The Persian Gulf Basin: geological history, sedimentary formations, and petroleum potential. Lithology Miner Res

Faculty of Geology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moskva, Moscow, Russia
Lithology and Mineral Resources (Impact Factor: 0.4). 07/2006; 41(4):344-361. DOI: 10.1134/S0024490206040055


The Persian Gulf Basin is the richest region of the World in terms of hydrocarbon resources. According to different estimates,
the basin contains 55–68% of recoverable oil reserves and more than 40% of gas reserves. The basin is located at the junction
of the Arabian Shield and Iranian continental block that belong to two different (Arabian and Eurasian) lithospheric plates.
Collision of these plates at the Mesozoic/Cenozoic boundary produced the Zagros Fold Belt and the large Mesopotamian Foredeep,
which is a member of the Persian Gulf Basin. During the most part of the Phanerozoic, this basin belonged to an ancient passive
margin of Gondwana, which was opened toward the Paleotethys Ocean in the Paleozoic and toward the Neotethys in the Mesozoic.
Stable subsidence and the unique landscape-climatic conditions favored the accumulation of a very thick sedimentary lens of
carbonate rocks and evaporites (up to 12–13 km and more). Carbonate rocks with excellent reservoir properties are widespread,
while the evaporites play the role of regional fluid seals. Organicrich rocks, which can generate liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons
(HC), are present at different levels in the rock sequence.

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    • "Early Cretaceous Kazhdumi, Late Cretaceous Gurpi and Paleogene Pabdeh formations are important source rock candidates of this petroleum system. For this system, the Asmari and Bangestan carbonates are the main reservoirs; the Asmari reservoir is efficiently capped by evaporites of the Gachsaran Formation of the later stage of the collision (Hessami et al., 2001; Homke et al., 2004; Bordenave and Hegre, 2005; Konyuhov and Maleki, 2006). The sediments composing the Persian Gulf are up to 10,000 m thick and, except for the missing of Devonian and Carboniferous systems, the succession is a nearly continuous, conformable sequence from the Infra-Cambrian Hormuz Salt to the recent (Fig. 3). "
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    ABSTRACT: The marls and argillaceous limestones of the Early Cretaceous Kazhdumi,Late Cretaceous Gurpi and Paleogene Pabdeh formations are considered as potential source rock candidates in this area. The present study characterizes hydrocarbon potential, type of organic matter and thermal maturity of these three formations in the Iranian sector of the Persian Gulf. Also, 1D basin modeling was used to analyse the burial history and timing of hydrocarbon generation in these formations. A total of 179 cutting samples from 25 wells were evaluated through Rock-Eval pyrolysis and organic petrography. Average total organic carbon (TOC) content for the samples of the Kazhdumi, Gurpi and Pabdeh formations that were analyzed for the current study is 1.2, 0.9 and 1 wt.%, respectively. All three formations show lower TOC contents in central part relative to eastern and western parts of the study area. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and organic petrography show that the organic matter in all three formations is mainly composed of Type II and mixed Type II–III kerogen. This study shows that the Kazhdumi, Gurpi and Pabdeh formations in Iranian offshore areas are not as rich as onshore areas, and specifically in the Dezful Embayment, in terms of organic matter quantity and quality. Thermal history modeling indicates that constant heat flow values in the range of 64-73 mW/m2 gives the best fit between measured and calculated vitrinite reflectance and bottom hole temperature. The Rock–Eval Tmax, vitrinite reflectance and the generated models suggested that in the eastern parts of the study area, the Kazhdumi Formation is at the last stage of oil generation and the Gurpi and Pabdeh formations are within the main oil generation window. Hydrocarbon generation began in Early Eocene, Middle Eocene and Early Miocene in the Kazhdumi, Gurpi and Pabdeh formations, respectively. In the western parts of the Persian Gulf, the Kazhdumi Formation is within the main oil window with hydrocarbon generation took place during Oligocene and the Gurpi and Pabdeh formations are early mature and immature, respectively. All three formations are thermally immature in the central part of the Persian Gulf. The Kazhdumi Formation shows positive correlation with the crude oils of the Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs taken from northwestern Persian Gulf. The Pabdeh and Gurpi formations show no correlation with crude oils produced in the northwestern and southeastern Persian Gulf.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Marine and Petroleum Geology
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    • "Geologically, the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula, also known as the Arabian Shelf, was formed by successive cycles of transgression and regression of the Gulf waters during the Pleistocene and Holocene periods (El- Naggar 1988). The Arabian Shelf currently comprises sedimentary rock strata that range from the Cambrian to the Quaternary periods (Abduljauwad 1994; Konyuhov and Maleki 2006). The strata dip gently at a slope of 1 m/km toward the east and northeast until they merge with the Arabian Gulf (Slater 1983). "
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    ABSTRACT: Compacted sand-expansive clay mixture with low hydraulic conductivity and appropriate shear strength is employed as liner systems for waste containment systems to prevent groundwater contamination by leachate from the waste. The aim of this study was to assess the shear strength behavior and swelling potentials of sand-attapulgite clay mixtures. The attapulgite clay used in this study was obtained from the eastern province of Saudi Arabia and was characterized as highly expansive. A detailed experimental program was devised to evaluate the effects of clay content (ranging between 0 and 60 %), initial molding conditions (optimum and wet-of-optimum), normal stress, and wetting conditions (as-compacted and inundated) on shear strength behavior. Also, the effects of clay content and initial molding conditions on the swelling potential of the mixture were evaluated. Test results revealed different trends for the shear stress-strain curves, signifying that different structural arrangements resulted from the use of different clay contents and molding conditions. Furthermore, test results identified an optimum clay content of 30 % which yielded the maximum shear strength; beyond this, a significant reduction in the shear strength of the sand-attapulgite clay mixture was observed. Finally, the shear strengths of sand-attapulgite clay mixtures were compared to those of sand-bentonite mixtures.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment
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    • "The Gulf basin is one of the richest regions in terms of hydrocarbon resources. According to different estimations, this basin contains 55–68% of recoverable oil reserves and more than 40% of gas reserves of the World (Konyuhov and Maleki, 2006). Albian Kazhdumi Formation is an excellent source rock in the Dezful Embayment, southwestern Iran (Bordenave and Huc, 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: Different techniques including Rock–Eval pyrolysis, organic petrography, elemental analysis, biomarker studies and isotopic composition were carried out for characterization of the Cretaceous Kazhdumi Formation in the offshore SW Iran. A fair to good source rock potential is suggested based on the total organic carbon contents. The distribution of biomarker parameters are identified by low pristane/phytane, high C29/C30 hopane, low C19/C23 tricyclic terpanes, high C24 tetracyclic/C26 tricyclic terpane, low Ts/Tm, low diasterane/sterane, relatively similar distributions of C27 and C29 regular steranes and their predominance over C28 sterane. The δ13C values of kerogen are within the range of -26 to -27.7‰. All the biomarker parameters reveal that marine carbonate is the main depositional environment. Nevertheless, marine shale is also present in minor amounts. These results together with HI values and H/C atomic ratios indicate that the organic matter is Type II and mixed Types II-III kerogens. The C29 sterane 20S/(20S+20R) and ββ/(αα+ββ) ratios which have not reached to the equilibrium along with observed vitrinite reflectance and relatively low Tmax values show that the samples has not still reached to the peak of hydrocarbon generation. Furthermore, thermal and burial history models validate that the Kazhdumi Formation is at early mature stage
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Apr 2014
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