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Whether highly curious students thrive academically depends on perceptions about the school learning environment: A study of Hong Kong adolescents

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Abstract

The present study tested whether the perceived academic values of a school moderate whether highly curious students thrive academically. We investigated the interactive effects of curiosity and school quality on academic success for 484 Hong Kong high school students. Chinese versions of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory, Subjective Happiness Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem scales were administered and shown to have acceptable measurement properties. We obtained Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination (HKCEE) scores (national achievement tests) from participating schools. Results yielded Trait Curiosity×Perceived School Quality interactions in predicting HKCEE scores and school grades. Adolescents with greater trait curiosity in more challenging schools had the greatest academic success; adolescents with greater trait curiosity in less challenging schools had the least academic success. Findings were not attributable to subjective happiness or self-esteem and alternative models involving these positive attributes were not supported. Results suggest that the benefits of curiosity are activated by student beliefs that the school environment supports their values about growth and learning; these benefits can be disabled by perceived person-environment mismatches.

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... Evidence has demonstrated that curiosity can be manipulated by factors in the learning environment such as text type and structure (Boscolo et al. 2011;Knobloch et al. 2004), use of controversy (Lowry and Johnson 1981), and motivational interventions (Villiger et al. 2012). Moreover, research on curiosity as a personality trait has demonstrated that academic performance across different learning environments varies depending on students' level of curiosity (Arnone et al. 1994;Kashdan and Yuen 2007). The ability to adjust educational settings to increase curiosity or to cater to students' individual degrees of curiosity provides educators with a potential means of leveraging curiosity to support learning. ...
... Given its potential importance for education, research on curiosity developed throughout the 20th century, from John Dewey's (1910) emphasis on curiosity-inspiring instruction to midcentury investigations of the role of curiosity in student achievement (e.g., Day 1968;Maw and Maw 1972). Although research waned in the latter half of the 20th century, more recent educational research has focused on the development of curiosity measures applicable to educational investigations Litman and Jimerson 2004;Woods-Groves et al. 2009) and has examined curiosity as it relates to learning (Kashdan and Yuen 2007;Reio and Wiswell 2000). ...
... Harkening back to initial definitions of curiosity (Berlyne 1960), collative variables were used in 24.0 % of the reviewed definitions of curiosity (n=6). The definitions included variables of novelty, complexity, ambiguity, challenge, and uncertainty (Čavojová and Sollár 2007;Kashdan and Yuen 2007) and defined curiosity as occurring in the presence of phenomena that are unexpected or puzzling, including conceptual conflict or questions (Engel and Randall 2009). These variables are typically related to attentional processes (Berlyne 1960), and the definitions indicated two different relations between curiosity and attention. ...
Article
Curiosity has received increasing attention in the educational literature, yet empirical investigations have been limited by inconsistent conceptualizations and the use of curiosity synonymously with other constructs, particularly interest. The purpose of this review is to critically examine the dimensionality, definitions, and measures of curiosity within educational settings, and address the boundaries between curiosity and interest. A systematic review of 39 articles from 2003 to 2013 revealed a reliance on self-report measures, a focus on curiosity as a personality trait, and definitions characterized by four themes, the most common of which were curiosity as a need for knowledge or information, and curiosity as a motivator of exploratory behavior. The overlap and relations between curiosity and interest are discussed, and it is proposed that an examination of (a) the role of knowledge, (b) goals and outcomes, and (c) stability and malleability provide a basis for differentiating curiosity and interest according to their essential characteristics.
... However, from a bounded agency perspective (Shanahan & Hood, 2000), such exploration, like any instance of human agency, is unlikely to operate in a vacuum, but will be bounded by the proximal social ecology in which it is enacted (Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011;Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). In this study, we link the concept of bounded agency to the socioecological perspective. ...
... In this regard, regions in which the trends toward individualization and lifelong learning are more pronounced offer more latitude and encouragement for exploring new lifestyle options and new learning opportunities. Because exploration is most beneficial when it meets richer contextual opportunity (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007), the link between trait exploration and these benefits of social change will be stronger in regions in which these trends are more pronounced. ...
... This replication across two independent, but parallel, samples greatly enhanced our confidence in these results. Our results also dovetail with recent studies showing that the effects of exploration are context-dependent (Kashdan et al., 2011;Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). More broadly, our findings are in line with research highlighting the power of personality in predicting important life outcomes (Roberts et al., 2007), and with accounts of social change that champion the role of individual agency and proactivity, while emphasizing their boundedness (Brandtst€ adter, 2010;Elder, 1994;Shanahan & Hood, 2000). ...
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Objective: We investigated the interplay between the personality trait exploration and objective socioecological conditions in shaping individual differences in the experience of two individual-level benefits of current social change: New lifestyle options, which arise from the societal trend toward individualization; and new learning opportunities, which accrue from the societal trend toward lifelong learning. We hypothesized that people higher in trait exploration experience a greater increase in lifestyle options and learning opportunities--but more so in social ecologies in which individualization and lifelong learning are stronger, thus offering greater latitude for exploring these trends. Method: Structural equation modeling in two parallel adult samples from Germany (N = 2,448) and Poland (N = 2,571), using regional divorce rates as a proxy of individualization and Internet domain registration rates as proxy of lifelong learning. Results: Higher exploration was related to a greater perceived increase in lifestyle options and in learning opportunities over the past five years. These associations were stronger in regions in which the trends toward individualization and lifelong learning, respectively, were more prominent. Conclusion: Individuals higher in exploration are better equipped to reap the benefits of current social change--but the effects of exploration are bounded by the conditions in the social ecology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Even in infancy and early childhood, curiosity enables young learners to acquire evidence and develop models of how the world works [19]. As children get older and enter school, intrinsic curiosity is still the main drive for efficient learning even with great teachers [14,6]. The question then arises: what influences the basic curiosity drive in young children? ...
... Furthermore, it was shown, through manipulation of child-toy-experimenter interaction that if evidence fails to distinguish among competing beliefs, infants explore more to disambiguate their beliefs [19]. In another study, the effects of personal curiosity traits and the school environment on academic achievements have been shown to be complex, namely, high curiosity children in challenging schools had the highest performance, whereas high curiosity children in non-challenging school had the lowest [14]. We ask whether a robotic peer, as opposed to a parent, experimenter or school environment, can change a child's curiosity. ...
... If the child knew perfectly how to read, e.g. an older child, the robot asked about the longest word in the sentence. This behavior guaranteed to challenge the child during the interaction [14], another characteristic of a curious peer. The non-curious robot, on the other hand, asked about a random word in the sentence, thus sometimes asking too hard a word and most of the time too easy. ...
Article
Curiosity is key to learning, yet school children show wide variability in their eagerness to acquire information. Recent research suggests that other people have a strong influence on children's exploratory behavior. Would a curious robot elicit children's exploration and the desire to find out new things? In order to answer this question we designed a novel experimental paradigm in which a child plays an education tablet app with an autonomous social robot, which is portrayed as a younger peer. We manipulated the robot's behavior to be either curiosity-driven or not and measured the child's curiosity after the interaction. We show that some of the child's curiosity measures are significantly higher after interacting with a curious robot, compared to a non-curious one, while others do not. These results suggest that interacting with an autonomous social curious robot can selectively guide and promote children's curiosity.
... Regarding the personal resource of curiosity, the scientific literature relates this feature of the individual with environmental factors (e.g., perception of support, presence of challenges).Environments that do not provide support or that do not challenge curious individuals can impair their motivation and performance. A study of adolescent students verified that the link between curiosity and academic performance was influenced by the perception of the school environment (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). ...
... Characteristics of curious individuals, such as the motivation to seek information, the desire to reduce uncertainty, and interest in controlling the environment, can promote the perception of environmental resources (job/academic) that enable one to achieve positive results (engagement). Curious people are more sensitive to environments that favor novelty, intellectual challenge, and potential growth (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). ...
... The perception of academic support by curious individuals may be related to characteristics of curiosity (search for information, reduction of uncertainty, and interest in controlling the environment), which encourage a more attentive exploration of environmental resources that help to achieve one's goals. Curious individuals are more attentive, they process information at a deeper level and retain it better, and they persist in tasks to achieve their goals (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). These effects have general and daily consequences. ...
Article
Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, this diary study investigated the mediator role of academic resources in the relationship between personal resources and variables of well-being. The study postulates that the perceived level of academic support received by students during the day mediates the relationship between the levels of self-efficacy and curiosity, measured early in the day, and the level of academic engagement measured at the end of the day. Ninety-four undergraduates filled in a general questionnaire and subsequently completed a daily questionnaire, for 5 consecutive academic days (470 diary entries). The multilevel analysis showed a positive relationship between self-efficacy and curiosity and academic engagement. In addition, the results revealed a positive relationship between academic support and academic engagement. Finally, the results showed partial mediation of academic support in the relationship between self-efficacy and academic engagement and in the relationship between curiosity and academic engagement. The results can be used to improve teaching and learning programs in colleges and universities.
... Thus, there exists a gap in the literature between the proposed importance of curiosity for learning in childhood (Renninger & Hidi, 2019;Engel, 2011;Gottlieb et al., 2013;Jirout et al., 2018) and empirical evidence directly assessing curiosity states and their benefit for learning and memory in children. While previous research has indicated that curiosity as an individual trait facilitates learning in educational contexts (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007;Shah et al., 2018;von Stumm et al., 2011), it is currently unknown how states of curiosity affect learning and memory in children and adolescents. As states of curiosity are potentially more malleable than trait curiosity, a better understanding of the effects of curiosity in development can help facilitate educational practices related to fostering children's and adolescents' learning. ...
... These results complement previous findings that trait curiosity affects cognition (for reviews, see Grossnickle, 2016;Renninger & Hidi, 2019). Specifically, studies have consistently demonstrated that higher trait curiosity is positively associated with academic achievement in children (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007;Shah et al., 2018;von Stumm et al., 2011). At the same time, the present results elucidate a different aspect of curiosity, namely states of curiosity. ...
... At the same time, the present results elucidate a different aspect of curiosity, namely states of curiosity. While state and trait curiosity are thought to be closely related (Baranes et al., 2015;Grossnickle, 2016;Risko et al., 2012), characterizing the development of state curiosity entails clear benefits in that it can help tailor strategies and interventions to optimally stimulate states of curiosity across childhood and adolescence (Hassinger-Das & Hirsh-Pasek, 2018;Jirout et al., 2018;Kashdan & Yuen, 2007;Shah et al., 2018). Interestingly, these studies have also revealed that the relation between trait curiosity and academic achievement depends on additional factors such as children's perception of the school situation (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007) or socio-economic status (Shah et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Curiosity ‐ broadly defined as the desire to acquire new information ‐ enhances learning and memory in adults. In addition, interest in the information (i.e., when the information is processed) can also facilitate later memory. To date, it is not known how states of pre‐information curiosity and post‐information interest enhance memory in childhood and adolescence. We used a trivia paradigm in which children and adolescents (N = 60, 10–14 years) encoded trivia questions and answers associated with high or low curiosity. States of high pre‐answer curiosity enhanced later memory for trivia answers in both children and adolescents. However, higher positive post‐answer interest enhanced memory for trivia answers beyond the effects of curiosity more strongly in adolescents than in children. These results suggest that curiosity and interest have positive effects on learning and memory in childhood and adolescence, but might need to be harnessed in differential ways across child development to optimize learning.
... In educational research, the most widely used scales focus on epistemic curiosity, generally investigating how epistemic curiosity relates to educational achievement. For example, Kashdan and Yuen (2007) employed the Epistemic Curiosity Inventory (ECI: Kashdan et al. 2004) incorporating exploration and absorption curiosity factors, to investigate how trait curiosity relates to students' perceptions of learning opportunities and intellectual challenge in their school environment, and to their achievement. Students with high trait curiosity who perceived their school to be intellectually challenging were the most successful academically. ...
... A second issue concerns the operation of in-the-moment curiosity states contingent on trait curiosity dimensions. Kashdan and Yuen (2007) investigated whether epistemic curiosity interacting with students' perception of challenge in their school environment was related to achievement. However, evidence to confirm an interactive relation between curiosity and students' perception of their school environment also requires assessment of functional inthe-moment states, that is, recording of students' immediate reaction when encountering the challenging problem. ...
Article
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This article explores the relation between curiosity and interest by examining how in-the-moment experiences of curiosity and of interest emerge out of exploratory behavior observed in infancy and early childhood. As experiential states, there is little to distinguish curiosity and interest. Descriptions of developing interests that refer to “curiosity questions” and “curiosity episodes,” suggest that experiential states of curiosity and interest are intertwined in interest development. However, when the focus is on individual differences, curiosity and interest diverge. Trait curiosity is a relatively stable personality trait, the propensity to feel curious in contexts high in collative variability. On the other hand, interests or individual interest refer to a disposition or predisposition to engage and re-engage with contents of a specific domain. It is suggested that further insight into the significance of curiosity and interest for educational practice will come from expanding real-time analyses of the quality of the experiential states they subsume.
... En relación a estas dos fortalezas, ser curioso/a y estar abierto a variedad de pensamientos, perspectivas e ideas facilita el aprendizaje y un mejor rendimiento académico (Wavo, 2004;Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). Estos puntos fuertes de carácter deben abarcarse considerando el contexto y el carácter (positivo) de las instituciones que rodean al niño. ...
... Por ejemplo, puntos fuertes de carácter tales como la auto-regulación, la prudencia y el perdón están relacionados con un desarrollo psicológico positivo y una mejor adaptación en las escuelas (Cillessen & Rose, 2005). A su vez, fortalezas tales como la perseverancia y la esperanza influencian positivamente en el logro académico y la curiosidad facilita el aprendizaje (Wavo, 2004;Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). El deseo de aprender presenta una relación positiva con la motivación intrínseca (Anderman & Young, 1994;Miller, Behrens, Green & Newman, 1993) y se encontró una relación significativa entre gratitud y satisfacción con la experiencia escolar (Froh, Sefick & Emmons, 2008). ...
Article
Unlike the traditional approach based on the deficit paradigm that is based on the identification of risk and protective factors of health, Positive Psychology is defined as the scientific study of human strengths and virtues, which allows taking a more open perspective regarding the human potential, their motivations and capabilities (Sheldon & King, 2001). This paper aims to accomplish a brief theoretical review of the main terms associated with Positive Psychology and research undertaken about the virtues and strengths in the scope of childhood. It also describes some of the benefits that the study of the human potential may have on developing educational preventive and intervention programs. Finally, some character measurement instruments are mentioned.
... It has been related to the presence of positive emotions, energy, and vitality (Ryan and Frederick 1997) and to higher identification with and commitment to activities concerning growth and development (Kashdan and Steger 2007). It has also been shown to predict beneficial outcomes within an academic context, where it has been confirmed that students with high levels of curiosity achieve higher levels of learning, performance, and engagement in academic tasks (Harackiewicz et al. 2002;Hidi and Berndorff 1998;Kashdan and Yuen 2007). In addition, curiosity facilitates persistence in one's goals (Thoman et al. 2011). ...
... Moreover, we explored the moderating role of curiosity between meaning in life and the consequences of students' engagement and emotional exhaustion, aspects that until now have not been sufficiently explored and that could play an important role in college students' development and academic commitment (Schreiner et al. 2009;Worrell 2014). In this sense, our study extends previous research by showing the potential positive role of daily meaning in life and curiosity in enhancing motivation and well-being in an academic setting (Kashdan and Steger 2007;Kashdan and Yuen 2007). ...
Article
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College students face numerous academic demands on a daily basis. The resources of the University and of the students to cope with these demands are essential to explain students’ levels of well-being. The purpose of this investigation is to explore the role of day-level curiosity and meaning in life in the explanation of students’ levels of engagement and emotional exhaustion at night. Two-hundred and nine college students participated in a daily study of five consecutive academic days, completing measures of curiosity and meaning in life in the afternoon and measures of engagement and emotional exhaustion at night. Data were analyzed using MLwiN software from a hierarchical linear modeling and daily approach. Curiosity in the afternoon showed a positive relationship with levels of engagement at night, and a negative relationship with levels of emotional exhaustion at night. Moreover, the interaction of curiosity and search for meaning and emotional exhaustion was positive. Although curiosity drives to exploring opportunities and challenges, decreases exhaustion and promotes daily engagement, when curiosity interacts with other emotional loads (such as search for meaning), it can become an emotional overload favoring exhaustion. From this perspective, it is necessary to continue investigating the mechanisms that predict students’ well-being and to create academic environments that stimulate curiosity and support students in their search for meaning in life.
... Curiosity and intrinsic motivation are closely related conceptually, and some researchers have used the two terms interchangeably (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007 ). For example, Ryan and Deci ( 2000 ) defi ned intrinsic motivation as "the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and exercise ones' capacities, to explore, and to learn" (p. ...
... While some scholars have suggested that being curious and autonomous is universally benefi cial and the controlling parenting styles and the great emphasis on academic success in Chinese culture tend to hinder students' development (Barber, Stolz, & Olsen, 2005 ;Chirkov & Ryan, 2001 ;Grolnick, 2003 ), others have contended that compared with conventional achievement goals, curiosity and autonomy are not important development tasks for Chinese people and therefore do not necessarily lead to positive outcomes (Greenfi eld, Heller, Fuligni, & Maynard, 2003 ;Markus & Kitayama, 1991 ). For example, while some studies have shown a signifi cant relationship between Chinese students' curiosity and academic achievement (Lau & Chan, 2001 ), Kashdan and Yuen ( 2007 ) found that curiosity was not associated with public examination scores for Hong Kong secondary school students. Besides, for Western students, intrinsic motivation is an antecedent of deep learning strategies; for Chinese students, deep learning strategies are driven by both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations such as personal ambition, family face, peer support, and material reward (Watkins, 2000 ;Watkins & Biggs, 1996, 2001. ...
Chapter
As an intrinsic motivation to explore new experience and knowledge, curiosity plays an essential role in learning and development. However, in Asian cultures, where tradition and authority are highly respected, people may not be encouraged to develop and utilize their curiosity, even in a learning setting where curiosity is highly valued (e.g., general education). This longitudinal study examined how curiosity affected learning outcomes in general education and how the learning outcomes, in turn, contributed to subsequent development of curiosity among a group of university students in Hong Kong. Two hundred and forty-two participants (59 males and 183 females) responded to the questionnaires at the beginning of Semesters 1 and 2. Learning outcomes were assessed by both objective and subjective measures (i.e., average grade and self-evaluation). Results show that curiosity at the beginning of Semester 1 significantly predicted self-evaluated learning outcomes in Semester 1, which further contributed significantly to curiosity in Semester 2, even when the curiosity in Semester 1 was controlled. By contrast, no significant association was found for the objective measure of learning outcome with curiosity in Semesters 1 and 2. Implications for learning and assessment in general education are discussed.
... Cognitive ability and curiosity are two important antecedents of academic achievement (Anastasi 1982;Kashdan and Yuen 2007;Kuncel et al. 2004;Poropat 2009;Richardson et al. 2012;von Stumm et al. 2011). In terms of competences, they refer to latent characteristics (resources) underlying behavior responsible for knowledge acquisition and performance (Blömeke et al. 2015). ...
... According to the theoretical intellect model (Mussel 2013a), these refer to individual differences in the propensity to think, learn, and create and influence seeking out and conquering intellectually challenging situations. Investment traits have been found to be related to fluid intelligence (Ackerman and Heggestad 1997;Fleischhauer et al. 2010;von Stumm and Ackerman 2013) and academic performance (Kashdan and Yuen 2007;Richardson et al. 2012;von Stumm et al. 2011). ...
Article
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Cognitive ability and curiosity are significant predictors of academic achievement; yet the processes underlying these relations are not well understood. I drew on ideas from the environmental enrichment hypothesis and the differential preservation hypothesis and hypothesized that epistemic behavior acts as a mediator. Longitudinal data were collected from 1964 individuals in three waves, spanning five years: cognitive ability and curiosity were assessed at time 1; epistemic behavior at time 2; at time 3, grade point average and highest degree of both secondary and tertiary academic education (if applicable) were obtained retrospectively via self-report. I found expected bivariate relations between all study variables, including a significant relation between cognitive ability and curiosity and significant relations of both of these variables with secondary academic performance. Epistemic behavior was related to curiosity and academic performance but, at odds with the hypothesis, did not mediate the relation between cognitive and personality variables and academic performance. It is concluded that the process underlying the behavioral consequences of cognitive ability and curiosity is not environmental enrichment.
... It is further supported by assumptions of the person-environment fit approach (for more details see 1.1.1 Need for Cognition in Education) and especially by previous research applying the person-environment fit approach to constructs related to NFC. Kashdan and Yuen (2007) investigated interaction effects between students' curiosity and perceived school quality on academic success with high school students in Hong Kong. They found some support for a person-environment fit approach to curiosity with curious students performing better in educational settings characterized by intellectual challenge and support for their own values and preferences in learning. ...
... This assumption is well aligned with findings from studies applying the person-environment fit approach to constructs related to NFC (e.g., curiosity and creativity). Curious students performed better in educational settings that are characterized by intellectual challenge and that support their own values and preferences in learning (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). Further, the predictive power of creativity in academic achievement is considerably higher in classrooms where teachers award creativity more strongly (Freund & Holling, 2008). ...
Article
The present study investigates how Need for Cognition (NFC), an individual's tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking, relates to academic achievement in 9th grade students (N = 3.355) attending different school tracks to understand whether school track moderates this relation when controlling for student background variables. Using structural regression analyses, our findings revealed small and significant positive relations between NFC and academic achievement in German, French and Math. Relations were strongest in the highest and weakest in the lowest track. No significant track difference between the highest and the intermediary track could be identified; significant differences of small effect size between the intermediary and the lowest track were found in favor of the intermediary track in the relation between NFC and academic achievement in German and Math. These findings underpin the importance of NFC in academic settings, while highlighting that the relation between NFC and achievement varies with the characteristics of different learning environments.
... Among high school students in Hong Kong, student scores on the SHS were related to their perceptions of their school's quality and their own grades (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). Similarly, like the SWLS, the SHS taken at the beginning of an introductory psychology course was also related to final grades (Borrello, 2005). ...
... Curiosity is one of the so-called emotions of knowledge (Kashdan and Silvia, 2009). In the school area, the more curious students are more academically successful (Hidi and Berndorff, 1998;Kashdan and Yuen, 2007;Schiefele, Krapp and Winteler, 1992). In the field of work, curiosity is related to cognition and behaviour that predict better adjustment to new occupations (Wanberg and Kammeyer-Mueller, 2000) and to changes at work (Wanberg y Banas, 2000) as well as learning, satisfaction and performance in the work area (Reio and Wiswell, 2000;Wall and Clegg, 1981). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to increase students’ curiosity and motivation to participate in a prevention programme and to assess their involvement, use and satisfaction with the programme. The participants were 87 students from seven high schools in the Murcia Autonomous Region, Spain, who were randomly assigned to either receive motivational pre-intervention, or no pre-intervention at all, according to Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory. Rollnick and Miller's (1991) focus on the motivational interview and Prochaska, Norcross and Di Clemente's, (1994) stages of change. Promising evidence of the usefulness of pre-intervention was found. A significant negative relation between curiosity about positive change and the participants’ anxiety as well as a positive relation with optimism were also found. The need for further study of interventions aimed at increasing adolescents’ interest in participating in programmes to prevent depressive symptoms is discussed. As a conclusion, the need to further investigate the variable of curiosity, both at an intervention level and at an assessment level is emphasised.
... In this respect Chinese learners recognize that striving for academic excellence is a family obligation as much as a personal goal. As Kashdan and Yuen (2007) suggest, Chinese learners regard attaining academic achievement as their most important duty; and this goal to achieve is both personal and social (Chan, 2008(Chan, , 2009Hau & Salili, 1991;King, McInerney, & Watkins, 2010, 2013Wang, Slaney, & Rice, 2007). Apart from the will to become a more competent self, the aim to meet social expectations and foster the connectedness with important others also steers Chinese learners to pursue increasingly higher performance standards. ...
Chapter
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Chinese learners have frequently demonstrated academic achievement that outshines their Western counterparts—but paradoxically research has suggested that various nurturing, teaching, and learning conditions in the Chinese context are often believed in the West to be unfavorable to learning. Against this background, the chapter revisits this paradox by drawing upon research and current theories of motivation and learning. Through a cultural lens, the authors discuss pertinent personal and social-contextual factors influencing Chinese learners’ academic success. In particular, attention is directed to learners’ self-efficacy and connectedness. The chapter offers a picture of how Chinese learners are actually nurtured and identifies some culturally sensitive notions in the research literature. The arguments here should alert researchers and practitioners to some key cultural differences when interpreting research and practice.
... Some researchers have been concerned about the apparent lack of curiosity among students in primary and secondary schools (Archer et al., 2016;Engelhard Jr. & Monsaas, 1988). Others have reported that curiosity among school students may be dependent on the extent to which the school culture supports curiosity and exploration (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). By contrast, Schmitt and Lahroodi (2008) argued that curiosity might revive when students enter university. ...
Article
Curiosity is a motivation construct that is important at all levels of education. This study investigated the curiosity experiences of tertiary students. Individual interviews were carried out with 20 tertiary students. Participants were asked to describe experiences of wanting-to-learn (positive curiosity) or not-wanting-to-learn (negative curiosity) that they had recently experienced in regular classes. Participants reported they had recently experienced both forms of curiosity, which correlated with high and low levels of cognitive learning behaviours. Antecedent factors included personal interest, confidence, expectancies, value, and teacher influences.
... The Chinese version of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) is a four-item questionnaire that is used to evaluate a person's happiness (Kashdan and Yuen, 2007;Lyubomirsky and Lepper, 1999). Two items ask the respondents to characterize themselves using both absolute ratings and ratings relative to peers, while the other two items offer brief descriptions of happy and unhappy individuals and ask the respondents about the extent to which each characterization describes them (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, 1999). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, the reiterated need for creating psychological knowledge and measurement instruments that are universal in character is postulated. This effort would inevitably be based on the simultaneous and/or continuous study of different cultural, social, political, and economic communities. With this purpose in mind, this study proposes the creation and validation of theories and measures on positive psychological constructs that can be integrated into a tool that aims at what might be called a desirable and credible global psychology. Several comparative studies that present some perspectives and measurements from various countries on optimism, generosity, and forgiveness, developed in the US, Israel, and Mexico, are included here. Different samples from university students and the open population residing in the metropolitan area of the city of Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico, were used. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to calculate the construct validity of the original instruments for each culture, the convergent validity of the premises was assessed, and a new measure for each construct was obtained, resulting from combining the original instruments and those applied to local Mexican residents, achieving adequate goodness of fit and reliability in the final version measuring optimism, generosity, and forgiveness. It is concluded that there are great advantages to combining theories and measurements of the same positive psychological construct, from various cultures, thus supporting the creation of an appropriate global positive psychology.
... Students responded to items such as "I can always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough" on a 4-point Likert scale. Previous studies established construct validity through associations between GSE and constructs such as behaviorspecific self-efficacy, well-being, and coping strategies (e.g., Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). These associations remain consistent across countries and samples (Luszczynska, Scholz, & Schwarzer, 2005). ...
Article
Social anxiety impacts functional impairment in several life domains; in children, the most notable effect is a decline in academic performance. Socially anxious children report that communicating with peers and teachers, as well as public speaking are their biggest fears in academic settings. Prior research has shown that these children attribute a lack of academic achievement to difficulties communicating interpersonally or publicly. For apprehensive children, many resources are devoted to interventions at the individual level, with little consideration given to their environment - the classroom. The current study examined the association between communication apprehension, social features of the classroom environment, and academic outcomes - current achievement and future ambitions. Three out of four classroom environmental factors (promoting interaction, promoting respect, and teacher support) buffered the negative effects of communication apprehension on current academic achievement. Interestingly, these same factors increased the negative effects of communication apprehension on future academic ambition (intentions to attend college). Implications for the mixed results of a classroom environment that encourages communication are discussed.
... Studies have shown that specific facets of environments (e.g., perceived threat, autonomy supportive) and activities (e.g., competitiveness, meaningfulness) influence curiosity (Silvia, 2012). Kashdan and Yuen (2007) in their study revealed that the relationship between curiosity and academic success depends on whether school environment supports values about growth and learning. Their results showed that adolescents with greater trait curiosity in more challenging schools had the greatest academic success, while adolescents with greater trait curiosity in less challenging schools had the least academic success. ...
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The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between curiosity and well-being in the sample of university students. A total of 318 college students from the Faculty of Teacher Education and the Faculty of Kinesiology (100 males and 215 females) participated in the study. The students ranged in age from 18 to 26. Four questionnaires were administered: Curiosity and Exploration Inventory - CEI-II (Kashdan et al., 2009), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule - PANAS (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), Flourishing Scale – FS (Diener et al., 2009) and Basic Needs Satisfaction Scale (Gagné, 2003). Results of ANOVAs showed that students of the Faculty of Kinesiology had higher scores on both curiosity scales: Curiosity Stretching and Curiosity Embracing. Curiosity stretching reflects the motivation to seek out knowledge and new experiences while embracing dimension is related to willingness to embrace the novel, uncertain, and unpredictable nature of everyday life. They also scored higher on positive affect and lower on negative affect. There was no statistical difference between students from the two faculties on the flourishing scale and the scale used to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs. Gender differences were found only for negative affects, with females scoring higher on the negative affect scale. Both curiosity scales were correlated to well-being scales, but as the results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed, only curiosity stretching was a significant predictor of basic needs satisfaction, positive affect and flourishing. Among students of the Faculty of Kinesiology, motivation to seek out knowledge and new experiences has a greater role in their well-being. This suggests the possibility of positive influence of curiosity on well-being and the need to pay more attention to methods for developing curiosity in teaching and learning at the university level.
... Se ha podido constatar que, por ejemplo, la perseverancia, la apertura mental y la curiosidad, influencian positivamente el logro académico y se constituyen como fuertes predictoras del éxito escolar (Cillessen & Rose, 2005;Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). A su vez, el amor junto con la esperanza y la vitalidad, son las fortalezas que más se asociaron con mayores niveles 117 La evaluación de las virtudes y fortalezas del carácter en niños argentinos: adaptación y validación del Inventario de Virtudes y Fortalezas Para Niños (IVyF Niños) de felicidad en niños de 3 a 9 años (Park & Peterson 2006a). ...
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This study aimed the adaptation and validation of the Inventory of Virtues and Strengths (I.V.&S., Cosentino & Castro Solano, 2008) in children aged 10-12 years. The I.V.&S. Children is a useful tool for assessing human virtues and strengths according to Peterson and Seligman´s (2004) six virtues and 24 strengths classification of character. 518 children (254 males and 263 females) between 10 and 12 years and attending to public and private schools of the City of Buenos Aires (Argentina) were part of this study. Regarding the I.V.&S. Children factor´s structure, the exploratory factor analysis allowed the extraction of six factors that accounted for 46.15 % of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis showed an adequate fit to the model. As to convergent validity evidence, statistically significant and positive correlations were found between scores by I.V&S. Children and Children’s Social Desirability Scale (EDESI, Lemos, 2005), the Argentine Children’s Personality Questionnaire (ICSC, Lemos, 2006) and the question about life satisfaction: “How satisfied or happy are you with your life?”.
... Por ejemplo, las fortalezas de bondad y generosidad, amar y dejarse amar, integridad y el trabajo en D equipo, se asocian con una mayor empatía, con el establecimiento de vínculos promotores de libertad, apoyo y seguridad, y con la configuración de relaciones sociales positivas, siendo éstas últimas un pilar básico para la satisfacción vital (Grinhauz y Castro Solano, 2014;Ryan y Deci, 2000;Seligman, 2011). Asimismo, la perseverancia (asociada al optimismo y esperanza), la curiosidad, amor por el conocimiento y la mentalidad abierta se relacionan con el logro académico y el éxito escolar, favoreciendo el aprendizaje y motivación intrínseca (Kashdan y Yuen, 2007). A su vez, la fortaleza de la valentía está ligada a un mayor locus de control interno (Jiménez, Alvarado y Puente, 2013) y promoción de salud física y mental (Peterson y Park, 2006). ...
Article
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La felicidad es un valor universal del ser humano y el campo de estudio de la psicología positiva nos aporta un conocimiento relevante acerca de su impacto en nuestras vidas, así como de sus correlatos. La escuela es uno de los principales contextos de desarrollo humano y por ello el lugar por excelencia para facilitar y promover la felicidad en todos los niños y jóvenes. Ahora bien, implementar la psicología positiva en la escuela requiere repensar en nuestro propio concepto de educación, considerar la felicidad dentro de los objetivos del proyecto educativo, e introducir modificaciones en la organización escolar y las metodologías docentes. Todo ello conlleva a su vez la inserción de dicho marco de trabajo en la formación inicial y permanente del profesorado así como la necesidad de profundizar en el conocimiento de la felicidad en la infancia y su papel en el proceso educativo.
... Positive affect was also weakly associated with academic achievement (Cheng & Furnham, 2002;Nickerson, Diener, & Schwarz, 2011). Yet, positive affect (i.e., cheerfulness) has not substantially associated with academic ability in undergraduate students (Fox & Spector, 2000;Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). ...
Article
Recent literature has recognized the advantageous role of low-arousal positive affect such as feelings of peacefulness and internal harmony in collectivist cultures. However, limited research has explored the benefits of low-arousal affective states in the educational setting. The current study examined the link of peace of mind (PoM) to academic motivation (i.e., amotivation, controlled motivation, and autonomous motivation) and academic achievement among 525 Filipino high school students. Findings revealed that PoM was positively associated with academic achievement β = .16 , p < .05, autonomous motivation β = .48 , p < .001, and controlled motivation β = .25 , p < .01. As expected, PoM was negatively related to amotivation β = –.19 , p < .05, and autonomous motivation was positively associated with academic achievement β = .52 , p < .01. Furthermore, the results of bias-corrected bootstrap analyses at 95% confidence interval based on 5,000 bootstrapped resamples demonstrated that peace of mind had an indirect influence on academic achievement through the mediating effects of autonomous motivation. In terms of the effect sizes, the findings showed that PoM explained about 1% to 18% of the variance in academic achievement and motivation. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are elucidated.
... Se ha podido constatar que, por ejemplo, la perseverancia, la apertura mental y la curiosidad, influencian positivamente el logro académico y se constituyen como fuertes predictoras del éxito escolar (Cillessen & Rose, 2005;Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). A su vez, el amor junto con la esperanza y la vitalidad, son las fortalezas que más se asociaron con mayores niveles 117 La evaluación de las virtudes y fortalezas del carácter en niños argentinos: adaptación y validación del Inventario de Virtudes y Fortalezas Para Niños (IVyF Niños) de felicidad en niños de 3 a 9 años (Park & Peterson 2006a). ...
Article
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This study aimed the adaptation and validation of the Inventory of Virtues and Strengths (I.V.&S., Cosentino & Castro Solano, 2008) in children aged 10-12 years. The I.V.&S. Children is a useful tool for assessing human virtues and strengths according to Peterson and Seligman´s (2004) six virtues and 24 strengths classification of character. 518 children (254 males and 263 females) between 10 and 12 years and attending to public and private schools of the City of Buenos Aires (Argentina) were part of this study. Regarding the I.V.&S. Children factor´s structure, the exploratory factor analysis allowed the extraction of six factors that accounted for 46.15 % of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis showed an adequate fit to the model. As to convergent validity evidence, statistically significant and positive correlations were found between scores by I.V&S. Children and Children's Social Desirability Scale (EDESI, Lemos, 2005), the Argentine Children's Personality Questionnaire (ICSC, Lemos, 2006) and the question about life satisfaction: "How satisfied or happy are you with your life?".
... ., readiness to accept new situations) perspectives (Jovanovic & Gavrilov-Jerkovic, 2014) . Researchers identified curiosity as a characteristic of personal growth and psychological strength (Kashdan, Rose, & Fincham, 2004;Peterson & Seligman, 2004) that is related to life satisfaction, hope (Jovanovic & Brdaric, 2012;Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011), academic success, and positive perceptions of learning environments (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007) . ...
Article
This study examined how character strengths and the importance of family influenced Mexican American college students' (N = 129) career decision self-efficacy. Findings from a multiple regression analysis indicated that psychological grit and curiosity were significant predictors of career decision self-efficacy. The authors discuss the importance of these findings and provide recommendations for future research.
... Happiness was measured using the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; Appendix 1), which was developed by Lyubomirsky and Lepper to measure happiness using both absolute ratings (two items) and ratings relative to peers (two items) (Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999), with a higher score indicating a higher level of happiness. The Chinese version of the SHS has been evaluated for its psychometric properties, linguistic equivalence of translation and reliability in several studies (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007;Chen et al. 2008;Tse et al. 2010;Tam et al. 2012). ...
Article
Aims There has recently been an increased interest in mental health indicators for the monitoring of population wellbeing, which is among the targets of Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations. Levels of subjective wellbeing and suicide rates have been proposed as indicators of population mental health, but prior research is limited. Methods Data on individual happiness and life satisfaction were sourced from a population-based survey in Hong Kong (2011). Suicide data were extracted from Coroner's Court files (2005–2013). Area characteristic variables included local poverty rate and four factors derived from a factor analysis of 21 variables extracted from the 2011 census. The associations between mean happiness and life satisfaction scores and suicide rates were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient at two area levels: 18 districts and 30 quantiles of large street blocks (LSBs; n = 1620). LSB is a small area unit with a higher level of within-unit homogeneity compared with districts. Partial correlations were used to control for area characteristics. Results Happiness and life satisfaction demonstrated weak inverse associations with suicide rate at the district level ( r = −0.32 and −0.36, respectively) but very strong associations at the LSB quantile level ( r = −0.83 and −0.84, respectively). There were generally very weak or weak negative correlations across sex/age groups at the district level but generally moderate to strong correlations at the LSB quantile level. The associations were markedly attenuated or became null after controlling for area characteristics. Conclusions Subjective wellbeing is strongly associated with suicide at a small area level; socioeconomic factors can largely explain this association. Socioeconomic factors could play an important role in determining the wellbeing of the population, and this could inform policies aimed at enhancing population wellbeing.
... The research from [10] concludes that students with high academic achievement show higher level of self confidence than lower academic achiever students. The other research from [11] states that students with greater curiosity in more challenging schools have the greatest academic success. Otherwise, students with greatercuriosity in less challenging schools have the least academic success. ...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of this research was to produce instructional package in 7 th grade on the 2 nd semester with POGIL that consisted of lesson plans and student worksheets, which hadgood quality. The quality was determined based on Nieveen criteria, including validity, practicality, and effectiveness. This study was a development research. The developing model in this research was Plomp model, which consisted of preliminary research, development, and assessment phase. The research instruments were validation sheets, teacher assessment sheets, observation sheets for learning process, student assessment questionnaires, tests, questionnaires, and observation sheets for attitudes. The analysis of the validity and practicality of the data was done by converting the quantitative data in the form of assessment result score into the qualitative data in the form of five scale. The analysis of the effectiveness of the test results was conducted by determining the percentage of the students' learning mastery. The assessment of questionnaires and attitudes observation was conducted by determining the percentage of the students for each category. The result of the validation showed that the developed instructional package was very valid based on the lesson plans and student worksheets. The results of the tryout indicated that lesson plans and student worksheets were practical and effective. The instructional packagewas in the very practical category based on teacher's assessment and practical category based on the result of observation for learning process and students' assessment. The instructional package was also in the effective category based on students' learning mastery, questionnaires of religiosity, and questionnaires of attitudes.
... Similarly, curiosity related to kindergarten children's academic performance even after controlling for effortful control, and the association was strongest for low-income children (Shah et al., 2018). In addition to children's curiosity, the educational context is also important to consider, as negative perceptions of school can lead to lower academic performance for higher curious students (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). Importantly, it is very likely that the educational context can influence children's curiosity more directly and their learning indirectly, though research is needed to test this empirically . ...
... As a result, curious people are motivated to seek information that reduce the perception of novelty, complexity or ambiguity (Spielberger and Starr 1994). In addition to cases in which specific information is desired because people are exposed to the described stimulus characteristics, people with a chronic disposition of curiosity have a general tendency to seek stimuli with such characteristics or engage in general knowledge acquisition (Kashdan et al. 2004;Kashdan and Yuen 2007). ...
Article
This review offers a framework of consumers’ situational curiosity by integrating research investigating the different stages of stimulating, experiencing, and resolving curiosity. Following this process perspective and focusing on marketing-relevant situations, it first provides an overview of triggers that have been used to stimulate curiosity and illustrates the implementation of these triggers in empirical studies. Subsequently, it synthesizes the key processes that are initiated when consumers sustain in the state of being curious and when they (presumably) have resolved their curiosity. These processes are assigned to affective consequences, cognitive consequences, or a third category, which includes the outcome variables of evaluation, decision making, and behavior. This article helps researchers and practitioners alike to gain a better overview of this fragmented research area and identifies research gaps and open questions for future research. Finally, recommendations for practitioners are given of how to effectively use curiosity-triggering stimuli in their marketing communication.
... Individuals who work in places that support curiosity and exploration seem to support a general orientation towards learning (Kirby et al., 2003;Yang et al., 2004). Developing such an environment also seems to be critical for supporting those who already have a desire for learning and who want to perform well (Kashdan and Yuen, 2007). ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between a lifelong learning mindset and career success. A lifelong learning mindset is a way of approaching one's work with curiosity, strategic thinking, and resilience. Career success refers to objective (e.g., number of promotions) and subjective (e.g., job satisfaction) indicators of progress and fulfillment in one's work. Design/methodology/approach Two studies are presented. Both studies draw from an accounting and finance program at a Canadian university. In study 1, data were collected from students ( n = 62) and their supervisors at the end of a four-month co-operative education (co-op) work term. In study 2, data were collected from graduates ( n = 148). Findings Results suggest that developing a lifelong learning mindset enhances both objective and subjective career success. Participants' lifelong learning mindset was associated with objective career success in both studies (supervisor-rated performance in study 1 and number of promotions in study 2). Lifelong learning mindset was associated with subjective career success in study 2 (job satisfaction, work engagement, and job-related self-efficacy) but not in study 1 (experience satisfaction). Originality/value This article presents the first empirical examination of the relationship between a lifelong learning mindset and career success. Insights from the article highlight the fact that educators and workplace managers might work together to promote a lifelong learning mindset for current and future workers.
... Curiosity, an important foundation for scientific innovation [1], is characterized by the drive to seek out new information [2], desire to explore [3], and joy in learning [4,5]. Higher curiosity has been associated with numerous adaptive outcomes in childhood including more robust word acquisition [6], enhanced learning and exploration [7] and higher academic achievement [8,9], highlighting the potential importance of fostering curiosity from an early age. Our previous work found a positive association between higher curiosity and higher academic achievement, with a greater magnitude of benefit for children with socioeconomic disadvantage [10], raising the possibility that promoting curiosity in young children may be one way to mitigate the achievement gap associated with poverty [11]. ...
Article
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Objective To examine the main and interactive effects of the amount of daily television exposure and frequency of parent conversation during shared television viewing on parent ratings of curiosity at kindergarten, and to test for moderation by socioeconomic status (SES). Study design Sample included 5100 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Hours of daily television exposure and frequency of parent screen-time conversation were assessed from a parent interview at preschool, and the outcome of early childhood curiosity was derived from a child behavior questionnaire at kindergarten. Multivariate linear regression examined the main and interactive effects of television exposure and parent screen-time conversation on kindergarten curiosity and tested for moderation by SES. Results In adjusted models, greater number of hours of daily television viewing at preschool was associated with lower curiosity at kindergarten (B = -0.14, p = .008). More frequent parent conversation during shared screen-time was associated with higher parent-reported curiosity at kindergarten with evidence of moderation by SES. The magnitude of association between frequency of parent conversation during television viewing and curiosity was greater for children from low SES environments, compared to children from high SES environments: (SES ≤ median): B = 0.29, p < .001; (SES > median): B = 0.11, p < .001. Conclusions Higher curiosity at kindergarten was associated with greater frequency of parent conversation during shared television viewing, with a greater magnitude of association in low-SES families. While the study could not include measures of television program content, digital media use and non-screen time conversation, our results suggest the importance of parent conversation to promote early childhood curiosity, especially for children with socioeconomic disadvantage.
... In another study of Chinese high school students, curiosity was linked to higher academic performance on standardized tests (Wavo, 2004). And research on curiosity as a personality trait has demonstrated that academic performance varies across different learning environments depending on students' level of curiosity (Arnone & Grabowsky, 1994, Kashdan & Yuen, 2007. Curiosity has also been positively associated with academic persistence (Neblett et al., 2006, Smalls et al., 2007. ...
Article
Curiosity is a universal and malleable positive character strength. It has been linked to physical, social, emotional, and psychological well-being, academic success, and success in adulthood. Curiosity is especially important in early childhood because this is a critical stage of development when children’s curiosity is still abundant and organic. But for all its value, curiosity remains under-recognized and under-studied. There is no universally agreed upon definition of curiosity in adults or children. As a result, the research community has varying opinions on how to define, measure, and enhance curiosity. And in many current day classrooms, an overly rigid top-down structure contributes to a disconcerting trend of diminishing curiosity as children grow older. Reviewing the scientific research across various fields, I describe seven psychological constructs (attention, novelty, solitude, inquiry, exploration, surprise, and awe) that can foster curiosity behaviors. I designed a Curiosity Toy Kit incorporating these seven curiosity components to be used as positive interventions for enhancing curiosity in early childhood, when children are 5-6 years old and entering formal education. Adults can use the Curiosity Toy Kit to encourage children to develop positive curiosity behaviors, helping them to flourish in school and beyond.
... The ten-item Rosenberg's self-esteem scale (RSES) was used to examine the participants' global self-esteem (Rosenberg, 1965;Schmitt & Allik, 2005). It has been used in more than 53 countries, including adolescents in Hong Kong (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007;Shek, 1998) and has obtained a high level of reliability and validity (Schmitt & Allik, 2005). The Cronbach's α of the self-esteem construct for both the male and female samples in this study were also satisfactory, with α = .80 ...
Article
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The present study examines and explores the indirect effects of intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity on well-being, namely self-esteem and life satisfaction, through presence of and search for meaning in life, and its gender difference among adolescents. 301 girls and 395 boys from Hong Kong participated in this cross-sectional survey study. Independent t-test, correlation and four mediation model analyses with a bootstrap of 5000 samples were conducted. Girls score higher in extrinsic religiosity (personal) and search for meaning in life; lower in self-esteem compared with boys. Presence of meaning in life was found to positively mediate the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic personal religiosity on self-esteem and life satisfaction for boys but is not significant for girls. However, intrinsic religiosity promotes higher search for meaning in life, which in turn lowers self-esteem only for girls. The indirect effect of extrinsic social religiosity on well-being was not significant for both genders. Finding suggests that boys benefit more from religiosity on well-being.
... In line with its relation to learning and, therefore, mastering novel things, curiosity has multidimensional connections with various concepts. While White (1959) relates curiosity with competence, Kashdan and Yuen (2007) point at the relationship between curiosity and academic achievement. Regarding the search for learning new things, Arnone, et al. (2011) refer to the connection between curiosity and exploratory behavior. ...
Article
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As a concept motivating learners, curiosity has increasingly succeeded in capturing the imagination of researchers in language education especially in recent decades. Researchers have started to approach the driving force of curiosity in learning the target language from a variety of perspectives. They appreciated its positive contributions to the language development of learners stressing that curiosity serves as a motivation. Yet, there is a need for further research on curiosity and its effects on the improvement of learners' acquisition of target language in second language learning setting. Therefore, this case study aims to investigate the effects of curiosity on the second language learning process of 10 foreign learners of Turkish in second language setting. The data were collected through reflective reports. The results of the content analysis revealed that curiosity contributed to the language knowledge and language development of the participants. The areas of contribution were revealed as linguistic, social-cultural and pragmatic knowledge. The developments in these three specific aspects resulted in a holistic development in the target language.
... These specific variables were chosen for three primary reasons. First, several studies indicate that these variables have a meaningful relationship (i.e., at least a medium effect size) with academic achievement (Kashdan and Yuen 2007;Pintrich and de Groot 1990;von Stumm and Chamorro-Premuzic 2011;Zhan 2014;Zimmerman et al. 1992). Second, several other studies suggest that these variables are meaningfully related to school success more broadly via predicting (i.e., rs > .30) ...
Article
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In this study, the associations among growth mindset, school belonging, and hope to several important academic variables are examined in a diverse sample of 447 high school students. In addition, the contribution made by growth mindset and school belonging to these academic variables is compared to hope’s contribution. Data were collected via a school-administered survey and study analyses include a series of hierarchical regressions. This study had several notable findings. First, although growth mindset and school belonging accounted for meaningful percentages of variance in behavioral engagement, academic self-efficacy, and curiosity after controlling for demographics, both constructs did not meaningfully predict academic achievement, academic self-efficacy for self-regulation, or educational expectations. Second, hope not only accounted for the majority of variance across all academic variables compared to growth mindset and school belonging, but also explained a meaningful portion of all the academic variables (except educational expectations) beyond demographics and both variables. These results indicate that hope interventions might be a better investment than both growth mindset and school belonging interventions.
... In addition, they found measures of curiosity to have a relationship to measures of hope and wellbeing (see also, Kashdan, 2004Kashdan, , 2009. In another study, Kashdan and Yuen (2007) found that when the school environment was supportive of growth and learning, higher levels of curiosity were demonstrated to be associated with higher scores on national achievement exams and school grades. von Stumm et al. (2011) conducted a meta-analysis and found that curiosity had as much influence on academic achievement as intelligence. ...
Article
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The present study is the first to empirically test a hierarchical, positive-oriented model of the self and its relationship to second language (L2) achievement motivation, and compare it in three different cultural contexts of Japan, the United States, and Taiwan. Based on the L2 self-model (Lake, 2016), three levels of constructs were developed: Global Self (i.e., Flourishing, Curiosity, and Hope); Positive L2 domain self (i.e., interested-in-L2 self, harmonious passion for L2 learning, and mastery L2 goal orientation); and L2 Motivational Variables (i.e., reading, speaking and listening self-efficacy). A total of 667 students participated in this study, including 181 first-year college students in Japan, 159 high school students in Taiwan, and 327 community college students in the United States. All the participants were learning L2 in school. Results showed that the measures of positive global self, L2 domain self, and L2 motivational self all had a stronger relationship within their respective levels, and progressively weaker relationships as level of generality/specificity became more distal. Furthermore, the relationships among measures varied in the differing cultural contexts with the Japan-based student participants relatively lower on all measures. Implications for teacher educators in the L2 context have been discussed.
... Regarding the final PACE component of how curiosity enhances memory, it has also been shown how trait curiosity enhances real-world learning [96][97][98]. For example, it has been shown that trait curiosity mediates the effect on learning during a medical training program [97]. ...
Article
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Curiosity plays a fundamental role for learning and memory, but the neural mechanisms that stimulate curiosity and its effect on memory are poorly understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that curiosity states are related to modulations in activity in the dopaminergic circuit and that these modulations impact memory encoding and consolidation for both targets of curiosity and incidental information encountered during curiosity states. To account for this evidence, we propose the Prediction, Appraisal, Curiosity, and Exploration (PACE) framework, which attempts to explain curiosity and memory in terms of cognitive processes, neural circuits, behavior, and subjective experience. The PACE framework generates testable predictions that can stimulate future investigation of the mechanisms underlying curiosity-related memory enhancements.
... Studies of curiosity among students suggest that curious students learn better than those who lack an intrinsic drive for new knowledge and have strong interests in understanding and explaining the world ). Student curiosity is a prerequisite to development of intelligence, wisdom, and coping with stress (Renninger et al. 1992), motivation and improved learning (Kashdan et al. 2004), engagement and performance in learning contexts (Harackiewicz et al. 2002;Kashdan and Yuen 2007), and emotional intelligence (Leonard and Harvey 2007). Lack of curiosity represents a risk factor for anxiety disorders, with adverse influences on academic achievement (Silvia 2006). ...
Article
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This paper examines relationships among curiosity, engagement, and student development across five domains—(1) cognitive complexity, (2) knowledge acquisition, construction, integration, and application, (3) humanitarianism and civic engagement, (4) intrapersonal and interpersonal development, and (5) practical competence. Although extant research examines antecedents and outcomes of engagement extensively, no study explicitly assesses curiosity, engagement, and student development. Results suggest that engagement mediates epistemic and perceptual types of curiosity and student development. Educators and administrators can use these findings to create engaging education during which curiosity swiftly transforms into holistic student development.
... College students with high levels of curiosity are likely to have open and receptive attitudes toward new ideas and to pursue growth-oriented behaviors (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). Curiosity also facilitates students' engagement in novel and challenging learning experiences that stretch their existing skills and knowledge (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). ...
Article
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This study examined the role of curiosity and ethnic identity in career decision self‐efficacy among Asian American college students. Given that curiosity can promote the process of exploring one’s possible future self, opportunities, and career goals, the authors hypothesized that curiosity would be associated with career decision self‐efficacy, directly or indirectly, through a sense of ethnic identity. Results based on data from 425 Asian American incoming first‐year college students suggest that students with high curiosity tend to present a stronger sense of competence in completing career decision‐related tasks. These findings also confirmed a hypothesis that ethnic identity mediates the association between curiosity and career decision self‐efficacy. Implications for future research and career counseling with Asian American college students are discussed.
... Among high school students in Hong Kong, student scores on the SHS were related to their perceptions of their school's quality and their own grades (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). Similarly, like the SWLS, the SHS taken at the beginning of an introductory psychology course was also related to final grades (Borrello, 2005). ...
Chapter
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Measures of student engagement toward coursework at both macro- and micro-levels are reviewed in Chapter 8 by Kevin Zabel and Amy Heger. The latter includes descriptions of measures of student interest, student engagement, as well as ancillary measures such as grit and boredom; whereas the former includes more general measure (e.g., national survey of student engagement).
Chapter
What has joy have to do with teaching and learning? This chapter reviews the concept of joy of learning. The purpose is to discuss the emergence of joy in learning situations and teachers’ opportunities to create a learning atmosphere in which joy is present. As the conclusion, pupils’ self-directed learning and teachers’ self-esteem are considered the key factors of learning and well-being in pupils in numerous ways.
Article
We examined how character strengths and family importance influenced Mexican American college students’ life satisfaction. Using multiple regression analysis, findings indicated that optimism, grit, and gratitude were significant predictors of life satisfaction. We provide a discussion regarding the importance of these findings as well as recommendations for future research.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore flow as an underlying mechanism linking psychological ownership (PO) and subjective happiness and identify how flow affects employees’ subjective happiness. Design/methodology/approach Two separate samples were used. Sample 1 examined the responses of 120 female spa workers. Sample 2 examined the responses of 334 male logistics technicians. Data were collected through paper-based questionnaires across two time points. Findings PO was positively related to employees’ subjective happiness across both samples. Furthermore, PO has distinct impacts on employees’ subjective happiness through two distinct measures of flow: immersion and mastery. The authors found that immersion fully mediates the relationship between PO and employee subjective happiness in Sample 1, and mastery in Sample 2. Originality/value This is one of the first empirical studies to examine whether and how PO increases employees’ subjective happiness. The results contribute to the literature by providing a theoretical rationale for and an empirical analysis of a model wherein flow mediates the linkage between employees’ feelings of PO and their subjective happiness.
Article
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The present study reports the development of a scale to measure 2 types of epistemic curiosity : diverse curiosity and specific curiosity. Diverse curiosity is motivation to explore new information widely ; specific curiosity is motivation to explore specific information in order to solve cognitive conflicts. In Study 1, undergraduates (N=816) completed a questionnaire containing a preliminary pool of 50 items ; from an analysis of those data, 12 items were selected for an Epistemic Curiosity Scale. Next, the Epistemic Curiosity Scale was completed by 566 undergraduates. Factor analysis of those data revealed 2 factors, diverse curiosity and specific curiosity, each of which consisted of 6 items. Cronbach’s α was .81 for both sub-scales. In Study 2, the validity of the Epistemic Curiosity Scale was examined using the Big Five scale, the BIS/BAS (Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System) scales, the Need for Closure Scale, the Need for Cognition Scale, and the Attitudes towards Ambiguity Scale. The results of correlational and regression analyses suggested the commonality and contrast of diverse curiosity and specific curiosity, virtually in accordance with theoretical predictions. Implications and prospects for study using the Epistemic Curiosity Scale were discussed.
Article
The Cambridge Handbook of Motivation and Learning - by K. Ann Renninger February 2019
Article
Curiosity is an old, intriguing, and vexing construct in the psychology of motivation. This chapter reviews the major strands of thought on curiosity and motivation: (1) curiosity as a motive to reduce negative states, such as uncertainty, novelty, arousal, drive, or information gaps; (2) curiosity as a source of intrinsic motivation that fosters learning and exploring for their own sakes; and (3) curiosity as a stable motivational difference between people that leads to differences in knowledge, goals, achievement, and experience. The scope of psychological thought on curiosity defies a simple integration, but it offers inspiration for researchers curious about why people learn and explore in the absence of obvious external rewards.
Article
The Cambridge Handbook of Motivation and Learning - by K. Ann Renninger February 2019
Article
This paper explores curiosity of Further Education (FE) lec- turers in the United Kingdom through personal narratives and focused group discussions. The paper identifies how curiosity is viewed by FE lecturers as a positive trait for learners to possess, yet when discussing their own curiosities, views changed. Narratives emerge of curiosity being more of a problematic trait to possess whilst lecturing within the business-like structures and an outcome driven environment of FE. The lack of space for lecturer’s curiosity was viewed not as a specific institutions problem, but as a system wide problem across the culture of FE. Lecturers felt that creating curiosity, created more work for themselves and was neither celebrated nor embraced within their FE settings.
Thesis
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The aim of the study was to critically analyse teachers pedagogical approaches and how voice technology was used by students as a more knowledgeable other and the extent to which it affected students’ epistemic curiosity. Using an exploratory ethnographic approach, Amazon’s Echo Dot voice technology was studied in lessons at Hillview School. Data was collected through participant observation, informal interviews and recordings of students’ interactions with ‘Alexa’. Students asked questions to Alexa in large numbers. Alexa was asked 87 questions during two lessons suggesting that Alexa was a digital more knowledgeable other. Types of questions asked to Alexa, such as ‘Can fish see water?’, were epistemic questions and suggestive of epistemic curiosity. Teachers used the Echo Dots infrequently and in a limited number of ways. Teachers relied upon a pedagogical approach and talk oriented around performance which overlooked students’ learning talk. The answer to why students might not be curious was not found. However, evidence to understand how and why they might appear not curious was revealed. The study makes contributions to knowledge through the novel use of the Echo Dots to collect data and through a new data visualisation technique called ‘heatmaps’. The study contributes to knowledge by proposing three tentative notions that emerged inductively from the research: ‘performance-oriented talk’, ‘metricalisation’ and ‘regulativity’. The study aims to make a further contribution to knowledge by suggesting evidence of a ‘pedagogy of performance’. The study recommends ‘learning-oriented talk’ and development of Alexa ‘Skills’ as a way to disrupt the pedagogy of performance and as an area for further research.
Article
The purpose of the study. The purpose of this study was to find out how deep the response of students to the assignment assigned by the health physical education teacher in determining the number of respondents when the teacher gave physical education assignments. Materials and methods. This research was descriptive quantitative research. The research began by collecting assignments that have been given through online methods to students in the form of google form. The study population was 108 students of SMP IT Raudhatur Rahmah Pekanbaru, Riau. The sample in this study was all students of SMP IT Raudhtaur Rahmah. The sampling technique applied was total sampling. Results. The results obtained based on several assignments that have been given via google form in this study were as follows: For the subject of the passing and catching, dribbling, and shooting on basketball learning, the average scores were 54.25%, 46, 01%, and 42.02%, respectively. Teachers must be more active and creative in packaging the learning process so that it attracts students to take part in the Physical Education learning provided and considering that the response of students in learning physical education during the Covid-19 pandemic was low Conclusions. Online learning was very ineffective as a learning process as it was caused by many factors and can be proven by the low of student response in doing the task which has been given. a solution is needed so that the teaching and learning process can be carried out with an appropriate method so that students are not disadvantaged in the learning activities themselves, which not only receive the knowledge they need, but also includes learning related to the character and emotion that should be given by the teacher in the learning process.
Chapter
This chapter explores the characteristics of effective designers. It describes both behavioral and psychological differences between expert and novice designers. It closes with a review of how our cultural background can play a role in our design effectiveness.
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C. Midgley et al. (2001) raised important questions about the effects of performance-approach goals. The present authors disagree with their characterization of the research findings and implications for theory. They discuss 3 reasons to revise goal theory: (a) the importance of separating approach from avoidance strivings, (b) the positive potential of performance-approach goals, and (c) identification of the ways performance-approach goals can combine with mastery goals to promote optimal motivation. The authors review theory and research to substantiate their claim that goal theory is in need of revision, and they endorse a multiple goal perspective. The revision of goal theory is underway and offers a more complex, but necessary, perspective on important issues of motivation, learning, and achievement.
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Although most individuals pass through adolescence without excessively high levels of "storm and stress," many do experience difficulty. Why? Is there something unique about this developmental period that puts adolescents at risk for difficulty? This article focuses on this question and advances the hypothesis that some of the negative psychological changes associated with adolescent development result from a mismatch between the needs of developing adolescents and the opportunities afforded them by their social environments. It provides examples of how this mismatch develops in the school and in the home and how it is linked to negative age-related changes in early adolescents' motivation and self-perceptions. Ways in which more developmentally appropriate social environments can be created are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A new conceptualization of perceived control was used to test a process model describing the contribution of these perceptions to school achievement for students in elementary school (N = 220). Three sets of beliefs were distinguished: (a) expectations about whether one can influence success and failure in school (control beliefs); (b) expectations about the strategies that are effective in producing academic outcomes; and (c) expectations about one's own capacities to execute these strategies. Correlational and path analyses were consistent with a process model which predicted that children's perceived control (self-report) influences academic performance (grades and achievement test scores) by promoting or undermining active engagement in learning activities (as reported by teachers) and that teachers positively influence children's perceived control by provision of contingency and involvement (as reported by students). These results have implications for theories of perceived control and also suggest one pathway by which teachers can enhance children's motivation in school.
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The relative influence of interest and self-efficacy beliefs on each other over 1 year was examined in 2 longitudinal samples of students, 1 of elementary school students (Grade 5, N = 126) and 1 of middle school students (Grade 7, N = 221). Interest and competence ratings on the Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional scales (J. L. Holland, 1997) were assessed using the Inventory of Children's Activities-Revised (T. J. G. Tracey & C. C. Ward, 1998). Responses were examined using structural equation modeling, and the results demonstrated that there were changes both in the structure and level of interest and competence ratings over time. The circumplex structure was found to become more prominent over time, especially by 8th grade, and overall mean levels of interest and competence ratings decreased over time. Interest and competence ratings were found to predict each other equally over time. Finally, there were significant grade, gender, time, Time × Grade, and Time × Gender effects on the scale score means. Results are discussed with respect to implications for interest development and assessment.
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Four studies examined the construct validity of two global self-esteem measures. In Studies 1 through 3, the Single-Item Self-Esteem Scale (SISE) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) showed strong convergent validity for men and women, for different ethnic groups, and for both college students and community members. The SISE and the RSE had nearly identical correlations with a wide range of criterion measures, including domain-specific self-evaluations, self-evaluative biases, social desirability, personality, psychological and physical health, peer ratings of group behavior, academic outcomes, and demographic variables. Study 4 showed that the SISE had only moderate convergent validity in a sample of children. Overall, the findings support the reliability and validity of the SISE and suggest it can provide a practical alternative to the RSE in adult samples. More generally, the findings contribute to the research literature by further elaborating the nomological network of global self-esteem.
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The relative influence of interest and self-efficacy beliefs on each other over 1 year was examined in 2 longitudinal samples of students, 1 of elementary school students (Grade 5, N = 126) and 1 of middle school students (Grade 7, N = 221). Interest and competence ratings on the Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional scales (J. L. Holland, 1997) were assessed using the Inventory of Children's Activities—Revised (T. J. G. Tracey & C. C. Ward, 1998). Responses were examined using structural equation modeling, and the results demonstrated that there were changes both in the structure and level of interest and competence ratings over time. The circumplex structure was found to become more prominent over time, especially by 8th grade, and overall mean levels of interest and competence ratings decreased over time. Interest and competence ratings were found to predict each other equally over time. Finally, there were significant grade, gender, time, Time × Grade, and Time × Gender effects on the scale score means. Results are discussed with respect to implications for interest development and assessment.
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The goals of this article are twofold: (a) briefly highlight the merits of residual centering for representing interaction and powered terms in standard regression contexts (e.g., Lance, 1988), and (b) extend the residual centering procedure to represent latent variable interactions. The proposed method for representing latent variable interactions has potential advantages over extant procedures. First, the latent variable interaction is derived from the observed covariation pattern among all possible indicators of the interaction. Second, no constraints on particular estimated parameters need to be placed. Third, no recalculations of parameters are required. Fourth, model estimates are stable and interpretable. In our view, the orthogonalizing approach is technically and conceptually straightforward, can be estimated using any structural equation modeling software package, and has direct practical interpretation of parameter estimates. Its behavior in terms of model fit and estimated standard errors is very reasonable, and it can be readily generalized to other types of latent variables where nonlinearity or collinearity are involved (e.g., powered variables).
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Individual differences related to emotions are typically represented as emotion traits. Although important, these descriptive models often do not address the psychological dynamics that underlie the trait. Appraisal theories of emotion assume that individual differences in emotions can be traced to differences in patterns of appraisal, but this hypothesis has largely gone untested. The present research explored whether individual differences in the emotion of interest, known as trait curiosity, consist of patterns of appraisal. After completing several measures of trait curiosity, participants read complex poems (Experiment 1) or viewed simple and complex pictures (Experiment 2) and then gave ratings of interest and interest's appraisal components. The effect of trait curiosity on interest was fully mediated by appraisals. Multilevel analyses suggested that curious people differ in the amount of appraisal rather than in the kinds of appraisals relevant to interest. Appraisal theories can offer a process-oriented explanation of emotion traits that bridges state and trait emotional experience.
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An imbalance exists between the role of curiosity as a motivational force in nearly all human endeavors and the lack of scientific attention given to the topic. In recent years, however, there has been a proliferation of concepts that capture the essence of curiosity-recognizing, seeking out, and showing a preference for the new. In this chapter, we combine this work to address the nature of curiosity, where it fits in the larger scheme of positive emotions, the advantages of being curious in social relationships, links between curiosity and elements of well-being, and how it has been used in interventions to improve people's quality of life. Our emphasis is on methodologically sophisticated findings that show how curiosity operates in the laboratory and everyday life, and how, under certain conditions, curiosity can be a profound source of strength or a liability. People who are regularly curious and willing to embrace the novelty, uncertainty, and challenges that are inevitable as we navigate the shoals of everyday life are at an advantage in creating a fulfilling existence compared with their less curious peers. Our brief review is designed to bring further attention to this neglected, underappreciated, human universal.
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C. Midgley et al. (2001) raised important questions about the effects of performance-approach goals. The present authors disagree with their characterization of the research findings and implications for theory. They discuss 3 reasons to revise goal theory: (a) the importance of separating approach from avoidance strivings, (b) the positive potential of performance-approach goals, and (c) identification of the ways performance-approach goals can combine with mastery goal to promote optimal motivation. The authors review theory and research to substantiate their claim that goal theory is in need of revision, and they endorse a multiple goal perspective. The revision of goal theory is underway and offers a more complex, but necessary, perspective on important issues of motivation, learning, and achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with them. American culture neither assumes nor values such an overt connectedness among individuals. In contrast, individuals seek to maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. As proposed herein, these construals are even more powerful than previously imagined. Theories of the self from both psychology and anthropology are integrated to define in detail the difference between a construal of the self as independent and a construal of the self as interdependent. Each of these divergent construals should have a set of specific consequences for cognition, emotion, and motivation; these consequences are proposed and relevant empirical literature is reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A new conceptualization of perceived control was used to test a process model describing the contribution of these perceptions to school achievement for students in elementary school ( N = 220). Three sets of beliefs were distinguished: (a) expectations about whether one can influence success and failure in school ( control beliefs); (b) expectations about the strategies that are effective in producing academic outcomes; and (c) expectations about one's own capacities to execute these strategies. Correlational and path analyses were consistent with a process model which predicted that children's perceived control (self-report) influences academic performance (grades and achievement test scores) by promoting or undermining active engagement in learning activities (as reported by teachers) and that teachers positively influence children's perceived control by provision of contingency and involvement (as reported by students). These results have implications for theories of perceived control and also suggest one pathway by which teachers can enhance children's motivation in school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research on curiosity has undergone 2 waves of intense activity. The 1st, in the 1960s, focused mainly on curiosity's psychological underpinnings. The 2nd, in the 1970s and 1980s, was characterized by attempts to measure curiosity and assess its dimensionality. This article reviews these contributions with a concentration on the 1st wave. It is argued that theoretical accounts of curiosity proposed during the 1st period fell short in 2 areas: They did not offer an adequate explanation for why people voluntarily seek out curiosity, and they failed to delineate situational determinants of curiosity. Furthermore, these accounts did not draw attention to, and thus did not explain, certain salient characteristics of curiosity: its intensity, transience, association with impulsivity, and tendency to disappoint when satisfied. A new account of curiosity is offered that attempts to address these shortcomings. The new account interprets curiosity as a form of cognitively induced deprivation that arises from the perception of a gap in knowledge or understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article presents a social cognitive framework for understanding three intricately linked aspects of career development: (a) the formation and elaboration of career-relevant interests, (b) selection of academic and career choice options, and (c) performance and persistence in educational and occupational pursuits. The framework, derived primarily from Bandura's (1986) general social cognitive theory, emphasizes the means by which individuals exercise personal agency in the career development process, as well as extra-personal factors that enhance or constrain agency. In particular, we focus on self-efficacy, expected outcome, and goal mechanisms and how they may interrelate with other person (e.g., gender), contextual (e.g., support system), and experiential/learning factors. Twelve sets of propositions are offered to organize existing findings and guide future research on the theory. We also present a meta-analysis of relevant findings and suggest specific directions for future empirical and theory-extension activity.
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Although influences of interest on learning are well documented, mediating processes have not been clarified. The authors investigated how individual and situational interest factors contribute to topic interest and text learning. Traditional self-report measures were combined with novel interactive computerized methods of recording cognitive and affective reactions to science and popular culture texts, monitoring their development in real time. Australian and Canadian students read 4 expository texts. Both individual interest variables and specific text titles influenced topic interest. Examination of processes predictive of text learning indicated that topic interest was related to affective response, affect to persistence, and persistence to learning. Combining self-rating scales with dynamic measures of student activities provided new insight into how interest influences learning.
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Four studies examined the construct validity of two global self-esteem measures. In Studies 1 through 3, the Single-Item Self-Esteem Scale (SISE) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) showed strong convergent validity for men and women, for different ethnic groups, and for both college students and community members. The SISE and the RSE had nearly identical correlations with a wide range of criterion measures, including domain-specific self-evaluations, self-evaluative biases, social desirability, personality, psychological and physical health, peer ratings of group behavior, academic outcomes, and demographic variables. Study 4 showed that the SISE had only moderate convergent validity in a sample of children. Overall, the findings support the reliability and validity of the SISE and suggest it can provide a practical alternative to the RSE in adult samples. More generally, the findings contribute to the research literature by further elaborating the nomological network of global self-esteem.
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Using a ''subjectivist'' approach to the assessment of happiness, a new 4-item measure of global subjective happiness was developed and validated in 14 studies with a total of 2 732 participants. Data was collected in the United States from students on two college campuses and one high school campus, from community adults in two California cities, and from older adults. Students and community adults in Moscow, Russia also participated in this research. Results indicated that the Subjective Happiness Scale has high internal consistency, which was found to be stable across samples. Test-retest and self-peer correlations suggested good to excellent reliability, and construct validation studies of convergent and discriminant validity confirmed the use of this scale to measure the construct of subjective happiness. The rationale for developing a new measure of happiness, as well as advantages of this scale, are discussed.
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It is becoming increasingly important for employees to be able to cope with change in the workplace. This longitudinal study examined a set of individual differences and context-specific predictors of employee openness (i.e., change acceptance and positive view of changes) toward a set of workplace changes. Personal resilience (a composite of self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control) was related to higher levels of change acceptance. Three context-specific variables (information received about the changes, self-efficacy for coping with the changes, and participation in the change decision process) were predictive of higher levels of employee openness to the changes. Lower levels of change acceptance were associated with less job satisfaction, more work irritation, and stronger intentions to quit.
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Although the study of self-concept has been a topic of great interest and much study in the social sciences for many decades, it is really only in the past 30 years that any fruitful expansion in knowledge of both its theoretical structure and its related measurement has been forthcoming. From three perspectives-past, present, and future-the author presents abbreviated and selected highlights of important construct validity findings related to this research and postulates possible trends and areas of self-concept research yet to be explored.
Book
Human emotions
Book
Psychologists have always been intrigued in interest, and modern research on interest can be found in nearly every area of the field: researchers studying emotions, cognition, development, education, aesthetics, personality, motivation, and vocations have developed intriguing ideas about what interest is and how it works. This book presents an integrated picture of how interest has been studied in all of the wide-ranging areas of psychology. Using modern theories of cognition and emotion as an integrative framework, it examines the nature of interest, what makes things interesting, the role of interest in personality, and the development of people's idiosyncratic interests, hobbies, and avocations. The examination reveals deep similarities between seemingly different fields of psychology and illustrates the profound importance of interest, curiosity, and intrinsic motivation for understanding why people do what they do. A comprehensive work devoted to interest, this book reviews the history of psychological thought on interest, presents classic and modern research, and suggests fruitful directions for future work.
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This study explored the influence of honesty, cooperation and curiosity on the process of effective learning in school settings. It is speculated that these variables might promote academic success of students and the progress of their schools. The variables were assessed by different t-tests to examine the gender differences among students. The results indicated that male and female Chinese students differed in honesty with girls more honest than boys. They also differed in cooperation with girls more cooperative and boys more competitive. It was also found that males were as curious as females. The influences of honesty, cooperation and curiosity on school achievement were examined by a multiple regression analysis. Results suggested a relative influence of curiosity and honesty on school achievement and revealed that school achievement was not influenced by cooperative learning. Key words: honesty, cooperation, curiosity and achievement. IFE Psychologia Vol.12(2) 2004: 178-188
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Individual differences on an established laboratory task of visual short-term novelty preferences were correlated with achievement test scores for 40 third-grade and 45 fifth-grade children. A positive correlation (r = .35, p < .002) for the total sample (N = 85) confirmed the often hypothesized influence of curiosity motivation on intellectual performance; subsample gender-grade inconsistencies were statistically interpreted as a consequence of errant individual strategies and limited variance in the novelty task. The relationships were cross-validated in a companion study with the same short-term novelty paradigm, but with a play construction task for novelty preferences and a different achievement test battery for second- and fifth-grade children. High correlations between teacher ratings of curiosity and achievement test scores, when analyzed by multiple regression procedures, seemed to be an artifact of teachers' knowledge of their students' intellectual status.
Article
Longitudinal studies suggest that law school has a corrosive effect upon the well-being (Benjamin, et al. 1986; Sheldon & Krieger, 2004) and values and motivation (Sheldon & Krieger, 2004) of students, ostensibly because of its problematic institutional culture (McKinney, 2002; Schuwerk, 2004). In a three year study of two different law schools, we applied self-determination theory's dynamic process model of thriving (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) to explain such findings. Students at both schools declined in psychological need satisfaction and well-being over the three years. However, student reports of greater perceived autonomy support by faculty predicted less radical declines in need satisfaction, which in turn predicted better well-being in the third year, and also a higher GPA, better bar exam results, and more self-determined motivation for the first job after graduation. Institution-level analyses showed that although students at both schools suffered, one school was more controlling than the other, predicting greater difficulties for its students in terms of well-being, job motivation and bar passage. Implications for SDT and for legal education are discussed.
Article
Based on a large, representative, 6-year longitudinal sample of Hong Kong students (7,802 students in 56 high schools), we examined relations among academic self-concept, academic achievement, and language of instruction (Chinese as compared with English). In support of the cross-cultural generalizability of the reciprocal effects model, prior self-concept had significant effects on subsequent achievement beyond the effects of prior achievement; and prior achievement had effects on subsequent self-concept as well. Support for the reciprocal effects model was not influenced by language of instruction, and the strength of that support did not differ in English and Chinese language high schools. Particularly in the early high school years, however, instruction in a second language (English rather than Chinese) had substantial negative effects on both academic self-concept and academic achievement.
Article
Self-esteem has been linked to a diverse array of positive and negative affective states. The present research explored the nature of these relationships. Study 1 found that self-esteem (as measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) is more closely associated with self-relevant emotional states than with emotional states that do not directly implicate the self. Study 2 replicated these findings and found that although several personality variables predicted participant’s emotional reactions to success and failure, these effects were eliminated once self-esteem was taken into account. Study 3 found that self-esteem predicted participant’s self-relevant emotional reactions to failure but not their non-self-relevant emotional reactions. These findings provide converging evidence that self-esteem is most closely linked to a particular class of emotions that pertain to how people feel about themselves.
Article
Educators and psychologists alike have trumpeted calls for a reduced focus on deficits and pathology and increased attention to strengths and general wellness in all children. Life satisfaction is one of the most well-established indicators of general wellness and, moreover, positive functioning. Most examinations of children's life satisfaction have examined the role of family relations and intrapersonal variables. Studies of life satisfaction in relation to schooling are less prevalent, despite the extraordinary focus on education during this developmental period. Initial studies have examined the extent to which a few categories of school-related factors (school climate, intelligence and ability grouping at school, academic achievement and overall appraisals of one's happiness with school) are correlated with students' life satisfaction. Notably, most empirical examinations have examined one or few school-related factors in isolation. The purpose of the current article is to provide a comprehensive summary of the multiple school-related correlates of life satisfaction through a thorough review of the literature. Implications of the literature base for educators and future research are discussed.
Article
Dewey (1913) suggested some time ago that trying to find out what is of interest to students is an important part of schooling; on the other hand, “making things interesting” is artificial and often unsuccessful. Two studies investigating the placement of interesting detail in a text about a physicist and his scientific work are reported here. In both studies, undergraduate students were asked to read the science text under a variety of conditions and then to recall important information on a set of measures. Results indicated that attention of students was diverted from important generalizations in text to interesting, sometimes irrelevant, detail. Placement of the detail did not affect recall, but overall interestingness of the text did, particularly if students knew little about the topic of the text. Implications for instruction are discussed.
Book
This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conditions that confront students in formal schooling–instruction in groups, sharing teacher’s attention, working independently, dealing with arbitrary rules regulating behavior–are not conducive to learning. Teachers deal with these circumstances by encouraging facilitative dispositions in students or by making learning events more appealing. Cultures differ in the emphasis they place on these two strategies. Japanese tend to stress developing adaptive dispositions; Americans try to make the learning context more attractive. National differences in educational achievement may be more completely understood by analysis of cultural differences in student dispositions. The interaction of student characteristics and teacher strategies creates very different classroom climates in the two countries.
Article
This study explored the problem of under-achievement in Hong Kong. Underachievers were compared with high achievers and low achievers on their motivational characteristics. The findings generally supported that motivational variables were important factors in discriminating under-achievers and high achievers. W hile under-achievers had poor academic self-concept, low attainment value in learning, and deficiencies in using effective learning strategies, they did not demonstrate maladaptive attributional pattern as described in Western studies. Implications of these findings for the study of under-achievement and implementation of interventions are discussed.
Article
RESEARCH IS REVIEWED WHICH TREATS PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION AS A FUNCTION OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INDIVIDUAL AND THOSE OF THE INTERPERSONAL AND NONINTERPERSONAL ENVIRONMENTS. RELEVANT THEORETICAL POSITIONS ARE CONSIDERED. ALTERNATIVE MODELS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF INTERACTIONS OR TRANSACTIONS BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS AND ENVIRONMENTS ARE DISCUSSED. THE CONCLUSION POINTS TO 3 QUESTIONS: SHOULD ONE CONSIDER THE PERCEIVED OR ACTUAL ENVIRONMENT? WHAT UNITS SHOULD BE USED AND SHOULD THESE BE THE SAME UNITS OF ANALYSIS FOR INDIVIDUALS AND ENVIRONMENTS? WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THE PROCESSES INVOLVED IN INDIVIDUAL ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPS? (3 P. REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article presents a comprehensive definition and conceptual model of person-organization fit that incorporates supplementary as well as complementary perspectives on fit. To increase the precision of the construct's definition, it is also distinguished from other forms of environmental compatibility, silch as person-group and person-vocation fit. Once defined, commensurate measurement as it relates to supplementary and complementary fit is discussed and recommendations are offered regarding the necessity of its use. A distinction is made between the direct measurement of perceived fit and the indirect measurement of actual person-organization fit, using both cross- and individual-level techniques, and the debate regarding differences scores is reviewed. These definitional and measurement issues frame a review of the existing literature, as well as provide the basis for specific research propositions and suggestions for managerial applications.
Book
Readers who want a less mathematical alternative to the EQS manual will find exactly what they're looking for in this practical text. Written specifically for those with little to no knowledge of structural equation modeling (SEM) or EQS, the author's goal is to provide a non-mathematical introduction to the basic concepts of SEM by applying these principles to EQS, Version 6.1. The book clearly demonstrates a wide variety of SEM/EQS applications that include confirmatory factor analytic and full latent variable models.
Article
This prospective study applied self-determination theory to investigate the effects of students' course-specific self-regulation and their perceptions of their instructors' autonomy support on adjustment and academic performance in a college-level organic chemistry course. The study revealed that: (1) students' reports of entering the course for relatively autonomous (vs. controlled) reasons predicted higher perceived competence and interest/enjoyment and lower anxiety and grade-focused performance goals during the course, and were related to whether or not the students dropped the course; and (2) students' perceptions of their instructors' autonomy support predicted increases in autonomous self-regulation, perceived competence, and interest/enjoyment, and decreases in anxiety over the semester. The change in autonomous self-regulation in turn predicted students' performance in the course. Further, instructor autonomy support also predicted course performance directly, although differences in the initial level of students' autonomous self-regulation moderated that effect, with autonomy support relating strongly to academic performance for students initially low in autonomous self-regulation but not for students initially high in autonomous self-regulation. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Sci Ed84:740–756, 2000.
Article
Two laboratory studies explored how self-rated unhappy and happy students balance hedonically conflicting social comparison information, and tested whether unhappy students would be relatively more sensitive to hedonically consistent unfavorable information. In both studies, students working in teams of four competed against one other team on a novel verbal task. First, unhappy participants showed relatively greater sensitivity to undiluted unfavorable feedback—about group standing (e.g. your team ‘lost’; Study 1) and about group and individual standing (e.g. your team lost and you were placed last; Study 2). Second, unhappy students were more reactive than happy students to individual social comparison information in the context of relative group feedback. In Study 1, the moods and self-assessments of unhappy individuals (but not happy ones) after news of team defeat appeared to be buffered by the additional news of personal triumph. In Study 2, unhappy students showed relatively larger decreases in mood and ability assessments after unfavorable than after favorable individual feedback (i.e. ranking last versus first), regardless of whether they additionally learned that their teams had won or lost. The role of students' attributions and perceptions of their personal contribution was also explored. Implications of these findings for the links among social comparison, cognitive processes, and hedonic consequences are discussed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The present study investigated theoretically and empirically derived similarities and differences between the constructs of enduring happiness and self-esteem. Participants (N=621), retired employees ages 51–95, completed standardized measures of affect, personality, psychosocial characteristics, physical health, and demographics. The relations between each of the two target variables (happiness and self-esteem) and the full set of remaining variables were assessed through a series of successive statistical analyses: (1) simple Pearson’s correlations, (2) partial correlations, and (3) hierarchical regression analyses. The results revealed that happiness and self-esteem, while highly correlated (r=0.58), presented unique patterns of relations with the other measured variables. The best predictors of happiness were the following: mood and temperamental traits (i.e., extraversion and neuroticism), social relationships (lack of loneliness and satisfaction with friendships), purpose in life, and global life satisfaction. By contrast, self-esteem was best predicted by dispositions related to agency and motivation (i.e., optimism and lack of hopelessness). Implications for the understanding of happiness and self-esteem are discussed.
Article
Based on theoretical considerations drawn from John Dewey and others, and using the Experience Sampling Method to longitudinally investigate a group of talented high school students,undivided interest was operationalized as times when the students felt above average spontaneous interest (i.e., excitement, openness, and involvement) while also reporting above average goal-directed interest (i.e., that their task was important to their goals). Results showed that after adjusting for the effects of family background, scholastic aptitude, and other individual differences, undivided interest while doing talent-related activities was positively correlated with independent assessments of talent area performance three years later: the level of mastery students achieved as indicated by their school records, the ratings students received from their talent area teachers, and the students' assessments of their own level of engagement. Highly engaged students reported over twice as much undivided interest in comparison to a group of disengaged students, who reported more divided interest (i.e., more of what Dewey referred to as fooling—high spontaneous involvement with no goal direction; and more drudgery—low spontaneous involvement and high goal direction). These findings held regardless of whether the teenagers were talented in math, science, music, or art. The implications of the study are discussed in terms of contemporary theories of attention and cognitive development, as well as unproductive educational philosophies that pit these important dimensions of experience against each other.
Article
There is a common perception that Asian students relyupon rote learning and prefer passive forms oflearning, though, this appears to be incompatible withevidence of their high levels of achievement. Thisapparent dichotomy is explained by showing thatmemorisation can occur in conjunction with theintention to understand. It could also result fromstudents learning material by heart because theyperceive that is what the course and assessmentrequire. Evidence from over 90 action researchprojects is used to disprove the common assertionsthat Asian students prefer passive learning and resistteaching innovations. It is argued that motivationdisplayed by Asian students is not well described byconventional definitions in psychology textbooks.Courses which provide good career preparation are asource of motivation but it is not an extrinsic formof motivation which depresses intrinsic motivation.There are high levels of achieving motive, but itfrequently has a collective nature rather than beingindividual and competitive.
Article
Although decades of research have examined relationships between social anxiety and negative outcomes, this study examined relations with indices of positive psychological functioning. In college students (n = 204), a factor analysis on self-report measures of positive psychological functioning derived 3 conceptually meaningful broad domains: Positive Subjective Experiences, Curiosity, and Appetitive Motivations. Analyses were conducted to test whether social interaction anxiety demonstrated unique relationships with positive psychological domains after controlling for shared variance with social observation anxiety (e.g., eating in public, public speaking) and neuroticism. Social interaction anxiety explained unique variance in all 3 domains after separately controlling for social observation anxiety and neuroticism. In contrast, social observation anxiety demonstrated near-zero relationships with all 3 domains, and neuroticism predicted Positive Subjective Experiences, and to a lesser degree, Curiosity. These data provide evidence for the unique association between social interaction anxiety and positive psychological functioning, with implications for future basic and applied research.