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Women’s Traditional Knowledge, Use Value, and the Contribution of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) to Rural Households’ Cash Income in Benin

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Women’s Traditional Knowledge, Use Value, and the Contribution of Tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.) to Rural Households’ Cash Income in Benin. This study examined differences in knowledge, use values, and contribution of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) to women’s cash income during the dry season, focusing on seven tribal groups in Benin. Data were gathered using semistructured individual interviews and monitoring, and were analyzed using quantitative ethnobotanical methods. Principal component analysis was applied to describe the use value and use forms of tamarind according to different tribes. Tamarind was found to play an important role in local communities’ livelihoods. Overall, 26 different uses were mentioned for tamarind products. Most commonly, the fruit (pulp) was used to make beverages, as a laxative and purgative, and it seems to be the only plant part sold commercially. Bark was frequently used as a medicine to treat wounds, and leaves were used to make porridge and as an antibiotic. Medicinal, cultural, and material use categories were correlated best with the Fulani, whereas commerce was most correlated with Gourma tribes (PCA analysis). There were significant differences for tamarind utilization among the tribal groups, with overall ethnobotanical use values (EUVT) ranging from 10 to 14, and contribution to cash income ranging from 8.8% to 56.4%. In view of its domestication potential, it is crucial that traditional tribal knowledge of tamarind be preserved and integrated into management policies. Further development and research needs for utilization and conservation are improvement of commercialization, organization of market channels, and extent of genetic diversity within and among populations.
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Womens Traditional Knowledge, Use Value,
and the Contribution of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.)
to Rural Households Cash Income in Benin
1
BELARMAIN FANDOHAN
2
,ACHILLE EPHREM ASSOGBADJO
*
,2
,ROMAIN GLÈLÈ KAKAÏ
2
,
T
INA KYNDT
3
,EMMY DE CALUWÉ
3
,JEAN THIMOTHÉE CLAUDE CODJIA
2
,
AND BRICE SINSIN
2
2
Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP
526( Cotonou, Benin
3
UGent Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*Corresponding author; e-mail: assogbadjo@gmail.com
Womens Traditional Knowledge, Use Value, and the Contribution of Tamarind (Tamarindus
indica L.) to Rural Households Cash Income in Benin. This study examined differences in
knowledge, use values, and contribution of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) to womens cash
income during the dry season, focusing on seven tribal groups in Benin. Data were gathered
using semistructured individual interviews and monitoring, and were analyzed using quantitative
ethnobotanical methods. Principal component analysis was applied to describe the use value and
use forms of tamarind according to different tribes. Tamarind was found to play an important
role in local communities livelihoods. Overall, 26 different uses were mentioned for tamarind
products. Most commonly, the fruit (pulp) was used to make beverages, as a laxative and
purgative, and it seems to be the only plant part sold commercially. Bark was frequently used as a
medicine to treat wounds, and leaves were used to make porridge and as an antibiotic. Medicinal,
cultural, and material use categories were correlated best with the Fulani, whereas commerce was
most correlated with Gourma tribes (PCA analysis). There were signicant differences for
tamarind utilization among the tribal groups, with overall ethnobotanical use values (EUV
T
)
ranging from 10 to 14, and contribution to cash income ranging from 8.8% to 56.4%. In view
of its domestication potential, it is crucial that traditional tribal knowledge of tamarind be
preserved and integrated into management policies. Further development and research needs
for utilization and conservation are improvement of commercialization, organization of market
channels, and extent of genetic diversity within and among populations.
Savoir endogène des femmes, valeur dusage et contribution du tamarinier au revenu des
ménages ruraux au Bénin. Cette étude a mis en évidence les différences entre groupes
tribales sur les connaissances, les valeurs dusage, et la contribution du tamarinier au revenu
monétaire des femmes pendant la saison sèche au Bénin. Les données ont été collectées
grâce à des entretiens individuels semi-structurés et analysées au moyen de méthodes
ethnobotanique quantitatives. Lanalyse en composante principale a été appliquée pour
décrire la valeur dusage et les formes dutilisation du tamarinier en fonction des différentes
tribus. Le tamarinier joue un rôle important dans les activités génératrices de revenues pour
les communautés locales. Au total 26 différentes utilisations ont été mentionnées pour les
produits issus du tamarinier. Généralement, la pulpe du fruit est utilisée pour faire des
boissons, comme un laxatif et un purgatif et semble être la seule partie commercialisée de la
plante. Lécorce est fréquemment utilisée en médecine traditionnelle pour traiter les blessures
profondes alors que les feuilles sont utilisées pour la préparation de bouillis et comme un
antibiotique. Lespèce a plus une valeur médicinale, culturelle et artisanale pour les Fulani
1
Received 14 October 2009; accepted 1 June
2010; published online 3 July 2010.
Economic Botany, 64(3), 2010, pp. 248259.
© 2010, by The New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, NY 10458-5126 U.S.A.
alors quelle a une plus grande valeur commerciale pour les tribus Gourma (analyse ACP). Des
différences signicatives ont été observées entre les tribus sur lusage du tamarinier, avec des
valeurs dusage ethnobotanique total comprises entre 10 et 14 et des contributions au revenu
monétaire variant de 8.8% à 56.4%. Compte tenu de son potentiel à la domestication, il est
crucial que les connaissances traditionnelles sur le tamarinier soit préservées et intégrées dans
les politiques de gestion. Lamélioration de commercialisation, lorganisation de circuits de
commercialisation, lévaluation de la diversité génétique intra et inter populations au sein de
lespèce sont nécessaires pour assurer son utilisation durable et sa conservation.
Key Words: Tamarind, underutilized crops, ethnobotany, cash income.
Introduction
Rural households across the world extract a
wide variety of non-timber forest products
(NTFPs). NTFPs are important to rural house-
holds in terms of their contrib ution to health,
food, energy, cash income, and other aspects of
human welfare (Cavendish 2000; Mahapatra et
al. 2005). New initiatives in agroforestry seek to
integrate into tropical farming systems indigenous
trees whose products have traditionally been
gathered from natural forests (Leakey and Simons
1998). Furthermore, the search for plants with
high nutritional, medicinal, and/or commercial
potential has been intensied in order to identify
candidate species that could help in maintaining a
balance between agricultural output and popula-
tion growth (Barminas et al. 1998). These
strategies seek to alleviate severe malnutrition
and poverty and, in so doing, improve the
standard of living in developing countries. Multi-
purpose species, such as tamarind (Tamarindus
indica L.), have an important role in local
economies by supplementing the local diet and
entering into traditional therapies (Jama et al.
2008). But despi te its widely-accepted potential
importance, tamarind remains underexploited
and unimproved in Africa (El-Siddig et al. 2006;
Schreckenberg 1999).
Tamarind is a semi-eve rgreen, multipurpose
tree typical of savanna ecosystems, featuring
prominently in r iparian habitats (Fandohan
2007; Maundu et al. 1999; Mohamed 1999).
Its pulp is much appreciated in condiments, is
used to make juice, and is a good source of
proteins, fats, and carbohydrates that could be
used to alleviate malnutrition in children
(Jama et al. 2008). Tamarind seeds are 2 to
15timesricherinproteinthanmaizeand
cassava, respectively, two common local crops
(Kilungu and Njoroge 2002). Industrially, the
seeds have the potential to comprise 30% of
cereals in livestock ration s (Nyandoi 2004). The
leaves are used medicinally (Kawasaki et al.
1999;Nordeideetal.1996), and the se eds
are used to manage diabetes (Iyer 1995).
In efforts to enhan ce the specie s genetic
conservation and utilization, it has been identi-
ed as one of the top ten agroforestry tree species
for future crop diversication programs and
development in sub-Saharan Africa (Eyog Matig
et a l. 2002).
Until recently, scientic researc h on tamar-
ind in Africa has been limited to biochemical
analysis (Soloviev et al. 2004), genetic diversity,
breeding systems, and pollination-related issues
(Diallo et al. 2007, 2008). Ethnobotanical
studies on tamarind are scarce, and little
scientic information is available on quantitative
descriptors of its utilization and its contribution
to local communities revenues. Such informa-
tion could help determine the true value of the
species, leading to more rational decisions about
its sustainable utilization. Quantitative ethno-
botanical studies on individual tree species are
complementary to more traditional qualitative
methods (Mart in 1995;Sandoval1996). In
Benin, these include Assogbadjo et al. (2008,
2009)andDeCaluwéetal.(2009)onbaobab
(Adansonia digitata L.), Gaoué and Ticktin
(2009 )onKhaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss,
and Ouinsavi et al. (2005)onMilicia excelsa
(Welw.) C.C. Berg.
The objectives of t his study are (1) to
characterize differences in knowledge and utiliza-
tion of tamarind among et hnic groups in
Benin, (2) to assess the im pact of tamarind
product sales on rural womens cash income,
and (3) to analyze the conservation and utilization
aspects of tamarind as a model for enhancing
rural womens purchasing power. The research
involved seven rural communities of northern
Benin where subsistence agriculture and extensive
animal husbandry form the main sources of
income.
249FANDOHAN ET AL.: WOMENS USE OF TAMARIND IN BENIN2010]
Material and Methods
STUDY AREA
The study was performed in the Sudanian
climatic zone of Benin, located between 10°
and12°25N latitudes. The climate is semi-arid,
with mean annual rainfall usually less than
1,000 mm. Relative humidity varies between
18% and 99%, and temperatures range from
24° to 40°C. The active vegetation period lasts
four to ve months. Data were collected from the
districts of Karimama (KD) and Banikoara (BD)
in the uppermost north of Benin, and Matéri
(MD) in the northwest (Fig. 1). Among the
ethnic groups most involved in tamarind extrac-
tion in that zone are the Fulani and the
Gourmantché (KD), the Bariba (BD), and the
Berba (MD). This study targeted two tribes with
dialectic differences per ethnic group except for
Fulani, for a total of seven tribes (Bariba 1 and 2,
Berba 1 and 2, Fulani, Gourma 1 and 2).
ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY
We contacted traditional leaders in the study
area for permission before starting with the
surveys. They granted us permission to stay, talk,
and monitor tamarind fruitrelated activities
with local women. In 2008, explanatory research
was undertaken in collaboration with local leaders
with experience and interest in indigenous plant
uses to develop a check list of different specic
use categories of tamarind. We classied this
information into categories of plant species use
according to van Andel (2006). We also discov-
ered that women under 40 years of age were not
involved in the extraction and commercialization
of tamarind products, but rather were culturally
limited to domestic activities. We carried out
semistructured individual interviews with 25
women 40 years of age or older in each of the
seven tribes, translating to a total of 175 women.
Interviews focused on female knowledge on the
species products and uses, variability in the
species, and its contribution to cash income during
the dry season (November to April). During
interviews, women were asked describe the use of
each tamarind plant part (root, wood, leaves, fruit,
and seed). Thereafter, each participant was asked
to attribute a rank (R
ij
) to each specicuse,
depending on the frequency of utilization, that is,
0 if not used, 0.5 if occasionally used, 1 if often
used, and 1.5 if very often used. Interviews also
focused on female perception of morphological
variation in tamarind, desirable and undesirable
traits, and links between traits.
CONTRIBUTION OF TAMARIND TO WOMENS
CASH INCOME
Tamarind fruits were found to be the only
commercially valuable part of the tree. Data on
Fig. 1. Location of study sites.
250 ECONOMIC BOTANY [VOL 64
tamarind fruit extraction and sales were collected
from each informant from February to May
2009, corresponding to the period of fruit
exploitation. Reco rded information included the
form in which fruit was sold, the price per unit,
and the overall quantity sold (number of units).
Each participant was then asked to determine the
relative contribution of tamarind fruit sales to
their total cash income and the allocated labor
force for tamarind-related activities throughout
the dry season. Data on fruit extraction and sales
were collected periodically for error reduction.
Data Analysis
KNOWLEDGE AND USE VALUE OF TAMARIND
Data were rst arranged by categories of use.
We assumed SUV
ik
as the overall specic ethno-
botanical use for the category of use (k) according
to the respondent (i). SUV
ik
values were calcu-
lated as: SUV
ik
¼
P
j
R
ikj
, where R
ikj
is the rank
attributed to the specic use (j) within the
category of use (k) by the respondent (i). The
overall ethnobotanical use value (EUV
k
) of the
species for each category of use was computed
(Philips and Gentry 1993):
EUV
k
¼
P
i
SUV
ik
N
; ð1Þ
where, N is the number of respondent s. Finally,
the overall ethnobotanical value of tamarind for
each tribe (T) was computed as
EUV
T
¼
X
k
EUV
k
: ð2Þ
SUV
i
, EUV
k
, and EUV
T
values were com-
puted per tribal group. A data matrix comprising
EUV
k
values was then subm itted to a Principal
Component Analysis (PCA) to assess patterns of
categories of uses among targeted tribes. Finally,
the proportions of interviewees belonging to
tribes who identied particular tamarind traits
were used to analyze perceptions of variability in
the species.
CASH INCOME,CONTRIBUTION, AND
ALLOCATED LABOR FORCE
Cash income was assumed here as the gross
margin gained from tamarind fruit commercia li-
zation. The following formula was u sed to
estimate it for each respondent:
I
i
¼ N
i
P
i
; ð3Þ
where I
i
is the cash income of respondent (i), N
i
is the number of units sold during the season, and
P
I
is the unitary price.
Data related to the contribution to overall cash
income (C
i
) and allocated labor force (W
i
)
throughout the dry season we re computed as a
percentage. Because (I
i
), (C
i
), and (W
i
) values
were not normally distributed (Ryan-Joiner test of
normality; Ryan and Joiner 1976 ), we used the
Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test to compare
the variables among the tribes. A Spearmans rank
test was performed to check correlation between
pairs of the variables.
Results
WOMENS KNOWLEDGE OF TAMARIND USES
All the respondents knew and used different
tamarind parts. The local names of the tree are
Djêtami (Fulani), Bu pug bu (Gourma), Mohoho
(Bariba), and Pissi (Berba). The Fulani and
Gourma-1 reported 17 out of the 26 total specic
uses (65.4%). Gourma-2, Bariba-1,2, Berba-1,2
were aware of, respectively, 57.7%, 50%, 46.2%,
42.3%, and 38.5%. Tamarind specic uses are
summarized in Table 1.
Fruits
The use of the pulp as a laxative, purgative
beverage, and porrid ge were the best-known
uses among all the tr ibes. Its use in malaria
treatment was not mentioned by Bariba-1,2,
but they do use the fruit in a sauce preparation
as an aphrodisiac for men. The fruit is used to
treat male impotence and against cough by
Fulani and Berba-1,2, respectively. The use of
pounded seeds as se asonin g was restricted to
Gourma-1,2. Fruit was the only commercially
valuable part of the tree (Figure 2A, B).
Leaves
There were differences between the uses of
tamarind leaves in the targeted tribes. Fresh leaves
were used to treat mumps and as an antibiotic for
circumcision injuries by Fulani and Gourma-1,2.
251FANDOHAN ET AL.: WOMENS USE OF TAMARIND IN BENIN2010]
They were used to treat snake bites by Berba-1,2,
as well as to treat malaria. Aqueous extract of
leaves was only used as ferment by Gourma-1,2.
All the tribes used leaves as overhead fodder for
livestock. Only Fulani participants used leaves to
ease the process of birthing their cows, goats, and
sheep.
Bark
Fresh bark was used to treat stomachache by
Gourma-1,2 and Bariba-1, and dry bark was used
to treat wounds by Gourma-1,2 and Fulani
(Fig. 2E, F). These uses were not known in the
other tribes.
Wood
The use of tamarind wood for agricultural
tool fabrication (yokes, shafts, and naves for
cow harnesses), granary buildings, and as
toothbrushes was common in all tribes. It
was only appreciated as rewood by Bariaba-1,2
and Berba-1. Tamarind wood was also used by
Fulani for agellation at feast challenges.
USE VALUES OF TAMARIND
The overall ethnobotanical use value of tamar-
ind varied among the targeted tribes. The highest
scores were found for Gourma-1 (EUV
T
=14) and
Fulani (EUV
T
=13.5) tribes. The values for the
other tribes were, respectively, 12.5 (Gourma-2),
11.0 (Bariba-1), 10.5 (Bariba-2), 10.28 (Berba-1),
and 10.0 (Berba-2).
The results of the principal component analysis
(PCA) performed on the overall ethnobotanical
use values (EUV
k
) per category of use regarding
tribes showed that the rst two axes explain
83.75% of the observed variation. Therefore,
only these axes were used to describe the relation-
ship between use catego ries and the factor tribes.
Table 2 shows the correlation coefcient between
the different use categories and the two axes. The
rst axis shows the opposite link between
commerce and rewood uses and medicinal,
TABLE 1. CATEGORY OF USE, PLANT PARTS, SPECIFIC USES OF T. INDICA, AND TRIBES USING IT FOR DIFFERENT
PURPOSES
.
Category of use Organ Specic uses Tribes
Medicine Leaves Mumps Fulani, Bourma-1,2
Antibiotic in circumcision injuries Fulani, Bourma-1,2
Delivery facilitation for cows, goats, sheep Fulani
Malaria Bariba-1,2
Snake bite Berba-1,2
Fruit pulp Laxative Fulani, Bourma-1,2, Bariba-1,2, Berba-1,2
Purgative Fulani, Bourma-1,2, Bariba-1,2, Berba-1,2
Malaria Fulani, Bourma-1,2, Berba-1,2
Cough Berba-1,2
Male impotence Fulani
Bark Stomachache Bourma-1,2, Bariba-1
Wound Fulani, Bourma-1,2
Food Leaves Overhead fodder Fulani, Bourma-1,2, Bariba-1,2, Berba-1,2
Food additive Leaves Ferment Bourma-1,2
Fruit pulp Beverage Fulani, Bourma-1,2, Bariba-1,2, Berba-1,2
Local porridge Fulani, Bourma-1,2, Bariba-1,2, Berba-1,2
Sauce Bariba-1,2
Seed Seasoning Bourma-1,2
Social Bark Witchcraft Gourma-1, Bariba-1,2
Metal-proof body Fulani, Bourma-1,2
Wood Toothbrush Fulani, Bourma-1,2, Bariba-1,2
Cultural Wood Flagellation feast Fulani
Material Wood Yoke, Shaft, Nave Fulani, Bourma-1,2, Bariba-1,2, Berba-1,2
Construction Wood Granary Fulani, Bourma-1,2, Bariba-1,2, Berba-1,2
Firewood Wood Charcoal Bariba-1,2, Berba-1,2
Commerce Fruit Selling Bourma-1,2, Bariba-1,2, Berba-1
252 ECONOMIC BOTANY [VOL 64
social, cultural, and material uses. Axis 2 shows
the positive link between food additive use and
commercial use. Moreover, Fig. 3 shows the
projection of the different tribes into the system
axis 1 and 2. We deduce from this that Fulani
women assign a high ethnobotanical use value for
medicine, social, cultural, and material use
categories but a low value for commerce and
rewood. In contrast, Berba-1,2 and Bariba-1,2
assigned low value to medicine, social, cultural,
and material ethnobotanical use values but high
value to rewood. Commercial and food additive
ethnobotanical use values were high for Gourma-
1,2 women but low for Fulani women.
Fig. 2. Photograph showing Tamarindus indica fruits (A) harvested and stored in bags and (B) compacted and
bowl-shaped for sale; (C and D) women harvesting tamarind fruits; (E and F) T. indica trees debarked for
medicinal purposes.
253FANDOHAN ET AL.: WOMENS USE OF TAMARIND IN BENIN2010]
WOMENS KNOWLEDGE OF TAMARIND
VARIABILITY
Little tree-to-tree variation was perceived by
informants, regardless of ethnicity, and few
particular traits were used to classify tamarind
trees. Six criteria are used to differentiate tamar-
ind tree s, including fruit (size and shape, pulp
taste and color, seed size and color) and the bark
(shape). Four distinguishing features of fruit size
and shape are employed by all tribes: small-
lengthened pods, small-curved pods, large-length-
ened pods, and large-curved pods. However, these
features were not used to differentiate among
individual tamarind trees because different size
and shaped fruit might be found on a single tree.
Based on pulp taste, women distinguished tam-
arind with sweet pulp from sour pulp. Using pulp
color, brown-yellowish were distinguished from
brown-darkish. Regarding seed color and size,
brown and small were distinguished from black
and large (Fig. 4). Using the bark shape, tracked
and untracked types we re distinguished. Accord-
ing to Gourma and Fulani tribes, who best
TABLE 2. CORRELATION BETWEEN USE CATEGORIES
AND PCA AXES
.
Use categories Axis 1 Axis 2
Medicine 0.814 0.454
Food additive 0.055 0.995
Food 0.000 0.000
Social 0.571 0.479
Cultural 0.926 0.298
Material 0.926 0.298
Construction 0.000 0.000
Firewood 0.652 0.463
Commerce 0.598 0.747
z1
4.0
*Fulani
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
Gourma1 *
* Gourma2
0.0
* Berba2
-0.5
*Berba1
-1.0
-1.5 *Bariba1
* Bariba2
-2.0
-1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
z2
Medicine, Social,
Cultural, Material
Firewood, Commerce
Food additive,
Commerce
Fig. 3. Projection of targeted tribes in the system axis dened by the different use values of tamarind.
254 ECONOMIC BOTANY [VOL 64
perceived the variability, two principal types of
tamarind can be distinguished crossing the differ-
ent criteria: tamarind with sweet brown-darkish
pulp and untracked bark versus tamarind with
sour brown-yellowish pulp and tracked bark. The
former type, according to participants, was
observed in gallery forests, whereas the latter was
observed in open savanna. Black seed tamarind
Fig. 4. Photographs showing variability among Tamarindus indica seed color and shapes. The coin in the
pictures has a diameter of 2.72 cm.
255FANDOHAN ET AL.: WOMENS USE OF TAMARIND IN BENIN2010]
was rarely mentioned and was only found in
gallery forest.
IMPACT OF TAMARIND FRUIT SALES ON
WOMENS CASH INCOME
The proportion of the womens labor force
allocated to tamarind fruit extraction and selling
and its contribution to womens cash income
during the dry season is summarized in Table 3.
Fulani women were not involved in tamarind
fruit sales, but respondents from all the other
groups received at least some cash income from
selling tam arind fruit. There were signicant
discrepancies among the tribes regarding income
variables. Gourma-1 women allocated up to 4
times more labor and gained approximately 2.6
times more cash income than Berba-1, based on
income per labor unit. There was a signicant
positive correlation between all pairs of variables
(see Table 4): the higher the allocated labor force,
the higher the cash income and contribution to
overall cash income throughout the dry season.
Discussion and Conclusion
This study documents the importance of
tamarind (Tamarindus indica) to local commun-
ities live lihoods in rural Benin as well as its
potential role in poverty alleviation. We focused
on the variation of fema le perceptions, traditional
knowledge, and contribution of tamarind to local
revenues among seven local tribal groups. Results
showed that tamarinds are used by local people in
different ways, including edible fruit, timber,
fodder, medicine, magic, and others. Recorded
uses overlap somewhat with those mentioned in
other countries (Arbonnier 2002). We found
signicant ethnic variation in knowledge and use
value of tamarind. Gourma-1,2 and Fulani
women have greater knowledge and use value s
of tamarind than the other groups. Such inter-
ethnic differences have been reported elsewhere
in Benin, including Ottamari and Dendi in
TABLE 3. TAMARIND EXTRACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TRIBES: MEAN (M), COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION (CV), AND PROBABILITY VALUES.
Fulani (n=25) Gourma-1 (n=25) Gourma-2 (n=25) Bariba-1 (n=25) Bariba-2 (n=25) Berba-1 (n=25) Berba-2 (n=25)
Pmcv(%) mcv(%) mcv(%) mcv(%) mcv(%) mcv(%) mcv(%)
Allocated labor force dry
season-round (%)
–– 38.80 35.92 18.00 39.27 29.20 66.98 30.00 63.03 11.80 141.02 10.20 88.92 0.0001
Cash income (XOF) –– 10379 37.85 5876 23.96 5229 48.99 5492 81.97 2107 136.4 1043 90.02 0.0001
Contribution to overall
cash income dry
season-round (%)
–– 56.40 25.53 53.60 20.06 45.00 47.36 35.20 72.02 8.76 116.89 11.00 47.27 0.0001
TABLE 4. SPEARMANS RANK CORRELATION TEST.
Allocated labor
force Contribution Cash income
Allocated labor
force
1 ––
Contribution 0.75*** 1
Cash income 0.70*** 0.83*** 1
Signicance: *** p<0.001
256 ECONOMIC BOTANY [VOL 64
regard to the baobab (De Caluwé et al. 2009).
This diversity of traditional uses and knowledge
should be considered when desig ning regional
management strategies. For example, because
Fulani women assigned a high ethnobotanical use
value to medicine, social, cultural, and material
categories, but low values to commerce and
rewood, they should be involved in strategies
aimed at improving genetic selection. At the same
time, because commercial and food use values were
high for Gourma-1,2 women, they should be
involved in identifying potential market niches for
the species development in Benin .
Participants perceived little tree-to-tree variation
in the species compared to ndings for the baobab
tree (Assogbadjo et al. 2008). The use of traditional
classication occurs generally in those instances
where a species has attained a high degree of
cultural signicance (Bye 1993). This may not be
the case yet for tamarind in all the targeted tribes.
Furthermore, since fruits are randomly compacted
irrespective of their origin (i.e., sweet/sour), no
particular preference traits were mentioned. How-
ever, reported differences may be of considerable
interest in terms of selection and breeding programs
if further genetic studies conrm this variability to
be genetically determined. AFLP markers as high-
throughput DNA ngerprinting techniques to
assess the measurements of genome-wide diversity
could be used to map the genome of tamarind to
determine if the locally-recognized types are con-
rmed by genome-level genetic differentiation. On
the other hand, the observed phenotypic differences
between the locally-recognized types might be
plastic responses to differences in the environment
and habitat. Phenotypic plasticity has been found
in several species of tropical and temperate trees for
many traits, usually in response to changes in
climate (Heaton et al. 1999).
The average contribution of tamarind fruit
sales to overall income during the dry season is
35%, suggesting that tamarind plays a key role in
targeted tribes. There was, however, wide varia-
bility among the tribes. Tamarind signicantly
contributed to Gourma womens overall cash
income, whereas it contributed weakly to that of
the other tribes women. This discrepancy may be
linked partially to differences in NTFP prefer-
ences and economic values. For instance, in the
northwest of Benin, baobab is the most important
non-timber species (Assogbadjo 2006), whereas
in the nearby region of Banikoara, the African
locus bean tree (Parkia biglobosa) is of greater
importance (Bonou 2008). As noted by Jain
(1990)andMartin(1995), the search for
empirical techniques and methods to exploit
particular species over the ages has led to
signicant variation in uses among tribes.
The method employed here to assess the con-
tribution of tamarind to womens cash income has
some limitations. Repeating the survey at regular
intervals over the study period (i.e., weekly, see
Mahapatra et al. 2005) would have provided useful
information regarding temporal reliance on tamar-
ind products that may have been missed. More-
over, the heterogeneity of reliance on this species
forcashincomeamongthetribessuggeststhat
these results should not be generalized across too
great an area. Further research on tamarind and
other NTFP extractive products should be carried
out in order to further promote sustainable resource
use and improved welfare for rural women.
Tamarind is still an undervalued tree crop in
Africa, although markets for its products are available
at national and international level (El-Siddig et al.
2006). Strategies to enhance its utilization should
focus on (i) cross-collaboration and knowledge
exchange with other countries where the species is
better valued (e.g., India, Thailand), (ii) adding
value through transformations, (iii) conforming
product quality to international standards, and
(iv) organizing local and international market-
channels. These strategies may also help to improve
incomes and empower the purchasing power of
local women. In addition, the extent and pattern of
genetic diversity within and among tamarind
populations should be addressed to determine
appropriate management strategies (domestication,
in situ and circa situ conservation).
Acknowledgments
We are very grateful to all of the participants,
especially women from Benin for having facili-
tated the survey, anonymous reviewers for their
highly relevant comments to improve the manu-
script, and the EU-DADOBAT project (Domes-
tication and Developmen t o f Baobab and
Tamarind) which provided us with nancial
assistance to enable this work. We would also
like to thank Sitske De Groote and Patrick Van
Damme for their persevering help.
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259FANDOHAN ET AL.: WOMENS USE OF TAMARIND IN BENIN2010]
... Le tamarinier (Tamarindus indica) est un fruitier aux usages multiples reconnu de par le monde et qui fait l'objet d'un commerce international très florissant (Fandohan et al., 2010a ;Bourou et al., 2012 ;Garba et al., 2020). L'Inde, la Thaïlande et le Mexique sont les plus grands exportateurs mondiaux, suivi des producteurs secondaires comme le Costa Rica, le Porto Rico et certains pays africains Ludo et al., 2013). ...
... L'importance socio-économique de T. indica justifie les innombrables études qui lui sont dédiées dans la sous-région (Fandohan et al., 2009 ;Bourou, 2012 ;. La collecte et la commercialisation de ses fruits constituent une importante source de revenus pour les populations locales surtout les femmes (Fandohan et al., 2010a). Selon Samarou et al (2022), bien que la récolte de tamarin soit une activité saisonnière, les revenus générés contribuent entre 22 % et 55 % des revenus totaux des commerçants et permettent d'améliorer leur condition de vie. ...
... Selon Samarou et al (2022), bien que la récolte de tamarin soit une activité saisonnière, les revenus générés contribuent entre 22 % et 55 % des revenus totaux des commerçants et permettent d'améliorer leur condition de vie. Les études ethnobotaniques ont prouvé que toutes les parties de cette espèce, des feuilles jusqu'aux racines sont utilisées par les populations (Fandohan et al., 2010a ;Garba, ARI et al., 2019 ;Samarou et al., 2021). Selon, Fandohan et al. (2017), les populations naturelles de T. indica sont menacées non seulement par la pression anthropique, mais aussi par certains phénomènes dont les changements climatiques et la dégradation des sols. ...
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Le tamarinier (Tamarindus indica L.) est un fruitier spontané aux usages multiples. Bien que reconnu comme très utilitaire en Afrique subsaharienne, au Togo, l’on ne dispose pas de caractéristiques écologiques et démographiques susceptibles de permettre une meilleure gestion de cette ressource. La présente étude dans la zone soudanienne du Togo, s’inscrit dans le cadre de la gestion durable des habitats à T. indica au Togo. Plus spécifiquement, elle vise à : (i) évaluer la diversité spécifique et (ii) caractériser la structure démographique des parcs agroforestiers à T. indica dans la zone soudanienne du Togo. L’analyse s’est basée sur des inventaires forestiers et floristiques orientés par la présence de T. indica au sein de 149 relevés de 2500 m². Les résultats révèlent une diversité de 38 espèces ligneuses réparties en 37 genres et 21 familles. Six (6) groupements de parcs ont été discriminés : les jachères à T. indica et Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst., les champs à T. indica et Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.), les bosquets sacrés à T. indica et Sterculia setigera Delile, les champs à T. indica et Azadirachta indica A. Juss, les champs à T. indica et Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn et les vieux champs à dominance T. indica. La densité des pieds adultes de T. indica est comprise entre 8,55 et 12,30 tiges/ha. Les structures horizontale et verticale sont en cloche dissymétrique gauche avec une relative représentativité des individus de faibles diamètres et hauteurs. La régénération naturelle est faible avec le taux compris entre 23,08 % et 42,14 %. Il est par conséquent important de mettre en œuvre un programme de régénération assisté en vue d’améliorer la capacité de régénération de cette espèce. Pour ce faire, des études de complétude sur les exigences pédoclimatiques du développement de l’espèce s’avèrent nécessaires.
... Elle fait partie des dix espèces agroforestières classées prioritaires en fonction de leur disponibilité sur le marché et de la facilité d'accès à leurs produits dans la sous-région Ouest-Africaine (Eyog Matig et al., 2002 ;Akinifesi et al., 2008). En Afrique en général, le tamarinier est fortement utilisé à des fins alimentaires, médicinales, artisanales et culturelles (Garba et al., 2019 ;Bourou et al., 2012 ;Fandohan et al., 2010a ;Jama et al., 2008 ;Codjia et al., 2003). Elle est originaire de l'Afrique et de l'Inde mais présente aujourd'hui une distribution pantropicale (Fandohan et al., 2017). ...
... Elle est originaire de l'Afrique et de l'Inde mais présente aujourd'hui une distribution pantropicale (Fandohan et al., 2017). La domestication du tamarinier dans les systèmes agroforestiers traditionnels pourrait faciliter sa conservation (Van Staden, 1999), contribuer à la sécurité alimentaire, et à la santé publique (Van Der Stege et al., 2011) et améliorer les conditions de vie des populations notamment des femmes (Fandohan et al., 2010a). Du point de vue de l'adaptation au changement climatique, les plantes autochtones telles que le tamarinier pourraient jouer un rôle stratégique (Fandohan et al., 2015). ...
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Tamarindus indica is an agroforestry fruit species very popular in Africa and Asia. This review aimed to document the contributions and the gaps of research efforts on the species, in order to identify the research prospects. Literature search was carried out with the search engine and database “Google Scholar” and AGORA on the basis of the Latin name “Tamarindus indica” over a period of 25 years. Analysis of the literature showed that T. indica is widely exploited for its food and medicinal uses, mainly. It constitutes a cash crop in Asia while it is still undervalued in Africa. A considerable amount of research has focused on ecology, the structure of natural populations, pests and the chemical properties of its organs. Domestication and sustainable use of this species in Africa demand further research endeavors in silviculture, ecological genetics and phytopathology. This would facilitate integration of tamarind into formal production and conservation policies.
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... Cependant, peu d'informations sont disponibles sur la commercialisation des sous-produits du tamarinier. Une connaissance de la valeur économique réelle de l'espèce contribuerait à la prise de décisions plus rationnelles quant à son utilisation durable (Fandohan et al., 2010). La présente étude se propose de répondre à trois (3) principales questions. ...
... Plusieurs travaux ont révélé l'importance du commerce des PFNL pour les groupes socio-culturels notamment du fait des revenus générés par la commercialisation (Codjia et al., 2003;Atato et al., 2010;Goudiaby, 2013;Sagna et al., 2019). La contribution moyenne de la vente des fruits du tamarinier au revenu global pendant la saison de récolte, rapportée par Fandohan et al. (2010) est estimée à 35 % au Bénin. Par conséquent la commercialisation des fruits du tamarinier joue un rôle essentiel à l'équilibre socio-économique des acteurs de la filière (Fandohan et al., 2010 ;Kidaha et al., 2017). ...
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... 1,2 This flora provides food, medicinal products, construction materials, household tools and energy sources, thus contributing to diversifying sources of income. 2 For several African ethnic groups, they contribute to poverty reduction, food security and social equity. [1][2][3] The use and the knowledge of plant species vary according to spatial, cultural and economic parameters. 3,4 It is also recognized that populations, especially in rural areas, have endogenous ethnobotanical knowledge thanks to the cultural, ecological and environmental diversity in which they thrive. ...
... [1][2][3] The use and the knowledge of plant species vary according to spatial, cultural and economic parameters. 3,4 It is also recognized that populations, especially in rural areas, have endogenous ethnobotanical knowledge thanks to the cultural, ecological and environmental diversity in which they thrive. 5 This knowledge will be very helpful in the domestication of species of particular interest for the benefit of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). ...
... 5 This knowledge will be very helpful in the domestication of species of particular interest for the benefit of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). 2,3 The dependence of local populations on resources taken from the natural environment is proven. 2 However, the harvesting of plant resources in order to meet primary needs of human populations may represent a threat to the survival of target plants. ...
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... Wild edible fruit trees are the primary alternative sources of income during periods of food deficit in rural communities [1,2] in Africa. Wild tree foods are essential components of many African diets, especially in periods of seasonal food shortage [3]. ...
... In Benin, ethnobotanical studies were conducted on some wild fruit tree species such as tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) [2], African locust bean tree [Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R.Br. ...
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Trait diversity is crucial in undertaking the domestication of useful species such as Vitellaria paradoxa which makes a significant contribution to the rural household economy in Africa. This study aims to document the criteria farmers use to distinguish shea trees; how they vary according to age, education level and sociolinguistic group; and their perception of trees’ abundance and production. We surveyed 405 respondents across shea parklands in Benin using a semi-structured questionnaire. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic attributes on relative criteria citation frequency and principal components analysis to characterize farmers’ perception on morphotypes’ abundance, fruits, and butter yields. The five most cited criteria were fruit size (55.5%), tree fertility (15.40%), bark colour (10.51%), timing of production (5.38%), and pulp taste (3.42%). The citation frequency of criteria varied significantly depending on the sociodemographic factors considered. Trees having small fruit (‘Yanki’) were reported to be widespread and high fruit/nuts and butter producers. Farmers perceived five important traits with variable importance depending on the sociocultural factors studied. This finding is a key step toward the development of a shea improvement program that could focus on the morphotype Yanki reported to potentially be a high fruit and butter producer.
... The importance of trees as a source of food in the livelihoods of these local communities cannot be overemphasized in this study area, as the majority of households could be food-insecure for as long as 6 months in a year (Quaye, 2008). Fortunately, by their phenology, the availability of most of these food bearing trees coincides with these food crisis periods (especially at the onset of the cropping season), when they serve as alternatives to staple foods (Asfaw and Tadesse, 2001), and also as an important source of income for small-holder farmer households (Fandohan et al., 2010). The relatively high proportion of parkland trees being used for medicinal purposes supports the assertion of Garrity (2004) that, more than 80% of local dwellers in sub-Saharan Africa obtain most of their health needs from medicinal plants. ...
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In order to understand the dynamics of regeneration, growth, population and possible upscale for the benefit of agroforestry parkland trees in the semi-arid areas of Ghana, a study was conducted to determine the population density, diversity, relative dominance, importance value indices (IVI) and use categories of parkland tree species in the Sudan and Guinea Savannah vegetation zones of Ghana, with special reference to F. albida. Tree inventories were conducted on 80 sampled farms covering a total area of 74.2 hectares across 8 communities distributed in 4 districts in the Sudan and Guinea savannah zones. Mean farm size was 0.93 hectares. Fifty-four tree species belonging to 24 families were encountered during the study. A Simpson's diversity index of 2.72 was determined as the overall diversity index of tree species on farmlands. Tree population densities in the sampled communities ranged between 4 (Katiu) and 11 (Kugri) trees per hectare. The predominant uses of parkland trees include food, medicine, shade, fuelwood and wood for construction. Others include fencing, soil improvement, direct income from sale of tree products, erosion control, fodder, tools, deity, packaging and craft. Ranking parkland tree species according to their Importance Value Indices (IVIs) in the various study ecological zones, it was evident that Faidherbia albida is highly ranked in both ecological zones due to its multipurpose functions such as fodder (pods and leaves) provision, shade provision in the dry season, and its contribution to improved growth and yield of crops grown under its canopy. Faidherbia albida populations should be increased on farmlands through programs like the Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR) and possible domestication.
... Indeed, local communities resort to tree species for their daily needs, including herbal medicine, food, fodder, construction of housing, and manufacture of household tools (Omafuvbe et al., 2004;De Smedt et al., 2011). For instance, in times of food deficit, their products serve as an alternative to staple foods and are also a source of income for many rural communities (Vodouhê et al., 2009;Fandohan et al., 2010). Woody species, therefore, constitute an important component of agroforestry systems owing to their decisive role in the well-being of local communities. ...
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... Other studies have also shown that ethnobotanical knowledge related to plant species varies mostly with age, gender, and sociolinguistic group Ekué et al [18] Fandohan et al. [25] Gouwaknnou et al. [26] Assogbadjo et al. [27] and Assongba [1]. This study was conducted among herbalists and it should be noted that these people were reluctant on information, this is moreover the reason for taking a large enough sample to be able to mobilize enough information, this confirms the results of Adomou [8], on a study conducted among women plant sellers in the market of Cotonou. ...
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Texto que presenta de manera detalladas las principales alternativas metodológicas de investigación en las que se relievan los procesos de significación y subjetivación
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Mexico is one of the botanically richest countries in the New World, with two major floristic kingdoms represented by ten vegetation types and 30 000 species. Ethnobotanical richness is reflected by the utilization of >5000 vascular plants. Human enterprises resulting in erosion, livestock grazing, and agriculture alter the Mexican landscape and threaten its botanical diversity. The gathering, incipient management, and cultivation of wild, weedy and domesticated plants produce positive as well as negative effects. -from Author
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Ethnobotany, the study of the classification, use and management of plants by people, draws on a range of disciplines, including natural and social sciences, to show how conservation of plants and of local knowledge about them can be achieved. Ethnobotany is critical to the growing importance of developing new crops and products such as drugs from traditional plants. This book is the basic introduction to the field, showing how botany, anthropology, ecology, economics and linguistics are all employed in the techniques and methods involved. It explains data collection and hypothesis testing and provides practical ideas on fieldwork ethics and the application of results to conservation and community development. Case studies illustrate the explanations, demonstrating the importance of collaboration in achieving results. Published with WWF, UNESCO and Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
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Seeds from two indigenous wild trees namely Adansonia digitata (baobab) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind) were analyzed. From this study, the protein contents were observed to be 24.98% and 17.99 % for baobab and tamarind respectively. These values are fairly high compared to cereals and root crops such as whole maize 9.3% and fresh cassava 1.2% which are the main staples in the regions where baobab and tamarind grow. The oil contents were observed to be 14.50% and 4.32% for baobab and tamarind respectively. The level in baobab is adequate for commercial extraction. The fatty acid profile in baobab oil, revealed 25.26%, 36.25% and 37.57% for palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids respectively. This kind of oil should render itself to long term storage, as its degree of unsaturation is not too high. The seeds were observed to have 4.69% and 1.95% ash in baobab and tamarind respectively with high levels of macro and micronutrients that are of dietary importance like calcium, iron, potassium, zinc and manganese. The study revealed that the seeds from both sources have the potential to be used as food, while baobab seeds have a potential to be used for industrial oil extraction.Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology Vol.4(1) 2002: 15-28
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Acknowledgments:Helpful assistance fromDr. Barbara Ryan and discussions with Dr. James J. Filliben and Dr. Samuel S. Shapiro are gratefully acknowledged. Please see Dr. Thomas Ryan's Note on a Test for Normality at the end of this document.