Article

Global status of wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina. Euphytica

Euphytica (Impact Factor: 1.39). 05/2011; 179(1):143-160. DOI: 10.1007/s10681-011-0361-x

ABSTRACT

Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is the most common and widely distributed of the three wheat rusts. Losses from leaf rust are usually less damaging than
those from stem rust and stripe rust, but leaf rust causes greater annual losses due to its more frequent and widespread occurrence.
Yield losses from leaf rust are mostly due to reductions in kernel weight. Many laboratories worldwide conduct leaf rust surveys
and virulence analyses. Most currently important races (pathotypes) have either evolved through mutations in existing populations
or migrated from other, often unknown, areas. Several leaf rust resistance genes are cataloged, and high levels of slow rusting
adult plant resistance are available in high yielding CIMMYT wheats. This paper summarizes the importance of leaf rust in
the main wheat production areas as reflected by yield losses, the complexity of virulence variation in pathogen populations,
the role cultivars with race-specific resistance play in pathogen evolution, and the control measures currently practiced
in various regions of the world.

Keywords
Triticum aestivum

Triticum turgidum
–Resistance–Races

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    • "Researchers in Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, South Africa, and others countries have reported races using both their own nomenclatures and the North American Nomenclature. However, breeders from India and Australia are still using their own binomial systems of nomenclature (Huerta-Espino et al., 2011; Terefe et al., 2014). Physiologic races of P. triticina have been studied in Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute in Ukraine since the 1960's on an old standard differential set. "
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    ABSTRACT: Leaf rust is the most widespread and frequently occurring fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Ukraine and worldwide. The information about the effectiveness of Lr-genes and also the consequent monitoring of virulence dynamics is necessary for the successful wheat breeding for leaf rust resistance. In 2013-2014 pathotype composition and virulence analysis was studied both on the standard differential set and on the North American System of Nomenclature. According to the standard differential set, 12 phenotypes were identified, of which the most common were 77 (75%) and 144 (6%). A total of 40 phenotypes were identified on the North American Nomenclature. Phenotypes TGTT (24%) and TJTT (8%) were the most frequent, TRTT (1.5%) and TSTT (1.5%) were within the broadest spectrum of virulence among the isolates found in the south of Ukraine. For virulence analysis we used wheat lines of 'Thatcher' that are near-isogenic for 24 leaf rust resistance genes and additionally four cultivars/lines. No virulence to Lr19 was found, whereas increasing virulence to Lr9 was detected (13%). Low frequency of virulence was observed to Lr29 (11%) and Lr47 (21%), high level of virulence was detected to other genes. The effectiveness of 53 known Lr-genes was studied at the seedling and the adult plant stages. Most of them were not effective against leaf rust. Genes Lr9, Lr19, Lr29, and Lr47 were highly effective both at the seedling stage and at adult plant stage. Genes Lr24, Lr42, Lr50, Lr51, and Lr56 were effective only at the adult plant stage.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Chilean journal of agricultural research
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    • "Researchers in Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, South Africa, and others countries have reported races using both their own nomenclatures and the North American Nomenclature. However, breeders from India and Australia are still using their own binomial systems of nomenclature (Huerta-Espino et al., 2011; Terefe et al., 2014). Physiologic races of P. triticina have been studied in Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute in Ukraine since the 1960's on an old standard differential set. "
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    ABSTRACT: Today we know that several types of hemoglobins exist in plants. The symbiotic hemoglobins were discovered in 1939 and are only found in nodules of plants capable of symbiotically fixing atmospheric N. Another class, called non-symbiotic hemoglobin, was discovered 32 yr ago and is now thought to exist throughout the plant kingdom, being expressed in different organs and tissues. Recently the existence of another type of hemoglobin, called truncated hemoglobin, was demonstrated in plants. Although the presence of hemoglobins is widespread in the plant kingdom, their role has not yet been fully elucidated. This review discusses recent findings regarding the role of plant hemoglobins, with special emphasis on their relationship to plants adaptation to hypoxia. It also discusses the role of nitric oxide in plant cells under hypoxic conditions, since one of the functions of hemoglobin appears to be modulating nitric oxide levels in the cells.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Chilean journal of agricultural research
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    • "tritici Eriks. and Henn.) which attacks the leaf blades, although it can also infect the leaf sheath and glumes in highly susceptible cultivars (Huerta-Espino et al., 2011). Leaf rust disease decreased numbers of kernels per head and lower kernel weights (Roelfs et al., 1992; Marasas et al.,2004; Kolmer et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks., is one of the main diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Egypt, causing up to 50% of yield losses. Genetic resistance is the most economic and effective means of reducing yield losses caused by the disease. However, breeding genotypes for disease resistance is a continuous process and plant breeders need to add new effective sources to their breeding materials. Among 42 Egyptian wheat varieties screened for leaf rust resistance, only 9 varieties (Sakha94, Giza168, Gemmiza9, Gemmiza10, Gemmiza11, Sids12, Sids13, Misr1 and Misr2) exhibited seedling and adult plant resistance during 2010/11 and 2011/12 growing seasons. Out of 41 monogenic line (Lr genes) tested, only 13 Lr genes (Lr9, Lr10, Lr11, Lr16, Lr18, Lr19, Lr26, Lr27, Lr29, Lr30, Lr34, Lr42 and Lr46) exhibited seedling resistance while, 9 Lr genes (Lr19, Lr20, Lr21, Lr24, Lr29, Lr30, Lr32, Lr34 and Lr44) showed adult plant resistance at both growing seasons. This result may add a depth of their resistance to be exploited as good sources of resistance. Partial resistance traits of wheat seedlings were present in 12 varieties (Sids12, Misr2, Sakha94, Misr1, Sids13, Giza168, Gemmiza9, Sids7, Beniswef4, Sakha93, Gemmiza11 and Sids6), recording the longest incubation and latent period. However, 10 varieties (Sakha8, Sakha93, Giza144, Giza155, Giza156, Giza157, Sids4, Sids5, Sids8 and Beniswef4) were marked as having high level of partial resistance of adult plant, recording ACI less than 20%, AUDPC less than 332.5 and r-value less than 0.101. The highest significant loss percentages were found in susceptible wheat cultivars i.e. Gemmiza7, Sakha61 and Giza164 (12.24%, 12.10% and 9.08%, respectively). However, insignificant loss percentages were found in resistant cultivars i.e. Giza168 (1.87%), Misr2 (2.44%) Sakha94 (2.46%). Inverse relation was present between the disease level and grain yield. Cultivating of resistant cultivars such as Misr2, Giza168 and Sakha94 is recommended to escape heavy yield losses wreaked by the leaf rust disease.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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