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The Consequences of Emotional Labor: Effects on Work Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Well-Being

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Abstract

Although early research suggested that the performance of emotional labor had deleterious effects on workers, recent empirical investigations have been equivocal. The performance of emotional labor appears to have diverse consequences for workers—both negative and positive. Variation in the consequences of emotional labor may be due to the different forms of emotion management involved. There is also evidence that the effects of emotional labor are specified by other work conditions. The effects of two forms of emotional labor on work stress, job satisfaction, and psychological distress—self-focused and other-focused emotion management—are explored using data from a survey of workers in a large organization. Results indicate that both forms of emotional labor have uniformly negative effects on workers, net of work complexity, control, and demands. Emotional labor increases perceptions of job stress, decreases satisfaction, and increases distress. Self-focused emotion management has the most pervasive and detrimental impacts. There is little evidence of interaction effects of work conditions and emotional labor.
... Employee-focused EL requires efforts to manage and display emotions (Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993;Morris & Feldman, 1996). In the case of police work, individuals may have to suppress felt emotions (e.g., anger) or express unfelt emotions (e.g., sadness) (Mastracci & Adams, 2020;Hochschild, 1983;van Gelderen et al., 2017), selecting the most appropriate emotional displays (Schaible & Six, 2016) to create or alter the desired emotional expression according to ongoing interactions (Pugliesi, 1999). Organizational display rules lead police officers to perform EL, resorting to strategies such as surface or deep acting (Hochschild, 1983;van Gelderen & Bik, 2016;van Gelderen et al., 2014). ...
... Although workers may feel emotionally defeated, they also feel accomplished (Bhowmick & Mulla, 2016) and proud of their work (Choi & Guy, 2020). Similarly, it can be self-enhancing when workers control their emotional management (Pugliesi, 1999). Police officers can benefit from a greater sense of personal achievement due to using tactics that imply the expression of negative emotions (Schaible & Six, 2016). ...
... Finally, EL can also improve job satisfaction, mainly through deep acting (Bhowmick & Mulla, 2016). Police officers who have positive emotions tend to experience greater job satisfaction (Pugliesi, 1999;Siu et al., 2015), "when workers strongly identify with the occupational role or organizational imperatives regarding emotion management, performance of emotional labor that produces desired outcomes could increase job satisfaction" (Pugliesi, 1999, p. 131). ...
Article
a faculty of Psychology and educational sciences, university of coimbra, coimbra, Portugal; b faculty of Psychology and educational sciences, cIneIcc-center for research in neuropsychology and cognitive Behavioral Intervention, university of coimbra, coimbra, Portugal; c faculty of sciences and Technology, ceBer-centre for Business and economics research, university of coimbra, coimbra, Portugal; d IcPol-IscPsI-research center of the higher Institute of Police sciences and Internal security, Public security Police, lisbon, Portugal; e health sciences research unit: nursing (uIcIsa: e), nursing school of coimbra, coimbra, Portugal ABSTRACT Based on emotional labor theory, we aim to study the relationships between the dimensions of emotional labor (requirements and strategies), work engagement, and occupational identity in Portuguese police officers. Therefore, we intend to explore the possible effects of emotional labor both on work engagement and occupational identity, as well as ways of preventing and/or mitigating the impact of these relationships. We identified a gap in the studies on this subject in Portugal, particularly in the context of police professionals. Thus, a sample of 924 Portuguese police officers of the Public Security Police (PSP) was asked to answer a set of questionnaires: the Emotional Labour Scale, the Emotion Work Requirements Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and the Social Identity Scale. The data obtained was analyzed using correlation and multiple linear regression. Overall, the results revealed relationships between the emotional demands (i.e., suppression of negative emotions and expression of positive emotions) and strategies (i.e., deep and surface acting) of emotional labor and work engagement as well as occupational identity. We discuss these results and propose directions for future research, given the richness of the subject.
... À ces caractéristiques du travail s'ajoutent des caractéristiques personnelles (le genre, l'âge, l'expérience, les traits de personnalité, etc.) et des caractéristiques hors travail (le statut matrimonial, les conflits entre le travail, soutien hors travail, etc.) qui sont des facteurs explicatifs importants dans l'apparition ou l'aggravation de problèmes de santé mentale au travail (Alfini et Van Vooren, 1995;Almeida et Kessler, 1998;Bagust, 2014;Cadieux, 2012;Cadieux et Marchand, 2014a, 2014bGrzywacz, 2000;Lemyre et Lee, 2006;Mäkikangas et Kinnunen, 2003;Marchand, 2004Marchand, , 2005aMarchand, , 2005bMatthews et Power, 2002;Mausner-Dorsch et Eaton, 2000;Muhonen et Torkelson, 2004;Organ, 2011;Parent-Lamarche et Marchand, 2010;Pugliesi, 1999;Roxburgh, 1996;Simon, 1998;Turner et Marino, 1994;Wilkins et Beaudet, 1998). ...
... Ce deuxième chapitre a pour but de cerner les déterminants de la DPT dans la 1. Économiques (Bourbonnais, Brisson, Moisan, et Vézina, 1996;Bourbonnais et al., 1998Bourbonnais et al., , 1999aBourbonnais et al., , 1999bBourbonnais et al., , 2005aBourbonnais et al., , 2005bCadieux, 2012;CSMC, 2013;Hilton et al., 2008Hilton et al., , 2010INSPQ, 2018;Lim et al., 2008;Marchand, 2004Marchand, , 2007Marchand, Demers, et Durand, 2006;Paterniti, Niedhammer, Lang, et Consoli, 2002;Pugliesi, 1999;Rydstedt, Devereux, et Sverke, 2007;Smatenin et al., 2011;Toppinen-Tanner, Ojajärvi, Väänaänen et collègues, 2005;Vermeulen et Mustard, 2000;Vézina, Cousineau, Mergler et collègues, 1992); ...
... Cependant, la littérature sur les déterminants de la DP tend à confirmer que les femmes seraient plus à risque de vivre des problèmes de santé mentale que les hommes (Bilodeau, 2018;Bourbonnais et al., 1996;Cadieux, 2012;Daveluy, Pica, Audet et collègues, 2000;De Jonge et al., 2000a;Kash et al., 2000;Magnavita et al., 2008;Marchand et al., 2005b;McDonough, 2000;Miech, Power, et Eaton, 2007;Pugliesi, 1999;Roxburgh, 1996;Shirom, Westman, et Melamed, 1999;Simon, 1998;Stansfeld et al., 1999;Turner et Marino, 1994;Turner, Wheaton, et Lloyd, 1995;Wilkins et Beaudet, 1998 (Almeida et Kessler, 1998;Cadieux, 2012;Piccinelli et Wilkinson, 2000;Weich, Sloggett et Lewis, 1998). ...
Thesis
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In Canada, 27% of workers consider most of their days extremely stressful. The consequences of this stress are heavy for individuals and organisations. The strong growth (nearly 400%) in requests for assistance addressed to the PAMBA in recent years demonstrates that the legal profession in Quebec is no exception to this trend. In this respect, lawyers are three times more likely to suffer from depression compared to the rest of the employed population. Faced with this alarming portrait, this doctoral thesis aims to answer the following main question: what role do the field of practice and the sector of activity play in the explanation of psychological distress at work (PDW) among Quebec lawyers? Two main objectives are pursued 1) to validate an abbreviated scale of PDW; and 2) identify the specific contribution of the field of practice and the sector of activity on PDW among Quebec lawyers, using a multidimensional approach. To do this, factorial analyses and hierarchical multiple regressions are carried out, from a secondary database (2086 participants) collected via a self-reported questionnaire comprising 44 key variables allowing a relevant conceptual coverage to the study of PDW in the context studied. Overall, the results confirm the importance of considering determinants coming from several spheres of the individual’s life when analyzing PDW and support the theoretical model adopted. Contrary to the literature, our results show that most of the variance of PDW is explained by working conditions. Also, it appears that the effect of the latter on the PDW differs according to the field of practice in which the lawyers work. Finally, it seems that each field of practice is exposed to different risks arising from the working conditions that are specific to each of these fields, and which are likely to play a role in developing PDW.
... Emotional labour increases feelings of job stress, lower job satisfaction, and heightens sorrow. Self-focused emotional control has been the most pervasive negative impact (Pugliesi, 1999). ...
... All of such challenges, when complicated by the emergency of the generations Y and Z into the workforce who themselves are characterized by self-centered personalities and unscrupulous expressions of genuine emotions, highlight the significance of management of emotional labor in addressing the needs of the customers as well as promoting psychological well-being of the employees. As emotional labor has been found from examinations of hypotheses 2-3 to positively contribute to career competences and career commitment of the employee, it can be assumed here that emotional labor may serve as an empowering force that can inspire the motivations for and identification of the employee with his/her career, just as has been suggested by Pugliesi (1999). In this sense, emotional labor can be articulated as a facilitator of the positive attitudinal psychological dynamics of the employee, particularly when the genuine emotions of the employee are consistent with those expected by the job. ...
Article
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Emotional labor claims its significance as the key indicator both of the psychological health of contemporary employees, and the productivity of service-based businesses depending upon genuine emotional input of employees. By far, research on emotional labor of employees in an organizational context is still lacking. This study aims to explore the relationships among emotional labor, organizational support, career competences and career commitment to investigate how emotional labor interacts with the organizational context and affects the career management of the employee. Data were collected from a sample of 387 frontline employees working at two luxury hotel brands in China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to estimate the relationships among the constructs. It is demonstrated by the findings that organizational support mediates positively on emotional labor, which exerts positive influences on career competences and career commitment. Sound handling of emotional labor, boosted by a supportive organizational environment, has been ascertained to positively predict long-term career paths of the employees at the company. This study provides insights into how the tourism and hospitality industry can optimize the functions of emotional labor for in enhancing service quality and customer satisfaction, as well as promoting the psychological well-being of the employees.
... Hal ini sejalan dengan temuan Bliese dan Halverson (1996) bahwa stres kerja memoderasi hubungan persepsi dan motivasi karyawan dengan kesejahteraan karyawan. Penelitian lainnya menyatakan bahwa hubungan kepuasan kerja dan motivasi terhadap kesejahteraan karyawan semakin melemah jika dimoderasi oleh stres kerja (Pugliesi, 1999 Hasil dari penelitian ini dapat memberikan temuan baru dan memperkaya khasanah penelitian untuk psikologi industri dan organisasi, khususnya mengenai motivasi kerja, stress kerja dan kesejahteraan karyawan di tempat kerja. Hipotesis yang diajukan peneliti adalah stress kerja memoderasi hubungan motivasi kerja terhadap kesejahteraan karyawan di tempat kerja. ...
Article
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ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menelaah peranan stress kerja sebagai variabel moderasi dalam hubungan motivasi kerja dan kesejahteraan karywan di tempat kerja. Partisipan penelitian ini berjumlah 200 karyawan swasta, berumur 25-49 tahun dan sudah bekerja minimal dua tahun. Peneliti menggunakan salah satu teknik penentuan sampel non-probabilitas, yaitu convenience sampling. Penelitian ini mengadaptasi alat ukur Workplace Well-being Index (WWBI) yang mencakup dimensi core affect, ekstrinsik dan intrinsik. Selain itu juga ada alat ukur Motivation at Work Scale (MAWS) dengan empat dimensi, yaitu Intrinsic Motivation, Introjection Regulation, Identification Regulation, dan External Regulation. Sedangkan stress kerja diukur melalui Job Stress Scale (JSS) yang terdiri dari empat dimensi yaitu job stress scale role expectation conflict, coworker support, dan work-life balance. Teknik analisis yang dilakukan adalah moderasi menggunakan macro model 1 (Hayes, 2013). Hasil analisis data hipotesis mempunyai nilai (p) 0.0204, yang berarti (p)<0.05. Stress kerja terbukti memoderasi hubungan antara motivasi kerja dan kesejahteraan karyawan di tempat kerja. Nilai koefisien β -.01 dan nilai t hitung -2.34 menunjukkan bahwa stress kerja berperan sebagai variabel moderator yang memperlemah pengaruh motivasi kerja pada kesejahteraan karyawan di tempat kerja.
... Emotional labor is the management of emotional expression and emotional regulation to fit the display rules in the context of paid work, which may include suppressing, enhancing, and faking emotional expression to meet a certain emotional demand that is termed as display rules [9]. It includes all of the social relations in the work context, and it comes in all different shapes and forms [10]. Leaders are in roles that require them to manage, influence and coordinate between multiple individuals or teams, and these roles require them to demonstrate high levels of emotional labor. ...
Article
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Few studies have examined the mental health of people in a leadership position. Most of the time, mental health-related policies were created for the non-leaders to cope with the perceived pressure from their leaders. Nevertheless, the mental health of organizational leaders itself might be at stake due to the leadership ‘acts’ they have to perform. This current study aimed to investigate the moderating effect of social support and self-compassion on the relationship between organizational leaders’ emotional labor and their psychological well-being. There were mid-level working executives in leadership positions provided data on their emotional labor, social support, self-compassion, and psychological well-being. It was predicted that social support and self-compassion will both moderate the relationship between organizational leaders’ emotional labor and their psychological well-being. The results indicated that surface acting is correlated with psychological wellbeing while deep acting is not. Social support and self-compassion do not moderate the relationship between emotional labor and psychological wellbeing. However, age is significantly correlated with psychological wellbeing, social support, and self-compassion, indicating its importance in leaders.
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The harassment of journalists is nothing new; however, much of the harassment literature has focused on the abuse of journalists online, while neglecting encounters that occur offline. As such, this study explores the experiences and effects of in-the-field harassment that occurs as journalists cover protests in the U.S., and how harassment experiences at protests vary for men and women journalists. Using a survey of 339 journalists and in-depth interviews with 20 journalists, findings indicate that women journalists had more negative experiences at protests than their men counterparts and were more likely to alter their situations as a result. Moreover, newsroom support was relatively common while journalists were actively reporting on protests but ended once journalists completed their coverage. This oversight leaves many journalists—particularly women—with increasing mental and emotional struggles they are left to deal with alone. Implications for practitioners and future directions for studying offline harassment of journalists are discussed.
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Borrowing from scholarship on emotional labor, emotion management and symbolic power, this article highlights emotions’ symbolic role in sustaining the vital correspondence between the reality of social life and the official classification system. Through the concept of the ‘desired state of mind’ and empirical data from 3 years’ ethnographic fieldwork in an urban 911 dispatch center in New England, this research shows what the ‘desired state of mind’ of this context is, how the link between the folk and the bureaucratic is made though ‘controlled empathy’, and how the cost and consequence of this process is shaped by the status disparity prevalent in 911 emergency community.
Book
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This volume provides a thought-provoking and timely alternative to prevailing approaches to stress at work. These invariably present stress as a 'fact of modern life' and assume it is the individual who must take primary responsibility for his or her capacity - or incapacity - to cope. This book, by contrast, sets stress at work in the context of wider debates about emotion, subjectivity and power in organizations, viewing it as an emotional product of the social and political features of work and organizational life. Tim Newton analyzes the historical development of the dominant `stress discourse' in modern psychology and elsewhere. Drawing on a range of perspectives - from labour process theory to the work of Foucault and Elias - he explores other possible ways of understanding stress at work. He offers a cogent critique of the typical stress management interventions in organizations through which employees are supposed to increase their effectiveness and become `stress-fit'. With contributions from two colleagues (Steve Fineman and Jocelyn Handy), he explores various ways of `rewriting' stress at work. Together they emphasize the gendered nature of stress, the collective production and reproduction of stressful work experiences, and the relation of stress to issues of emotion management and control in organizations.
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Research on work and well-being indicates that paid employment has beneficial consequences for mental health. In this study, it was hypothesized that higher occupational complexity, control, and personal income would be associated with higher levels of happiness and self-confidence and lower psychological vulnerability. In addition, the possibility was explored that models describing these correlations for employed women (n = 330) might differ from those for employed men (n = 618). Stepwise regression results indicate that occupational characteristics explain a small but significant proportion of variance in each measure of psychological well-being controlling for the effects of age and education. In addition, analysis of covariance reveals that separate regressions characterize employed men and women for happiness and self-confidence but not for vulnerability. Occupational characteristics also explain a significant proportion of variance in self-confidence for both men and women, and in happiness for men. Implications for the relation of work to well-being and for job enrichment and enlargement programs are discussed.
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This article conceptualizes the emotional labor construct in terms of four dimensions: frequency of appropriate emotional display, attentiveness to required display rules, variety of emotions to be displayed, and emotional dissonance generated by having to express organizationally desired emotions not genuinely felt. Through this framework, the article then presents a series of propositions about the organizational-, job-, and individual-level characteristics that are antecedents of each of these four dimensions. Frequency of emotional display, attentiveness to display rules, variety of emotions to be displayed, and emotional dissonance are hypothesized to lead to greater emotional exhaustion, but only emotional dissonance is hypothesized to lead to lower job satisfaction. Implications for future theory development and empirical research on emotional labor are discussed as well.
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