Salinity and salt composition effects on seed germination and root length of four sugar beet cultivars

Department of Soil Science, University of Tabriz, Tebriz, East Azarbaijan, Iran
Biologia (Impact Factor: 0.83). 09/2007; 62(5):562-564. DOI: 10.2478/s11756-007-0111-7


Salinization is one of the most important factors affecting agricultural land in the world. Salinization occurs naturally
in arid and semiarid regions where evaporation is higher than rainfall. Sugar beet yield declines with an increase in salinity,
but the sensitivity to salts varies with salt composition in water and sugar beet growth stage. The aim of this study was
to determine the effect of water salinity levels and salt composition on germination and seedling root length of four sugar
beet cultivars (PP22, IC2, PP36, and 7233). The experiments were undertaken with irrigation water with two salt compositions
(NaCl alone and mixture of MgSO4 + NaCl + Na2SO4 + CaCl2) in three replicates. Thirteen salinity levels with electrical conductivity (EC) of the irrigation water ranging from 0 to
30 dS/m were applied to each cultivar in both experiments. Seed germination percentage and seedling root length growth were
determined in 13 days. Statistical analysis revealed that germination and root length were significantly affected by salt
composition, cultivars and salinity levels. Regardless of salt composition, seed germination and seedling root length were
significantly affected by the irrigation water with EC up to 8 dS/m and 4 dS/m, respectively. Except for cultivar PP22, the
adverse effect of salinity of the irrigation water on seed germination and seedling root length was higher for NaCl alone
than for the salt mixture, which refers to lower salt stress in field conditions with natural salt composition.

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    • "While, lowest averages of these characters was recorded from sown Strube cultivar under without salinity. These results are in accordance with those reported by Jafarzadeh and Aliasgharzad (2007), Jamil and Rha (2007), Khavari-Nejad et al. (2008), Hajiboland et al. (2009) and Saadat et al. (2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The response of six sugar beet genotypes (Raspoly, Nada, Strube, Almaz, Toro, Oskarpoly) under seven salinity levels (distilled water as control, 1500, 3000, 45000, 6000, 7500 and 9000 ppm NaCl) and soaking in gibberellic acid levels were studied on germination parameters. An experiment with factorial arrangement was conducted by using randomize complete block design with four replications. Seed soaking in GA3 significantly affected final germination percentage (FGP), mean germination time (MGT), coefficient velocity (CV), seedling vigor index (SVI), energy of germination (EG), emergence rate (ER) and speed of germination (SG). Highest averages of FGP, CV, SVI, EG, ER and SG, were produced from soaking seed in 200 ppm of GA3. Moreover, highest averages of MGT were recorded from soaking sugar beet seed in the control treatment. Sugar beet cultivars significantly differed in FGP, MGT, CV, SVI, EG, ER and SG. Highest averages of FGP, MGT, CV, SVI, EG, ER and SG were recorded with sown Raspoly cultivar. Increasing salinity concentrations from 0 to 9,000 ppm significantly decreased FGP, CV, SVI, EG, ER and SG. While, MGT increased with increasing salinity concentrations. Results of means comparison showed that in all genotypes, there was a decrease in germination percentage due to salinity stress increment and maximum germination percentage was delayed. The interaction between cultivars and seed soaking in GA3 levels significantly affected FGP, MGT, CV and SVI. The interaction between seed soaking in GA3 levels and salinity concentrations significantly affected FGP, MGT and SVI.
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    • "The mechanisms of the phytotoxicity are difficult to ascertain, due the inherent complexities of a wastewater sample. Nevertheless, both phenols and salts have both been shown to be responsible for delaying seed germination [23] [24], and are likely to be involved here. In addition to effects on MTG, the germination index (an indicator of early plant growth) was significantly reduced with increasing WWW concentration . "
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to reuse winery wastewater would be of significant benefit to the wine industry, as it could potentially be a cost-effective method of wastewater management, whilst at the same time providing a valuable water resource. This study investigated the effects of different dilutions of a semi-synthetic winery wastewater on the growth and germination of four common crop species in a glasshouse study; barley (Hordeum vulgare), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), lucerne (Medicago sativa) and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica). The wastewater caused a significant delay in the germination of lucerne, millet and phalaris, although overall germination percentage of all species was not affected. Vegetative growth was significantly reduced in all species, with millet being the most severely affected. The germination index of barley correlated very highly (r(2)=0.99) with barley biomass, indicating that barley seed germination bioassays are highly relevant to plant growth, and therefore may be of use as a bioassay for winery wastewater toxicity.
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    • "Soil salinization and alkalization are caused by the accumulation of soluble salts (ions) in the soil solum to a level that depresses plant production, and are serious problems in irrigated agriculture in semiarid and arid regions (Rengasamy 2006; Jafarzadeh 2007). The salt accumulation in irrigated fields is affected by dynamics of water and ion transport through physical and physiological processes in the plant-environment system (Kitano et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: In order to analyze the salt transport affected by roots and its effects on soil salinity in an experimental irrigated field newly established in an alluvial valley of the Yellow River in China, spatial distribution of ions contained in waters, soils and crops relevant to these phenomena were evaluated there. During the intensive surveys conducted in year 2007–2008, the Yellow River water, irrigation canal water, groundwater, field soils and crops, etc. were sampled and their chemical characteristics such as electrical conductivity, concentrations of ions Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Cl−, SO42−and NO3− were measured. Irrigation seemed to cause increases in the concentrations of ions Na+, Cl− and SO42− in the groundwater. Although those were also major ions contained in the field soil, the soil was classed as saline but not sodic according to the standard classification. On the other hand, K+, which is one of the major essential nutrients for plant growth, was highly concentrated in the crops, while Na+ was not concentrated because of crop’s poor ability to absorb it. The ion concentration within the plant body seemed to be reflected by the active and selective ion uptake by roots and the transpiration stream. Furthermore, salt accumulation in the surface-irrigated field largely depended on the upward transport of water and ions in the soil profile affected by root absorption capacity. The information obtained in this study will contribute to the development of scientific methods for sustainable and effective plant production in irrigated fields.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Biologia
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