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Validation of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ) in Taiwanese Undergraduate Students


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The aim of this study was to translate and validate the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ; McCullough etal. 2002) using Taiwanese undergraduate students. A total of 608 college students (M age=20.19, SD=2.08) were recruited for the current study and they completed the GQ, optimism, happiness, and big five personality questionnaires. Confirmation factor analysis indicated that a five item model was a better fit than the original six item model. Cross-validation also supported the modified Chinese version of the GQ. In addition, the Chinese version of the GQ was, as expected, positively correlated with optimism, happiness, agreeableness, and extraversion, which supported its construct validity. The Cronbach’s α was .80 for the Chinese version of the GQ, indicating satisfactory validity and reliability in a Taiwanese student sample. It was concluded that the Chinese version of the GQ would be useful for assessing individual differences in dispositional gratitude.
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Validation of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ)
in Taiwanese Undergraduate Students
Lung Hung Chen ·Mei-Yen Chen ·Ying Hwa Kee ·Ying-Mei Tsai
©Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008
Abstract The aim of this study was to translate and validate the Gratitude Questionnaire
(GQ; McCullough et al. 2002) using Taiwanese undergraduate students. A total of 608
college students (M
=20.19, SD =2.08) were recruited for the current study and they
completed the GQ, optimism, happiness, and big five personality questionnaires. Confir-
mation factor analysis indicated that a five item model was a better fit than the original six
item model. Cross-validation also supported the modified Chinese version of the GQ. In
addition, the Chinese version of the GQ was, as expected, positively correlated with
optimism, happiness, agreeableness, and extraversion, which supported its construct
validity. The Cronbach’s αwas .80 for the Chinese version of the GQ, indicating satis-
factory validity and reliability in a Taiwanese student sample. It was concluded that the
Chinese version of the GQ would be useful for assessing individual differences in dis-
positional gratitude.
Keywords Grateful · Positive psychology · Well-being
L. H. Chen
Graduate Institute of Physical Education, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
M.-Y. Chen (&)
Department of Recreation and Leisure Industry Management, National Taiwan Sport University,
Taoyuan, 250, Wen Hua 1st Road, Kueishan, Taoyuan County, Taiwan
Y. H. Kee
Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan
Y.-M. Tsai
Office of Physical Education, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology,
Taichung, Taiwan
J Happiness Stud
DOI 10.1007/s10902-008-9112-7
1 Introduction
Psychological issues related to anxiety, depression, fear, hostility, substance abuse, and
traumatic experiences have received extensive attention (Fredrickson 1998; Seligman and
Csikszentmihalyi 2000). Of late, the heavy research focus on the negative aspects of
psychology has been criticized (Fredrickson 2001; Snyder and Lopez 2002). Research that
emphasizes the treatment and prevention of pathological issues focuses on people’s suf-
fering experience rather than cogitating people’s well-being as the first priority
(Fredrickson 2000). To promote a more proactive approach to understanding people, some
researchers directed their effort to examining positive psychological constructs such as
resilience (Yorgason et al. 2007), mindfulness (Kee and Wang 2008), humor (Olson et al.
2005), passion (Vallerand et al. 2008), and positive affectivity (Watson 2002). In this
article, we direct our attention to one important positive affective trait: gratitude, which is
only beginning to receive attention in the scientific community (McCullough et al. 2001).
Specifically, we present a report on the validation of an inventory (gratitude questionnaire;
GQ, McCullough et al. 2002) that purports to measure dispositional gratitude based on data
from a non-western sample.
McCullough et al. (2002) developed the 6-item GQ to assess individual differences in
dispositional gratitude. Their work opened a new avenue for understanding the positive
effect that gratitude has on well-being (e.g., Chen and Kee in press;Wood et al. 2008).
Gratitude is defined as an affective trait that is a “general tendency to recognize and
respond with grateful emotion to the roles of other people’s benevolence in the positive
experiences and outcomes that one obtains” (McCullough et al. 2002, p. 112). Based on
their definition, gratitude is considered a moral barometer that is sensitive to the benefits or
help received from another moral agent, especially when the cost is high for the benefactor.
McCullough et al. (2001) suggested that people who experienced grateful mood or emotion
were more likely to behave prosocially to the benefactor or a third party. Moreover,
gratitude served as a moral reinforcement underlying reciprocal altruism. In other words,
by saying “thank you,” the beneficiary confirmed the benefactor’s benevolence and
increased the likelihood of receiving support from the benefactor in the future. The
researchers pointed out that reciprocal altruism would accumulate, becoming a social
resource that can be drawn upon if people encounter adversity in the future. Therefore, it is
important to understand gratitude because it cultivates social resources and, thus, enhances
people’s well-being (Fredrickson 2004; McCullough et al. 2002).
The three aspects of the moral foundation of gratitude that involve social interaction do
not seem to be culturally specific. For example, one of the old Chinese proverbs states “to
knot grass and carry a ring” (), which means to repay someone for a
kindness once the beneficiary has the opportunity to do so. Also, the traditional Chinese
religion fairly respects the immaterial power of spirits and ancestors, which leads culturally
Chinese people to believe that the millennial life comes from the grace of spirits and
ancestors; therefore, people often express their gratitude through religious rites (Yang et al.
2005). By doing so, people feel comfortable and well-being may be increased (Wang and
Sun 2005). It is easy to observe that the sources of gratitude in the East may be somewhat
similar to those of the West because they are not only limited to the human agent, but also
include God or a higher power.
For the assessment of gratitude, McCullough et al. (2002) conducted four studies based
on undergraduate students and adults to examine the validity of the GQ. Confirmatory
factor analyses show that a robust one-factor structure with satisfactory internal consis-
tency exists across studies. McCullough and colleagues also report that the GQ was
L. H. Chen et al.
positively related to positive affect, well-being, prosocial behavior, and religiousness/
spirituality (study 1 and study 2) and negatively correlated with envy and materialistic
attitudes (study 3). Furthermore, the association between the GQ and related variables was
robust after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affec-
tivity, and Agreeableness (study 4). Their results suggested that the GQ possesses good
psychometric properties and is a distinctive construct.
Subsequently, other researchers in western countries conducted several studies based on
the GQ to investigate the relationship between gratitude and well-being. These studies
largely show that a positive relation between gratitude and well-being exists. For example,
Wood et al. (2007) found that highly grateful undergraduate students reported lower stress
and depression but higher happiness as well as satisfaction with life. Furthermore, they
found that coping style partially mediated the relationship between gratitude and stress. In
another study, Kashdan et al. (2006) investigated the association between gratitude and
hedonic as well as eudaimonic well-being indicators in Vietnam war veterans with post-
traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They found that gratitude predicted greater affect bal-
ance, rewarding social activity, intrinsically motivating activity, and self-esteem in
veterans with PTSD. Taken together, these results not only suggest that gratitude plays an
important role in determining well-being, but also show that the GQ is a reliable and valid
tool for measuring gratitude.
Research in a non-western sample that utilizes the GQ was first undertaken by Chen and
Kee (in press). After translating the GQ items into Chinese, they used the GQ to examine
gratitude and Taiwanese athletes’ well-being indicators. They found that athletes with
higher dispositional gratitude had greater team satisfaction and life satisfaction as well as
lower athlete burnout. Chen and Kee’s (in press) research provided the first documentation
of the positive role of gratitude using the GQ items. However, at least two issues remain to
be tackled since scale validation is a continual process. First, the psychometric properties
of the GQ were not examined in Chen and Kee’s (in press) study. This might diminish the
utility of the GQ. Did the GQ maintain similar factor structure after its translation into
Chinese? Further, does the GQ possess satisfactory factorial validity? These questions were
not answered in the previous study. Second, the researchers administrated the Chinese GQ
in a very specific sample; namely, adolescent athletes. The question thus remains whether
the Chinese GQ can be applied to other more general samples such as undergraduate
Further examination of the validity and reliability of the Chinese GQ will make
important contributions to the literature. A psychometrically sound measure of the Chinese
GQ would be an important tool for conducting empirical study on the Chinese-speaking
population. McCullough et al. (2001) indicated that gratitude is the parent of virtues that
motivates people to be prosocial and also enhances well-being. As the traditional Chinese
culture and religion (Yang et al. 2005) emphasized gratitude as an important virtue (Xin
2006), it is important for the international community to understand the cross-cultural
effects associated with gratitude. In doing so, a more complete picture of gratitude as a
human strength can be painted, as most published studies today are based on western
samples (e.g., McCullough et al. 2002; Wood et al. 2008a,c). Thus, the purpose of this
study was to investigative the validity and cross-validity of the GQ with a sample of
Chinese individuals in Taiwan. The confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test the
underlying structure of the items. Also, correlation analyses were conducted to examine
whether the Chinese GQ has hypothetical relationships with happiness, optimism, agree-
ableness, neuroticism, and extraversion. These five constructs were selected because of
their reliable relationship with gratitude (McCullough et al. 2002,2004; Neto 2007; Wood
Gratitude Questionnaire
et al. 2008a,b,c; Wood et al. 2007). It is suggested that grateful people experience greater
happiness because they appreciate life as a gift when they compare themselves to someone
who lives in a difficult position. The relationships among gratitude, optimism, agree-
ableness, and extraversion are expected to be positive while neuroticism is expected to be
negative as they share the same variance of emotional experience rooted in personality
(McCullough et al. 2002).
2 Method
2.1 Participants and Procedure
A total of 608 college students (M
=20.19, SD =2.08) recruited from Central Taiwan
University of Science and Technology, National Taichung Institute of Technology, and
Soochow University in Taiwan were targeted for the study. Four hundred twenty-seven of
the participants were females and 181 participants were males. A multi-section ques-
tionnaire was administered to the participants in a quiet classroom setting. One of authors
was present to answer any queries raised by the participants. The participants took about
30 min to complete the entire set of questionnaires. Participants’ involvement in this study
was voluntary and their confidentiality as well as anonymity was ensured as the partici-
pants were assigned and identified by a unique code known only to the investigators.
2.2 Measurement
2.2.1 Dispositional Gratitude
The GQ developed by McCullough et al. (2002) was used to measure disposition toward
gratitude. They demonstrated that the GQ is a psychometrically sound measure across four
studies. Previous studies utilizing the English version GQ-6 also found that the instrument
possesses good psychometric properties (e.g., Giacalone et al. 2005; Kashdan et al. 2006;
McCullough et al. 2004; Watkins et al. 2006). The translation of the GQ was originally
conducted by a doctoral student majoring in psychology who had mastered both Chinese
and English. After the GQ was translated into Chinese, a second bilingual translator (both
English and Chinese) back translated the items into English. Both Chinese and English
items were also evaluated by the authors to ensure equivalence in meaning and compa-
rability. Chen and Kee (in press) reported that the Cronbach’s αof the Chinese GQ was .80
in a sample of athletes. The Chinese GQ was positively related to life satisfaction and team
satisfaction, while negatively correlated with athlete burnout. The results supported the
preliminary reliability and validity of the Chinese GQ. In the current study, participants
indicated their responses on a 7-point Likert scale with responses ranging from strongly
disagree (1) to strongly agree (7).
2.2.2 Subjective Happiness
A short version of subjective happiness was used because of its relatedness (along with
happiness and optimism) to gratitude (as mentioned earlier). The status of participants was
assessed by one item (e.g., On the whole, do you feel that you are having a happy life
now?) that was obtained from the Taiwan Social Change Survey (TSCS), which was
L. H. Chen et al.
supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan. Previous studies in Taiwan indi-
cated that this item was significantly related to marital status (Lee 2007) and income (Chiu
2004). Participants indicated their response to this question on a 6-point Likert scale with
responses ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (6).
2.2.3 Optimism
The Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R, Scheier et al. 1994) consists of 10 items (4 of
which are filler items) used to assess individual differences in generalized optimism (3
items) versus pessimism (3 items). Previous studies indicated that the LOT-R is reliable
and valid in the Chinese-speaking population (Lai and Yue 2000; Lai et al. 1998). Given
our research interest in the relationship between optimism and gratitude, only the optimism
items were used for this study. Items were evaluated using a 6-point Likert scale.
2.2.4 Big Five Personality
The Chinese Big Five personality scale was developed by Chuang and Lee (2001). Based
on the fundamental lexical hypothesis (Goldberg 1990), they collected 148 Chinese
adjectives, formed a scale, and administrated it to teachers of elementary school students.
Factor analysis from teachers’ ratings of students indicated that these adjectives could be
clustered into five categories that correspond to the Big Five model. The Chinese Big
Five personality questionnaire is also reported to have satisfactory internal consistency
(Cronbach’s αranged from .78 to .94) as well as having a 1-year test and retest reliability
(Chuang and Lee 2001). Chen (2004) modified the Chinese Big Five personality scale into
a shorter version and administered it to a teacher sample. Factor analysis indicated that the
short version of the Chinese Big Five personality scale maintained the five factor structure
and produced acceptable reliability (Cronbach’s αranged from .60 to .86). Based on our
research interest and for sake of brevity, the short version of extraversion (5 items),
neuroticism (3 items), and conscientiousness (5 items) was used. Participants indicated
their response on a 6-point Likert scale.
2.3 Data Analysis
To ascertain that the model fit was not due to an idiosyncratic sample, we randomly
divided the participants into two equal samples using SPSS 13.0. Cohort 1 data was used to
find a best fitting model that consisted of 93 males and 211 females (M
SD =2.02) and the Cohort 2 data was used for cross-validation. Cohort 2 was composed of
88 males and 216 females (M
=20.11, SD =2.14). The ratio of sample size to number
of free parameters was 50:1, which is above the recommended 10:1 (Bentler and Chou
1987). The confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using LISREL 8.72 and the
Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation was chosen because each dataset met the criterion
whereby no variable was skewed greater than 2 and no variable had a kurtosis value greater
than 7 (West et al. 1995). Overall model fit was assessed according to Hu and Bentler’s
(1999) recommendation, including standardized root mean square residual (SRMR), non-
normal fit index (NNFI), comparative fit index (CFI), and root mean square error of
approximation (RMSEA). In addition, Pearson’s correlation was also conducted to
examine the relationship between gratitude and theoretically related criteria.
Gratitude Questionnaire
3 Result
The mean and standardized deviation of each item is presented in Table 1for Cohort 1 and
Cohort 2 data. We used the Cohort 1 data to conduct the first confirmatory factor analysis to
evaluate the factorial validity of the Chinese GQ. Results demonstrated relatively poor fit
(9) =49.46, p\.001, RMSEA =.12, NNFI =.90, CFI =.94, SRMR =.07). All
parameters were significant at p\.001 except for item 6: “long amounts of time can go by
before I feel grateful to something or someone” (standardized factor loading =.01, ns).
Given that a non-significant parameter might result in a poor fit, item 6 was eliminated and a
second confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. Results based on the remaining five
items of the Chinese GQ indicated an adequate fit (χ
(5) =15.26, p\.001, RMSEA =.08,
NNFI =.97, CFI =.99, SRMR =.03), which was an improvement over the six items
model. The factor loadings ranged from .34 to .85.
Cohort 2 data were used for model cross-validation. The results also indicated that the
one-factor model with five items of the Chinese GQ has adequate fit (χ
(5) =12.34,
p\.05, RMSEA =.07, NNFI =.98, CFI =.99, SRMR =.02) and the factor loadings
Table 1 Descriptive statistics of each item of the GQ
Cohort 1 Cohort 2
1. I have so much in life to be thankful for 5.92 1.29 5.88 1.37
2. If I had to list everything that I felt grateful for, it would
be a very long list
5.51 1.40 5.43 1.49
3. When I look at the world, I don’t see much to be grateful
2.34 1.69 2.39 1.66
4. I am grateful to a wide variety of people 5.62 1.28 5.58 1.30
5. As I get older I find myself more able to appreciate the
people, events, and situations that have been part of my
life history
5.98 1.25 5.97 1.26
6. Long amounts of time can go by before I feel grateful to
something or someone
4.20 1.72 4.12 1.72
Note: Item 3 and 6 are reverse scored
Table 2 Result of confirmatory factor analysis
Cohort 1 Cohort 2
1. I have so much in life to be thankful for .85 (.28) .81 (.34)
2. If I had to list everything that I felt grateful for, it would
be a very long list
.78 (.40) .71 (.50)
3. When I look at the world, I don’t see much to be grateful
.34 (.88) .36 (.87)
4. I am grateful to a wide variety of people .73 (.47) .84 (.29)
5. As I get older I find myself more able to appreciate the
people, events, and situations that have been part of my
life history
.68 (.54) .81 (.34)
Note: All estimates were significant at p\.001; values in parentheses are errors for estimates
L. H. Chen et al.
ranged from .36 to .84 (see Table 2). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis
suggested that the one-factor model with five items of the Chinese GQ possessed better
factorial validity than the original one-factor model with six items in a Taiwanese sample.
Once again, the second confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the one-factor
model with five items.
The Cronbach’s αof all of the scales used in this study were above the .70 benchmark
(Nunnally and Bernstein 1994) for the total sample except optimism, which was slightly
lower than the recommended limit and should be treated with care (see Table 3). To examine
the construct validity of the Chinese GQ, Pearson’s correlation was conducted with the total
sample to examine its relation with happiness score, optimism score, agreeableness score,
neuroticism score, and extraversion score. It was found that gratitude score significantly
related to happiness score (r=31, p\.001), optimism score (r=.28, p\.001), agree-
ableness score (r=42, p\.001), and extraversion score (r=.11, p\.01). However, the
relationship between the Chinese GQ and neuroticism score (r=.04, ns) was not significant.
4 Discussion
The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the GQ in a sample of Taiwanese
undergraduate students. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the 5-item GQ pos-
sessed better psychometric properties than the original 6-item model. Furthermore, the
model stability of the GQ was demonstrated when the cross-validation was conducted with
a separate sample. The Chinese GQ also has adequate factorial validity. Furthermore, the
GQ global score modestly correlated with several relevant theoretical constructs (i.e.,
happiness, optimism, agreeableness, and extraversion), supporting its construct validity.
The current results suggest that the GQ is an adequate measure for assessing gratitude.
Although the results supported the reliability and validity of the GQ in a Taiwanese
sample, there were three findings worth mentioning. First, item 6 was not retained in the
final version of the Chinese GQ since the one-factor model with 6 items did not demon-
strate a good model fit. This suggests that item 6 (Long amounts of time can go by before I
feel grateful to something or someone) was not valid for assessing individual differences on
gratitude in the sample of Taiwanese undergraduate students. One possible explanation for
this may be the absence of diverse life experiences in the current student sample. Although
the mean age of the current sample was similar to that of the McCullough et al. (2002)
sample, guileless school life events may not stimulate students to be grateful to someone or
something. An alternative explanation is that item 6 indicates a temporal definition of
gratitude and is perhaps less likely to be linear. It may be inappropriate for the current
Table 3 Correlation among variables
1. Gratitude 5.71 1.05 608 .80 1.00
2. Happiness 4.31 1.13 606 .31*** 1.00
3. Optimism 4.00 .86 608 .63 .28*** .48*** 1.00
4. Agreeableness 4.72 .85 607 .91 .42*** .28*** .28*** 1.00
5. Neuroticism 3.87 1.09 607 .89 .04 .19*** .17*** .10** 1.00
6. Extraversion 3.64 1.09 603 .71 .11** .21*** .14*** .09* .29*** 1.00
*p\.05, ** p\.01, *** p\.001
Gratitude Questionnaire
study as it focuses on one’s present beliefs. However, these speculations should be further
examined in the future. Second, it should be noted that item 3 had a lower factor loading
than the other items across two cohorts of data (.34 for Cohort 1 and .36 for Cohort 2).
However, we consider the low factor loading acceptable because (1) abandoning item 3
might violate the understanding of gratitude as items from differing aspects are valuable
when defining constructs (Wu and Yao 2008) and (2) the fit indices of the 5-item model
was adequate in both cohorts of the sample, leading us to recommend the 5-item model
with confidence. The third finding worth considering was the non-significant correlation
between gratitude and neuroticism. This result was not in accord with McCullough et al.
(2002) and Wood et al. (2008a,b,c), but supported Neto’s (2007) study on a Portuguese
sample. A previous study with a sample of students (study 2; McCullough et al. 2004) that
used adjectives to assess people’s daily grateful mood also found a non-significant relation
between gratitude and neuroticism. Unfortunately, the relationship between the GQ and
neuroticism was not reported in their study (study 1 and study 2; McCullough et al. 2004).
Certainly, the inconsistent association between gratitude and neuroticism must be further
Nevertheless, other constructs related to gratitude showed expected results based on
previous studies (McCullough et al. 2002; Wood et al. 2007). It was found that more
grateful students were happier about their life, as suggested by their higher subjective well-
being. Correlation analysis also indicated a low to modest positive relationship among the
GQ, optimism, agreeableness, and extraversion, which suggested that grateful individuals
were more enthusiastic, altruistic, genuine, congenial, and optimistic. It was indicated that
gratitude was not simply a linear combination of basic constructs, but could be seen as a
distinct construct (McCullough et al. 2002). The present findings also corresponded to
those of previous studies (McCullough et al. 2002; Neto 2007).
In summary, our study supported the factorial and construct validity of the Chinese GQ,
which may be a proactive approach to understanding people’s well-being in the Chinese-
speaking population. We believe validating the Chinese GQ will facilitate research focused
on human strength. It is also important to examine the related constructs that are well
documented in the literature such as well-being and prosocial behavior in order to perform
cross-cultural comparisons. This would make significant contributions to the literature
pertaining to the Chinese population.
There are two main limitations of the research presented here that should be noted. First,
the participants in this study were all undergraduate students and research has indicated
that levels of gratitude vary with age (McAdams and Bauer 2004). Thus, this might
constrain the generalization of these findings to different aged populations. Thus, we can
only recommend that the GQ is an appropriate measure for undergraduate students. Future
studies should recruit a more diverse sample to validate the GQ and special consideration
should be placed on item 6 in these future studies. Second, the measures were all based on
self-report and the data were collected at a single time point. This might result in a
common-method effect and inflate the coefficient. Given that validation is a continual
process, future research can use multiple methods to examine the validity of the GQ such
as observer rating and experimental manipulation.
In conclusion, the results of the current study indicated that the one-factor with five
items model of the GQ possessed a more satisfactory factorial validity than the six items
model in Taiwanese undergraduate students. Furthermore, the GQ was correlated with
several theoretically related constructs, which further supports its construct validity.
L. H. Chen et al.
Acknowledgments This study was partially supported by a grant from the Central Taiwan University of
Science and Technology (CTU97-P-24) to Ying-Mei Tsai. We are grateful to Fong-Chou Kuo for his kind
assistance during data collection and to Chia-Huei Wu for his insightful comments on the draft of this
article. Besides, we thank one of the reviewers for encouraging us to think more deeply about the possible
differences in the sources, manifestations and social aspects of the gratitude.
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L. H. Chen et al.
... The authors also found negative correlations with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the PANAS's negative modules. Chen et al. found a positive relationship between the Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) and some dimensions of the Big Five Personality Test (10). Dixit and Sinha reported direct relations with the Gratitude Adjective Checklist (GAC) and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) (16). ...
... These authors also found that GQ-6 scores were inversely related to the French-Canadian version of the Trait-State Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the French Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) (18 (11), while Balgiu identified a satisfactory Cronbach's Alpha in a sample of 250 Romanian students (19). All the other consulted references reported acceptable indices (10,12,13,(16)(17)(18). ...
... The evidence presented highlights the importance of studying the construct of gratitude in the field of psychology and health sciences, previous studies have indicated the relationship of the construct to mental health outcomes, for example, affectivity, well-being, prosociality, positive emotions, flourishing, optimism and personality, happiness, problem-focused and social support strategies (5,6,10,14,(15)(16)(17)(18); while gratitude has been inversely associated with indicators of distress and even possible psychopathology, including negative emotions and affectivity, depression, anxiety and stress (6,14,15,18). All the previous information justifies the development of this research. ...
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Introduction: Gratitude is widely contemplated in philosophy and theology, although its dissemination in psychology and health sciences is scarce. It is defined as the cognitive and affective state of appreciation in a person favored by a benefactor’s contributions. The Gratitude Questionnaire–Six Item Form is one of the most used scales for measuring this construct in several sociocultural contexts. Objectives: The aims were to determine the factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity and to identify its reliability and invariance according to gender, age, and residence.
... But when used in different cultures it needs to be translated for validity ((Sperber, 2004). Most of research exhibited adequate internal consistency reliability, including research in Filipino high school students, with validity and reliability (α = 0,76) (Valdez et al., 2018), in Filipino college students (α = 0,81) (Llenares & Almeda, 2021), in a Sample of Japanese College Students (α = 0,92) (Sumi, 2017), Italian (α = 0,745) (Caputo, 2016), in African-Americans (α = 0,729) (Cousin et al., 2020), in Chinese Adolescents (α = 0,7 -0,8) (Tan, 2021), in Taiwanese Undergraduate Students (α = 0,80) ( Chen et al., 2009), Spanish adolescents (α = 0,74 -0,77) (Rey et al., 2018), German Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 67 years (α = 0,82) (Hudecek et al., 2020), of Romanian undergraduates (α = 0,80) (Balgiu, 2020), of Indian with respondents age ranging from 18 to 72 years (α = 0,74) (Dixit, 2021), of Belgium, with respondents age 18 to 80 years (α = 0,77) (Jans-beken et al., 2015), of undergraduate students (α = 0,71) (Gouveia et al., 2021). Grimaldy and Haryanto (2020) have successfully adapted the GQ-6 for university students in Jakarta, demonstrating favorable validity and reliability (Cronbach's alpha: 0.789) in the Indonesian language. ...
... The findings of the current study indicate that item 6 exhibits a substantial loading factor, despite the fact that various prior studies conducted in different nations, such as Taiwanese undergraduate students (L. H. Chen et al., 2009) and German undergraduate students (Hudecek et al., 2020), have reported low loading factors. For item 6 (Setelah melampaui waktu yang panjang, akhirnya saya merasa bersyukur atas sesuatu atau seseorang), the act of expressing gratitude among Indonesians is a customary practice, albeit often delayed due to various reasons. ...
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The study of gratitude has begun to develop in Indonesia. Along with this development, there is a need for a measurement tool that can explain the concept of gratitude. This study aims to adapt the gratitude questionnaire (QG-6) to the Indonesian language. The study was conducted on 275 high school students in Surabaya City. The results of confirmatory factor analysis obtained 5 adequate items that have a factor loading value (> 0.5). Measurement model fit (p < 0.01, RMSEA =. 0.08, GFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.99, SRMR = 0.02.) Construct reliability on QG-5 is 0.813.
... The responses were rated on a 7-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree). The Chinese version of the GQ [36] was used in this study. The alpha coefficient was 0.80 in Chen et al. [36] (2009) and 0.68 in the present study. ...
... The Chinese version of the GQ [36] was used in this study. The alpha coefficient was 0.80 in Chen et al. [36] (2009) and 0.68 in the present study. ...
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Dissection is an essential element of medical training and depends on the availability of cadavers. However, traditional Chinese culture widely regards the body as a gift from one’s parents that should remain intact after death, resulting in a shortage of cadavers for medical training and research. This situation changed in Taiwan when Master Cheng Yen, the founder of the Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, supported the donation of bodies to medical science. This study aimed to investigate the current situation of body donation in Taiwan, including donors’ motivation and psychological characteristics. A questionnaire was conducted with 681 adult participants, including 336 people who pledged to donate their bodies to medical science after death and a control group comparable in age, gender, and level of education. All participants answered questions regarding anxiety over death, purpose in life, gratitude, altruism, and life satisfaction. In addition, the registered donor group answered questions regarding the motivation for donating their bodies to science. The main influencing factors were to help advance medical science, make a positive contribution to society, and release attachment from the body. Further, many male participants indicated the desire to reduce trouble and expenses that their families would incur in making funeral and burial or cremation arrangements. The main predictors of donating one’s body to medical science were low anxiety concerning death, a high level of altruism, and gratitude.
... The original GQ has six items, and its reliability and validity have been established. In the current study, the GQ-Taiwan version (GQ-T) was used to assess dispositional gratitude (Chen et al., 2009). Only five items of the GQ-T were used because one of the items (Long amounts of time can go by before I feel grateful something or someone) 1 was dropped due to nonsignificant factor loading. ...
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For athletes, gratitude has received substantial attention because it promotes their optimal functioning both in the sport domain specifically and in everyday life generally. The literature has, however, been equivocal as to whether it is domain-general gratitude—from the top-down perspective—or domain-specific gratitude—from the bottom-up perspective—that comes first and directs the other. Clarifying the relationship is important for designing more precise interventions. In this regard, we conducted a three-year, six-wave prospective study for youth athletes to examine the dynamic relationship between domain-general and sport-specific gratitude. Our latent difference score analysis indicated that a reciprocal model between the two levels of gratitude was superior to other, nonreciprocal models, suggesting that athletes who had higher domain-general gratitude would increase in sport-specific gratitude, which in turn contributed to increased domain-general gratitude across the six time points over the three-year period. Our study contributes to gratitude theories by uncovering the potential directional relationship for various levels of gratitude.
...  Agreeableness: A positive relationship was observed between gratitude with agreeableness and extraversion, implying that grateful people are more enthusiastic, selfless, sincere, pleasant, and optimistic (Quach et al., 2019;Chen et al., 2009). ...
The said piece of work is based on the concept behind gratitude and its various facets.
... Su estructura unifactorial original de seis ítems ha sido replicada en países como Chile (Carmona et al., 2015;Langer et al., 2016), Italia (Caputo, 2016;Fuochi et al., 2018), China (Kong et al., 2017), India (Garg & Katiyar, 2021), Brasil (Gouveia et al., 2019), Holanda (Jans-Beken et al., 2015) y Japón (Sumi, 2017). No obstante, en algunas poblaciones una solución unifactorial de cinco ítems resultó más adecuada como en población adulta de Ecuador (Vélez et al., 2019), Alemania (Hudecek, 2020), India (Dixit & Sinha, 2021), España (Magallares et al., 2018); población adolescente de China (Wei et al., 2011), España (Rey et al., 2018) y Vietnam (Tran et al., 2021) y universitarios de Taiwan (Chen et al., 2009), Japón (Kobayashi, 2013), Turquía (Yüksel et al., 2012), Rumania (Balgiu, 2020), España (Bernabé-Valero et al., 2013) y Filipinas (Valdez et al., 2017). ...
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Las investigaciones han sugerido que las personas agradecidas son más felices, enérgicas y tienen mayor esperanza de tener experiencias positivas. A pesar de que el GQ-6 es un instrumento ampliamente utilizado para evaluar la gratitud, su estructura factorial no ha sido explorada en población mexicana. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las propiedades psicométricas del GQ-6 en una muestra mexicana. Participaron 566 personas de población general de 18 a 67 años. El GQ-6 fue administrado junto con la Escala de Afecto Positivo y Afecto Negativo (PANAS) y el Test de Orientación Vital (LOT-R). Los resultados indicaron una estructura unifactorial con seis indicadores la cual mostró una buena bondad de ajuste y confiabilidad aceptable (α = .79); estos resultados se mantuvieron independientemente del sexo. Puede concluirse que el GQ-6 es un instrumento con buenas propiedades psicométricas para evaluar la disposición para experimentar gratitud en población mexicana.
... Since Chen et al. (2009) found that a five-item model which eliminated item 6 was a better fit than the original sixitem model in the Chinese context, and the results of the exploratory factor analysis of this study showed that the factor loading of item 6 was 0.305, below the critical criterion of 0.4 (Hair et al., 1998), so we deleted item 6. The ...
Purpose Building on the broaden-and-build theory and incorporating a self-regulatory perspective, this study examines the relationship between trait gratitude and subjective career success and investigates the mediating roles of growth mindset of work and career network breadth. Design/methodology/approach Time-lagged data were collected in three waves from a sample of 314 employees in China. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Findings The findings demonstrate that trait gratitude is positively related to SCS, mediated by growth mindset of work as an indicator of psychological resources and career network breadth as an indicator of social resources. Trait gratitude is more strongly associated with network breadth (i.e., social resources) than with growth mindset (i.e., psychological resources). Practical implications Organizations may find trait gratitude an applicable addition to the selection criteria during the recruitment process. Originality/value By identifying trait gratitude as an antecedent of SCS and revealing its underlying mechanisms, the current study points to a new perspective on the study of career success.
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Introduction Gratitude has been identified as a key factor in a number of positive health-related outcomes; however, the mechanisms whereby gratitude is associated with well-being among older adults with chronic pain are poorly understood. Using the Positive Psychological Well-Being Model as a theoretical framework, the objective of the present study was to examine the serial mediating effects of social support, stress, sleep, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on the relationship between gratitude and depressive symptoms. Methods A total sample of 60 community-dwelling older adults with chronic low back pain (cLBP) provided blood samples for high-sensitivity TNF-α and completed the Gratitude Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, and the PROMIS Emotional Support, Sleep Disturbance, and Depression forms. Descriptive statistics, correlation analyses, and serial mediation analyses were performed. Results Gratitude was negatively associated with perceived stress, sleep disturbance, and depression, and was positively associated with social support. No significant association was observed between gratitude and TNF-α. After controlling for age and marital status, analyses revealed that perceived stress and sleep disturbance sequentially mediated the association between gratitude and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Perceived stress and sleep disturbance may be potential mechanistic pathways by which gratitude impacts negative well-being. Targeting gratitude as a protective resource may be a potential therapeutic tool to improve psychological and behavioral outcomes in older adults with cLBP.
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Background The health promotion strategies are directing their field of action to more profound actions involving personal change. A extensively researched and promising construct is known as Sense of coherence (SOC) which represents the orientation to salutogenic life. Investigations that provide empirical evidence are required to understand the fundamental predictors of salutogenic development. Until now, little attention has been paid in the scientific literature to the role of existential attitudes in the prediction of salutogenic variables. This paper relates the values included in Schwartz's model with gratitude viewed in terms of an existential attitude in this way filling a gap found in the previous literature. Method Correlational analyses between existential gratitude, gratitude as an affective disposition, values and SOC were conducted among 229 participants. In a Path Analysis, the values of Benevolence and Tradition and existential gratitude were chosen as predictors of SOC. Results Existential gratitude obtained significant correlations with all values and its scores were higher than the correlations between dispositional gratitude and values. The results of the Path analysis show good fit indices, indicating that SOC can be predicted by existential gratitude as well as by the values of benevolence and tradition. Conclusions The results are discussed in the light of the possibilities that this study opens up in the field of salutogenesis, based on the approach of the second wave positive psychology (PP2.0) which emphasizes the positive psychology of suffering since it takes into consideration the importance of conceptualizing Gratitude as an Existential attitude.
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To examine the utility of the revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) to measure optimism among Hong Kong Chinese, the psychometric properties of the revised and the original versions of the Life Orientation Test were compared. A total of 248 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduates were studied in the fall and 165 of these participants were tested again 5 months later. Results indicated that the LOT-R is a reliable and valid measure of dispositional optimism among Hong Kong Chinese. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the LOT-R represents a one-factor model of optimism better than does the original version. Despite its brevity, the LOT-R is psychometrically sounder than the original sclae. These findings point to the feasibility of replacing the original with the revised scale in future research among Hong Kong Chinese. However, the utility of the revised test in cross-cultural comparisons may still be limited by the absence of emic components. Further research on optimism in the Chinese people with the LOT-R should pay more attention to the identification of emic dimensions.
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We examined whether gratitude was correlated with distinct coping styles, and whether coping styles mediated the relationship between gratitude and well-be- ing. Participants (n = 236) completed measures of coping styles, dispositional grati- tude, and measures of well-being. Gratitude correlated positively with seeking both emotional and instrumental social support, positive reinterpretation and growth, active coping, and planning. Gratitude correlated negatively with behav- ioural disengagement, self-blame, substance use, and denial. Coping styles medi- ated up to 51% of the relationship between gratitude and stress, but did not substantially mediate the relationship between gratitude and either happiness, de- pression, or satisfaction with life. We suggest that different mechanisms relate grati- tude to separate aspects of well-being. Further research is indicated into the role of gratitude in social support processes, and in growth following adversity.
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We investigated the relationship between the emotional states of gratitude and indebtedness in two studies. Although many have suggested that these affects are essentially equivalent, we submit that they are distinct emotional states. Following Heider (1958), we propose that with increasing expectations of return communicated with a gift by a benefactor, indebtedness should increase but gratitude should decrease. The results of two vignette studies supported this hypothesis, and patterns of thought/action tendencies showed these states to be distinct. In addition, we found that with increasing expectations communicated by a benefactor, beneficiaries reported that they would be less likely to help the benefactor in the future. Taken together, we argue that the debt of gratitude is internally generated, and is not analogous to an economic form of indebtedness.
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Objectives: To test a performance-attainment model derived from the Dualistic Model of Passion [Vallerand et al. (2003). Les passions de l'âme: On obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 756-767] that posits that both harmonious and obsessive passions are positive predictors of deliberate practice that, in turn, is a positive predictor of performance. Design: A prospective design was used in the present study. Methods and results: The basic model was tested in two studies using structural equation modeling. Results from Study 1 with 184 high school basketball players indicated that both harmonious and obsessive passions were positive predictors of deliberate practice, which, in turn, was a positive predictor of objective performance. The results of Study 2, conducted with 67 synchronized swimming and water-polo athletes conceptually replicated those from Study 1. Furthermore, results differentially linked the two passions to achievement goals and subjective well-being (SWB). Specifically, harmonious passion was a positive predictor of mastery goal pursuit and SWB, whereas obsessive passion was a positive predictor of mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goal pursuit and was unrelated to SWB. Mastery goals were positive predictors of deliberate practice, which was a direct positive predictor of performance, whereas performance-avoidance goals were direct negative predictors of performance. Conclusions: It appears that there are two paths to high-level performance attainment in sport, depending if harmonious or obsessive passion underlies sport engagement. While the path from harmonious passion is conducive to high levels of performance and living a happy life, that from obsessive passion is less reliably related to performance attainment and is unrelated to happiness.
In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology studies the burgeoning field of positive psychology, which, in recent years, has transcended academia to capture the imagination of the general public. The book provides a roadmap for the psychology needed by the majority of the population-those who don't need treatment, but want to achieve the lives to which they aspire. The articles summarize all of the relevant literature in the field, and each is essentially defining a lifetime of research. The content's breadth and depth provide a cross-disciplinary look at positive psychology from diverse fields and all branches of psychology, including social, clinical, personality, counseling, school, and developmental psychology. Topics include not only happiness-which has been perhaps misrepresented in the popular media as the entirety of the field-but also hope, strengths, positive emotions, life longings, creativity, emotional creativity, courage, and more, plus guidelines for applying what has worked for people across time and cultures.
This chapter examines the feeling of being grateful. It suggests feeling grateful is similar to other positive emotions that help build a person's enduring personal resources and broaden an individual's thinking. It describes various ways by which gratitude can transform individuals, organizations, and communities in positive and sustaining ways. It discusses the specific benefits of gratitude including personal and social development, community strength and individual health and well-being.
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.