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Estimating Ethnic Genetic Interests: Is It Adaptive to Resist Replacement Migration?

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Abstract

Analyses of the costs and benefits of immigration have not considered the dependence of an ethny's reproductive fitness on its monopoly of a demarcated territory. Global assays of human genetic variation allow estimation of the genetic losses incurred by a member of a population when random fellow ethnics are replaced by immigrants from different ethnies. This potential loss defines an individual's ethnic genetic interest as a quantity that varies with the genetic distance of potential immigrants. W. D. Hamilton showed that self-sacrificial altruism is adaptive when it preserves the genetic interests of a population of genetically similar individuals. Ethnic genetic interest can be so large that altruism on behalf of one's ethny—'ethnic nepotism'—can be adaptive when it prevents replacement. It follows that ethnies usually have an interest in securing and maintaining a monopoly over a demarcated territory, an idea consonant with the universal nationalism of Bismarck and Woodrow Wilson.

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... Diğer çıkarcı fırsatlar karşısında birlikteliği sürdürmeye ısrarla devam etmek bir kişinin bireysel çıkarınadır. Bu hususlar, etnik grupların genetik çıkarcılığın seyreltilmiş rezervuarlarını sunduklarına dair görüşlere tam olarak uyar (Johnson 1997;Salter 2002;Van den Berghe 1999). ...
... Bu tür bir mekanizma EEA'da uyum başarısı sonuçlarına sahip olur mu? Popülasyon genetiği çalışmaları, İngilizler ve Danimarkalılar arasında olduğu gibi, yakından bağlantılı (yakın akraba olan) gruplar arasında bile ölçülebilir genetik mesafe göstermektedir (Salter 2002). Bireyler, kendi kabile ve etnik gruplarında dış-gruplara göre daha büyük bir çıkara sahiptirler ve iç-gruplar ile dış-gruplar arasındaki ayrımı büyüten mekanizmalardan faydalanacaklardır. ...
... Çağdaş dünyada bireysel genetik çıkarları maksimuma çıkarmaya yönelik açık bir strateji, kendilerinin özbenlikten genetik mesafesine bağlı olarak, diğerleriyle ideal işbirliği yapılarını keşfetmek amacıyla genel problem çözme mekanizmalarını kullanmak olacaktır. Etnik gruplar, üreme popülasyonları olup, diğer etnik gruplara göre kendilerine ait etnik grupta daha büyük bir kapsayıcı seçilim değeri yoğunluğu nedeniyle bireylerin etnik gruplarda genetik çıkarları vardır (Salter 2002). Örneğin, popülasyon genetik çalışmaları, çeşitli Avrupalı popülasyonların kıtasal olarak ayrılmış ırklardan çok daha yakın, yani yakın akraba olduklarını (Cavalli-Sforza ve diğerleri 1994), ve bu popülasyonlar arasındaki mesafelerin yaklaşık olarak, iyi eğitimli makul bir tarihçinin, nüfus bilimcinin veya bir turistin bekleyeceği şeye tekabül ettiğini göstermektedir. ...
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... The premise underlying the research findings is that the social structure and the processes affecting it are evolving not static. An alternate approach to environmentalism is the hereditarian or genetic hypothesis that acknowledges innate differences in ability and downplays the effects of material and social privilege (Salter, 2002). Rather than restrict interpretation to a singular theoretical orientation however this study synthesises environmentalist and genetic theories because principles aligned with both are evident in the research data. ...
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This retrospective narrative investigation challenges aspects of structural determinism. The biographical data generated in the study revealed that the baby-boomer, male participants were not academically constrained by their working class identities. Interpersonal relationships experienced within an individual’s unique communities of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991) had greater influence on the participants’ academic achievement than the implied common socialising effects of a working class habitus. The study emphasises the agency of the individual because the educational outcomes of the participants, rather than being dependent on the inferred lack of cultural proficiencies normally associated with the working class, were influenced to a much greater extent by one’s attitude. The investigation offers both structuralist and evolutionary points of view in relation to understanding the social mobility of the working class males who participated in the study. © 2016, Western Australian Institute for Educational Research Inc. All rights reserved.
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... But it does suggest several applications in the study of ethnic conflict and nationalism. For example, quantifying ethnic kinship permits quantification of the fitness effects of an ethny losing territory (Salter 2002). When an ethnic group's relative numbers fall significantly within its territory, every member loses inclusive fitness as assuredly as, and in much greater quantity than, failing to have children (Salter 2002). ...
... For example, quantifying ethnic kinship permits quantification of the fitness effects of an ethny losing territory (Salter 2002). When an ethnic group's relative numbers fall significantly within its territory, every member loses inclusive fitness as assuredly as, and in much greater quantity than, failing to have children (Salter 2002). Little wonder that rapid demographic change is often associated with a rise in identity politics. ...
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... Here we explore such patterns in several populations. What we present here is essentially an elaboration of previous work that confirmed Rushton's arguments concerning ethnic kinship and the extra parental kinship resulting from endogamous marriage (Harpending, 1979(Harpending, , 2002Salter, 2002). ...
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... Sociological research confirms GST applied to ethnicity (Salter, 2007). Trust and the risky joint enterprises it facilitates are more common within than among ethnic groups (Salter, 2002), giving an ethnic dimension to middleman trading groups, organized crime, political dissidents, and nationalist freedom fighters. Rushton's prediction that ethnic diversity lowers trust and cooperation has been confirmed (Putnam, 2007). ...
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... The long range migration of ethnic middlemen means that their ethnic kinshipthe genetic similarity between random co-ethnics-is higher than it would be if they derived from the populations among whom they serve as middlemen. In such circumstances ethnic kinship can be as high as that found among extended families (Salter 2002). This means that the aggregate middleman ethnic group, numbering in the thousands, amounts to a large genetic family. ...
... 48 Salter combined Harpending's analysis with global genetic assay data to apply Hamilton's Rule to contemporary ethnic groups. 49 The fitness lost through one population replacing part of another in its home territory is sufficiently high to make self-sacrificial defence adaptive, a finding relevant to understanding the evolution of territoriality and the frequency of intergroup conflict. This body of research indicates that group selection as extended kin selection is possible. ...
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This paper examines the relationship between school clothing and learning identity. The paper, part of a wider, qualitative, narrative investigation into the learning experiences of white, working-class baby-boomer males, argues that an individual's preference for types of school clothing contributes to the construction of his/her cultural and social identity. It is suggested that items of school clothing influence an individual's either solidarity with, or distance from, school practices and peers. Cultural capital, habitus, cultural evolution and meme theory are used to understand the effects of school uniforms on individuals' identity construction and learning outcomes. It is suggested that embodied performance not only has the potential to reflect a male student's masculine competence (Connell, 2009) but it can also symbolize the individual's understanding of physical attractiveness and intelligence.
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This essay was first presented as the Morgan Lecture at Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in 1989. 1. Mario Cuomo’s speech at the 1984 Democratic party convention provides a nice example of this sort of argument. 2. The writer was the superintendent of New York’s public schools. 3. See Kallen’s account of how British-Americans were forced into ethnicity (1924: 99f). 4. On the complexities of “nativism,” see Higham (1975: 102–115). For an account of the Know-Nothings different from mine, to which I am nonetheless indebted, see Lipset and Raab (1970, chap. 2). 5. It is interesting that both nativists and pluralists wanted to keep the market free of ethnic and religious considerations. The Know-Nothings, since they thought that democratic politics was best served by British ethnicity and Protestant religion, set the market firmly within civil society, allowing full market rights even to new and Catholic immigrants. Kallen, by contrast, since he understands civil society as a world of ethnic and religious groups, assimilates the market to universality of the political sphere, the “common city-life.” 6. The song is “Accentuate the Positive,” which is probably what I am doing here. 7. Quoted in Kates (1989: 229). See also the discussion in Hertzberg (1970: 360–362). 8. The current demand of (some) black Americans that they be called African-Americans represents an attempt to adapt themselves to the ethnic paradigm—imitating, perhaps, the relative success of various Asian-American groups in a similar adaptation. But names are no guarantees; nor does antinativist pluralism provide sufficient protection against what is all too often an ethnic-American racism. It has been argued that this racism is the necessary precondition of hyphenated ethnicity: the inclusion of successive waves of ethnic immigrants is possible only because of the permanent exclusion of black Americans. But I don’t know what evidence would demonstrate necessity here. I am inclined to reject the metaphysical belief that all inclusion entails exclusion. A historical and empirical account of the place of blacks in the “system” of American pluralism would require another paper.
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The U.S. took in more than a million immigrants per year in the late 1990s, more than at any other time in history. For humanitarian and many other reasons, this may be good news. But as George Borjas shows in Heaven's Door, it's decidedly mixed news for the American economy--and positively bad news for the country's poorest citizens. Widely regarded as the country's leading immigration economist, Borjas presents the most comprehensive, accessible, and up-to-date account yet of the economic impact of recent immigration on America. He reveals that the benefits of immigration have been greatly exaggerated and that, if we allow immigration to continue unabated and unmodified, we are supporting an astonishing transfer of wealth from the poorest people in the country, who are disproportionately minorities, to the richest. In the course of the book, Borjas carefully analyzes immigrants' skills, national origins, welfare use, economic mobility, and impact on the labor market, and he makes groundbreaking use of new data to trace current trends in ethnic segregation. He also evaluates the implications of the evidence for the type of immigration policy the that U.S. should pursue. Some of his findings are dramatic: Despite estimates that range into hundreds of billions of dollars, net annual gains from immigration are only about $8 billion. In dragging down wages, immigration currently shifts about $160 billion per year from workers to employers and users of immigrants' services. Immigrants today are less skilled than their predecessors, more likely to re-quire public assistance, and far more likely to have children who remain in poor, segregated communities. Borjas considers the moral arguments against restricting immigration and writes eloquently about his own past as an immigrant from Cuba. But he concludes that in the current economic climate--which is less conducive to mass immigration of unskilled labor than past eras--it would be fair and wise to return immigration to the levels of the 1970s (roughly 500,000 per year) and institute policies to favor more skilled immigrants.
Article
This volume discusses various theories regarding the origin of warfare in primitive societies as it relates to the evolution of a male-coalitional reproductive strategy. Aggression and agonistic behaviors are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A new theory of attraction and liking based on kin selection suggests that people detect genetic similarity in others in order to give preferential treatment to those who are most similar to themselves. There are many sources of empirical and theoretical support for this view, including (1) the inclusive fitness theory of altruism, (2) kin recognition studies of animals raised apart, (3) assortative mating studies, (4) favoritism in families, (5) selective similarity among friends, and (6) ethnocentrism. Specific tests of the theory show that (1) sexually interacting couples who produce a child are genetically more similar to each other in blood antigens than they are either to sexually interacting couples who fail to produce a child or to randomly paired couples from the same sample; (2) similarity between marriage partners is most marked in the more genetically influenced of sets of anthropometric, cognitive, and personality characteristics; (3) after the death of a child, parental grief intensity is correlated with the child's similarity to the parent; (4) long-term male friendship pairs are more similar to each other in blood antigens than they are to random dyads from the same sample; and (5) similarity among best friends is most marked in the more genetically influenced of sets of attitudinal, personality, and anthropometric characteristics. The mechanisms underlying these findings may constitute a biological substrate of ethnocentrism, enabling group selection to occur.
Article
"Technology is not the answer to the population problem. Rather, what is needed is 'mutual coercion mutually agreed upon'--everyone voluntarily giving up the freedom to breed without limit. If we all have an equal right to many 'commons' provided by nature and by the activities of modern governments, then by breeding freely we behave as do herders sharing a common pasture. Each herder acts rationally by adding yet one more beast to his/her herd, because each gains all the profit from that addition, while bearing only a fraction of its costs in overgrazing, which are shared by all the users. The logic of the system compels all herders to increase their herds without limit, with the 'tragic,' i.e. 'inevitable,' 'inescapable' result: ruin the commons. Appealing to individual conscience to exercise restraint in the use of social-welfare or natural commons is likewise self-defeating: the conscientious will restrict use (reproduction), the heedless will continue using (reproducing), and gradually but inevitably the selfish will out-compete the responsible. Temperance can be best accomplished through administrative law, and a 'great challenge...is to invent the corrective feedbacks..to keep custodians honest.'"
Article
How do biological, psychological, sociological, and cultural factors combine to change societies over the long run? Boyd and Richerson explore how genetic and cultural factors interact, under the influence of evolutionary forces, to produce the diversity we see in human cultures. Using methods developed by population biologists, they propose a theory of cultural evolution that is an original and fair-minded alternative to the sociobiology debate.
Article
I have indicated here some features of a kind of entity which I have called a cultural identity system, and I have focused on a variety of this general type—the persistent system. In general terms it is best described as a system of beliefs and sentiments concerning historical events. I suggest using the term "a people" for the human beings who, at any given time, hold beliefs of this kind. These are phenomena with which we have been long familiar, but they have not been systematically studied by any but a few investigators.
Article
A genetical mathematical model is described which allows for interactions between relatives on one another's fitness. Making use of Wright's Coefficient of Relationship as the measure of the proportion of replica genes in a relative, a quantity is found which incorporates the maximizing property of Darwinian fitness. This quantity is named “inclusive fitness”. Species following the model should tend to evolve behaviour such that each organism appears to be attempting to maximize its inclusive fitness. This implies a limited restraint on selfish competitive behaviour and possibility of limited self-sacrifices.Special cases of the model are used to show (a) that selection in the social situations newly covered tends to be slower than classical selection, (b) how in populations of rather non-dispersive organisms the model may apply to genes affecting dispersion, and (c) how it may apply approximately to competition between relatives, for example, within sibships. Some artificialities of the model are discussed.
Article
Genetic relatedness is a central concept in the study of social evolution. Though originally defined in terms of genealogy, the modern version of relatedness accommodates genetic similarity of any origin. This paper examines relatedness in group structured modes, in which a trait affects the fitness of all group members. Such traits can be divided into two types, based on whether their group fitness effects encompass all group members including the actor ("whole-group traits"), or only group members other than the actor ("other-only traits"). Both trait types are common in nature as well as in theoretical models, but they have rarely been distinguished clearly. The average relatedness of recipients to actors differs for the two trait types within the same population and even the same individual, leading to different selection pressures and evolutionary outcomes. Total relatedness in group-structured models can be partitioned into two components: structural relatedness due to the size and number of groups in the population, and assortative relatedness due to the distribution of genotypes among groups. Each component differs for whole-group vs. other-only traits, both in terms of their values and the factors that influence them. Some key differences include: positive relatedness requires positive assortment for other-only but not for whole-group traits; negative relatedness is possible for other-only but not whole-group traits; relatedness depends on average group size for whole-group but not other-only traits, and non-random assortment into groups affects relatedness more strongly for other-only than whole-group traits. Recognizing the distinction between these trait types resolves some apparent contradictions in the literature, and clarifies the limits of some previous results.
Article
The idea that human longevity is influenced by genetic factors has recently received strong support from work on other species. On the basis of partial population studies and selected kinships, significant correlations between the ages of parents and offspring have been reported, and some but not all twin studies have confirmed that human longevity is moderately inherited. However, studies based upon a relatively small proportion of a population are susceptible to sampling error and selection bias. Here we report the use of a comprehensive population-based computerised genealogy database to examine multigenerational relationships among those who live to the 95th percentile in Iceland. We have developed a clustering tool which can generate large extended pedigrees connecting individuals from any list using the genealogy database. First degree relatives of those living to the 95th percentile are almost twice as likely to live to the 95th percentile compared with controls. Furthermore, we have developed an algorithm which we have named the Minimum Founder Test (MFT) to examine the degree of relatedness of any population-based list of individuals to estimate whether a trait has a familial component. The data indicate that there is a significant genetic component to longevity. In addition, age-specific death rates are significantly lower in the offspring of long-lived parents compared with controls, especially after age 70.
The Genetics of Human Populations The History and Geography of Human Genes
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