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Validation of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ) in Taiwanese Undergraduate Students

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The aim of this study was to translate and validate the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ; McCullough etal. 2002) using Taiwanese undergraduate students. A total of 608 college students (M age=20.19, SD=2.08) were recruited for the current study and they completed the GQ, optimism, happiness, and big five personality questionnaires. Confirmation factor analysis indicated that a five item model was a better fit than the original six item model. Cross-validation also supported the modified Chinese version of the GQ. In addition, the Chinese version of the GQ was, as expected, positively correlated with optimism, happiness, agreeableness, and extraversion, which supported its construct validity. The Cronbach’s α was .80 for the Chinese version of the GQ, indicating satisfactory validity and reliability in a Taiwanese student sample. It was concluded that the Chinese version of the GQ would be useful for assessing individual differences in dispositional gratitude.
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RESEARCH PAPER
Validation of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ)
in Taiwanese Undergraduate Students
Lung Hung Chen ·Mei-Yen Chen ·Ying Hwa Kee ·Ying-Mei Tsai
©Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008
Abstract The aim of this study was to translate and validate the Gratitude Questionnaire
(GQ; McCullough et al. 2002) using Taiwanese undergraduate students. A total of 608
college students (M
age
=20.19, SD =2.08) were recruited for the current study and they
completed the GQ, optimism, happiness, and big five personality questionnaires. Confir-
mation factor analysis indicated that a five item model was a better fit than the original six
item model. Cross-validation also supported the modified Chinese version of the GQ. In
addition, the Chinese version of the GQ was, as expected, positively correlated with
optimism, happiness, agreeableness, and extraversion, which supported its construct
validity. The Cronbach’s αwas .80 for the Chinese version of the GQ, indicating satis-
factory validity and reliability in a Taiwanese student sample. It was concluded that the
Chinese version of the GQ would be useful for assessing individual differences in dis-
positional gratitude.
Keywords Grateful · Positive psychology · Well-being
L. H. Chen
Graduate Institute of Physical Education, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
M.-Y. Chen (&)
Department of Recreation and Leisure Industry Management, National Taiwan Sport University,
Taoyuan, 250, Wen Hua 1st Road, Kueishan, Taoyuan County, Taiwan
e-mail: meiyentw@yahoo.com.tw
Y. H. Kee
Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan
Y.-M. Tsai
Office of Physical Education, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology,
Taichung, Taiwan
123
J Happiness Stud
DOI 10.1007/s10902-008-9112-7
1 Introduction
Psychological issues related to anxiety, depression, fear, hostility, substance abuse, and
traumatic experiences have received extensive attention (Fredrickson 1998; Seligman and
Csikszentmihalyi 2000). Of late, the heavy research focus on the negative aspects of
psychology has been criticized (Fredrickson 2001; Snyder and Lopez 2002). Research that
emphasizes the treatment and prevention of pathological issues focuses on people’s suf-
fering experience rather than cogitating people’s well-being as the first priority
(Fredrickson 2000). To promote a more proactive approach to understanding people, some
researchers directed their effort to examining positive psychological constructs such as
resilience (Yorgason et al. 2007), mindfulness (Kee and Wang 2008), humor (Olson et al.
2005), passion (Vallerand et al. 2008), and positive affectivity (Watson 2002). In this
article, we direct our attention to one important positive affective trait: gratitude, which is
only beginning to receive attention in the scientific community (McCullough et al. 2001).
Specifically, we present a report on the validation of an inventory (gratitude questionnaire;
GQ, McCullough et al. 2002) that purports to measure dispositional gratitude based on data
from a non-western sample.
McCullough et al. (2002) developed the 6-item GQ to assess individual differences in
dispositional gratitude. Their work opened a new avenue for understanding the positive
effect that gratitude has on well-being (e.g., Chen and Kee in press;Wood et al. 2008).
Gratitude is defined as an affective trait that is a “general tendency to recognize and
respond with grateful emotion to the roles of other people’s benevolence in the positive
experiences and outcomes that one obtains” (McCullough et al. 2002, p. 112). Based on
their definition, gratitude is considered a moral barometer that is sensitive to the benefits or
help received from another moral agent, especially when the cost is high for the benefactor.
McCullough et al. (2001) suggested that people who experienced grateful mood or emotion
were more likely to behave prosocially to the benefactor or a third party. Moreover,
gratitude served as a moral reinforcement underlying reciprocal altruism. In other words,
by saying “thank you,” the beneficiary confirmed the benefactor’s benevolence and
increased the likelihood of receiving support from the benefactor in the future. The
researchers pointed out that reciprocal altruism would accumulate, becoming a social
resource that can be drawn upon if people encounter adversity in the future. Therefore, it is
important to understand gratitude because it cultivates social resources and, thus, enhances
people’s well-being (Fredrickson 2004; McCullough et al. 2002).
The three aspects of the moral foundation of gratitude that involve social interaction do
not seem to be culturally specific. For example, one of the old Chinese proverbs states “to
knot grass and carry a ring” (), which means to repay someone for a
kindness once the beneficiary has the opportunity to do so. Also, the traditional Chinese
religion fairly respects the immaterial power of spirits and ancestors, which leads culturally
Chinese people to believe that the millennial life comes from the grace of spirits and
ancestors; therefore, people often express their gratitude through religious rites (Yang et al.
2005). By doing so, people feel comfortable and well-being may be increased (Wang and
Sun 2005). It is easy to observe that the sources of gratitude in the East may be somewhat
similar to those of the West because they are not only limited to the human agent, but also
include God or a higher power.
For the assessment of gratitude, McCullough et al. (2002) conducted four studies based
on undergraduate students and adults to examine the validity of the GQ. Confirmatory
factor analyses show that a robust one-factor structure with satisfactory internal consis-
tency exists across studies. McCullough and colleagues also report that the GQ was
L. H. Chen et al.
123
positively related to positive affect, well-being, prosocial behavior, and religiousness/
spirituality (study 1 and study 2) and negatively correlated with envy and materialistic
attitudes (study 3). Furthermore, the association between the GQ and related variables was
robust after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affec-
tivity, and Agreeableness (study 4). Their results suggested that the GQ possesses good
psychometric properties and is a distinctive construct.
Subsequently, other researchers in western countries conducted several studies based on
the GQ to investigate the relationship between gratitude and well-being. These studies
largely show that a positive relation between gratitude and well-being exists. For example,
Wood et al. (2007) found that highly grateful undergraduate students reported lower stress
and depression but higher happiness as well as satisfaction with life. Furthermore, they
found that coping style partially mediated the relationship between gratitude and stress. In
another study, Kashdan et al. (2006) investigated the association between gratitude and
hedonic as well as eudaimonic well-being indicators in Vietnam war veterans with post-
traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They found that gratitude predicted greater affect bal-
ance, rewarding social activity, intrinsically motivating activity, and self-esteem in
veterans with PTSD. Taken together, these results not only suggest that gratitude plays an
important role in determining well-being, but also show that the GQ is a reliable and valid
tool for measuring gratitude.
Research in a non-western sample that utilizes the GQ was first undertaken by Chen and
Kee (in press). After translating the GQ items into Chinese, they used the GQ to examine
gratitude and Taiwanese athletes’ well-being indicators. They found that athletes with
higher dispositional gratitude had greater team satisfaction and life satisfaction as well as
lower athlete burnout. Chen and Kee’s (in press) research provided the first documentation
of the positive role of gratitude using the GQ items. However, at least two issues remain to
be tackled since scale validation is a continual process. First, the psychometric properties
of the GQ were not examined in Chen and Kee’s (in press) study. This might diminish the
utility of the GQ. Did the GQ maintain similar factor structure after its translation into
Chinese? Further, does the GQ possess satisfactory factorial validity? These questions were
not answered in the previous study. Second, the researchers administrated the Chinese GQ
in a very specific sample; namely, adolescent athletes. The question thus remains whether
the Chinese GQ can be applied to other more general samples such as undergraduate
students.
Further examination of the validity and reliability of the Chinese GQ will make
important contributions to the literature. A psychometrically sound measure of the Chinese
GQ would be an important tool for conducting empirical study on the Chinese-speaking
population. McCullough et al. (2001) indicated that gratitude is the parent of virtues that
motivates people to be prosocial and also enhances well-being. As the traditional Chinese
culture and religion (Yang et al. 2005) emphasized gratitude as an important virtue (Xin
2006), it is important for the international community to understand the cross-cultural
effects associated with gratitude. In doing so, a more complete picture of gratitude as a
human strength can be painted, as most published studies today are based on western
samples (e.g., McCullough et al. 2002; Wood et al. 2008a,c). Thus, the purpose of this
study was to investigative the validity and cross-validity of the GQ with a sample of
Chinese individuals in Taiwan. The confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test the
underlying structure of the items. Also, correlation analyses were conducted to examine
whether the Chinese GQ has hypothetical relationships with happiness, optimism, agree-
ableness, neuroticism, and extraversion. These five constructs were selected because of
their reliable relationship with gratitude (McCullough et al. 2002,2004; Neto 2007; Wood
Gratitude Questionnaire
123
et al. 2008a,b,c; Wood et al. 2007). It is suggested that grateful people experience greater
happiness because they appreciate life as a gift when they compare themselves to someone
who lives in a difficult position. The relationships among gratitude, optimism, agree-
ableness, and extraversion are expected to be positive while neuroticism is expected to be
negative as they share the same variance of emotional experience rooted in personality
(McCullough et al. 2002).
2 Method
2.1 Participants and Procedure
A total of 608 college students (M
age
=20.19, SD =2.08) recruited from Central Taiwan
University of Science and Technology, National Taichung Institute of Technology, and
Soochow University in Taiwan were targeted for the study. Four hundred twenty-seven of
the participants were females and 181 participants were males. A multi-section ques-
tionnaire was administered to the participants in a quiet classroom setting. One of authors
was present to answer any queries raised by the participants. The participants took about
30 min to complete the entire set of questionnaires. Participants’ involvement in this study
was voluntary and their confidentiality as well as anonymity was ensured as the partici-
pants were assigned and identified by a unique code known only to the investigators.
2.2 Measurement
2.2.1 Dispositional Gratitude
The GQ developed by McCullough et al. (2002) was used to measure disposition toward
gratitude. They demonstrated that the GQ is a psychometrically sound measure across four
studies. Previous studies utilizing the English version GQ-6 also found that the instrument
possesses good psychometric properties (e.g., Giacalone et al. 2005; Kashdan et al. 2006;
McCullough et al. 2004; Watkins et al. 2006). The translation of the GQ was originally
conducted by a doctoral student majoring in psychology who had mastered both Chinese
and English. After the GQ was translated into Chinese, a second bilingual translator (both
English and Chinese) back translated the items into English. Both Chinese and English
items were also evaluated by the authors to ensure equivalence in meaning and compa-
rability. Chen and Kee (in press) reported that the Cronbach’s αof the Chinese GQ was .80
in a sample of athletes. The Chinese GQ was positively related to life satisfaction and team
satisfaction, while negatively correlated with athlete burnout. The results supported the
preliminary reliability and validity of the Chinese GQ. In the current study, participants
indicated their responses on a 7-point Likert scale with responses ranging from strongly
disagree (1) to strongly agree (7).
2.2.2 Subjective Happiness
A short version of subjective happiness was used because of its relatedness (along with
happiness and optimism) to gratitude (as mentioned earlier). The status of participants was
assessed by one item (e.g., On the whole, do you feel that you are having a happy life
now?) that was obtained from the Taiwan Social Change Survey (TSCS), which was
L. H. Chen et al.
123
supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan. Previous studies in Taiwan indi-
cated that this item was significantly related to marital status (Lee 2007) and income (Chiu
2004). Participants indicated their response to this question on a 6-point Likert scale with
responses ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (6).
2.2.3 Optimism
The Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R, Scheier et al. 1994) consists of 10 items (4 of
which are filler items) used to assess individual differences in generalized optimism (3
items) versus pessimism (3 items). Previous studies indicated that the LOT-R is reliable
and valid in the Chinese-speaking population (Lai and Yue 2000; Lai et al. 1998). Given
our research interest in the relationship between optimism and gratitude, only the optimism
items were used for this study. Items were evaluated using a 6-point Likert scale.
2.2.4 Big Five Personality
The Chinese Big Five personality scale was developed by Chuang and Lee (2001). Based
on the fundamental lexical hypothesis (Goldberg 1990), they collected 148 Chinese
adjectives, formed a scale, and administrated it to teachers of elementary school students.
Factor analysis from teachers’ ratings of students indicated that these adjectives could be
clustered into five categories that correspond to the Big Five model. The Chinese Big
Five personality questionnaire is also reported to have satisfactory internal consistency
(Cronbach’s αranged from .78 to .94) as well as having a 1-year test and retest reliability
(Chuang and Lee 2001). Chen (2004) modified the Chinese Big Five personality scale into
a shorter version and administered it to a teacher sample. Factor analysis indicated that the
short version of the Chinese Big Five personality scale maintained the five factor structure
and produced acceptable reliability (Cronbach’s αranged from .60 to .86). Based on our
research interest and for sake of brevity, the short version of extraversion (5 items),
neuroticism (3 items), and conscientiousness (5 items) was used. Participants indicated
their response on a 6-point Likert scale.
2.3 Data Analysis
To ascertain that the model fit was not due to an idiosyncratic sample, we randomly
divided the participants into two equal samples using SPSS 13.0. Cohort 1 data was used to
find a best fitting model that consisted of 93 males and 211 females (M
age
=20.27,
SD =2.02) and the Cohort 2 data was used for cross-validation. Cohort 2 was composed of
88 males and 216 females (M
age
=20.11, SD =2.14). The ratio of sample size to number
of free parameters was 50:1, which is above the recommended 10:1 (Bentler and Chou
1987). The confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using LISREL 8.72 and the
Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation was chosen because each dataset met the criterion
whereby no variable was skewed greater than 2 and no variable had a kurtosis value greater
than 7 (West et al. 1995). Overall model fit was assessed according to Hu and Bentler’s
(1999) recommendation, including standardized root mean square residual (SRMR), non-
normal fit index (NNFI), comparative fit index (CFI), and root mean square error of
approximation (RMSEA). In addition, Pearson’s correlation was also conducted to
examine the relationship between gratitude and theoretically related criteria.
Gratitude Questionnaire
123
3 Result
The mean and standardized deviation of each item is presented in Table 1for Cohort 1 and
Cohort 2 data. We used the Cohort 1 data to conduct the first confirmatory factor analysis to
evaluate the factorial validity of the Chinese GQ. Results demonstrated relatively poor fit
(χ
2
(9) =49.46, p\.001, RMSEA =.12, NNFI =.90, CFI =.94, SRMR =.07). All
parameters were significant at p\.001 except for item 6: “long amounts of time can go by
before I feel grateful to something or someone” (standardized factor loading =.01, ns).
Given that a non-significant parameter might result in a poor fit, item 6 was eliminated and a
second confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. Results based on the remaining five
items of the Chinese GQ indicated an adequate fit (χ
2
(5) =15.26, p\.001, RMSEA =.08,
NNFI =.97, CFI =.99, SRMR =.03), which was an improvement over the six items
model. The factor loadings ranged from .34 to .85.
Cohort 2 data were used for model cross-validation. The results also indicated that the
one-factor model with five items of the Chinese GQ has adequate fit (χ
2
(5) =12.34,
p\.05, RMSEA =.07, NNFI =.98, CFI =.99, SRMR =.02) and the factor loadings
Table 1 Descriptive statistics of each item of the GQ
Cohort 1 Cohort 2
MSDMSD
1. I have so much in life to be thankful for 5.92 1.29 5.88 1.37
2. If I had to list everything that I felt grateful for, it would
be a very long list
5.51 1.40 5.43 1.49
3. When I look at the world, I don’t see much to be grateful
for
2.34 1.69 2.39 1.66
4. I am grateful to a wide variety of people 5.62 1.28 5.58 1.30
5. As I get older I find myself more able to appreciate the
people, events, and situations that have been part of my
life history
5.98 1.25 5.97 1.26
6. Long amounts of time can go by before I feel grateful to
something or someone
4.20 1.72 4.12 1.72
Note: Item 3 and 6 are reverse scored
Table 2 Result of confirmatory factor analysis
Cohort 1 Cohort 2
Standardized
estimates
Standardized
estimates
1. I have so much in life to be thankful for .85 (.28) .81 (.34)
2. If I had to list everything that I felt grateful for, it would
be a very long list
.78 (.40) .71 (.50)
3. When I look at the world, I don’t see much to be grateful
for
.34 (.88) .36 (.87)
4. I am grateful to a wide variety of people .73 (.47) .84 (.29)
5. As I get older I find myself more able to appreciate the
people, events, and situations that have been part of my
life history
.68 (.54) .81 (.34)
Note: All estimates were significant at p\.001; values in parentheses are errors for estimates
L. H. Chen et al.
123
ranged from .36 to .84 (see Table 2). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis
suggested that the one-factor model with five items of the Chinese GQ possessed better
factorial validity than the original one-factor model with six items in a Taiwanese sample.
Once again, the second confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the one-factor
model with five items.
The Cronbach’s αof all of the scales used in this study were above the .70 benchmark
(Nunnally and Bernstein 1994) for the total sample except optimism, which was slightly
lower than the recommended limit and should be treated with care (see Table 3). To examine
the construct validity of the Chinese GQ, Pearson’s correlation was conducted with the total
sample to examine its relation with happiness score, optimism score, agreeableness score,
neuroticism score, and extraversion score. It was found that gratitude score significantly
related to happiness score (r=31, p\.001), optimism score (r=.28, p\.001), agree-
ableness score (r=42, p\.001), and extraversion score (r=.11, p\.01). However, the
relationship between the Chinese GQ and neuroticism score (r=.04, ns) was not significant.
4 Discussion
The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the GQ in a sample of Taiwanese
undergraduate students. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the 5-item GQ pos-
sessed better psychometric properties than the original 6-item model. Furthermore, the
model stability of the GQ was demonstrated when the cross-validation was conducted with
a separate sample. The Chinese GQ also has adequate factorial validity. Furthermore, the
GQ global score modestly correlated with several relevant theoretical constructs (i.e.,
happiness, optimism, agreeableness, and extraversion), supporting its construct validity.
The current results suggest that the GQ is an adequate measure for assessing gratitude.
Although the results supported the reliability and validity of the GQ in a Taiwanese
sample, there were three findings worth mentioning. First, item 6 was not retained in the
final version of the Chinese GQ since the one-factor model with 6 items did not demon-
strate a good model fit. This suggests that item 6 (Long amounts of time can go by before I
feel grateful to something or someone) was not valid for assessing individual differences on
gratitude in the sample of Taiwanese undergraduate students. One possible explanation for
this may be the absence of diverse life experiences in the current student sample. Although
the mean age of the current sample was similar to that of the McCullough et al. (2002)
sample, guileless school life events may not stimulate students to be grateful to someone or
something. An alternative explanation is that item 6 indicates a temporal definition of
gratitude and is perhaps less likely to be linear. It may be inappropriate for the current
Table 3 Correlation among variables
MSDNα123456
1. Gratitude 5.71 1.05 608 .80 1.00
2. Happiness 4.31 1.13 606 .31*** 1.00
3. Optimism 4.00 .86 608 .63 .28*** .48*** 1.00
4. Agreeableness 4.72 .85 607 .91 .42*** .28*** .28*** 1.00
5. Neuroticism 3.87 1.09 607 .89 .04 .19*** .17*** .10** 1.00
6. Extraversion 3.64 1.09 603 .71 .11** .21*** .14*** .09* .29*** 1.00
*p\.05, ** p\.01, *** p\.001
Gratitude Questionnaire
123
study as it focuses on one’s present beliefs. However, these speculations should be further
examined in the future. Second, it should be noted that item 3 had a lower factor loading
than the other items across two cohorts of data (.34 for Cohort 1 and .36 for Cohort 2).
However, we consider the low factor loading acceptable because (1) abandoning item 3
might violate the understanding of gratitude as items from differing aspects are valuable
when defining constructs (Wu and Yao 2008) and (2) the fit indices of the 5-item model
was adequate in both cohorts of the sample, leading us to recommend the 5-item model
with confidence. The third finding worth considering was the non-significant correlation
between gratitude and neuroticism. This result was not in accord with McCullough et al.
(2002) and Wood et al. (2008a,b,c), but supported Neto’s (2007) study on a Portuguese
sample. A previous study with a sample of students (study 2; McCullough et al. 2004) that
used adjectives to assess people’s daily grateful mood also found a non-significant relation
between gratitude and neuroticism. Unfortunately, the relationship between the GQ and
neuroticism was not reported in their study (study 1 and study 2; McCullough et al. 2004).
Certainly, the inconsistent association between gratitude and neuroticism must be further
investigated.
Nevertheless, other constructs related to gratitude showed expected results based on
previous studies (McCullough et al. 2002; Wood et al. 2007). It was found that more
grateful students were happier about their life, as suggested by their higher subjective well-
being. Correlation analysis also indicated a low to modest positive relationship among the
GQ, optimism, agreeableness, and extraversion, which suggested that grateful individuals
were more enthusiastic, altruistic, genuine, congenial, and optimistic. It was indicated that
gratitude was not simply a linear combination of basic constructs, but could be seen as a
distinct construct (McCullough et al. 2002). The present findings also corresponded to
those of previous studies (McCullough et al. 2002; Neto 2007).
In summary, our study supported the factorial and construct validity of the Chinese GQ,
which may be a proactive approach to understanding people’s well-being in the Chinese-
speaking population. We believe validating the Chinese GQ will facilitate research focused
on human strength. It is also important to examine the related constructs that are well
documented in the literature such as well-being and prosocial behavior in order to perform
cross-cultural comparisons. This would make significant contributions to the literature
pertaining to the Chinese population.
There are two main limitations of the research presented here that should be noted. First,
the participants in this study were all undergraduate students and research has indicated
that levels of gratitude vary with age (McAdams and Bauer 2004). Thus, this might
constrain the generalization of these findings to different aged populations. Thus, we can
only recommend that the GQ is an appropriate measure for undergraduate students. Future
studies should recruit a more diverse sample to validate the GQ and special consideration
should be placed on item 6 in these future studies. Second, the measures were all based on
self-report and the data were collected at a single time point. This might result in a
common-method effect and inflate the coefficient. Given that validation is a continual
process, future research can use multiple methods to examine the validity of the GQ such
as observer rating and experimental manipulation.
In conclusion, the results of the current study indicated that the one-factor with five
items model of the GQ possessed a more satisfactory factorial validity than the six items
model in Taiwanese undergraduate students. Furthermore, the GQ was correlated with
several theoretically related constructs, which further supports its construct validity.
L. H. Chen et al.
123
Acknowledgments This study was partially supported by a grant from the Central Taiwan University of
Science and Technology (CTU97-P-24) to Ying-Mei Tsai. We are grateful to Fong-Chou Kuo for his kind
assistance during data collection and to Chia-Huei Wu for his insightful comments on the draft of this
article. Besides, we thank one of the reviewers for encouraging us to think more deeply about the possible
differences in the sources, manifestations and social aspects of the gratitude.
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... There have been attempts to adapt GQ-6, for example, in Taiwan (Chen, Chen, Kee, & Tsai, 2009), Spain (Magallares, Recio, & Sanjuán, 2018), Philippines (Valdez, Yang, & Datu, 2017), China (Zeng, Ling, Huebner, He, & Lei, 2017) and Turkey (Yüksel & Oguz Duran, 2012) reported psychometric evidence identifying one-factor solution composed by five items with satisfactory Cronbach alpha coefficients (α= .80, .81, ...
... The goodness of fit indexes was in line with the recommended in the literature (Hu and Bentler, 1999). In turn, the present findings of the study supported existing evidence on the validity of gratitude questionnaire in collectivist societies (Chen et al., 2009;Kong et al., 2017;Valdez et al., 2017;Zeng et al., 2017;Futoshi, 2013) using the original version of GQ-6. For the criterion validity, we tested the association of gratitude with life orientation, subjective happiness, and religiosity. ...
... For the criterion validity, we tested the association of gratitude with life orientation, subjective happiness, and religiosity. The Filipino GQ could be significantly associated with life orientation, subjective happiness, and religiosity, similar with the findings in previous studies (Aghababaei, Błachnio, & Aminikhoo, 2018;Chen et al., 2009;Gruszecka, 2015;Kraus, Desmond, & Palmer, 2015;Witvliet et al., 2019). These results suggest that gratitude is a necessary character strength for achieving a healthy life. ...
Article
This study aims to adapt the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) to the Philippines, gathering evidence of its validity and reliability. Two studies were conducted. Participants in Study 1 were 340 college students (Mage= 20.63; 62.1% female), who completed the GQ-6 and demographic questions. The exploratory factor analysis was performed, indicating a one-factor solution (a= .80). Participants in Study 2 were 813 college students (Mage= 19.99 years; 50.1% male), who answered the GQ-6, the Life Orientation Test-Revised, the Subjective Happiness Scale, and the Spirituality/Religiousness items. Results corroborated the one-factor structure (e.g., CFI= .98, RMSEA= .05) showing evidence of its association with life orientation (r= .29), subjective happiness (r= .08), and religiosity (r= .31). The scores from the GQ-6 also exhibited invariance across gender. In conclusion, the GQ-6 provide evidence of factorial and criterion validity and reliability, justifying its use in the Philippines.
... Cognitive gratitude was measured by the Gratitude Questionnaire-6 item . Because of the affective nature of item 4 and a low factor loading of Item 6 (Chen, Chen, Kee, & Tsai, 2009;Froh et al., 2011), we just included the other four items in the analyses. This questionnaire was rated on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree = 1 to strongly agree = 7. Sample items contained "I have so much in life to be thankful for." ...
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Gratitude is considered to be a multidimensional construct consisting of both cognitive (cognitive appraisals of benefaction) and affective (feelings of gratitude) components, which is crucial for health and well-being. However, few studies have examined the cognitive-affective structure of gratitude and its associations with subjective well-being. Thus, the present study explored the two-dimensional structure of gratitude and its predictive effects on subjective well-being. Study 1 showed that the bi-factor structure of gratitude had the best fit with the data compared with the one- and two-factor models, and both general and affective gratitude positively predicted subjective well-being at the cross-sectional level. Study 2 further found that general gratitude positively predicted life satisfaction and positive affect after 3 months. However, cognitive gratitude negatively predicted subjective well-being at both cross-sectional and longitudinal levels. Therefore, future gratitude studies should consider the two-dimensional structure of gratitude.
... Higher scores indicate greater dispositional gratitude. As one of the most widely utilized instruments for assessing dispositional gratitude, GQ-6 has been validated for Chinese samples (e.g., college students, adults) (Chen et al., 2009;Kong et al., 2017). Across diverse samples, alpha reliability of GQ-6 ranges from .67 to .94 (Emmons et al., 2019), and the Chinese version scale has also been shown to have good internal consistency (e.g., Cronbach's α = 0.71 in Chen et al., 2021;Cronbach's α = 0.75 in Li et al., 2021). ...
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Dispositional gratitude has recently emerged as a variable of interest in organizational contexts. However, it remains unclear whether dispositional gratitude is predictive of employee well-being, with limited theoretical and empirical elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. To address these limitations, the present study investigated dispositional gratitude as a predictor of employee well-being and organizational commitment. Drawing on the broaden-and-build theory of positive affect, the study also examined whether the social bonding resources of leader-member exchange (LMX) and coworker exchange (CWX) mediated these effects. The participating employees ( N = 300) completed the survey in three waves at one-week intervals. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) confirm that dispositional gratitude is positively related to employee well-being and organizational commitment and that these effects are mediated by LMX and CWX. The paper concludes by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of these findings, the study’s limitations, and future research directions.
... Participants' gratitude was measured using the Gratitude Scale to measure gratitude (McCullough et al., 2002;Chen et al., 2008). The scale consisted of 6 items (sample item: "There are so many things in life that I feel grateful for"), and each was scored on a 7-point scale (1 represents "strongly disagree" and 7 represents "strongly agree"). ...
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The current study aimed to explore how family atmosphere influenced pro-social behavior among Chinese college students and to explore the mediation roles of gratitude and self-efficacy. We recruited 800 Chinese college students, and the participation rate was 89% (712 participants, M = 19.26, SD = 1.23). Participants completed the family atmosphere scale, the pro-social tendencies measure, the gratitude questionnaire, and the general self-efficacy scale. Results indicated that (1) Family atmosphere, gratitude, self-efficacy, and pro-social behavior were positively correlated after controlling for the grade, gender, and age. (2) The family atmosphere affected pro-social behavior not only directly, but also indirectly through the partial mediating role of gratitude and self-efficacy. Moreover, gratitude and self-efficacy also played a full chained mediation role in the relationship between the family atmosphere and pro-social behavior of college students. Therefore, a supportive family atmosphere is conducive to promoting college students’ gratitude and self-efficacy, in turn affecting their pro-social behavior.
... These measures assess the extent to which individuals feel "grateful," "thankful," and "appreciative," and have been adapted to reflect specific contexts and targets (e.g., in the workplace, to a particular benefactor). Given this measure's demonstrated reliability and validity across samples, life domains, and cultures (e.g., Chen et al., 2009), OB researchers should continue the use of the GAC-3 (Emmons & McCullough, 2003) to measure state gratitude, and adapt it to the context (i.e., the workplace) or specific event of interest (e.g., a helping event). Scholars should avoid using the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6;McCullough et al., 2002)-which is a measure of trait gratitude-to assess state gratitude. ...
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Though gratitude research in organizational behavior (OB) is nascent, this emotion has a rich history in the social sciences. Research has shown gratitude to promote prosocial behaviors, encourage personal well-being, and foster interpersonal relationships. However, gratitude research has been siloed among these three outcomes of gratitude (moral, wellness, and relational). Similarly, past reviews of gratitude have focused on only one group of outcomes, one of its forms (trait, state, or expressed), or empirical findings without emphasis on the theoretical underpinnings. In contrast, this review recognizes that each type of gratitude, its functions, and outcomes are part of a single process model of gratitude. As such, in the current review we provide a comprehensive assessment of gratitude in the social sciences by distilling and organizing the literature per our process model of episodic gratitude. Then, we translate the insights for management scholars, highlighting possible differences and synergies between extant research and workplace gratitude thereby helping advance “gratitude science” in the workplace. In all, this review (a) examines definitions and operationalizations of gratitude and provides recommendations for organizational research; (b) proposes a process model of episodic workplace gratitude as a conceptual map to guide future OB research on gratitude; (c) reviews empirical gratitude research through the lens of our process model; and (d) discusses the current state of the literature, important differences for workplace gratitude, and future directions for organizational scholars.
... A kérdőív magyar adaptációja Martos, Garay és Désfalvi (2014) nevéhez fűződik. A kérdőív jó reliabilitást és validitást mutatott amerikai mintákon (Froh et al., 2011;McCullough et al., 2002), néhány kultúrában azonban az öt itemes változatát erősítették meg (Bernabé-Valero, García-Alandete, & Gallego-Pérez, 2013;Chen, Chen, Kee, & Tsai, 2009;Blasco, Bernabé-Valero, & Moret-Tatay, 2015;Kobayashi, 2013;Langer, Ulloa, Aguilar-Parra, Araya-Véliz, & Brito, 2016;Yüksel & Ogûz-Duran, 2012). A GQ-6 összpontszáma po-zitív korrelációt mutat az élettel való elégedettséggel (r = 0,53; p < 0,01), az optimizmussal (r = 0,51; p < 0,01), a reménnyel (r = 0,67; p < 0,01), a megbocsátással (r = 0,36; p < 0,01) és a pozitív affektivitással (r = 0,31; p < 0,01), míg negatív együttjárást a hálateltség mértékével és a depresszióval (r = -0,30; p < 0,01), valamint a szorongással (r = -0,20; p < 0,01) (McCullough et al., 2002). ...
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Background and aims: Becoming a mother that is the forty weeks of pregnancy is a highlighted stage of life for a woman. It is a determinative period for both the mother and her child, who is to be born. Therefore, the preservation of mental health and support for women is especially important in prenatal care. Methods: This study aims to explore the relationship between dispositional gratitude, mental health, and prenatal development in pregnant women. Our study analyses questionnaire data (mental health test, short gratitude questionnaire) from 513 pregnant women who applied for genetic testing. Of the mothers who completed the questionnaire, 322 had an ultrasound, 295 had a risk assessment for a genetic disorder and 294 had a risk assessment for toxemia. Results: The study results revealed a positive correlation of medium strength between dispositional gratitude and mental health. Higher levels of dispositional gratitude were most strongly associated with global well-being and the ability to savor. None of the prenatal developmental risks showed a direct correlation with mental health, but there was lower mental health when risks were cumulative. Conclusion: In particular, pregnant women need professional mental health support alongside healthcare, so improving the well-being of pregnant women is a key priority, alongside maintaining their health. A potential means of doing this could be to increase gratitude, for example through gratitude diary. As an extension of this study, a longitudinal investigation of the use of gratitude interventions with expecting mothers was undertaken. Keywords: gratitude, mental health, pregnancy, pregnancy toxemia.
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Prosocial behaviors are defined as behaviors that are beneficial to others. Although previous studies have suggested that there is a negative association between childhood maltreatment and prosocial behaviors among emerging adults, the conditions and underlying mechanisms of the association remain unclear. Guided by theoretical models and previous research, a mediated moderation model, with psychological suzhi in the moderating and gratitude in the mediating role, was proposed to investigate the association between childhood maltreatment and prosocial behaviors among emerging adults. A total of 2,396 Chinese undergraduate students completed measures of childhood maltreatment, psychological suzhi, gratitude, and prosocial behaviors. Results of the correlation analyses showed significant negative associations between childhood maltreatment, prosocial behaviors, psychological suzhi, and gratitude. Moreover, there were significant positive associations between psychological suzhi, gratitude, and prosocial behaviors. The moderated analyses revealed that psychological suzhi moderates the association between childhood maltreatment and prosocial behaviors. The mediated moderation analyses showed that gratitude mediates the moderating effect of psychological suzhi. These findings suggest that while childhood maltreatment hinders the development of prosocial behaviors among Chinese undergraduate students, psychological suzhi buffers its negative effect through gratitude. The results are discussed and the practical implications of these findings are presented.
Objectives Confronted with the potentially traumatic experience of a patients intensive care unit hospitalisation, family members may show positive changes associated with growth in addition to negative impact. This study aimed to identify the level of posttraumatic growth of the family members of neurosurgical intensive care unit patients and to explore its relation to positive personality characteristics, such as gratitude, resilience and hope. Design and setting A cross-sectional study involving 340 family members of patients admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit at a general tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China. Methods Before the patients’ hospital discharge, the participants completed questionnaires, assessing posttraumatic growth (PTG Inventory), social support (Social Support Rating Scale), resilience (Chinese version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), hope (Herth Hope Index) and gratitude (Gratitude Questionnaire Six-Item Form). Results The mean total posttraumatic growth score was 73.38 (14.02). Hope, gratitude, resilience and social support showed a positive correlation with the posttraumatic growth Inventory scores. There were significant differences in the posttraumatic growth scores of the family members of neurosurgical intensive care patients with respect to their different religious beliefs, payment methods, family relationship quality and presence of chronic diseases among family members. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that gratitude, resilience and social support were independent predictors of the posttraumatic growth Inventory score. Conclusion Family members may experience some degree of posttraumatic growth during hospitalisation of patients in the neurosurgical intensive care units. Gratitude, social support and resilience are predictive factors for posttraumatic growth.
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We examined whether gratitude was correlated with distinct coping styles, and whether coping styles mediated the relationship between gratitude and well-be- ing. Participants (n = 236) completed measures of coping styles, dispositional grati- tude, and measures of well-being. Gratitude correlated positively with seeking both emotional and instrumental social support, positive reinterpretation and growth, active coping, and planning. Gratitude correlated negatively with behav- ioural disengagement, self-blame, substance use, and denial. Coping styles medi- ated up to 51% of the relationship between gratitude and stress, but did not substantially mediate the relationship between gratitude and either happiness, de- pression, or satisfaction with life. We suggest that different mechanisms relate grati- tude to separate aspects of well-being. Further research is indicated into the role of gratitude in social support processes, and in growth following adversity.
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Objectives: To test a performance-attainment model derived from the Dualistic Model of Passion [Vallerand et al. (2003). Les passions de l'âme: On obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 756-767] that posits that both harmonious and obsessive passions are positive predictors of deliberate practice that, in turn, is a positive predictor of performance. Design: A prospective design was used in the present study. Methods and results: The basic model was tested in two studies using structural equation modeling. Results from Study 1 with 184 high school basketball players indicated that both harmonious and obsessive passions were positive predictors of deliberate practice, which, in turn, was a positive predictor of objective performance. The results of Study 2, conducted with 67 synchronized swimming and water-polo athletes conceptually replicated those from Study 1. Furthermore, results differentially linked the two passions to achievement goals and subjective well-being (SWB). Specifically, harmonious passion was a positive predictor of mastery goal pursuit and SWB, whereas obsessive passion was a positive predictor of mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goal pursuit and was unrelated to SWB. Mastery goals were positive predictors of deliberate practice, which was a direct positive predictor of performance, whereas performance-avoidance goals were direct negative predictors of performance. Conclusions: It appears that there are two paths to high-level performance attainment in sport, depending if harmonious or obsessive passion underlies sport engagement. While the path from harmonious passion is conducive to high levels of performance and living a happy life, that from obsessive passion is less reliably related to performance attainment and is unrelated to happiness.
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology studies the burgeoning field of positive psychology, which, in recent years, has transcended academia to capture the imagination of the general public. The book provides a roadmap for the psychology needed by the majority of the population-those who don't need treatment, but want to achieve the lives to which they aspire. The articles summarize all of the relevant literature in the field, and each is essentially defining a lifetime of research. The content's breadth and depth provide a cross-disciplinary look at positive psychology from diverse fields and all branches of psychology, including social, clinical, personality, counseling, school, and developmental psychology. Topics include not only happiness-which has been perhaps misrepresented in the popular media as the entirety of the field-but also hope, strengths, positive emotions, life longings, creativity, emotional creativity, courage, and more, plus guidelines for applying what has worked for people across time and cultures.
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This chapter examines the feeling of being grateful. It suggests feeling grateful is similar to other positive emotions that help build a person's enduring personal resources and broaden an individual's thinking. It describes various ways by which gratitude can transform individuals, organizations, and communities in positive and sustaining ways. It discusses the specific benefits of gratitude including personal and social development, community strength and individual health and well-being.
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In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
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In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.