an incomplete lateral line with 6–8 pores; a cephalic lateral-line system with 7 supraorbital and 4+7 infraorbital pores; sexual dimorphism (males have a genital papilla located immediately posterior of the anus, and the gonad is opened at the end of a fleshy prominence); and a body with many differently shaped spots. Oreonectes microphthalmus is most similar to O. furcocaudalis in morphology. It can be distinguished from all congeners by its degenerate eyes, which only have black pigment; a cephalic lateral-line system with 2+2 supratemporal, 7 supraorbital, 3+0 infraorbital and 8 preoperculomandibular pores; and an incomplete lateral line with 3 pores. A key to all valid Oreonectes species is provided. The validity of some related species is discussed. Nemacheilus liboensis, Oreonectes liboensis and Oreonectes translucens are all proved to be synonyms of Paracobitis longibarbatus, and Paracobitis longibarbatus is actually a species of Triplophysa.
Description de quelques espèces de poissons nouvelles ou peu connues de Chine envoyées au musee de Leide par M
  • Bleeker