Production of synthetic seed by desiccation and encapsulation

ArticleinIn Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant 25(12):1167-1172 · December 1989with50 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/BF02621269
Producing synthetic seed of carrot consists of coating in-vitro grown embryos with a synthetic seed coat such as Polyox WSR-N 750, drying under controlled conditions, and hardening to prevent precocious germination. Survival of such embryos declines over time. Similar procedures have also been used with celery. Somatic embryos have several advantages compared to conventional tissue culture which include proliferacy, singulation, and the development of bipolar structures. The factors which most limit the use of synthetic seeds are the inability to use such procedures with economically important genotypes, lack of understanding of the maturation of somatic embryos and poor conversion rates to greenhouse and/or field.
    • "An advantage of this technique over vitrification lies in its use of nontoxic materials. The encapsulation-dehydration technique was initially developed for the production of artificial seeds (Janick et al. 1989 ) and was adapted for the cryopreservation of Solanum shoot tips by Fabre and Dereuddre (1990). Over the past decade, it has also been found to be effective in the cryopreservation of orchid seeds (Wood et al. 2000; Flachsland et al. 2006; Surenciski et al. 2007; Sommerville et al. 2008), orchid protocorms (Maneerattanarungroj et al. 2007; Jitsopakul et al. 2008; Gogoi et al. 2013 ), protocormlike bodies (Poobathy et al. 2009; Antony et al. 2011; Yin et al. 2011), and shoot tips (Lurswijidjarusa and Thammasiri 2004). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Premise of research. Orchids are among the most enigmatic of plant species. Yet the Orchidaceae comprises more species at risk of extinction than any other plant family. The collection and storage of orchid germplasm—principally seeds and associated mycorrhizal fungi but also protocorm-like bodies using encapsulation and vitrification techniques—allows for secure ex situ conservation. This article reviews the approaches and techniques used for the ex situ conservation of orchid germplasm, with a focus on seed banking and the use of cryopreservation techniques to improve the longevity of germplasm. Pivotal results. It is increasingly apparent that cryopreservation—the storage of germplasm at ultra-low temperatures (e.g., in liquid nitrogen)—is required for the long-term and low-maintenance conservation of all types of orchid germplasm. For orchid seeds, desiccation tolerance is common, but longevity in storage is poor. Cryopreservation of orchid seeds shows promise, but some complexities in low-temperature storage behavior still require explanation and resolution. The application of more advanced cryopreservation techniques, including encapsulation-dehydration and vitrification, is becoming increasingly common. These techniques provide for the simultaneous storage of orchid propagules with their compatible fungus, while for seeds, vitrification techniques show potential for improving tolerance to the stresses of cryopreservation. Conclusions. A renewed focus on describing the low-temperature storage physiology of orchid seeds to more precisely define the relationship between seed water content, storage temperature, and seed survival is required, as is perhaps the wider adoption of the use of cryoprotectants for seeds. This research, coupled with the development of improved methods of seed viability testing, will support the growing work of germplasm banks to protect orchid biodiversity in the face of habitat loss and potential species extinction.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
    • "The production of synthetic seeds was by the encapsulation of multiple carrot somatic embryos (Kitto and Janick, 1982). In Daucus carota, production of desiccated synthetic seeds, hydrated synthetic seeds by using somatic embryos were reported ( Janick., 1982, 1985 a, b; Janick et al., 1989; Liu et al., 1992; Janick et al., 1993; Timbert et al., 1995; Timbert et al., 1996; Sakamoto et al., 1992 and Latif et al., 2007). 100% germination of encapsulated axillary buds by adding 0.5 mg/l NAA and 1.0% activated charcoal and advanced synthetic seed production systems by using somatic embryos in Ipomoea batatas were reported (Jeon et al., 1986; Cantliffe, 1993, Onishi et al., 1992). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Production of synthetic seeds has unraveled new vistas in in vitro plant propagation technology, because it offers many useful advantages on a commercial scale for the propagation of a variety of crop plants. These tools provide methods for production of synthetic seeds for conversion into plantlets under in vitro and in vivo conditions. This technology is useful for multiplying and conserving the elite agricultural and endangered medicinal plant species, which are difficult to regenerate through conventional methods and natural seeds. The synthetic seed technology was developed in different economically important plant species such as vegetable crops, forage legumes, industrially important crops, cereals, spices, plantation crops, fruit crops, ornamental plants, orchids, medicinal plants and wood yielding forest trees etc. All these aspects are presented in this review.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012
    • "Molecular analysis revealed that the Lea genes (Late embryogenesis abundant) expressed in the embryos treated with ABA resulted in increase in desiccation tolerance (Wakui and Takahata, 2002) and consequently to normal regeneration. Many factors such as endosperm content of embryos (Kermod and Bewley, 1988), embryo size and developmental stage, proline (Park et al., 1988; Janick et al., 1989) and heat and chilling stress (Brown et al., 1993) affecting the induction of desiccation tolerance and normal plantlet regeneration. The optimum concentration of ABA was different among the species of Brassica. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most of the microspore-derived embryos can not regenerate normally in rapeseed. The effects of gibberellins (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA), and embryo desiccation on normal plantlet regeneration were studied. The donor plants were grown in a growth chamber at day/night temperatures of 15/10˚C with a 16/8h photoperiod, respectively. Microspores were isolated from whole buds of 2.5-3.5mm in length, containing late-uninucleate and early-binucleate microspores, and cultured in modified NLN- 13 liquid medium. After 30 days, cotyledonary embryos were transferred to B5 medium. The study of GA3 concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 mg/l) showed that the use of 0.1 and 0.15 mg/l of filter sterilized GA3 were the optimum treatment for normal plantlet production (50% and 44%, respectively). Among the various time periods of embryos desiccation (0, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 min.), air drying of embryos for 10 min. produced the highest normal plantlets (60%). In the third experiment, 9 desiccation-ABA treatments (T1-T9) were tested. T6 (no desiccation) or T7 (5 min-desiccation) treatments with 40 µM ABA in B5 medium exhibited the highest number of normal plantlets (68% and 63%, respectively).
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2008
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