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The Use of Medical Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging in the Study of Ceramic and Clay Archaeological Artifacts from the Ancient Near East

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The Use of Medical Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging in the Study of Ceramic and Clay Archaeological Artifacts from the Ancient Near East

Abstract

Computed Tomography Imaging (CT) is highly regarded as an efficient and relatively inexpensive medical diagnostic tool. It has not, however, come into its own in the study of clay and ceramic archaeological artifacts. Our studies demonstrate, however, that Medical CT is, in fact, a singularly powerful and efficient tool for indepth radiological studies and analysis of a wide, range of archaeological finds. As the images obtained by the CT scans are digital, we have been able to manipulate them in many ways, thereby revealing new dimensions to non-destructive X-radiological studies of archaeological finds. By adapting various image postprocessing techniques, developed for the CT as a medical diagnostic tool to our specific needs, we have been able to reduce research and development costs.
X-R
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yo, Japa
n
M. UD
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y
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C
ha
p
ter IV-
1
The Use of Medical Computed Tomo
g
raphy (CT) Ima
g
in
g
i
n the Study of Ceramic and Clay Archaeolo
g
ical Artifacts
f
rom the Ancient Near Eas
t
N. App
lb
aum an
d
Y.H. App
lb
aum
Institute o
f
Arc
h
aeo
l
ogy, T
h
e He
b
rew University o
f
Jerusa
l
em, Jerusa
l
em Israe
l
Institute o
f
Ra
d
iolo
gy
, Ha
d
assah Universit
y
Hospital, Jerusalem Israel
a
ppelbau@h2.hum.huji.ac.i
l
K
eywords: computed tomography, CT, radiographic technique, X-rays, archaeology,
c
eramics, cla
y
artifacts, URIII period, envelopes, curved planes, non
-
d
estructive, ancient near east, Pottery Neolithic, Shaar Hagolan Culture,
fi
g
urines, ceramic technolo
gy
Abs
tra
ct
Compute
d
Tomo
g
rap
hy
Ima
gi
n
g
(
CT
)
i
s
highly
re
g
ar
d
e
d
as an eff
i
c
i
ent an
d
r
e
l
at
i
ve
l
y
i
nexpens
i
ve me
di
ca
l
di
agnost
i
c too
l
. It
h
as not,
h
owever, come
i
nto
i
ts own
in the study of clay and ceramic archaeological artifacts. Our studies demonstrate,
h
owever, that Medical CT is, in fact, a sin
g
ularl
y
powerful and efficient tool for in
-
d
epth radiological studies and analysis of a wide, range of archaeological finds. As
the ima
g
es obtained b
y
the CT scans are di
g
ital, we have been able to manipulate
t
h
em
i
n many ways, t
h
ere
b
y revea
li
ng new
di
mens
i
ons to non-
d
estruct
i
ve X-
r
a
di
o
l
og
i
ca
l
stu
di
es of arc
h
aeo
l
og
i
ca
l
f
i
n
d
s. By a
d
apt
i
ng var
i
ous
i
mage post-
p
rocess
i
ng tec
h
n
i
ques,
d
eve
l
ope
d
for t
h
e CT as a me
di
ca
l
di
agnost
i
c too
l
to our
s
p
ecific needs, we have been able to reduce research and develo
p
ment costs.
1. Introduct
i
on
In this paper we present the results of imaging studies we have conducted in
I
srae
l
of c
l
ay an
d
ceram
i
c arc
h
aeo
l
og
i
ca
l
art
i
facts us
i
ng Me
di
ca
l
X-Ray Compute
d
Tomo
g
raph
y
(CT).
M
e
di
ca
l
X-Ra
y
Compute
d
Tomo
g
rap
hy
, common
ly
k
nown
i
n t
h
e me
di
ca
l
p
rofession as "CT", is a non-destructive radio
g
raphic technique. It is widel
y
used b
y
ph
ys
i
c
i
ans as a
di
agnost
i
c too
l
, as
i
t
i
s super
i
or
i
n many aspects to t
h
e
i
mag
i
ng
p
roduced in a conventional radiograph.
23
1
©
2005
S
prin
g
er. Printe
d
in the Netherlan
d
s.
M
. U
d
a et al. (e
d
s.), X-ra
y
s
f
or Archaeolo
gy,
231–245
.
232 T
h
e Use of Me
di
ca
l
Compute
d
Tomograp
h
y
(
CT
)
Imag
i
ng
W
e will describe the techni
q
ues we used and demonstrate how we ada
p
ted them
for use on c
l
ay an
d
ceram
i
c arc
h
aeo
l
og
i
ca
l
mater
i
a
l
. Emp
h
as
i
s w
ill
b
e p
l
ace
d
on t
h
e
ad
vanta
g
es t
h
at t
h
ese tec
h
n
i
ques
h
ave over ot
h
er ra
di
o
l
o
gi
ca
l
i
ma
gi
n
g
tec
h
n
i
ques
c
urrently in use by archaeologists
.
From a wide variet
y
of studies that we have successfull
y
completed, we chose
two examp
l
es for t
hi
s paper:
A. We present t
h
e resu
l
ts from our test
i
n
g
of UR III per
i
o
d
ta
bl
ets t
h
at
h
a
d
b
een
s
ea
l
e
d
i
n c
l
ay enve
l
opes. We w
ill
d
emonstrate
h
ow we use
d
CT
i
mag
i
ng, a
totall
y
non-destructive research tool, to view and actuall
y
read the
i
nscriptions on the inner tablet without tampering with the outer envelope.
Furt
h
ermore, we w
ill
s
h
ow t
h
at t
h
e
d
ata we co
ll
ecte
d
from t
h
ese scans
a
ll
owe
d
us to un
d
erstan
d
t
h
e actua
l
tec
h
n
i
ques use
d
by
t
h
e anc
i
ent scr
ib
es
i
n
f
orm
i
ng t
h
ese enve
l
opes.
B. We also present results from our scanning of a figurine from the Pottery
N
eolithic period (sixth millennium BC) at the Shaar Ha
g
olan site in the
J
or
d
an Va
ll
ey of Israe
l
. T
hi
s s
i
te
h
as revea
l
e
d
t
h
e ear
li
est f
i
n
d
s an
d
l
argest
co
ll
ect
i
ons of f
i
gur
i
nes forme
d
from c
l
ay mater
i
a
l
i
n t
hi
s reg
i
on of t
h
e wor
ld
.
W
e will show how these scans revealed to us the ceramic technology the
craftsmen used in its
p
roduction.
2
. Back
g
round
Computed Tomography (CT) is a popular non-destructive radiological
technique. It was developed for, and is primaril
y
used as a dia
g
nostic tool in the field
o
f me
di
c
i
ne. CT scanners can
b
e foun
d
i
n ever
y
mo
d
ern me
di
ca
l
fac
ili
t
y
i
n t
h
e
w
or
ld
. More recent
ly
,
h
owever, CT was foun
d
to
b
e an
i
n
di
spensa
bl
e too
l
i
n ot
h
e
r
a
reas, e.g.
i
n
d
ustry, w
h
ere comp
l
ex p
i
eces of mac
hi
nery an
d
even p
i
pes are scanne
d
.
Computed Tomography (CT) is proving to be a very practical diagnostic tool
for archaeological studies:
1. The testin
g
process is fast and non-destructive.
2. T
h
e
d
ata co
ll
ecte
d
i
s
digi
ta
l
an
d
can
b
e store
d
for future post-scann
i
n
g
p
rocessin
g.
3. T
h
e store
d
di
g
i
ta
l
i
mages can
b
e pr
i
nte
d
,
i
n f
i
ne
d
eta
il
, on f
il
m or paper.
4. A wide variety of post-scanning computer applications have been developed
for the medical radiolo
g
ical communit
y
. We have succeeded in adaptin
g
some of these applications for use in our studies of archaeolo
g
ical material.
N
ot
h
av
i
n
g
to
d
eve
l
op new computer app
li
cat
i
ons
h
as
d
rast
i
ca
lly
cut
rese
ar
ch
cos
t
s.
5. T
h
e ava
il
a
bili
t
y
of CTs
i
n a
l
most ever
y
mo
d
ern commun
i
t
y
ma
k
es
i
t an
ideal tool for archaeologists and conservationists. Research projects are
invariabl
y
dela
y
ed b
y
bureaucratic red tape when the shippin
g
of artifacts to
d
istant laboratories for testin
g
requires official permission.
Some arc
h
aeo
l
og
i
st an
d
museum conservat
i
on
i
sts
h
ave a
l
rea
d
y recogn
i
ze
d
t
h
e
p
otential of CT. Projects have been published demonstrating the use of CT in the
stud
y
of human and animal bone material (Anderson 1995, Davis 1997), Mummies
Ch
apter IV-1 23
3
(
Notman 1986; Pahl 1986) and
p
lastered skulls (Hershkovitz et, al. 1995).
Industrial and high energy CT has been shown to be of great potential in the
stud
y
of metal artifacts (Mazansk
y
1993; Bossi 1990).
Th
e successfu
l
use of CT as an eff
i
c
i
ent an
d
very powerfu
l
non-
d
estruct
i
ve
a
na
ly
t
i
ca
l
too
l
for t
h
e stu
dy
of c
l
a
y
an
d
ceram
i
c arc
h
aeo
l
o
gi
ca
l
art
i
facts
i
s reporte
d
i
n
o
ur numerous papers and monographs (Applbaum et al. 1994; 1995; 1998; 1999;
2001; 2003; Jansen et. al. 2001). Aside from our work, onl
y
a limited amount of
o
t
h
er pro
j
ects
h
ave
b
een con
d
ucte
d
an
d
pu
bli
s
h
e
d
to
d
ate. Furt
h
ermore, not a
l
ways
h
ave suff
i
c
i
ent resu
l
ts
b
een o
b
ta
i
ne
d
(
Lang an
d
M
iddl
eton 1997; Carr 1990;
Van
di
ver et. a
l
. 1991
).
3
. The Techn
i
que
In CT
,
Figure
1
”, an X-Ray tube and a series of electronic detectors rotate
a
round an ob
j
ect. The X-ra
y
s pass tan
g
entiall
y
throu
g
h the scanned ob
j
ect and are
m
easure
d
b
y
d
etectors. A
di
g
i
ta
l
i
mage
i
s forme
d
from t
h
e co
ll
ecte
d
d
ata.
C
onsecutive “slices” through the object form a series of images that provide a full
picture of the object in cross section. The advantage of CT is that the overlapping
parts of the ob
j
ect do not obscure the ima
g
e under stud
y
, as the
y
do in standard X
-
ra
y
s. Furt
h
ermore,
b
ecause t
h
e
d
ata
i
s acqu
i
re
d
as a vo
l
umetr
i
c
d
ata set,
i
t can
b
e
m
an
i
pu
l
ate
d
, not on
ly
to form
i
ma
g
es
i
n
di
fferent p
l
anes
b
ut a
l
so to
g
enerate 3-D
i
mages
.
The scanning process is performed in two stages; followed by post-scanning
processing and interpretation of the data collected.
F
irst, a preliminar
y
scan called a "surview" or "scout scan" is preformed. In this
scan a
digi
ta
l
ra
di
o
g
rap
h
of t
h
e o
bj
ect
i
s ta
k
en. T
hi
s
i
ma
g
e
i
s a 2
di
mens
i
ona
l
representat
i
on of a 3
di
mens
i
ona
l
o
bj
ect; s
i
m
il
ar to t
h
at w
hi
c
h
i
s o
b
ta
i
ne
d
b
y
c
onvent
i
ona
l
ra
di
ograp
h
y. T
h
e contrast an
d
c
l
ar
i
ty of t
h
ese
di
g
i
ta
l
ra
di
ograp
h
s,
however, are of much hi
g
her qualit
y
than of those obtained with conventional
ra
di
o
g
rap
hy
. T
h
ese pre
li
m
i
nar
y
i
ma
g
es
h
ave, t
i
me an
d
a
g
a
i
n, proven to
b
e
i
nva
l
ua
bl
e
i
n our stud
y
of these artifacts.
The "surview" helps us in planning the CT study. Our first step is to mark, on
t
he surview, the exact area or areas we want to scan. Onl
y
then do we decide upon
t
he exact distance between, and the thickness of the slices. Furthermore, based u
p
on
o
ur preliminar
y
observations of these 2 dimensional radio
g
raphs, we can, if needed,
c
oncentrate or focus our "secon
d
stage" scann
i
ng on spec
i
f
i
c areas.
T
h
e o
bj
ect
i
s t
h
en passe
d
t
h
roug
h
t
h
e scanner w
i
t
h
“s
li
ces”
b
e
i
ng pro
d
uce
d
, as
pre
d
eterm
i
ne
d
b
y our stu
d
y of t
h
e surv
i
ew. In t
hi
s part
i
cu
l
ar stu
d
y we scanne
d
t
hi
n
slices usin
g
a hi
g
h-resolution technique to attain fine detail and
g
ood contrast. Our
C
T scann
i
n
g
process a
ll
ows us to o
b
serve
b
ot
h
qua
li
tat
i
ve an
d
quant
i
tat
i
ve
differences in the densities of the material from which the scanned artifact was made.
234 T
h
e Use of Me
di
ca
l
Compute
d
Tomograp
h
y
(
CT
)
Imag
i
ng
Fi
g
ure IV-1-1
,
M
e
di
ca
l
Compute
d
Tomo
g
rap
hy
of an arc
h
aeo
l
o
gi
ca
l
art
i
fact.
T
o ac
hi
eve even f
i
ner
d
eta
il
of t
h
e art
i
facts un
d
er stu
d
y, we foun
d
t
h
at,
b
y us
i
ng
a
n “e
dg
e en
h
anc
i
n
g
” a
lg
or
i
t
h
m or f
il
ter an
d
v
i
ew
i
n
g
t
h
e art
i
facts w
i
t
h
a w
id
e
g
rap
hi
c
window”, we were able to achieve su
p
erior results.
In the post-scannin
g
sta
g
e we viewed the ima
g
es of the scanned slices on an on
a
Prov
i
ew
(
A
l
gotec, Raanana, Israe
l)
hi
g
h
-reso
l
ut
i
on screen. We a
l
so se
l
ecte
d
ima
g
es of scanned slices for printin
g
on film.
Software app
li
cat
i
ons as suc
h
a
ll
ow us to furt
h
er
b
roa
d
en our un
d
erstan
di
ng o
f
the artifact, in the “post-scannin
g
” sta
g
es of our stud
y
. The
y
make it possible to
examine and analyze the images, obtained during the scanning phase, in depth an
d
wi
t
h
g
reat accurac
y
. Amon
g
t
h
e most usefu
l
app
li
cat
i
ons we use, are t
h
e var
i
ous
f
il
ters t
h
at fac
ili
tate to en
h
ance t
h
e scanne
d
i
mages. T
h
ese f
il
ters a
ll
ow us to “soften”
o
r “
h
ar
d
en” t
h
e contrast of t
h
e
i
ma
g
es. T
hi
s often
h
e
l
ps us to v
i
ew vo
id
s an
d
inclusions in the mass of the clay or ceramic material that we might have otherwise
o
verlooked.
Grap
hi
c too
l
s are use
d
to quant
i
tat
i
ve
l
y measure
di
fferent features of t
h
e
i
mage,
suc
h
as t
h
e
l
en
g
t
h
, w
id
t
h
or t
hi
c
k
ness of spec
i
f
i
c features. We can a
l
so measure t
h
e
c
omparative density at various points of the material. These comparative studies,
h
el
p
s us determine
p
ossible connections between different artifacts as well as to
c
ompare variations in qualit
y.
4
. Envelope
s
“Figures 2, 3
At various archaeolo
g
ical excavations, in Mesopotamia and Turke
y
, 1000’s of
sea
l
e
d
“Enve
l
opes”
h
ave
b
een
di
scovere
d
. T
h
ese enve
l
opes are c
l
a
y
or ceram
i
c
c
onta
i
ners w
i
t
hi
n w
hi
c
h
cune
i
form ta
bl
ets were
i
nserte
d
an
d
sea
l
e
d
for safe
k
eep
i
ng
.
Ch
apter IV-1 23
5
Fi
g
ure IV-1-2
,Enve
l
ope - note cune
i
form
i
nscr
i
pt
i
on an
d
sea
l
.
“Fi
g
ure IV-1-3
,Envelo
p
e – note seal on
sid
e of enve
l
ope.
T
he tablets that we have been working on are, strange to say, economic
d
ocuments in the Sumerian lan
g
ua
g
e. To be exact, the
y
are le
g
al receipts from the Ur
I
II per
i
o
d
d
ate
d
to t
h
e 2
1
st
century BCE. The kings of this dynasty, whose capital is
t
tra
di
t
i
ona
ll
y
id
ent
i
f
i
e
d
as t
h
e Ur of t
h
e C
h
a
ld
ees ment
i
one
d
i
n t
h
e f
i
rst
b
oo
k
of t
h
e
B
ible, Genesis, developed a royal nationwide bureaucracy. Our knowledge of tha
t
dy
nast
y
is based, in the main, on information
g
ained from the stud
y
of these cla
y
tablets are literall
y
. There are thousands, if not more of these Ur III documents in
ex
i
stence. T
h
e
y
are foun
d
i
n pu
bli
c an
d
pr
i
vate co
ll
ect
i
ons a
ll
over t
h
e wor
ld.
Th
e enve
l
opes we
h
ave stu
di
e
d
are from t
h
e co
ll
ect
i
on of t
h
e Inst
i
tute of
A
rc
h
aeo
l
o
gy
at t
h
e He
b
rew Un
i
vers
i
t
y
of Jerusa
l
em. A pr
i
vate
d
onor w
i
t
h
no
i
nformat
i
on ava
il
a
bl
e as to
i
ts provenance
d
onate
d
t
h
em to t
h
e co
ll
ect
i
on.
In antiquit
y
, in the URIII period, it was common practice amon
g
scribes to
i
nscr
ib
e
d
ocuments on c
l
a
y
ta
bl
ets us
i
n
g
t
h
e cune
i
form wr
i
t
i
n
g
s
y
stem. Most of t
h
ese
ta
bl
ets were
l
e
g
a
l
d
ocuments. To
g
uarantee t
h
e aut
h
ent
i
c
i
t
y
of t
h
e
d
ocument an
d
di
scourage poss
ibl
e tamper
i
ng an
d/
or forgery of t
h
e sa
id
d
ocument, t
h
e scr
ib
e sea
l
e
d
it in a cla
y
container, thus the name “Envelope” (Chiera 1938:69-74).
Upon sealing the tablet in the envelope, the scribe would write a summary o
f
the text on the envelope (Hallo and Weisber
g
1992: 52). Often, the exterior of the
enve
l
ope
b
ore t
h
e sea
l
s of w
i
tnesses
(
us
i
n
g
c
yli
n
d
er sea
l
s
)
as we
ll
as t
h
e
id
ent
i
t
y
o
f
its owner. Some of these seals contain
g
l
y
ptic desi
g
ns. The seals themselves are o
f
un
i
que art
i
st
i
c va
l
ue
(
Le
i
nwan
d
1992
)
.
T
he seals and text on the envelope served as a security system to protect the
inner tablet from bein
g
tampered with, after it was sealed in its envelope (Collon
1
987: 113-114). If the matter was later contested, the envelo
p
e was
p
roduced in
c
ourt; t
h
e w
i
tnesses wou
ld
b
e ca
ll
e
d
upon to
id
ent
i
f
y
t
h
e
i
r persona
l
sea
l
s, an
d
t
h
en
t
h
e enve
l
ope wou
ld
b
e
b
ro
k
en open. T
hi
s anc
i
ent secur
i
ty system
h
a
d
proven to
b
e
foo
l
-proof.
236 T
h
e Use of Me
di
ca
l
Compute
d
Tomograp
h
y
(
CT
)
Imag
i
ng
T
he current state of the art in reading Ur III envelope texts is to copy or
ph
otograp
h
t
h
e text an
d
sea
l
s on t
h
e exter
i
or of t
h
e enve
l
ope. T
h
e enve
l
ope
i
s t
h
en
b
reac
h
e
d
so as to "
g
et at" t
h
e text
i
ns
id
e. T
h
us, t
h
e stu
dy
of t
h
ese
d
ocuments
p
resupposed the physical destruction of the envelope, an important part of the
a
rtifact. This destruction is irreversible. The cla
y
envelope, the seals and texts are
i
nvar
i
a
bl
y
d
amage
d
i
n t
h
e process of open
i
ng t
h
em “Figure 4”
.
Figure IV-1-4”
,
Envelope after being opened – note irreversible damage.
Th
e a
i
m of our researc
h
was to see
k
a non-
d
estruct
i
ve tec
h
n
i
que t
h
at wou
ld
all
ow us to rea
d
t
h
e
i
nner ta
bl
et w
i
t
h
out
d
amag
i
ng t
h
e exter
i
or enve
l
ope.
It was obvious from the very beginning that conventional radiology would not
b
e of much use to us. Nevertheless, we tried conventional X-ra
y
s. The X-ra
y
s
r
evea
l
e
d
, on
ly
, t
h
at t
h
ere was a ta
bl
et concea
l
e
d
i
ns
id
e t
h
e c
l
a
y
enve
l
ope
F
i
g
ure 5
”.
Th
ey
did
not, an
d
cou
ld
not revea
l
t
h
at t
h
e ta
bl
et was
i
nscr
ib
e
d
. Our f
i
n
di
ngs
r
eflect the ma
j
or limitation of conventional X-ra
y
s where all structures throu
g
h
w
hich the rays pass are superimposed on the image produced, making it difficult, i
f
n
ot
i
mposs
ibl
e, to
di
st
i
n
g
u
i
s
h
part
i
cu
l
ar features
W
e a
l
so exper
i
mente
d
unsuccessfu
ll
y w
i
t
h
convent
i
ona
l
tomograp
h
y.
Convent
i
ona
l
tomograp
h
y
i
s a tec
h
n
i
que
b
y w
hi
c
h
t
h
e s
h
a
d
ows of super
i
mpose
d
s
tructures of an X-ra
y
can be “blurred”, thereb
y
hi
g
hli
g
htin
g
the structure to be
di
a
g
nose
d
. T
hi
s a
ll
ows t
h
e
di
a
g
nost
i
c
i
an to see more c
l
ear
ly
t
h
e structure w
i
t
h
w
hi
c
h
h
e
i
s present
l
y concerne
d
. T
h
e s
h
arpness of t
h
e
i
mage,
h
owever, cannot
b
e en
h
ance
d
.
Convent
i
ona
l
tomograp
h
y, t
h
erefore, cou
ld
not offer us a c
l
ear v
i
ew of t
h
e tex
t
inscribed on the tablet inside the sealed envelo
p
e.
Medical Computed Tomo
g
raph
y
was found to be the best, and perhaps the onl
y
tool available, as of now, that affords us the opportunit
y
of bein
g
able to read the text
i
nscr
ib
e
d
on t
h
e ta
bl
et w
hil
e sea
l
e
d
i
ns
id
e t
h
e c
l
ay enve
l
ope. W
h
ereas, a
ll
prev
i
ous
imaging modalities in Medicine, such as Radiography, are simple geometric
p
ro
j
ect
i
ons of t
h
e o
bj
ect onto
d
etectors
(
f
il
m
)
, compute
d
Tomograp
h
y pro
d
uces
r
esults vastly superior to that of other systems. To begin with, its X-rays pass
throu
g
h the sub
j
ect at different an
g
les, eliminatin
g
superimposition and enablin
g
individual structures to be viewed in insulation.
C
T also detects subtle differences in
the densit
y
of the structures observed and presents them on the computer screen in
Ch
apter IV-1 237
g
raduated shades from white, for dense substances such as bone or metal, throu
g
h a
succession of grays to black. Furthermore, CT uses multiple planar projections.
These planar pro
j
ections are mathematicall
y
recombined b
y
a di
g
ital computer to
p
rov
id
e a cross sect
i
ona
l
i
mage of t
h
e o
bj
ect.
Fi
g
ure IV-1-5
”,
C
onvent
i
ona
l
X-ra
y
ra
di
o
g
rap
h
of enve
l
ope.
In this study we used a high resolution 3rd generation CT scanner - an Elscint
2400 e
li
te scanner. T
h
e enve
l
ope was p
l
ace
d
w
i
t
h
i
ts f
l
at s
id
e para
ll
e
l
to t
h
e scan
pl
ane. T
h
e scanner exam
i
ne
d
t
h
e enve
l
ope
i
n a ser
i
es of
l
atera
l
over
l
app
i
ng "s
li
ces”.
Th
e o
bj
ect was scanne
d
w
i
t
h
an
i
mage matr
i
x of 512 x 512 w
i
t
h
t
hi
n, 1.2 mm
s
li
ces.
An al
g
orithm, developed for the dia
g
nosis of fine bone detail, was used to
r
econstruct t
h
e raw
d
ata. To max
i
m
i
ze our
i
mag
i
ng parameters, to get t
h
e
b
est
p
oss
ibl
e
i
ma
g
e, we sacr
i
f
i
ce
d
contrast, ra
di
at
i
on
d
ose an
d
s
ig
na
l
to no
i
se rat
i
o. T
hi
s
gave us higher resolution and sharper edges. Because the clay of the tablet is dense
a
nd air fills the voids created b
y
the impressions, which are the cuneiform tex
t
inscribed on the inner tablet, we were able to achieve the hi
g
hest possible contras
t
Fi
g
ure 6”
.
In the scans of the lateral sections, clear high contrast images of most of the
i
nner ta
bl
et’s face were o
b
ta
i
ne
d
. It
i
s poss
ibl
e to see an
d
even rea
d
most of t
h
e
c
uneiform text. One of the problems we faced while testing the envelope, however,
w
as when we found that the writin
g
surface of the tablet sealed inside the envelope
w
as convex. T
hi
s resu
l
te
d
i
n many of t
h
e cune
i
form s
i
gns on t
h
e surface of t
h
e
i
nne
r
ta
bl
et
b
e
i
n
g
“cut”
by
t
h
e “s
li
c
i
n
g
” of t
h
e scanner. We were on
ly
a
bl
e to v
i
ew
li
m
i
te
d
sections of the text
,
inscribed on the surface of the convex inner tablet
,
in each
section obtained in the scannin
g
process.
238 T
h
e Use of Me
di
ca
l
Compute
d
Tomograp
h
y
(
CT
)
Imag
i
ng
Figure IV-1-6”,
C
T sect
i
on of enve
l
ope – note
li
nes of cune
i
form wr
i
t
i
ng
In or
d
er to o
b
ta
i
n an
i
ma
gi
n
g
of t
h
e w
h
o
l
e face of t
h
e
i
nner ta
bl
et w
i
t
h
a
ll
t
h
e
Cune
i
form s
i
gns v
i
s
ibl
e, we ut
ili
ze
d
post-scann
i
ng
d
ata process
i
ng. Us
i
ng a
ll
t
h
e
d
i
g
ital data collected and stored durin
g
the scannin
g
sta
g
e we were able, with the aid
o
f a variety of computer software programs, to reconstruct or reformat the surface o
f
the inner tablet. To be able to ima
g
e the full text from the reformatted surface, we
use
d
an
i
ma
gi
n
g
process tec
h
n
i
que
k
nown as “curve
d
p
l
anes” mu
l
t
i
p
l
ana
r
r
eformatt
i
n
g
(
Newton an
d
Potts 1981
)
.
Th
e successfu
l
reformatt
i
ng of curve
d
p
l
anes assumes t
h
at t
h
e
l
atera
l
scanne
d
slices of the tablet are properly stacked one on top of the other, with minimal
m
ovement or change in other imaging parameters. It is then possible to select voxels
in planes other than the ones in which the
y
were ori
g
inall
y
obtained. This technique
all
ows us o o
b
ta
i
n
i
ma
g
es
i
n ort
h
o
g
ona
l
p
l
anes or non-ort
h
o
g
ona
l
(
o
bli
que
)
or even
c
urve
d
p
l
anes. It
i
s t
h
en poss
ibl
e to se
l
ect voxe
l
s
i
n p
l
anes ot
h
er t
h
an t
h
e ones
i
n
whi
c
h
t
h
ey were or
i
g
i
na
ll
y o
b
ta
i
ne
d
. T
hi
s tec
h
n
i
que ma
k
es
i
t poss
ibl
e to o
b
ta
i
n
images in orthogonal planes or non-orthogonal (oblique) or even curved planes. In
g
enera
l
, us
i
n
g
curve
d
p
l
anes requ
i
res a
g
reat
d
ea
l
of met
i
cu
l
ous p
l
ann
i
n
g
an
d
g
reat
d
eal of time-consumin
g
effort as the contour of the ob
j
ect must be carefull
y
traced on
m
u
l
t
i
p
l
e
l
eve
l
s
i
n or
d
er to
b
e a
bl
e to
b
r
i
n
g
out as muc
h
of t
h
e
i
nformat
i
on as
p
oss
ibl
e. T
hi
s
i
s espec
i
a
ll
y true w
i
t
h
some of t
h
e ta
bl
ets w
h
ose surface appears to
b
e
u
n
eve
n
.
W
e are of the opinion that, as far as our scanning procedures are concerned, we
h
ave attained more than adequate results. The fact is that we are now able, b
y
r
eformatt
i
ng
i
n curve
d
p
l
anes, to
d
ec
i
p
h
er t
h
e
i
nscr
i
pt
i
on on t
h
e
i
nner ta
bl
et’s surface
wi
t
h
out affect
i
n
g
t
h
e outer enve
l
ope
i
n an
y
wa
y
, w
h
atsoever. “F
ig
ure 7”.
In a
ddi
t
i
on to t
h
e
i
mag
i
ng of t
h
e
i
nner text, we foun
d
t
h
at CT a
l
so supp
li
es us
w
ith valuable information as to the technolo
gy
used b
y
the ancient scribes in formin
g
these envelo
p
es (Collon 1987:114).
Ch
apter IV-1 239
“Fi
g
ure IV-1-7”,
E
nvelo
p
e - “curved
p
lanes”
mu
l
t
i
p
l
anar reformatt
i
n
g
.
Fi
g
ure IV-1-8”,
C
T section of envelo
p
e –
note t
h
e
l
a
y
ers forme
d
w
hil
e sea
li
n
g
t
h
e
e
nve
l
ope
.
W
e are able to view and measure the thickness or thinness of the envelo
p
e in
eac
h
of t
h
e sect
i
ons. We
h
ave
d
eterm
i
ne
d
t
h
at
i
n some cases t
h
e scr
ib
e wrappe
d
t
h
e
i
nner ta
bl
et
i
n two
l
ayers of c
l
ay t
h
at forme
d
t
h
e enve
l
ope “F
i
gure 8”. T
h
e corners
w
ere p
i
nc
h
e
d
, presse
d
an
d
square
d
off. A
ll
s
i
gns from t
h
e form
i
ng process of t
h
e
envelope were then smoothed over and concealed by the scribe. The final product
w
as a s
q
uare sha
p
ed tablet with a smooth exterior, u
p
on which the scribe could write
the summary of the internal document and upon which the witnesses could stamp
t
h
e
i
r sea
l
s. In t
h
e future we p
l
an to pu
bli
s
h
, w
i
t
h
t
h
e
h
e
l
p of Dr. W
y
ane Horow
i
tz of
t
h
e He
b
rew Un
i
vers
i
ty of Jerusa
l
em Israe
l
, t
h
e fu
ll
d
ec
i
p
h
erment of t
h
e cune
i
form
texts from t
h
e enve
l
opes we stu
di
e
d
.
5
. Anthropomorphic Figurine, from the Pottery Neolithic Period Site of Shaar
H
a
g
o
l
an “Fi
g
ures 9, 10
.
Fi
g
ure IV-1-9”, Anthropomorphic fi
g
urine from Shaar Ha
g
olan
.
240 T
h
e Use of Me
di
ca
l
Compute
d
Tomograp
h
y
(
CT
)
Imag
i
ng
“Figure IV-1-10”, Ant
h
ropomorp
hi
c f
i
gur
i
ne from S
h
aar Hago
l
an – tec
h
n
i
ca
l
d
raw
i
ng.
Th
e s
i
te of S
h
aar Hago
l
an ,
i
n t
h
e nort
h
ern Jor
d
an Va
ll
ey
i
n Israe
l
,
i
s w
h
ere t
h
e
P
ottery Neolithic Yarmukian culture had been first identified (Stekelis 1951, 1972;
G
arf
i
n
k
e
l
1993; Kafaf
i
1993
)
. T
h
e
l
argest assem
bl
age of pre
hi
stor
i
c art ever
e
x
c
a
v
at
ed
in I
s
ra
e
l ha
s
bee
n
u
n
cove
r
ed
at thi
s
s
it
e.
Pr
ev
i
ous
s
t
ud
i
es
o
f
s
imilar
Yarmu
ki
an ant
h
ropomorp
hi
c f
ig
ur
i
nes
h
a
d
conc
l
u
d
e
d
t
h
at a stan
d
ar
d
core tec
h
n
i
que
w
as emplo
y
ed in their formin
g
(Garfinkel 1995:30-31; Mozel 1975; Yeivin and
M
oze
l
1977:196
)
. T
hi
s conc
l
us
i
on was
b
ase
d
so
l
e
l
y on externa
l
exam
i
nat
i
on o
f
fragments from figurines previously excavated at this site and other Pottery Neolithic
Yarm
u
kian
cu
lt
u
r
e
s
it
es.
T
he Potter
y
Neolithic period in this re
g
ion marks the be
g
innin
g
of all ceramic
tec
h
no
l
o
gy
. T
h
e
i
r use of on
ly
one, stan
d
ar
d
form
i
n
g
tec
h
n
i
que
i
n t
hi
s
g
enes
i
s per
i
o
d
i
s to
b
e expecte
d
. After a
ll
, as t
h
e peop
l
e of t
hi
s cu
l
ture p
i
oneere
d
ceram
i
c
tec
h
no
l
ogy, we may assume t
h
at, at suc
h
an ear
l
y stage of
d
eve
l
opment, t
h
ey
h
a
d
no
t
y
et achieved technological variability. On the other hand, one might expect to find a
t
l
east some exper
i
mentat
i
on
b
e
i
n
g
con
d
ucte
d
by
t
h
ese S
h
aar Ha
g
o
l
an peop
l
e, even a
t
their earliest learnin
g
sta
g
es of the new technolo
gy
. Such experiments would have
l
e
d
to tec
h
no
l
og
i
ca
l
var
i
a
bili
ty w
i
t
h
a poss
ibl
e preference of one tec
h
n
i
que over t
h
e
o
th
e
r
.
In an earlier stud
y
we conducted, we used medical computed tomo
g
raph
y
to
h
el
p
in the conservation and restoration of two
p
arts of a statue, from the site o
f
Sh
aar Ha
g
o
l
an
(
App
lb
aum et a
l
. 1998
)
. T
h
ere we foun
d
c
l
ear ev
id
ence t
h
at t
h
e core
tec
h
n
i
que was use
d
“F
i
gure 11”. But ot
h
er f
i
gur
i
nes from t
hi
s s
i
te t
h
at we teste
d
a
t
t
h
e t
i
me, for conservat
i
on an
d
restorat
i
on purposes, s
h
owe
d
poss
ibl
e s
ig
ns of ot
h
er
c
eramic techniques having been used. Based on this premise we decided to broaden
the scope of our post-scannin
g
anal
y
ses to include an in-depth stud
y
of the ceramic
technolo
g
ical abilities of the people of the Shaar Ha
g
olan culture.
Ch
apter IV-1 24
1
Fi
g
ure IV-1-11”,
C
T section alon
g
the lon
g
itudinal axis – note the use of the core technique.
T
o further our thesis we present our scanning of a figurine (63X35X21 mm.)
that was excavated at the Potter
y
Neolithic site of Shaar Ha
g
olan durin
g
the 1997
season
(
Garf
i
n
k
e
l
1999: 48
)
. It
i
s an a
l
most comp
l
ete ant
h
ropomorp
hi
c f
i
gur
i
ne,
h
aving only slight damage to the legs. It is a fine example of the technological and
a
rti
s
ti
c
a
b
iliti
es
o
f th
e
c
raft
s
man
o
f th
e
Yarm
u
kiam
cu
lt
u
r
e.
T
he stud
y
of this ob
j
ect was conducted on a third
g
eneration CT scanner. The
scann
i
ng tec
h
n
i
ques we use
d
h
ave
b
een exp
l
a
i
ne
d
i
n our stu
d
y of t
h
e “enve
l
ope”,
ab
ove. In t
hi
s stu
dy
we f
i
rst con
d
ucte
d
a “scout v
i
ew” or surv
i
ew, a two
di
mens
i
ona
l
d
igital radiograph of the object “Figure 12”. As mentioned above, the CT technicians
Figure IV-1-12”, Surv
i
ew
(
scout v
i
ew
)
of f
i
gur
i
ne
use t
hi
s
i
mage
i
n t
h
e p
l
ann
i
ng of t
h
e sect
i
ona
l
scann
i
ng t
h
at fo
ll
ows. We may
n
ote that in most cases the surview is not ver
y
helpful to us because it has limitations
similar to those of conventional radio
g
raph
y
, namel
y
, two-dimensional pro
j
ections o
f
t
h
ree-
di
mens
i
ona
l
o
bj
ects, caus
i
ng a super
i
mpos
i
t
i
on of
i
mpenetra
bl
e
l
ayers. T
hi
s
o
ften
l
ea
d
s to a m
i
s
i
nterpretat
i
on of t
h
e surv
i
ew
i
ma
g
e. In our stu
dy
,
h
owever, t
h
e
surv
i
ew prove
d
very
h
e
l
pfu
l
i
n
d
eterm
i
n
i
ng t
h
at t
hi
s f
i
gur
i
ne
h
as a comp
l
ex
i
nterna
l
242 T
h
e Use of Me
di
ca
l
Compute
d
Tomograp
h
y
(
CT
)
Imag
i
ng
structure. T
h
e exact nature of t
hi
s comp
l
ex
i
ty cou
ld
not
b
e fu
ll
y
d
eterm
i
ne
d
b
ase
d
on
the surview alone. Usin
g
both the surview and the second-sta
g
e CT scannin
g
,
h
owever, we were able to determine the exact technique used in the formin
g
of this
p
art
i
cu
l
ar art
i
fact. We con
d
ucte
d
a fu
ll
set of CT sect
i
ons, scann
i
n
g
a
l
on
g
t
h
e
longitudinal sagittal plane of the figurine. We could find no sign of the core
technique, discussed above, havin
g
been used in the modelin
g
of this fi
g
urine. In ou
r
p
rev
i
ous test
i
n
g
of f
ig
ur
i
nes we
h
a
d
foun
d
t
h
at t
h
e core tec
h
n
i
que cou
ld
b
e eas
ily
id
ent
i
f
i
e
d
i
n CT scans. A
i
r vo
id
s are capture
d
b
etween t
h
e core an
d
t
h
e mater
i
a
l
m
odeled upon the core. This difference in density (air / clay) is clearly viewed in the
r
esu
l
ts of CT scann
i
ng. In our current stu
d
y,
h
owever, no core cou
ld
b
e
id
ent
i
f
i
e
d
.
O
ur densit
y
studies showed voids of air that were captured in areas where pieces o
f
c
la
y
were added to the exterior of the fi
g
urine in the final phase of its production
.
W
e also observed an abnormality in a CT section passing through the center o
f
t
h
e f
ig
ur
i
ne a
l
on
g
i
ts corona
l
p
l
ane “F
ig
ure 13”. In or
d
er to
b
etter un
d
erstan
d
t
h
e
n
ature of t
hi
s a
b
norma
li
ty, we
d
ec
id
e
d
t
h
at an ax
i
a
l
sect
i
ona
l
v
i
ew of t
hi
s area of t
h
e
fi
g
urine was called for.
Fi
g
ure IV-1-13
,CT sect
i
on a
l
on
g
t
h
e corona
l
p
l
ane of f
ig
ur
i
ne – note a
b
norma
l
“fuzz
i
ness” a
l
on
g
center of
i
mage
Havin
g
conducted a full scannin
g
series of overlappin
g
thin slices alon
g
the
l
on
gi
tu
di
na
l
p
l
ane, we a
l
rea
dy
possesse
d
a fu
ll
d
ata set. We processe
d
t
hi
s
d
ata on an
O
mn
i
pro Wor
k
stat
i
on. W
i
t
h
us
i
ng mu
l
t
i
p
l
anar reformatt
i
ng, we were a
bl
e to
r
econstruct a v
i
ew of t
h
e ax
i
a
l
p
l
ane sect
i
on for any area of t
h
e o
bj
ect, w
i
t
h
ou
t
h
aving to rescan the figurine. In the reconstructed axial section we were able to
d
etermine that there was a void that caused fuzziness alon
g
the coronal plane of the
fi
g
urine “Fi
g
ure 14”. This void and the low densit
y
lines we observed in the axial
sect
i
on were cause
d
by
a
i
r trappe
d
b
etween t
h
e fo
ld
s of c
l
a
y
at t
h
e t
i
me w
h
en t
h
e
cl
ay s
l
a
b
was fo
ld
e
d
an
d
paste
d
.
Ch
apter IV-1 24
3
Fi
g
ure IV-1-14”
,
Usin
g
multiplanar reformattin
g
– reconstruction of the axial plane section.
T
he exact nature of this void
,
that caused the fuzziness
,
could not be understoo
d
until it was viewed in the ad
j
oinin
g
axial section. In the axial section the void clearl
y
d
ef
i
nes t
h
e mo
d
e
li
ng tec
h
n
i
que use
d
to form t
hi
s f
i
gur
i
ne from t
h
e Neo
li
t
hi
c per
i
o
d
.
I
nstea
d
of form
i
n
g
t
h
e f
ig
ur
i
ne on a core, t
h
e craftsman forme
d
t
h
e
b
o
dy
of t
h
e
f
i
gur
i
ne from a s
i
ng
l
e s
l
a
b
of c
l
ay. T
h
e s
l
a
b
was fo
ld
e
d
i
n
h
a
l
f a
l
ong
i
ts
l
ong
i
tu
di
na
l
a
xis, to form the main body of the figurine. The fold is, therefore, contained inside
t
h
e mass of t
h
e
b
o
d
y of t
h
e f
i
gur
i
ne. Buttoc
k
s an
d
eyes an
d
ot
h
er ref
i
nements were
then pasted on the bod
y
. All si
g
ns of the voids caused b
y
the foldin
g
of the slab o
f
cl
a
y
t
h
at forms t
h
e
b
o
dy
of t
h
e f
ig
ur
i
ne an
d
a
ll
ref
i
nements t
h
at were paste
d
on t
h
e
b
o
dy
were t
h
en smoot
h
e
d
over an
d
concea
l
e
d
by
t
h
e craftsman. T
h
e
y
cannot
b
e
ob
serve
d
i
n any way
b
y an externa
l
v
i
ew
i
ng of t
h
e o
bj
ect. We were on
l
y a
bl
e to
id
ent
i
fy t
h
e tec
h
n
i
ques use
d
i
n t
h
e form
i
ng of t
hi
s f
i
gur
i
ne after an exact
i
ng stu
d
y o
f
the voids that were revealed to us b
y
our CT reformatted sectional ima
g
es
.
6.
C
onclus
i
ons
W
e
h
ave
d
emonstrate
d
, as s
h
own
i
n t
hi
s paper, t
h
at stan
d
ar
d
me
di
ca
l
Compute
d
Tomo
g
raph
y
(CT) can be a ver
y
practical and powerful dia
g
nostic tool for the stud
y
o
f ceramic and cla
y
archaeolo
g
ical artifacts. The use of this non-destructive
d
ia
g
nostic tool in research, offers the archaeolo
g
ist the opportunit
y
to:
1. “See”
i
ns
id
e art
i
facts w
i
t
h
out
d
ama
gi
n
g
t
h
em.
2. Determ
i
ne w
h
at tec
h
n
i
ques were use
d
i
n t
h
e pro
d
uct
i
on of ceram
i
c an
d
c
l
ay
a
rtifa
c
t
s.
3. Conduct conservation of the most delicate artifacts with
g
reat confidence,
makin
g
use of densit
y
scans that determine the parameters of the ob
j
ect.
T
his, however, tells onl
y
half the stor
y
. Cost and convenience considerations
ma
k
e t
h
e me
di
ca
l
CT even more
id
ea
l
for arc
h
aeo
l
og
i
ca
l
researc
h
of c
l
ay an
d
c
eramic artifacts, because of the followin
g
:
1
. CT’s are ava
il
a
bl
e, wor
ld
w
id
e; t
h
ey can
b
e foun
d
i
n Me
di
ca
l
centers,
hospitals and even in private labs. There is no true need to invest in the
244 T
h
e Use of Me
di
ca
l
Compute
d
Tomograp
h
y
(
CT
)
Imag
i
ng
p
urchase of this very expensive equipment. Time can usually be rented on a
CT. T
h
e cost of test
i
ng
i
s, t
h
erefore, re
l
at
i
ve
l
y
i
nexpens
i
ve. T
hi
s
d
rast
i
ca
ll
y
r
e
d
uces researc
h
an
d
d
eve
l
opment expenses.
2
. There is no need to ship artifacts to distant labs for analysis. This eliminates
shippin
g
and insurance costs and a
g
reat deal of red tape.
3. Once t
h
e art
i
fact
i
s proper
ly
scanne
d
an
d
t
h
e
d
ata store
d
t
h
ere
i
s no furt
h
er
n
ee
d
of an
d
conven
i
ence of t
h
e researc
h
er
.
4. T
h
e arc
h
aeo
l
og
i
st can ma
k
e use of a w
id
e var
i
ety of computer app
li
cat
i
ons
that have been developed for the medical profession without incurrin
g
the
expense of developing new ones.
T
his paper, limited to
j
ust two examples from our extensive work on ceramic
a
n
d
c
l
a
y
art
i
fact, cannot cover t
h
e fu
ll
scope of our researc
h
; nor
d
oes
i
t exp
l
ore t
h
e
fu
ll
potent
i
a
l
of t
hi
s s
y
stem, as we now
k
now
i
t
T
his First International Symposium in Tokyo enabled us to share, with a
b
roader scientific communit
y
, our experiences and successes in the testin
g
of cla
y
a
n
d
ceram
i
c art
i
facts us
i
ng Me
di
ca
l
CT. It
i
s our
h
ope, t
h
at t
h
e momentum ac
hi
eve
d
i
n t
hi
s f
i
rst meet
i
ng, w
ill
b
e fo
ll
owe
d
b
y ot
h
ers,
b
r
i
ng
i
ng us toget
h
er t
i
me an
d
aga
i
n
i
n t
h
e years to come.
7
. Re
f
erences
Anderson, T. (1995) Analysis of Roman Cremation Vessels by Computerized Tomography, Journal o
f
Archaeolo
g
ical Scienc
e
22
,
609-617.
A
pp
lb
aum, N., App
lb
aum, Y.H., an
d
Horow
i
tz, W.
(
1994
)
Compute
d
Tomograp
h
y Imag
i
ng of Sea
l
e
d
C
lay Cuneiform Tablets, Imaging The Past - Electronic Imaging an
d
Computer Graphics in Museums an
d
Archaeolo
gy
,
Abstracts, British Museum,
p
.18.
A
pp
lb
aum N., App
lb
aum, Y.H., an
d
Horow
i
tz, W
(
1995
)
Imag
i
ng w
i
t
h
t
h
e A
id
of Compute
d
Tomograp
h
y
o
f Sea
l
e
d
Documents from t
h
e Ur III Per
i
o
d,
Archaeology and Science Bulletin
3
,
8-12.
(
He
b
rew
)
A
pplbaum N., Applbaum, Y., Lavi M., and Garfinkel, Y. (1998) Computed Tomo
g
raph
y
Ima
g
in
g
as an
aid
i
n t
h
e Preservat
i
on an
d
Conservat
i
on of Neo
li
t
hi
c F
ig
ur
i
nes from t
h
e S
i
te of S
h
a‘ar Ha
g
o
l
an,
Archaeology and Science Bulleti
n
6
,
46-54
(
He
b
rew
)
.
A
pplbaum, N. and Applbaum, Y. (1999) The Use of Medical Computed Tomo
g
raph
y
(CT) in the Stud
y
o
f
C
eram
i
c Arc
h
aeo
l
o
gi
ca
l
F
i
n
d
s,
i
n N. Mess
ik
a, N. La
lki
n an
d
J. Breman
(
e
d
s.
)
,
C
omputer App
l
ications in
Arc
h
aeo
l
o
gy
,
Conference Procee
di
n
g
s, Te
l
Av
i
v, pp. 42-52
(
He
b
rew
)
A
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g
raph
y
(CT) of Selected
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otter
y
: Preliminar
y
Results, in A.M. Maeir (ed.), Bronze an
d
Iron A
g
e Tom
b
s at Te
l
Gezer, Israe
l
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d
s
f
rom t
h
e Excavations
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y Raymon
d
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h
ar
l
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ll
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ossi, R.H., (1990) Computer Tomo
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aterials Evaluation
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Carr, C.,
(
1990
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A
d
vances
i
n Ceram
i
c Ra
di
o
l
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d
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l
ys
i
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li
cat
i
ons an
d
Potent
i
a
l
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l
o
f
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rchaeological Science
17
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34
.
Chiera, E., (1938)
T
he
y
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y
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g
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y
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g
o Press
.
Co
ll
on, D.,
(
1987
)
First Impression Cylinder Seal in the Ancient Near East, Lon
d
on
,
Br
i
t
i
s
h
Museum
Public
at
io
n
.
Ch
apter IV-1 24
5
Davis, R., (1997) Clinical Radio
g
raph
y
and Archaeo-human Remains, in J. Lan
g
and A.Middleton (eds.),
R
adio
g
raph
y
o
f
Cultural Materia
l
, Oxfor
d
, Butterwort
h
-He
i
nemann, pp. 117-135.
Garf
i
n
k
e
l
, Y.,
(
1993
)
T
h
e Yarmu
ki
an Cu
l
ture
i
n Israe
l
, P
aleo
r
ient
19
:
1
,
11
5-
134
.
Garfinkel, Y.,
(
1995
)
F
i
g
urines an
d
other Bake
d
Cla
y
Ob
j
ects
f
rom Munhata,
(
Les cahiers du centre de
recherche francais de Jerusalem 8), Association Paléorient, Paris, Direction General des Relations
C
u
l
tre
ll
es Sc
i
ent
i
f
i
que et Tec
h
n
i
ques
d
u M
i
n
i
stere
d
es Affa
i
res Etran
g
er.
Garf
i
n
k
e
l
, Y.,
(
1999
)
T
h
e Yarmu
k
ians - Neo
l
it
h
ic Art
f
rom S
h
a‘ar Hago
l
a
n
,
B
ibl
e Lan
d
s Museum
,
J
erusalem.
Ha
ll
o, W.N., an
d
We
i
s
b
er
g
, D.B.
(
1992
)
A Gu
id
e
d
Tour t
h
rou
gh
Ba
byl
on
i
an H
i
stor
y
: Cune
i
form
Inscr
i
pt
i
ons
i
n t
h
e C
i
nc
i
nnat
i
Museum, T
h
e Journa
l
o
f
t
h
e Ancient Near Eastern Society
21,
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... Grâce à son caractère non-intrusif, la tomographie peut être employée en prévention de la fouille, puisqu'elle permet avant même d'effectuer l'étude sur un objet de savoir (grossièrement) si cet objet peut ou non apporter des informations [ANDERSON et FELL, 1995 ;APPLBAUM et APPLBAUM, 2005]. Cela se révèle particulièrement utile pour planifier efficacement la fouille pour l'archéologie préventive [HARVIG et al., 2012 ;NICOLAS et al., 2014 ;RE et al., 2015], en permettant par exemple de détecter à l'avance certains des éléments dignes d'attention pour la fouille [JANSEN et al., 2006] ou de vérifier l'hypothèse qui sert de base à la fouille [MCKNIGHT et al., 2015]. ...
... Dans le cas de fouilles difficiles, le prélèvement en bloc suivi d'une tomodensitométrie s'avère d'ailleurs être une solution intéressante pour récupérer une bonne quantité de données en minimisant les risques En elle-même la tomographie est même suffisante pour obtenir certaines informations, comme l'impact des structures poreuses sur les artefacts [IASSONOV et al., 2009], la méthode utilisée pour une crémation [HARVIG et LYNNERUP, 2013]. Grâce à cela, il est parfois même possible de ne pas avoir à détériorer l'artefact étudié pour obtenir des réponses ; l'information obtenue par la tomographie suffisant à répondre aux attentes de l'archéologue vis-à-vis de l'objet scanné [APPLBAUM et APPLBAUM, 2005]. Une fouille sur les objets réels reste cependant envisageable dans le cas où des doutes subsistent une fois la fouille virtuelle effectuée. ...
Thesis
Avec la démocratisation de la réalité mixte, un besoin croissant de contenu se fait ressentir. En particulier, on remarque une forte demande, dans divers domaines d’application, pour un contenu interactif et scénarisé. Aussi diversifiés que soient ces domaines, un point commun entre eux est la difficulté pour les experts métiers (médecins, archéologues, ...) de faire comprendre clairement leurs besoins aux développeurs qui implémentent les applications. Cette difficulté amène souvent les experts à se détourner de la réalité mixte ou à l’utiliser de manière détournée. Ainsi, pour assurer une meilleure transmission des connaissances et besoins des experts métiers dans les applications de réalité mixte, nous proposons de donner plus d’impact au rôle de l’expert dans la création d’applications, au travers de deux outils. Le premier permet de construire une application de réalité augmentée en manipulant directement l’environnement pour y ajouter de l’interaction. Le second se concentre sur la scénarisation et permet d’enregistrer un scénario au travers de ses propres actions dans l’environnement virtuel. Cette thèse a également donné lieu à l’application de l’interaction en réalité virtuelle dans le cadre d’applications de fouille archéologique virtuelle, dédiées à proposer aux archéologues de nouvelles méthodes pour l’exploitation de leurs données 3D, dans différents contextes archéologiques.
... In the last decades X-ray CT and radiography have been successfully used for the study of cultural heritage artefacts (Applbaum & Applbaum, 2005;Berg, 2008;Berg, 2011;Casali, 2006a;Casali, 2006b;Pavel et al., 2014). This type of analysis has proven to be an excellent non-invasive method of investigating prehistoric pottery, being especially useful for the characterization of unbroken pots. ...
... This type of analysis has proven to be an excellent non-invasive method of investigating prehistoric pottery, being especially useful for the characterization of unbroken pots. In particular, X-ray CT can be used to reveal structural details invisible for the naked eye such as internal cracks, enclosed elements, and different manufacturing techniques such as coiling, wheel throwing or pulling the paste when modelling or inclusions in the paste (Applbaum et al., 2005;Berg, 2008;Berg, 2011;Casali, 2006a;Casali, 2006b;Pavel et al., 2014). ...
Article
Local production or import? This question always raises vivid debates among the archaeologists when they analyse pots and ceramic fragments regardless of the studied period. In the case of pottery from the Eneolithic tell settlement of Sultana-Malu Roşu from South-East Romania, we tried to address this issue through a series of physico-chemical investigations. To reach this goal, we analyzed several shards from two dwellings, as well as clay samples collected from some local deposits from nearby the tell settlement. Petrographic analyses on thin sections and X-ray fluorescence coupled with X-ray diffraction analyses were performed to get mineralogical and chemical information about the archaeological ceramic and local clay samples. One of the aims of this investigation was to explore the connection between Sultana-Malu Roşu pottery and the nearby clay sources, but also to check the local origin of the analyzed pottery. The physico-chemical analyses helped us to identify the procedures and recipes employed by the prehistoric potters, and those data were used in our experimental archaeology approaches when we tried to replicate the prehistoric vessels. The investigation of prehistoric vessels was complemented by imaging analyses using radiography and X-ray computed tomography, in a trial of getting a clearer picture of the chaîne opératoire involved in pottery production process. Moreover, creating experimental replicas, we recorded how pots behave at all stages of manufacturing from modelling to firing. Alongside with the development of a reference database for Gumelnița pottery, an important achievement of this research was that we proved that the vessels from Sultana-Malu Roşu site were made using local clays. Production locale ou importation ? Cette question suscite toujours de vifs débats parmi les archéologues. Dans le cas de la poterie provenant du tell énéolithique de Sultana-Malu Roşu situé dans le sud-est de la Roumanie, nous avons essayé d’aborder cette question par une série d’investigations physico-chimiques. Pour atteindre cet objectif, nous avons analysé plusieurs tessons provenant de deux logements, ainsi que des échantillons d’argile à proximité de l’habitat. On a réalisé des analyses pétrographiques sur des lames minces et des analyses de fluorescence des rayons X et de diffraction des rayons X afin d’obtenir des informations minéralogiques et chimiques sur les échantillons de céramique et d’argile. L’un des buts de cette étude a été d’explorer la relation entre la poterie de Sultana-Malu Roşu et les sources d’argile des environs, afin de vérifier l’origine locale de la poterie analysée. Les analyses physico-chimiques nous ont aidés à identifier les procédures et les recettes utilisées par les artisans antiques. Les résultats ont été utilisés dans nos ateliers d’archéologie expérimentale lorsque nous avons essayé de répliquer la vaisselle préhistorique. L’investigation de la vaisselle préhistorique a été complétée par des analyses d’imagerie en utilisant la radiographie et la tomographie aux rayons X par ordinateur, dans un effort de se former une image plus claire sur la chaîne opératoire employée dans la fabrication de la poterie. Par la création des réplicas modernes nous avons enregistré la manière dont la poterie se comporte à travers toutes les étapes de fabrication, à partir du modelage jusqu’à la cuisson. À côté du développement d’une base de données de référence pour la poterie de Gumelnița, une importante réussite de cette recherche a été d’avoir prouvé que la vaisselle de Sultana-Malu Roşu était fabriquée en utilisant les argiles locales.
... Esta técnica ha sido implementada para realizar análisis de cerámica (Applbaum & Applbaum, 2005;Karl et al., 2014), para estudiar la dendrocronología en las maderas arqueológicas (Stelzner y Million, 2015), para analizar la micromorfología de los suelos (Adderley et al., 2001), en zooarqueología y en estudios tafonómicos (Gutiérrez et al., 2010;Lam et al., 2003). (Mayo Torné J. et al. 2020 b:17). ...
Thesis
Lo que se presenta a continuación es un estudio tecnológico de pendientes elaborados con dientes de cetáceos, probablemente cachalote (Physeter macrocephalus). Son pocos los yacimientos arqueológicos del continente americano en los que se han encontrado artefactos de este tipo, no obstante, parecen haber jugado un papel importante en la exhibición de poder de las élites de las jefaturas de la región central del Istmo de Panamá, teniendo en cuenta su proliferación en contextos de élite de los sitios arqueológicos de El Caño y en Sitio Conte (750-1100 AD). Con el fin de caracterizar sus estilos tecnológicos, se han hecho análisis traceológicos, usando Imágenes Transformadas por Reflectancia y microscopía óptica y digital. Los resultados muestran tres estilos tecnológicos diferentes, lo que indica la existencia de distintos focos de producción y la posibilidad de que, diversos artesanos estuviesen aplicando diferentes técnicas en el proceso de manufactura.
... A review of published sources shows that the use of nondestructive CT or µCT technology in archaeology has so far focused mainly on the study of very delicate objects from the Palaeolithic and early civilisations. For example, CT scanners have been used to examine mummies [24], Ötzi [25] and The Venus from Willendorf [26], to read scrolls, to study the structure of clay tiles, pottery [27] and Etruscan bronze statues [28], to study textiles, wooden, bone and metal objects, the contents of sarcophagi, the forensic evaluation of art paintings, the technologies used to produce various objects and the mummification process, etc. Archaeologists still predominantly used the technologies, procedures and algorithms of medical computer tomography. It was only after 2015 that there was an awakening of interest in the development of special algorithms and in the use of specially adapted industrial CT readers for mapping earth layers at archaeological sites [29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A rare and valuable Palaeolithic wooden point, presumably belonging to a hunting weapon, was found in the Ljubljanica River in Slovenia in 2008. In order to prevent complete decay, the waterlogged wooden artefact had to undergo conservation treatment, which usually involves some expected deformations of structure and shape. To investigate these changes, a series of surface-based 3D models of the artefact were created before, during and after the conservation process. Unfortunately, the surface-based 3D models were not sufficient to understand the internal processes inside the wooden artefact (cracks, cavities, fractures). Since some of the surface-based 3D models were taken with a microtomographic scanner, we decided to create a volumetric 3D model from the available 2D tomographic images. In order to have complete control and greater flexibility in creating the volumetric 3D model than is the case with commercial software, we decided to implement our own algorithm. In fact, two algorithms were implemented for the construction of surface-based 3D models and for the construction of volumetric 3D models, using (1) unsegmented 2D images CT and (2) segmented 2D images CT. The results were positive in comparison with commercial software and new information was obtained about the actual state and causes of the deformation of the artefact. Such models could be a valuable aid in the selection of appropriate conservation and restoration methods and techniques in cultural heritage research.
... Recently, its importance and potential have become increasingly evident even when applied to other areas, such as industry and Cultural Heritage [1]. A growing number of authors have reported the successful use of CT as an efficient and non-destructive tool for the study of, for example, archaeological findings and works of art [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Computed Tomography (CT), mostly used in the medical field, has also recently been involved in Cultural Heritage studies, thanks to its efficiency and total non-invasiveness. Due to the large variety of sizes and compositions typical of Cultural Heritage objects, different X-ray sources, detectors, and setups are necessary to meet the different needs of various case studies. Here, we focus on the use of micro-CT to explore the morphology and shape of a small, neglected bone found inside the clitoris of non-human primates (the baubellum), which we obtained by accessing two prestigious primatological collections of the American Museum of Natural History (New York, NY, USA) and the National Museum of Natural History (Washington, DC, USA). Overcoming methodological limits imposed by the absence of homologous landmarks, we combined the use of the non-invasive 3D micro-CT and a recently released landmark-free shape analysis (the alpha-shape technique) to objectively describe and quantify the shape complexity of scanned primate baubella. Micro-CT provided high-resolution results, overcoming constraints linked to museum policy about non-disruptive sampling and preserving samples for future research. Finally, it proved appropriate as post-mortem sampling had no impact on protected wild primate populations.
... Computed tomography (CT) and μ-tomography are X-Ray-based techniques allowing, in particular, the study of the interior of CH items [39]. These techniques make it possible to reconstruct an object volume from a series of measurements made by slices from outside this object. ...
... CT scanning techniques have been used to identify text on clay tablets (Applbaum and Applbaum 2005), to study bronze artefacts (Rossi 1999), for inspecting cremation urns (prior to physical examination) (Minozzi et al. 2010) and more recently, Micro CT scan techniques were employed in ceramic studies for detecting clay fabric microstructures that are indicative of specific craft practices (Kozatsas et al. 2018). In the field, X-ray tomography has been employed to identify the shape and position of archaeological materials contained inside soil blocks extracted during the excavation. ...
... As sayd by Jeremy J. O'Brien, professor of physics and electrical engineering (Applbaum, Applbaum 2005), it is true that the use of computed tomography in archaeology and in the preservation of archaeological cultural heritage after 1979 was more due to the curiosity and individual interests of the archaeological and Egyptological elite than planned and systematic research work. It is therefore not surprising that a clearly defined interest in rendering surface and volume 3D models from two-dimensional tomographic or microtomographic images has not been expressed in archaeology yet. ...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional radiology and, after 1975, computed tomography have been used in archaeology since their inception as non-invasive imaging techniques for dealing with delicate and valuable artefacts (e.g. mummies, Palaeolithic and ancient remains, papyrus scrolls, wood, metal tools, coins, jewellery, weapons, ceramics, wall paintings, etc.). It was not until the 21st century that microcomputed tomography (µCT) was gradually established as the desired non-invasive technique and method in archaeology. Its use and development are focused on the technological adaptation of industrial µCT recorders to archaeological and archaeometric treatment, as well as non-invasive archaeological analysis of small objects, which could be partially or permanently destroyed or damaged. To date, research attention has not been focused on the development of specific algorithms adapted to field or labo-ratory archaeological work.
... The use of CT is well-established in archeology, particularly for the study of mummies, bones, and terracotta products. However, it has not been used for the study of these ivory manikins (Hughes 2011;Lynnerup et al. 1997;Romell et al. 2018;Applbaum and Applbaum 2005). Our purpose was to utilize micro-CT to investigate the composition of these figurines. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ivory anatomical figurines are thought to have been carved in Germany in the seventeenth or eighteenth century. While it is speculated that these figurines were used for the study of medical education, little is known about their origins. A precise understanding of the composition of these figurines may further provide knowledge about their purpose and exact age. Our institution holds the largest North American collection of these figurines. Our purpose was to utilize micro-computer tomography (micro-CT) to determine the composition of these figurines and discern whether these figurines are made of “true” ivory (e.g., elephant or mammoth tusk) or other ivory-like materials (e.g., whale bone and antler). Scans of 22 figurines were performed on an XT H 225 ST Nikon Micro-CT (mCT) scanner at 150–200 kV, with an average exposure time of 267 ms, and slice thickness of 40–80 μm. Axial micro-CT slices were evaluated for Haversian canal structure/morphology to determine material composition. micro-CT images were also evaluated for materials other than ivory or bone that were not appreciable by visual inspection. Out of 22 figurines, 20 were made of ivory, one was made of antler, and one contained both ivory and whale bone. Metallic components and/or fibers were found in a minority of figurines. Twelve figurines contained hinges or internal repairs. micro-CT can be used to discern the composition of fragile archeological figurines and assess for repairs or alterations. This information may enable archeologists to draw conclusions regarding objects’ age, origins, and possible uses.
... Applied to cultural heritage, the technique has been mainly used for the study of stone and metal artefacts, but also in an exploratory fashion in the technological study of ceramics and bricks (Kahl and Ramminger 2012;Kulkova and Kulkov 2014;Agostino et al. 2016;Coletti et al. 2016;Kozatsas et al. 2018;Park et al. 2019;and Reedy 2020). To the best of our knowledge, micro-CT has been only applied to unfired clay objects to read the inscriptions on ancient clay tablets that had been sealed in clay envelopes and in the technological study of unfired Neolithic clay figurines from the ancient Near East (Applbaum and Applbaum 2005). However, the use of non-destructive techniques becomes crucial in the case of very friable artefacts, like unfired clay-based ones, because destructive analyses that break or cut the clay sample to study its various components contribute to the loss of textural and spatial information (Bukreeva et al. 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This work presents the results of the study of a fragment of architectural terracruda sculpture from the Buddhist archaeological site of Tepe Narenj (Kabul, Afghanistan, fifth-ninth centuries CE) through X-ray micro-computed tomographic analysis. This technique offers great potential for the study of artworks that, due to their nature, condition, or relevance, are not suitable for sampling. The results have provided useful data for understanding the making of the sculpture showing for the first time the relevance of materials of plant origin used in the composition of the clay-based body, a feature that had not been previously highlighted and which appears to be crucial for proposing suitable conservation interventions.