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Species of righteye flounder Samariscus leopardus sp. nov. (Samaridae, Pleuronectiformes) from the Saya de Malha Bank (Indian Ocean)

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The new species Samariscus leopardus is described from one specimen caught at a depth of 159 m in the Indian Ocean, 11°22′ S, 61°42′ E. The species is easily distinguishable from the remaining species of the genus from a set of the following characteristics: the absence of a lateral line on both sides of the body, a short ventral fin, 42 vertebrae (9 trunk and 33 caudal), 5 rays of pectoral fin, and spotted coloration. Other morphological specific features, including topography of sensory canals of the head, are described.
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ISSN 00329452, Journal of Ichthyology, 2009, Vol. 49, No. 8, pp. 575–584. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.
Original Russian Text © E.P. Voronina, 2009, published in Voprosy Ikhtiologii, 2009, Vol. 49, No. 5, pp. 593–602.
575
The family Samaridae comprises 3 genera:
Plagi
opsetta
Franz, 1910,
Samariscus
Gilbert, 1905, and
Samaris
Gray, 1831. The genus
Plagiopsetta
differs
from
Samariscus
and
Samaris
in a greater number of
rays of pectoral fin: 7–10 vs. 4–5 in
Samariscus
and 4
in
Samaris
(Amaoka et al., 1997; Hoshino and
Amaoka, 1998; Mihara and Amaoka, 2004). The
genus
Samaris
is characterized by the presence of
elongated anterior rays of the dorsal fin and strongly
elongated rays of the pectoral fin of the eyed side.
The genus
Samariscus
numbers 17 species distrib
uted in tropical and subtropical regions of the Indo
Pacific (Kawai et al., 2008).
In the course of the fifth cruise of R/V Professor
Mesyatsev, flounder specimen was caught that is kept
in the Zoological Museum of Moscow State Univer
sity under the name
Samariscus longimanus.
The study
of specific features of its morphology revealed its dif
ference not only from this species, but also from all
species of the genus
Samariscus
described by the
present time and served the basis for the description of
the new species.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The number of vertebrae and rays of unpared fins
was counted from an Xray. For the study of sensory
canals of the head, comparative material was used:
Samariscus latus—
2 specimens ZIN No. 48922;
S. sunieri—
4 specimens MNHN Nos. 20004426,
20004428;
Samaris cristatus—
3 specimens ZIN
No. 48919; and
Plagiopsetta glossa—
1 specimen ZIN
No. 36127.
In the paper, the following conventional designa
tions of characteristics were used: SL is standard body
length; c is head length; D, A, P, V, and C are dorsal,
anal, pectoral, ventral, and caudal fins; lV
1
is the
length of the ventral fin of the eyed side; sp.br. is the
number of gill rakers at the first branchial arch (lower +
upper part); ll is the number of scales in lateral line;
vert. is the number of vertebrae (trunk + caudal).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Samariscus leopardus
sp. nov.
Holotype.
ZMMU P15039, SL 12.2 cm, April 10,
1976, Saya de Malha Bank, the Indian Ocean,
11°22
S, 61°42
E, the fifth cruise of R/V Professor
Mesyatsev, stn. 136, bottom trawl, depth of 159 m,
collectors A.D Druzhinin and V.M. Borisov.
Diagnosis.
The species is unique according to the
set of the following characteristics: absence of a lateral
line on both sides of the body, short ventral fin, 42 ver
tebrae (9 trunk and 33 caudal), five rays of the pectoral
fin, and a spotted coloration.
Description.
Plastic and meristic characteristics of
the studied specimen are provided in Table 1 and its
external appearance is shown in Figs. 1 and 2.
The body is elongated, of an ellipsoid shape, the
deepest is in the middle part, and its depth is 33.6% of
SL. Dorsal and ventral contours of the body are gently
sloping. The caudal peduncle is short, its depth is
12.3% of SL and approximately 1/3 of the body depth.
The head is small; its length is 23.8% of SL, or almost
2/3 of the body depth. The snout length is 3.2 times in
head length; the diameter of upper and lower eye is
New Species of Righteye Flounder
Samariscus
leopardus
sp. nov.
(Samaridae, Pleuronectiformes)
from the Saya de Malha Bank (Indian Ocean)
E. P. Voronina
Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg,
Universitetskaya nab. 1, St. Petersburg 199034 Russia;
Email: voron@zin.ru
Received March 13, 2009
Abstract
—The new species
Samariscus leopardus
is described from one specimen caught at a depth of 159 m
in the Indian Ocean, 11°22
S, 61°42
E. The species is easily distinguishable from the remaining species of
the genus from a set of the following characteristics: the absence of a lateral line on both sides of the body, a
short ventral fin, 42 vertebrae (9 trunk and 33 caudal), 5 rays of pectoral fin, and spotted coloration. Other
morphological specific features, including topography of sensory canals of the head, are described.
DOI:
10.1134/S0032945209080025
Key words
:
Samariscus leopardus
sp. nov., a new species, Samaridae, Saya de Malha Bank.
576
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VORONINA
(a)
(b)
Fig. 1.
Samariscus leopardus
sp. nov. ZMMUP15039,
SL 12.2 cm, 11°22
S, 61°42
E: (a) eyed side and ( b) blind side.
4.8; the length of the upper jaw of the eyed and blind
sides is 4.1; the length of the lower jaw of the eyed and
blind sides is 2.0. The depth of the caudal peduncle is
1.9; the length of P is
1.0; the length of V of the eyed
and blind sides is 3.2 and 4.1, respectively. The length
of the greatest ray of D is
1.5, the length of greatest
ray of A is 1.5, and the length of the medium rays of
C is
1.2.
The eyes are large and separated by a flat space
whose width is approximately half of the eye diameter.
The upper eye is located behind the lower eye so that
the vertical through the anterior margin of the upper
eye runs through the middle of the lower eye; the
diameter of the eyes is two times smaller than the lower
jaw length. The nostrils of the eyed side as tubules are
located at the same horizontal line in front of the
interorbital space; of them, the anterior one, whose
length is half of eye diameter, is directed upwards, and
the posterior one is wider and short and is downwards.
One nostril of the blind side in size is two times smaller
than the posterior nostril of the eyed side; it is located
in the center of the snout and directed backwards; the
seismosensory system pore is above it.
The mouth is oblique and almost symmetrical. The
posterior margin of the upper jaw extends beyond the
vertical of the anterior margin of the lower eye. The
teeth are small, form 2–3 irregular rows, and are sym
metrical at both jaws (Fig. 3a). The gill rakers are thin,
moderately long, pointed, and unindented (Fig. 3b).
Branchiostegii are thin and number seven. Scales are
ctenoid on the eyed side of the body and cycloid on the
blind side (Fig. 3c). The snout and eyes are naked, and
the interorbital space is covered with scales. Insertions
of caudal, pectoral, and ventral fins are covered with
scales. The trunk canal is absent on both sides of the
body.
The dorsal fin originates above the middle of the
lower eye, and its anterior rays are not elongated. The
anal fin originates near the vertical of the pectoral fin
insertion and is similar to the dorsal fin in shape and
structure. Rays of dorsal and anal fins are unbranched,
and some of them are lost. The length of the pectoral
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY
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2009
NEW SPECIES OF RIGHTEYE FLOUNDER
SAMARISCUS
LEOPARDUS
SP. NOV. 577
fin of the eyed side equals the head length, all its rays
are unbranched, and the pectoral fin of the blind side
lacking. Ventral fins are of almost equal length; the fin
of the eyed side is slightly longer; they are located sym
Table 1. Plastic and meristic characteristics of Samariscus leopardus sp. nov.
Characteristics Indices Characteristics Indices
SL
,
cm 12.2
Length of V
Plastic characteristics, in % of
SL
the eyed side
7.4
Head length
23.8 – t
he blind side
5.7
Body depth
33.6
Length of greatest ray
Snout length
7.4 D 15.6
Upper eye diameter
4.9 A 15.6
Lower eye diameter
4.9
Length of medium rays of C
19.7
Interorbital space
1.6
Meristic characteristics
Length of anterior nostril of the eyed side
2.5 vert. 42(9 + 33)
Upper jaw length Number of rays
the eyed side
5.7 D 72
t
he blind side
5.7 A 59
Lower jaw length
C 2 + 14 + 2
the eyed side
11.5 P 5
t
he blind side
11.5 V –
the eyed side
5
Caudal peduncle length
12.3 V – t
he blind side
5
Length of
P 24.6 sp. br. 10 + 3
Fig. 2.
Drawing of the general view of the eyed side in
Samariscus leopardus
sp. nov. Scale bar is 1 cm.
578
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2009
VORONINA
metrically, and their insertions are almost equal. The
ventral fin of the eyed side is connected with the anal
fin by a membrane. In the caudal fin, the middle inter
nal rays are branched and articulate; there are two
upper and lower rays each and they are nonarticulate.
The anus is located at the medioventral line of the
body, immediately before the anal fin on the level of
the vertical through pectoral fin insertion. Urogenital
papilla is shifted to the eyed side. The isthmus apex
slightly does not extend to the vertical through the
posterior margin of the upper eye.
Coloration.
In alcohol it is dark, with numerous
irregularshaped spots on the body and head, as well as
smaller spots on unpaired and ventral fins; the midline
is light, and the coloration of the blind side is light and
spotless. The head and pectoral fin are dark.
Distribution.
The holotype was caught at the Saya
de Malha Bank, the Indian Ocean, 11°22
S, 61°42
E,
depth of 159 m.
Etymology.
The species was named owing to its
typical coloration.
Comparative remarks.
Most meristic characteris
tics of the studied specimen are in the range indicated
for representatives of the genus
Samariscus
(Table 2).
From the remaining species of the genus,
S. leopardus
sp. nov. differs in short ventral fins—the length of ven
tral fin of the eyed side is 3.2 times in head length,
while in most representatives of the genus
Samariscus
it differs by only 1.2–2.8 times. There are no such data
(
a
)
(
b
)
(
c
)
Fig. 3.
Samariscus leopardus
sp. nov.: (a) teeth of the upper and lower jaws of the eyed (from the left) and blind (from the right)
side, (b) the first branchial arch of the blind side, and (c) scales of eyed side. Scale bar is 1 mm.
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY
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NEW SPECIES OF RIGHTEYE FLOUNDER
SAMARISCUS
LEOPARDUS
SP. NOV. 579
Table 2. Meristic and plastic characteristics of species of the genus Samariscus*
Species
vert.
Number of rays
Number
of pores
ll
c/lV
1
PDA
Samariscus leopardus
sp. nov. 9 + 33 5 72 59 3.2
Samariscus corallinus
9 + (36–37) 4–5 75–77 63–65 90–100 1.2
Samariscus multiradiatus
9 + (34–35) 5 85–91 67–72 64 1.7
Samariscus nielseni
10 + 31 4 62–70 45–57 71–78 1.8
Samariscus sunieri**
9 + (31–32) 5 70–76 54–61 68–74 lV
1
= c
without
snout
Samariscus triocellatus
9 + (31–32) 5 62–70 45–57 71–78
no data
Samariscus asanoi
no data
47154551.6
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VORONINA
Table 2.
(Contd.)
Species
vert.
Number of rays Number
of pores
ll
с/lV
1
PDA
Samariscus desoutterae
9 + (31–32) 4 78–80 61–63 69–76 2.2
Samariscus filipectoralis
***
no data
5 71–77 53–58 52–56
no data
Samariscus huysmani
9 + 29 5 68–78 55–59 69–76 lV
1
= c
without
snout
Samariscus inornatus
** 9 + 28 5 61–70 48–53 59–67 1.9
Samariscus japonicus
10 + 29 5 66–70 47–52 49–53 2.5–2.8
Samariscus latus
9 + (29–30) 5 (
seldom
4) 67–76 52–59 52–62 2.5
Samariscus longimanus
9 + (29–30) 5 66–71 50–54 55–60
no data
Samariscus luzonensis
9 + 28 4 68 54 50
1
3
/
4
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NEW SPECIES OF RIGHTEYE FLOUNDER
SAMARISCUS
LEOPARDUS
SP. NOV. 581
for species
S. longimanus
and
S. triocellatus;
however,
it follows from drawings of type specimens that the
length of the ventral fin in them is half of the head
length. A very short, approximately 1/3 of head length,
and a complete ventral fin is depicted in the drawing in
the initial description of
S. maculatus
; however, Nor
man, providing the drawing of the holotype of this spe
cies in his monograph (Norman, 1934), interpretes its
ventral fin as broken off.
S. leopardus
is close to species
having maximum number of vertebrae (40–44) and
five rays of the pectoral fin—
S. corallinus
,
S. multira
diatus
,
S. sunieri
,
S. triocellatus
—and differs from
S. sunieri
in a smaller length of the pectoral fin, and
from
S. triocellatus
,
S. corallinus,
and
S. multiradiatus
in coloration and the smaller number of rays in the
dorsal and anal fins.
On the blind side of
S. leopardus
there is only one
nostril. For species
S. desoutterae, S. nielseni,
S. asanoi, S. xenicus,
and
S. inornatus,
the presence of
two small nostrils at the blind side is reported; data on
the presence of two nostrils and one seismosensory
pore of supraorbital canal above them, supported by
drawings, are only for species
S. desoutterae
and
S. nielseni
(Quéro et al., 1989). For the remaining spe
cies of the genus, there are no data on the presence or
number of nostrils of the blind side. Incomplete fac
tual data, unfortunately, do not permit using this
undoubtedly important diagnostic character in the
systematics of the genus
Samariscus
.
The topography of sensory canals of
S. leopardus
,
on the whole, corresponds to that in representatives of
Samaridae (Voronina, 2009). The supraorbital canal of
the eyed side is connected with the remaining canals
and opens outwards by 2 pores so
12
(Fig. 4). Supraor
bital canal in nasale of the blind side is present and
opens by 2 pores: sb
2
on the blind side and sb
1
on the
eyed side, while in the genus
Samaris
, this canal is
completely reduced, and in the genus
Samariscus
, in
the interorbital part of frontale there is its site con
nected with the remaining canals of the head and
opening by only one pore sb
1
in the anterior part of
frontale at the blind side. Infraorbital canal in
S. leop
ardus
is reduced at both sides of the head completely,
including sites in lacrimale. In CT
there are 3 pores t
1–3
.
Break between CPM and CT, that was described in the
genera
Samaris
and
Samariscus
and is lacking in
Pla
giopsetta
, in
S. leopardus
, is present not only at the
blind side, but at the eyed side also, which was not
recorded in representatives of the family studied in this
respect. The supratemporal canal on both sides of the
Table 2.
(Contd.)
Species
vert.
Number of rays Number
of pores
ll
с/lV
1
PDA
Samariscus macrognathus
9 + 31 4 67 51 60 1
3
/
4
Samariscus maculatus
9 + 30 5 73 57 62–70
no data
Samariscus xenicus
9 + (26–27) 4 62–70 46–53 45–52 1.8
Note: * data and drawings of the general view are provided according to: G
ü
nther, 1880; Gilbert, 1905; Weber, 1913; Norman, 1927; Weber,
de Beaufort, 1929; Fowler, 1934; Matsubara and Takamuki, 1951; Woods, 1960; Ochiai and Amaoka, 1962; Qu
é
ro et al., 1989; Hensley,
1993; Kawai et al., 2008. ** drawing of the general view of type specimen was taken from Norman's monograph (Norman, 1934).
*** the suggested synonym of S. latus (Hensley, 1993).
582
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY
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2009
VORONINA
head opens only by one pore st. In the operculoman
dibular canal, as in the remaining representatives of
Samaridae, there is a break between the preopercular
(six pores p
1–6
on the eyed side and five pores on the
blind side) and mandibular (two pores m
1–2
) parts. The
state of the studied specimen hinders judging the pres
ence or absence of coronal commissure. The trunk
canal is absent at both sides, which is a typical specific
feature of the seismosensory system of
S. leopardus
.
Note that the absence of the trunk seismosensory
canal at the eyed side for the entire order in Pleu
ronectiformes was recorded previously only for the
genus
Symphurus
(family Cynoglossidae).
On the whole, several distinctions in the structure
of the seismosensory system in
S. leopardus
, parallel to
other morphological specific features not only support
the independence of the new species but also consid
erably isolate it from all the three genera of the family.
The revealed characteristics can serve in the future as
the basis for revision of the family Samaridae; how
ever, at the present time, they are considered not in all
representatives of the family and not in type speci
mens, which does not allow us in the present commu
sb
1
so
1–2
na
np
sb
2
nb
sb
1
CLL
(a)
(b)
Fig. 4.
Topography of sensory canals of representatives of the family Samaridae: (a)
Samariscus leopardus,
(b)
S. latus,
(c)
S. sunieri,
(d)
Plagiopsetta glossa
, and
(e)
Samaris costae
.
Designations: CLL is the trunk canal, CPM is the preoperculoman
dibular canal, CSO is the supraorbital canal, CST is the supratemporal canal, CT is the temporal canal, na is the anterior nostril
of eyed side, np is the posterior nostril of the eyed side, nb is the nostril of the blind side, m are pores of the mandibular part of
the preoperculomandibular canal, p are pores of preopercular part of preoperculomandibular canal, t are pores of the temporal
canal, sb are pores of the supraorbital canal of the blind side, so are pores of the supraorbital canal of the eyed side, and st are pores
of the supraorbital canal of the supratemporal canal. Arrows designate the break between CT and CPM.
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY
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2009
NEW SPECIES OF RIGHTEYE FLOUNDER
SAMARISCUS
LEOPARDUS
SP. NOV. 583
nication to compare them and make unambiguous
taxonomic conclusions.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I am grateful to the Zoological Museum of Mos
cow State University and the Paris Museum for the
provided material and to A.V. Balushkin and
O.S. Voskoboinikova for reading the manuscript and
valuable critical remarks.
The study was supported by the Russian Founda
tion for Basic Research, grant no. 080400135.
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... Comparative meristic information on counts of parapophyses of abdominal vertebrae in samarids was taken from radiographs of 90 type and non-type specimens. Comparative information on the cephalic lateral system of samarid is based on examination of 55 type and non-type specimens of 21 species of three genera, and on previously published data (Voronina, 2009a;2009b). Terminology of the cephalic lateral system follows that accepted for teleosts (Webb, 1989;Mandritsa, 2001) and for pleuronectiforms in particular (Voronina, 2009a). Methylene blue was used in the detection of nostrils, scales and sensory pores. ...
... Coronal commissure connects canals of both sides. Trunk canal is usually present on the eyed and absent on the blind side, in some species it is present (Mihara et al., 2004) or absent on both sides (Voronina, 2009b). Intergeneric differences concern supraorbital canal of blind side -this canal with onetwo pores is present in Samariscus and absent in Samaris and Plagiopsetta. ...
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... 82.3 mm SL (data from Shen, 1982), 2 paratypes, Tungkong, Taiwan, 26 Oct. 1978. (1880), Gilbert (1905), Lloyd (1909), Weber (1913), Norman (1927Norman ( , 1934, Weber & de Beaufort (1929), Fowler (1934), Kamohara (1936), Matsubara & Takamuki (1951), Ochiai & Amaoka (1962), Woods (1966), Shen (1982), Sakamoto (1984Sakamoto ( , 1988a, Quéro et al. (1989), Hensley (1993Hensley ( , 2001, Nakabo (2002), Senou et al. (2004), Mundy (2005), Hoese & Bray (2006), Randall (2007), Kawai et al. (2008) and Voronina (2009). A, anal fin rays; AV, abdominal vertebrae; CV, caudal vertebrae; D, dorsal fin rays; LLS, lateral line scales; P1, pectoral fin rays. ...
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