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Stressed and Happy? Investigating the Relationship Between Happiness and Perceived Stress



Developing interventions to increase happiness is a major focus of the emerging field of positive psychology. Common beliefs about the need to reduce stress to obtain happiness suggest that stress management activities should be included in these interventions. However, the research on the relationship between positive and negative affect is equivocal. Theoretically, they are conceptualized as independent dimensions, but research has often found an inverse relationship between happiness and stress. In addition, the research generally attempts to assess stress objectively rather than in terms of the cognitive appraisal process. The current study examines the relationship between perceived stress and happiness among 100 college students to determine if the same inverse relationship exists. Linear correlations between happiness and perceived stress were significant indicating that there was an inverse relationship between these variables. The discussion focuses on several factors that might help to explain the observed relationship.
Stressed and Happy? Investigating the Relationship
Between Happiness and Perceived Stress
Holly H. Schiffrin ÆS. Katherine Nelson
Published online: 11 June 2008
!Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008
Abstract Developing interventions to increase happiness is a major focus of the
emerging field of positive psychology. Common beliefs about the need to reduce stress to
obtain happiness suggest that stress management activities should be included in these
interventions. However, the research on the relationship between positive and negative
affect is equivocal. Theoretically, they are conceptualized as independent dimensions, but
research has often found an inverse relationship between happiness and stress. In addition,
the research generally attempts to assess stress objectively rather than in terms of the
cognitive appraisal process. The current study examines the relationship between perceived
stress and happiness among 100 college students to determine if the same inverse rela-
tionship exists. Linear correlations between happiness and perceived stress were significant
indicating that there was an inverse relationship between these variables. The discussion
focuses on several factors that might help to explain the observed relationship.
Keywords Perceived stress !Happiness !Positive affect !Negative affect !
Relationship between stress and happiness
1 Introduction
In recent years, the field of positive psychology has emerged to bring awareness to the role
of psychology in making life more fulfilling, enhancing human functioning, and increasing
happiness (Seligman 2002). Research has suggested that increasing happiness has multiple
benefits. For example, Fredrickson’s (1998) broaden-and-build model proposes that posi-
tive emotions cause a broadening of thought-action potentials, build personal resources
(e.g., social relationships and knowledge), and improve personal functioning (Fredrickson
1998). Lyubomirsky et al. (2005) compiled research documenting that positive affect is
associated with multiple positive outcomes including better performance ratings at work,
higher salaries, and improved health. Based on the benefits of increasing happiness found
H. H. Schiffrin (&)!S. K. Nelson
University of Mary Washington, 1301 College Avenue, Fredericksburg, VA 22401, USA
J Happiness Stud (2010) 11:33–39
DOI 10.1007/s10902-008-9104-7
in the literature, an important goal within the field of positive psychology has been to
develop interventions that increase individuals’ happiness levels and sustain these gains
over time (Seligman et al. 2005). However, the most effective method of achieving these
goals still needs to be determined.
Based on the common conception that stress impedes happiness, it would seem that an
important way to increase happiness would be to reduce stress levels. However, it has been
unclear from research on the relationship between stress and happiness whether stress
management would be essential in an intervention to increase happiness. Watson and
Tellegen (1985) concluded that positive (e.g., happiness) and negative (e.g., stress) affect
were two orthogonal dimensions, which suggests that it is possible to feel both emotions
simultaneously. In fact, there is a growing literature on post-traumatic growth, which refers
to positive outcomes that can arise from traumatic experiences (Tedeschi et al. 1998).
However, some research conducted on the relationship between positive and negative
affect has not supported the proposed independence of these two dimensions (Feldman
Barrett and Russell 1998; Russell and Carroll 1999), and definitions of these dimensions
have varied in the literature.
2 What is Happiness?
Within the literature, happiness has been broadly used to describe positive subjective
experiences. Diener’s (2000) model of subjective well-being has been one of the most
widely accepted definitions of happiness. His model is comprised of three components
including the cognitive appraisal of one’s life (i.e., life satisfaction) as well as positive and
negative affect (i.e., emotions), which are viewed as two separate dimensions. The com-
bination of these three components creates a holistic view of the overall perception of
happiness (Pavot and Diener 1993).
In another approach to defining happiness, Lyubomirsky and Lepper (1999) proposed a
method that captures the global and subjective qualities of happiness. Rather than assess
positive and negative affect separately, this approach attempts to allow the individual to
give an overall assessment of the extent to which he or she is a happy person. Thus, it
identifies a relatively stable characteristic of happiness separate from life experiences.
Finally, a newer conceptualization of happiness has been Seligman’s (2002) definition,
which consists of three components including: experiencing positive emotion (the pleasant
life), being engaged in life activities (the engaged life), and finding a sense of purpose or
meaning (the meaningful life). The most satisfied people pursue all three pathways to
happiness, with engagement and meaning having a greater influence (Seligman et al. 2005).
Similar to Diener’s (2000) conceptualization of happiness, Seligman has identified positive
emotion as being an important component in a person’s perception of happiness. However,
unlike Diener, Seligman has not addressed the role of negative affect in this model.
3 What is Stress?
Stress has been examined previously by measuring its physiological manifestations, the
occurrence of major life events, the frequency of daily hassles, and its cognitive appraisal.
Similar to the assessment of subjective well-being, the latter approach proposes that a
person’s cognitive appraisal of stress is the most important factor in evaluating stressful
events (Cohen et al. 1983). From this perspective, a person interprets environmental events
34 H. H. Schiffrin, S. K. Nelson
based on his or her own values and resources and reacts psychologically, behaviorally, and
biologically. Events are only characterized as stressful when the demands of the event
outweigh the person’s available resources (Cohen et al. 1983).
4 Relationships between Happiness and Stress
The relationship between happiness and stress has been examined both in terms of the
negative effects of stress on well-being as well as the role of positive emotions in buffering
against stress. Some research has demonstrated the negative effects of stress on well-being
(Chatters 1988; Suh et al. 1996; Zika and Chamberlain 1987) and other research has not
(Feist et al. 1995).
In terms of the buffering hypothesis, positive emotions have been found to play a key
role in undoing the cardiovascular effects of negative emotions (Fredrickson and Levenson
1998; Fredrickson et al. 2000), which may contribute to psychological resilience (Tugade
and Fredrickson 2004). When using self-report rather than physiological measures of
stress, Van der Werff and Sanderman (1989) did not find support for the buffering effects
of happiness on stress. However, Lightsey (1994) found that positive automatic thoughts
about self worth did act as a buffer against self-reported stress. Therefore, while subjective
conceptions of global happiness may not function as a buffer against stress, specific
positive thoughts may.
Finally, interventions targeting both stress and happiness have found that activities such
as exercise, meditation, and written expression have been shown to decrease stress while
increasing happiness (Compton 2005; King 2001; Lyubomirsky et al. 2006). The effects of
these activities have been examined primarily in terms of the physiological aspects of
stress. Thus, further study is needed for the cognitive appraisal of stress to determine its
relationship to happiness.
Possible explanations for the equivocal nature of the literature on stress and happiness
may be due to the multi-dimensional nature of affect. First, measures of affect differ in
terms of whether they assess the current mood state versus a long-term affective trait
(Rosenberg 1998). It is possible that positive and negative affect may appear to be two
ends of the same continuum (i.e., inversely related) in the short-term, but emerge as two
separate dimensions when taking a long-term view (Diener 2000). A second dimension on
which emotions may differ is the level of arousal experienced (Watson and Tellegen 1985).
The discrepancies seen in the literature may also occur if stress has a different relationship
with low (e.g., happiness) and high arousal (e.g., inspiration) positive affect, a pattern that
has been found with other variables (Kunzmann and Baltes 2003; Kunzmann et al. 2005).
Clearly, further research is required to disentangle the exact nature of the relationship
between stress and happiness. Specifically, do stress and happiness operate as two separate
dimensions or are they two ends of the same continuum? Is it possible to be happy and
stressed? The answers to these questions have important implications for interventions
aimed at increasing happiness. If stress and happiness are inversely related, interventions
intended to increase happiness should include stress management activities.
5 Current Study
This study sought to examine the relationship between the cognitive appraisal of stress and
happiness. Based on the previously established relationship between other aspects of stress
Stressed and Happy? 35
and happiness, it was hypothesized that there would be an inverse relationship between
perceived stress and happiness measured from the three conceptual models previously
6 Method
6.1 Participants
One-hundred full-time undergraduate students from a small, public liberal arts college in
the mid-Atlantic region received credit in a general psychology course for their partici-
pation. Participants consisted of 72 females and 28 males and with a mean age of 18.60
(SD =1.30). Approximately 87% of the participants were Caucasian, 3% American Indian
or Alaskan Native, 2% African-American, 1% Asian-Pacific Islander, and 7% defined
themselves as ‘Other.’
6.2 Measures and Procedures
Participants completed a set of ten paper-pencil measures in approximately 30 minutes. The
measures analyzed in this study are described below in the order they were administered.
6.2.1 Happiness Measures
Three questionnaires were used to assess participants’ happiness levels. The Satisfaction
with Life Scale (SWLS) was used to assess the participants’ overall life satisfaction. Five
items (e.g., In most ways, my life is close to my ideal) are rated on a scale of 1 (not at all
true) to 7 (absolutely true) yielding an overall life satisfaction score. This measure has an
internal reliability of .87 and a test–retest reliability of .82 (Pavot and Diener 1993). The
Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) assesses participants’ subjective sense of global hap-
piness by averaging four items (e.g., Compared to my peers, I consider myself:) rated on a
seven-point scale (e.g., from less happy to more happy). This measure has been shown to
have a test–retest reliability of .72 and an internal consistency of .86 (Lyubomirsky and
Lepper 1999). The Authentic Happiness Inventory (AHI, also referred to as the Steen
Happiness Index) was used to measure Seligman’s definition of happiness (M. Seligman,
personal communication, April 10, 2006). This scale consists of 24 sets of statements.
Within each set there are five statements that range from negative (I feel like a failure) to
extremely positive (I feel I am extraordinarily successful). Participants chose the statement
that best described them during the previous week. Preliminary data support the validity of
this scale. It has a convergent validity of .79 with the SHS and .74 with Fordyce’s Hap-
piness Scale (Seligman et al. 2005). Cronbach’s alpha for the three measures in this sample
were satisfactorily high: SHS (a=.82), SWLS (a=.86), and AHI (a=.92). The SWLS
and the SHS are both global or trait measures; whereas, the AHI assesses participants’
current state of happiness.
6.2.2 Stress Measure
The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used to measure participants’ appraisal of situations
in their life as stressful. The scale consists of ten items asking participants to rate the
36 H. H. Schiffrin, S. K. Nelson
frequency of stressful events that occurred in the past month (e.g., How often have you
been upset because of something that happened unexpectedly?) on a scale from 1 (never) to
5(very often). The PSS is a state measure of stress, which has adequate reliability, .85
(Cohen et al. 1983). Cronbach’s alpha for this sample was also .85.
7 Results
Linear correlations were conducted to determine if the study’s happiness questionnaires
were measuring similar aspects of happiness. Analyses showed significant correlations
between the AHI and SWLS (r=.65, p\.001), the AHI and SHS (r=.65, p\.001)
and the SWLS and SHS (r=.59, p\.001). Correlations were also conducted to deter-
mine if happiness and stress were inversely related. Prior to analysis, one outlier was
removed because the person’s score on the PSS was unrepresentative of the data set (i.e.,
the zscore was over 4.0). All three measures demonstrated a negative, linear correlation
with stress: SWLS (r=-.48, p\.001), SHS (r=-.42, p\.001) or the AHI (r=-.58,
p\.001). The amount of variability in stress shared with each of the happiness measures
was 23.04%, 17.64%, and 33.64%, respectively. Given the large effect sizes, power for
these analyses was approximately 95% (Faul et al. 2007).
8 Discussion
The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between perceived stress
and happiness. The hypothesis that there would be an inverse relationship between the
variables was supported. Participants who perceived higher levels of stress reported being
less happy than those with lower levels of stress. Although it is has been theorized that
positive and negative affect operate on two separate dimensions (Watson and Tellegen
1985), the results of the current study provide support for an inverse relationship between
perceived stress and happiness.
Although all three measures of happiness had strong negative correlations with per-
ceived stress, there are some differences in the magnitude of these relationships across
happiness measures. The AHI shared approximately one-third of its variability with stress,
which is considerably more than the variance shared with the SHS (17.64%) and the SWLS
(23.04%). A possible explanation for this difference is that the AHI asks participants to
assess their happiness level in terms of the past week instead of the more global assess-
ments asked of participants in the SHS and SWLS. As a state measure, the AHI was
designed to be more sensitive to changes in happiness levels, especially toward upward
changes (Seligman et al. 2005). The greater magnitude of the relationship between per-
ceived stress and the AHI supports the idea that positive and negative affect appear to be
inversely related in the short-term (Diener 2000). While the supposition that they may
operate independently in the long-term was not fully supported by these data, the inverse
relationship between perceived stress and the trait measures of happiness was somewhat
attenuated compared to a state measure of happiness. The shared variability may be due to
the fact that people use current mood as information when making global assessments of
their level of happiness (Pavot and Diener 1993).
The current study offers some insight into the relationship between perceived stress and
happiness; however, certain limitations should be noted. First, our results involving the
AHI should be considered cautiously because this test has not been widely used and
Stressed and Happy? 37
published psychometric data are limited. Second, all participants received the question-
naires in the same order, so an order effect may be present. Third, the current study is
correlational and cannot determine the causal relationship between happiness and stress.
Lastly, the current study utilized a homogenous convenience sample of primarily Cauca-
sian women. Therefore, it is difficult to determine how the results of this study would
generalize to a different population.
Future research should examine correlates of happiness that could help to provide a
more comprehensive model of the relationship between happiness and perceived stress.
For example, personality has been shown to be an important variable when assessing a
person’s happiness largely because of its effect on how an individual interacts with
environmental stimuli (DeNeve and Cooper 1998), which may be important to perceived
stress. Coping style has also been identified as an important variable related to happiness
(Folkman and Tedlie Moskowitz 2000). Faced with similar amounts of stress, it may be
that people who participate in positive, active coping are able to maintain a high level of
happiness whereas those who do not experience declines in happiness. Finally, optimism
is also a key variable related to both physical health and psychological well-being
(Seligman 2002). Optimists may be better able to cope with stressful events than pes-
simists due to both their cognitive interpretation of those events as well as their
behavioral responses to them. Finally, future studies should consider examining the
relationship of stress with the latent construct of happiness given the strong correlation
among happiness measures.
In summation, this study suggests that current, perceived stress is related to decreases in
happiness assessed by both state and trait measures. Therefore, interventions designed to
increase happiness may benefit from the inclusion of activities to manage and cope with
stress. Interventions may also want to utilize state measures of happiness, such as the AHI,
that are sensitive to increases in happiness that may occur as a result of the intervention.
Future research on variables that affect the relationship between happiness and perceived
stress will clarify how to tailor intervention activities to help individuals maximize their
level of happiness.
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Stressed and Happy? 39
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... Recently, some research has focused on the role of some psychological skills in the mechanisms of happiness; in particular, several indications seem to highlight the role of some emotional and cognitive regulation mechanisms (e.g., mindfulness, emotion regulation problems, acceptance, awareness; Hills & Argyle, 2001;Crowley et al., 2022;Quoidbach et al., 2010;Van et al. 2023). As such, we further examined the convergent and divergent validity of the measure, and basing on the above mentioned literature indications, we hypothesized that the OHQ total score will be positively associated with greater life satisfaction (e.g., Hills & Argyle, 2001) and mindful attention to the present (e.g., Crowley et al., 2022), and negatively correlated with perceived psychosocial stress (e.g., Argyle et al., 1995;Suh et al., 1996;Schiffrin & Nelson, 2010) and emotion regulation problems (e.g., Hills & Argyle, 2001;Quoidbach et al., 2010). ...
... This suggested that the OHQ led to almost overlapping results with its long version, providing evidence for its good convergent validity. Furthermore, the scale evidenced significant negative correlations with perceived stress and emotion dysregulation and significant positive correlations with life satisfaction and mindful attention to the present (Argyle et al., 1995;Schiffrin & Nelson, 2010), with medium-to-large effects. ...
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... Jing-Dong Liu, Sun Yat-sen University, China Many researchers have reported findings that negative stresses generally cause a decrease in life satisfaction in students (Matheny et al., 2002;Barnes and Lightsey, 2005;Darling et al., 2007;Weinstein and Laverghetta, 2009;Abolghasemi and Taklavi Varaniyab, 2010;Schiffrin and Katherine Nelson, 2010;Lee et al., 2016;Puri et al., 2016). University students are a vulnerable group which experiences depressive symptoms (Mikolajczyk et al., 2008;Rückert, 2015), high levels of stress (Stanley and Manthorpe, 2002) and the highest prevalence of mental health problems than any other age group (Dahlin et al., 2005;Verger et al., 2010;Kumar, 2016). ...
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Introduction Sleep is especially important to overall well-being. Some aspects of sleep have been well documented, for example sleep quantity and its effect on well-being, but the value of a consistent sleep routine remains poorly studied. University students are a population group especially susceptible to stress, mental health problems and poor sleep quality and experience changing daily schedules. Investigating the protective power of sleep in this population group is therefore an important avenue of research. Methods Applying a structural equation model, the current study surveyed a large sample of Czech university students during the COVID-19 pandemic in late spring, 2021, and observed the mediation effects of sleep on this group. Results and Discussion The study found that working, maintaining social contact and attending lectures in person had a strong effect on satisfaction with life. Increased personal study time indirectly supported consistent sleep routines and mediated perceptions of life satisfaction. As expected, the results indicated the importance of high-quality sleep. The results also verified partial mediation, directly and indirectly, through sleep quality, highlighting the significance of a consistent sleep routine in students on their self-reported satisfaction with life.
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Perceived financial well-being (FWB) is an important aspect of life that can affect one’s attitude toward future experiences and happiness. However, the relationship between FWB, anticipatory experiences, and happiness, and the brain’s functional architecture underlying this relationship remain unknown. Here, we combined an experience sampling method, multilevel modeling, and functional neuroimaging to identify the neural correlates of FWB and their associations with real-world anticipatory experiences and everyday happiness. Behaviorally, we found that individuals with greater FWB felt more positive and more interested when they expected positive events to occur, which in turn resulted in increased everyday happiness. Furthermore, the level of FWB was significantly associated with the strength of functional connectivity (FC) between the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the local coherence within the vmPFC. The frontostriatal FC and local coherence within the vmPFC were further predictive of everyday happiness via the anticipatory response involving interestedness during positive expectations. Our findings suggest that individual differences in FWB could be reflected in the functional architecture of brain’s reward system that may contribute to shaping positive anticipatory experiences and happiness in daily life.
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BACKGROUND Happiness is an important factor for everyone's good health and general well-being. Medical students need to manage a lengthy medical curriculum, clinical postings, and the stressful environment of hospital setting, which may have considerable effects on their happiness. No such studies have been conducted in the remotely located Andaman and Nicobar (A and N) islands. Hence, the current study was conducted to determine the level of happiness and associated factors among medical college students of the Andaman and Nicobar islands. METHODS AND MATERIALS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 315 medical students of the A and N islands. The happiness of students was measured using the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used for data analysis. RESULTS Among all the students, 42.5% were happy. There was a significant association between happiness and the relationship of students with family and friends, physical exercise, spiritual beliefs, the presence of stress, and traumatic events. The multiple logistic regression revealed that good relationship with friends increased the odds of happiness of students significantly with an adjusted odd ratio (OR) of 3.204 (1.641–6.257), whereas the presence of stress decreased the happiness of students significantly with an adjusted OR of 0.430 (0.254–0.730). CONCLUSION Good relations with friends emerged as a positive predictor of happiness, whereas stress emerged as a negative predictor of happiness among the students. Hence, human relationships, stress management, physical exercise or sports, and orientation to spiritual health should be given emphasis in the medical curriculum.
İnsanlık, 21. yüzyılda COVID-19 pandemisiyle küresel çapta ve uzun süreli bir salgın süreci ile ilk kez karşı karşıya kalmıştır. Bu tür bir zorluğun üstesinden nasıl gelinebileceğine dair fazla bir deneyimin olmaması, COVID-19 pandemisinin ortaya çıkardığı sosyo-ekonomik risk faktörlerinden biri olan iş güvencesizliği algısının olgusal sonuçlarını incelemeyi daha önemli hale getirmektedir. Bu çalışmada, COVID-19 pandemisi sürecinde iş güvencesizliği algısının, algılanan stresin stres algısı ve yetersiz öz-yeterlik algısı şeklinde ifade edilen boyutları üzerindeki etkisinde psikolojik dayanıklılığın aracılık rolü incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemini özel sektörde çalışan 364 katılımcı oluşturmaktadır. Yapılan istatistiki analizler sonucunda iş güvencesizliği algısının stres algısı ve yetersiz öz-yeterlik algısı üzerindeki etkisinde psikolojik dayanıklılığın sırasıyla kısmi aracılık ve tam aracılık rolü olduğu bulunmuştur. Bu bulguların, farklı faktörlerden kaynaklanan kriz dönemlerinde de örgütler açısından çalışanların iş güvencesizliğine dair algı ve endişelerini gidermek ve onların algıladıkları stres düzeylerini azaltmak ve bireyler açısından da zorluklar karşısında dayanıklılık geliştirmelerini sağlamaya yönelik çabalara katkı sağlaması beklenmektedir.
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The causal relations among social status and resource, health, and stress factors, and a single-item measure of subjective well-being (i.e., happiness) were examined among a national sample of 581 Black adults aged 55 years and over. Results indicated that although social status and resource factors had a limited impact on happiness ratings, these measures were important in predicting intermediate factors related to health status and satisfaction and stress. Happiness was directly influenced by stress and reported satisfaction with health, whereas the effect of health disability was mediated by stress and health satisfaction. The findings suggest that certain groups of older Blacks (i.e., relatively younger, widowed, and separated) may be at specific risk for diminished well-being. However, adverse health and life conditions, which are determined by status and resources, represent circumstances that further jeopardize the well-being of older Black adults.
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The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was developed to assess satisfaction with the respondent’s life as a whole. The scale does not assess satisfaction with life domains such as health or finances but allows subjects to integrate and weight these domains in whatever way they choose. Normative data are presented for the scale, which shows good convergent validity with other scales and with other types of assessments of subjective well-being. Life satisfaction as assessed by the SWLS shows a degree of temporal stability (e.g., 54 for 4 years), yet the SWLS has shown sufficient sensitivity to be potentially valuable to detect change in life satisfaction during the course of clinical intervention. Further, the scale shows discriminant validity from emotional well-being measures. The SWLS is recommended as a complement to scales that focus on psychopathology or emotional well-being because it assesses an individuals’ conscious evaluative judgment of his or her life by using the person’s own criteria.
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In a variation on Pennebaker's writing paradigm, a sample of 81 undergraduates wrote about one of four topics for 20 minutes each day for 4 consecutive days. Participants were randomly assigned to write about their most traumatic life event, their best possible future self, both of these topics, or a nonemotional con- trol topic. Mood was measured before and after writing and health center data for illness were obtained with participant con- sent. Three weeks later, measures of subjective well-being were obtained. Writing about life goals was significantly less upset- ting than writing about trauma and was associated with a sig- nificant increase in subjective well-being. Five months after writ- ing, a significant interaction emerged such that writing about trauma, one's best possible self, or both were associated with decreased illness compared with controls. Results indicate that writing about self-regulatory topics can be associated with the same health benefits as writing about trauma.
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This article presents a framework for the organization of affective processes, including the affective traits, moods, and emotions. Section 1 introduces the levels-of-analysis approach, defines the three levels of affect, presents criteria for ordering these levels hierarchically in terms of simple and complex temporally driven processes, and examines the interrelations among the various levels of affect, including an in-depth analysis of affective trait-emotion relationships. Section 2 offers an application of the hierarchical view to research on affect-cognition interactions, including a brief review of affect congruency effects and a discussion of the conceptual and empirical challenges to such research necessitated by consideration of the differences among the levels of affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Although there have been many recent advances in the literature on subjective well-being (SWB), the field historically has suffered from 2 shortcomings: little theoretical progress and lack of quasi-experimental or longitudinal design (E. Diener, 1984). Causal influences therefore have been difficult to determine. After collecting data over 4 time periods with 160 Ss, the authors compared how well 2 alternative models of SWB (bottom-up and top-down models) fit the data. Variables of interest in both models were physical health, daily hassles, world assumptions, and constructive thinking. Results showed that both models provided good fit to the data, with neither model providing a closer fit than the other, which suggests that the field would benefit from devoting more time to examining how general dispositions toward happiness color perceptions of life's experiences. Results implicate bidirectional causal models of SWB and its personality and situational influences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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To explore whether positive automatic thoughts (PATs) may function as stress buffers and mood enhancers, this study tested whether PATs and the PATs × Negative Events interaction predicted unique variance in future depression and happiness. The Life Experiences Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Happiness Measures (M. W. Fordyce; see record 1989-17580-001), the Hassles Scale (A. D. Kanner et al, 1981), and both state and trait versions of the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (S. D. Hollon and P. C. Kendall; see record 1981-20180-001) and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire—Positive (R. E. Ingram and K. S. Wisnicki; see record 1989-10602-001) were administered to 152 undergraduate volunteers twice, with 6 weeks between testings. PATs predicted happiness, and PATs about social self-worth interacted with negative events to predict depression. For higher levels of such PATs, negative events had a weaker relation to depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We examined three personality variables—locus of control, assertiveness, and meaning in life—as possible moderators of the relation between stressors and subjective well-being. Results from a sample of 160 students suggested that any moderating effects were not extensive and were mainly limited to the locus of control variable with female subjects. Replication of the study on a sample of 120 community members found no significant moderating effects. Chronic daily stressors (hassles) were found to have a direct effect on well-being reports. Among the personality variables, meaning in life consistently predicted positive well-being, and internal locus of control and assertiveness had direct but somewhat less consistent effects. Consideration is given to possible explanations for the pattern of results, and implications for the structure of well-being are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
G*Power (Erdfelder, Faul, & Buchner, 1996) was designed as a general stand-alone power analysis program for statistical tests commonly used in social and behavioral research. G*Power 3 is a major extension of, and improvement over, the previous versions. It runs on widely used computer platforms (i.e., Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Mac OS X 10.4) and covers many different statistical tests of the t, F, and chi2 test families. In addition, it includes power analyses for z tests and some exact tests. G*Power 3 provides improved effect size calculators and graphic options, supports both distribution-based and design-based input modes, and offers all types of power analyses in which users might be interested. Like its predecessors, G*Power 3 is free.