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Effect of Spirulina platensis biomass on the growth of lactic acid bacteria in milk

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Abstract

The stimulatory effect of aqueous suspensions of Spirulina platensis dry biomass extracted at pH 6.8 and 5.5 was studied on four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) grown in milk. The addition of dry S. platensis to milk (6 mg/ml) stimulated growth of Lactococcus lactis by 27%. The growth of other strains was also promoted.

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... Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are photoautotrophic microorganisms which are widely distributed in nature. Spirulina is the best known genus of Cyanobacteria because of its unique nutritional properties (Caire et al., 2000). It has been proved that consumption of Spirulina is beneficial to health due to its chemical composition including compounds like essential amino acids, vitamins, natural pigments, and fatty acids, especially w-6 representatives such as g-linolenic (GLNA) acid, a precursor of the prostaglandin hormones in the body. ...
... They provide several benefits for humans. Among them are better resistance to infections, stimulation of the immune system and better absorption of minerals and lactose (Hove et al., 1999;Caire et al., 2000). The probiotic activity of some strains with the ability to colonize the intestinal epithelium strengthening to ...
... The levels of probiotic bacteria available in these products have been reported between 10 5 to 10 8 cfu mL-1 , previously (Gueimonde et al., 2004). It has been observed that Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) powder promotes the growth of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic media (Caire et al., 2000) and milk (Varga et al., 2002;Akalin et al., 2009) and yoghurt made with Bifidobacterium animalis addition and 0.3 % S. platensis powder (Akalin et al., 2009). However, there was limited number of researches of the S. platensis effects on the survival of Lactobacilli strains in yoghurt. ...
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The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w) %) and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1of all “spirulina powder” added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p≤0.05). The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P≤0.05). The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.
... A. platensis is the best known genus because of its high protein content and its excellent nutritional value. It has been claimed that A. platensis has various possible healthpromoting effects: the alleviation of hyperlipidemis, suppression of hypertension, protection against renal failure, growth promotion of intestinal Lactobacillus, and suppression of elevated serum glucose level due to its chemical composition including compounds like essential amino acids, vitamins, natural pigments, and essential fatty acids, particularly c-linolenic acid, a precursor of the body's prostaglandins202122. Besides, it has also been reported to have antimicrobial activities against some pathogenic bacteria [23] as well as to promote the growth of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic media [24]. ...
... It has been claimed that A. platensis has various possible healthpromoting effects: the alleviation of hyperlipidemis, suppression of hypertension, protection against renal failure, growth promotion of intestinal Lactobacillus, and suppression of elevated serum glucose level due to its chemical composition including compounds like essential amino acids, vitamins, natural pigments, and essential fatty acids, particularly c-linolenic acid, a precursor of the body's prostaglandins202122. Besides, it has also been reported to have antimicrobial activities against some pathogenic bacteria [23] as well as to promote the growth of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic media [24]. Moreover, similar effects of A. platensis have been also detected in milk and fermented milk [19, 20, 25]. Chlorella vulgaris is a green algal species that produces colorants including astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and, in minor amounts, b-carotene and lutein [27]. ...
... Chlorella vulgaris is a green algal species that produces colorants including astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and, in minor amounts, b-carotene and lutein [27]. Although the technological impacts of A. platensis addition on growth of lactic acid bacteria and probiotic bacteria in milk and fermented milks have been investi- gated1819202425262728 , there is no research with a comparative approach on the effects of A. platensis and C. vulgaris addition in yogurt containing ABY-type culture composition. Therefore, in present study, the effects of A. platensis and C. vulgaris addition on microbiological and biochemical aspects of ABY probiotic yogurt were investigated. ...
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It is a practice to add microalgae into plain and probiotic fermented milks in order to promote the func-tionality of these products via their direct health effects as well as the enhancing impact on viability of probiotic microorganisms in product and in gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the effects of addition of two species of mic-roalgae including Arthrospira platensis and Chlorella vulgaris (seven yogurt treatments containing three con-centrations for each microalgae—0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 %— and a control without microalgae) on pH, titrable acidity, and redox potential changes as well as on the viability of probiotic bacteria during fermentation and during a 28-day refrigerated storage period (5 °C) were investigated in yogurt. Also, the amounts of lactic and acetic acids at the end of fermentation were assessed. The culture composi-tion of yogurt was ABY type, containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, Lacto-bacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Stresptococcus themophilus. The addition of microalgae significantly (p \\ 0.05) increased the viability of L. acidophilus and bifdobacteria at the end of fermentation and during the storage period. Treatments containing A. platensis had slower pH decline, faster acidity increase, longer incuba-tion time, and greater final titrable acidity than those con-taining C. vulgaris and control. In treatments containing 0.5 or 1 % microalgae, the viability was almost higher than 10 7 cfu/mL until the end of refrigerated storage.
... They provide several benefits for humans. Among them are better resistance to infections, stimulation of the immune system and better absorption of minerals and lactose (Hove et al., 1999; Caire et al., 2000). The probiotic activity of some strains with the ability to colonize the intestinal epithelium strengthening to ...
... The levels of probiotic bacteria available in these products have been reported between 10 5 to 10 8 cfu mL -1 , previously (Gueimonde et al., 2004). It has been observed that Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) powder promotes the growth of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic media (Caire et al., 2000) and milk (Varga et al., 2002; Akalin et al., 2009) and yoghurt made with Bifidobacterium animalis addition and 0.3 % S. platensis powder (Akalin et al., 2009 ). However, there was limited number of researches of the S. platensis effects on the survival of Lactobacilli strains in yoghurt. ...
... 1 % of Spirulina powder addition , the viable counts were 6.5 and 7.7 log cfu g -1 in plain yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt at the end of the storage, respectively (Figures 1b and 2b). The viable counts of S. thermophilus were slightly lower than others' findings which were about 8 log cfu g -1 in algal yoghurts (Fox, 1986; Varga and Szigeti, 1998). Caire et al. (2000) also reported that S. platensis powder stimulated the growth of S. thermophilus in milk. It was reported by Varga et al. (2002) that the viable counts of S. thermophilus in ABT fermented milks containing S. platensis powder were higher than in the control samples at the end of the refrigerated storage. ...
Article
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The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacteri-um Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w) %) and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10,15, 20,25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1 of all "spirulina powder" added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p≤0.05). The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P≤0.05). The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.
... Our results are generally in agreement with some researchers [37,38] who observed that LAB growth was promoted by SP, confirming that it could be a useful tool in the production of novel functional fermented dairy foods [38]. Anyway, despite some papers have already investigated the ability of A. platensis as growth stimulator the approach proposed in the present study was completely different. ...
... Our results are generally in agreement with some researchers [37,38] who observed that LAB growth was promoted by SP, confirming that it could be a useful tool in the production of novel functional fermented dairy foods [38]. Anyway, despite some papers have already investigated the ability of A. platensis as growth stimulator the approach proposed in the present study was completely different. ...
... Moreover, a significant lower pH value was found when 0.50% of SP was added. These results are in agreement with Varga and colleagues [38] who observed that pH values in milk containing A. platensis and inoculated with the mixed culture of S. thermophilus and Ld. bulgaricus decreased to a higher extent compared to control samples. ...
Article
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Arthrospira platensis, commercially known as Spirulina, is a fresh-water cyanobacterium that has been gaining increasing attention in recent years due to its high biological and nutritional value. For this reason, it has been employed in several food applications, to obtain or enhance functional and technological properties of cheese, yogurt, bread, cookies or pasta. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential boosting effect of two di�erent concentrations (0.25% and 0.50% w/v) of A. platensis on the fermentation capability of several starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, 1 probiotic and 4 commercial mix culture. These strains were used to ferment three different substrates and their fermentation behaviors were evaluated by impedance analyses together with rheological and color measurements. In tryptic soy broth (TSB), the A. platensis boosting effect was significantly higher if compared to yeast extract for all the starter LAB strains except for Lb. casei, which was equally stimulated. Different results were found when the same LAB strains were cultivated in SSM. The most evident boosting effect was found for S. thermophilus and Lb. casei. LAB growth was promoted by A. platensis, confirming that it could be a useful tool in the production of novel functional fermented dairy foods. The potential boosting effect was evaluated on four commercial mix cultures used to produce milk and soy fermented beverages. It was demonstrated that the booster effect took place, but it was variable and dependent not only on the mix culture used, but also on the substrate and A. platensis concentration. Also, rheological and color modifications were found to be dependent on these factors.
... It consists of essential amino acids, natural pigments, fatty acids, enzymes, minerals (e.g. Ca 2+ and Fe 2+ ), and Vitamins A, B 2 , B 6 , B 12 , E and K (1,(5)(6)(7)(8). Spirulina has been used as a food supplement in juices, cereals and bakery products, desserts, cakes, soups, salad dressings, and dairy products such as ice cream, fermented milk, yogurt, and dairy drinks (9). ...
... One of the most famous species of probiotic microorganisms is Lactobacillus (3). The effect of S. platensis on the viability of starter and probiotic bacteria has been investigated in fermented milk (7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12), yogurt (5,13,14), probiotic yoghurt containing spinach (15), UF feta cheese (16), Doogh (17), cookies (18), and media (3,19). However, to our knowledge, the influence of microalgae on the viability of Lactobacillus (L.) acidophilus in doogh has not been studied yet. ...
... The use of cyanobacteria in the manufacture of cultured dairy foods can be extended to doogh enrichment due to its widespread consumption in Iran. Specific cellular compounds of microalga stimulate the viability of probiotic (3,7,11), but their incorporation to food may lead to a possible change in the food's organoleptic characteristics. So additives can be applied to mask sensorial properties. ...
Article
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The plenty of biologically important compounds in the algae, provide a new opportunity for producing functional dairy products. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of some incorporation variables on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-5). So, Spirulina platensis powder (0, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 % w/v) was incorporated to doogh containing 0.5 and 1% w/v mint powder. Chemical properties (e.g. iron, protein, pH and acidity) as well as sensorial characteristics of the product were investigated. The results showed that viability of L. acidophilus remained at the standard amount in all samples containing Spirulina during 21 days of storage (p< 0.05). Incorporation of microalgae increased the iron and protein content of the samples. The increase in the concentration of Spirulina platensis induced a significant decrease in the sensory acceptability. According to chemical and sensorial analyzes and economical characteristics samples with 0.3%, w/v Spirulina were chosen as the best treatment.
... It contains 18 of the 20 known amino acids, high-quality proteins, more calcium than milk, more vitamin B 12 than cow liver, vitamins A, B 2 , B 6 , E, H, and K, and all essential minerals, trace elements, as well as enzymes (Fox 1986). It has also been shown that Spirulina is an excellent source of proteins (60% to 70% of its dry weight), vitamins, and minerals (Ciferri 1983; Parada and others 1998; De Caire and others 2000; Shimamatsu 2004; Spolaore and others 2006). The nutritive value of a protein is related to the quality of its amino acids, digestibility coefficient, as well as its biological value (Richmond 1984; Dillon and Phan 1993). ...
... It has been claimed that consumption of Spirulina is beneficial to health due to its chemical composition (Fox 1986; Doumenge 1993; Henrikson 1994; Parada and others 1998). There are data showing that Spirulina has various possible healthpromoting effects: the alleviation of hyperlipidemia, suppression of hypertension, protection against renal failure, growth promotion of intestinal Lactobacillus, and suppression of elevated serum glucose level (De Caire and others 2000; Shimamatsu 2004; Spolaore and others 2006). Spirulina possesses some antiviral and antitumor properties. ...
Article
Viability of probiotic bacteria during the production and storage of fermented milks is the most important topic of discussion in the dairy industry. Addition of microalgae into milk for the production of fermented milk in order to enhance the viability of probiotics has been the subject of recent research. Spirulina and Chlorella are the most widely noted microalgae for fermented milks. They affect not only the viability of probiotics in final product but also the sensory attributes of them. Incorporation of microalgae into probiotic fermented milks along with enhancing the viability of probiotics would increase their functional characteristic. This is because they contain a wide range of nutrients and nutraceuticals and are considered as “functional food.” This article reviews the effects of supplementation of Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris into probiotic fermented milks on their different quality characteristics.
... It contains 18 of the 20 known amino acids, high-quality proteins, more calcium than milk, more vitamin B 12 than cow liver, vitamins A, B 2 , B 6 , E, H, and K, and all essential minerals, trace elements, as well as enzymes (Fox 1986). It has also been shown that Spirulina is an excellent source of proteins (60% to 70% of its dry weight), vitamins, and minerals (Ciferri 1983; Parada and others 1998; De Caire and others 2000; Shimamatsu 2004; Spolaore and others 2006). The nutritive value of a protein is related to the quality of its amino acids, digestibility coefficient, as well as its biological value (Richmond 1984; Dillon and Phan 1993). ...
... It has been claimed that consumption of Spirulina is beneficial to health due to its chemical composition (Fox 1986; Doumenge 1993; Henrikson 1994; Parada and others 1998). There are data showing that Spirulina has various possible healthpromoting effects: the alleviation of hyperlipidemia, suppression of hypertension, protection against renal failure, growth promotion of intestinal Lactobacillus, and suppression of elevated serum glucose level (De Caire and others 2000; Shimamatsu 2004; Spolaore and others 2006). Spirulina possesses some antiviral and antitumor properties. ...
Article
Viability of probiotic bacteria during the production and storage of fermented milks is the most important topic of discussion in the dairy industry. Addition of microalgae into milk for the production of fermented milk in order to enhance the viability of probiotics has been the subject of recent research. Spirulina and Chlorella are the most widely noted microalgae for fermented milks. They affect not only the viability of probiotics in final product but also the sensory attributes of them. Incorporation of microalgae into probiotic fermented milks along with enhancing the viability of probiotics would increase their functional characteristic. This is because they contain a wide range of nutrients and nutraceuticals and are considered as “functional food.” This article reviews the effects of supplementation of Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris into probiotic fermented milks on their different quality characteristics.
... Probiotics, including the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium ( Figure 1) [78], are largely used as starter bacteria for the production of yogurt [24], the most popular fermented diary product worldwide. Spirulina biomass has a stimulatory effect on the growth (during fermentation) and/or increases the survival (during storage) of Bifidobacterium [23,24], Lactobacillus acidophilus [24,76], Lactobacillus bulgaricus [79][80][81], Lactobacillus casei [76], and Streptococcus thermophilus [23,76,79,80,82]. ...
... Malik et al. [91] suggested that the lower score at 0.1% level when compared to control may be attributed to dull color and appearance and less acidic flavor which is essential for acceptability of yogurt, whereas the low acceptability of the 0.5% can be due to increased acidity and intense green color. It is well known that Spirulina causes decrease in pH of yogurts, due to its effect on Lactobacilli growth and viability [82,126]. Guldas and Irkin [92], with trained panelists who did not assign excessive sour taste to acidophilic yogurt, reported that the 0.5% of Spirulina powder addition was more acceptable than 1%, due to the slightly greenish color and algal flavor of the latter compared to the former. ...
Article
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The highly nutritional and ecofriendly Spirulina ( Arthrospira platensis ) has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive properties. Spirulina contains functional compounds, such as phenolics, phycocyanins, and polysaccharides, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects. Studies conducted on Spirulina suggest that it is safe in healthy subjects, but attitude to eating probably affects the acceptability of Spirulina containing foods. Although the antioxidant effect of Spirulina is confirmed by the intervention studies, the concerted modulation of antioxidant and inflammatory responses, suggested by in vitro and animal studies, requires more confirmation in humans. Spirulina supplements seem to affect more effectively the innate immunity, promoting the activity of natural killer cells. The effects on cytokines and on lymphocytes’ proliferation depend on age, gender, and body weight differences. In this context, ageing and obesity are both associated with chronic low grade inflammation, immune impairment, and intestinal dysbiosis. Microbial-modulating activities have been reported in vitro, suggesting that the association of Spirulina and probiotics could represent a new strategy to improve the growth of beneficial intestinal microbiota. Although Spirulina might represent a functional food with potential beneficial effects on human health, the human interventions used only supplements. Therefore, the effect of food containing Spirulina should be evaluated in the future.
... The filtrates increased growth of all the bacterial strains. De Caire et al. (2000) added spirulina biomass at different concentrations to milk and then fermented the suspension with a blend of lactic acid bacteria. The presence of spirulina biomass favoured the growth of the bacteria. ...
Article
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The first objective of this study was to evaluate the use of lyophilised biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis F&M-C256 as the sole substrate for lactic acid fermentation by the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014. After 48 h of fermentation, the bacterial concentration was 10.6 log CFU mL⁻¹ and lactic acid concentration reached 3.7 g L⁻¹. Lyophilised A. platensis F&M-C256 biomass was shown to be a suitable substrate for L. plantarum ATCC 8014 growth. The second objective of the study was to investigate whether lactic acid fermentation could enhance in vitro digestibility and antioxidant activity of A. platensis biomass. Digestibility increased by 4.4%, however it was not statistically significant, while the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content did increase significantly after fermentation, by 79% and 320% respectively. This study highlights the potential of A. platensis F&M-C256 biomass as a substrate for the production of probiotic-based products.
... The stimulatory effect of aqueous suspensions of Spirulina platensis dry biomass has been reported on four lactic acid bacteria in milk. The addition of dry S. platensis to milk (6 mg/ml) stimulated the growth of Lactococcus lactis, to a remarkable 27% (de Caire et al. 2000 ). Nowadays, when the dairy industry is supplementing milk with minerals, vitamins and antioxidants, it would be of interest to consider the possibility of adding Spirulina biomass to fermented milk to induce a faster production of lactic acid bacteria in the dairy product as well as in the gut. ...
Article
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Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth of bifidogenic and lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract. Typically, the prebiotics consist of dietary fibers and oligosaccharides. Prebiotics exert a plethora of health-promoting effects, owing to which multi million food and pharma industries have been established. Prebiotics are being implicated in starter culture formulation, gut health maintenance, colitis prevention, cancer inhibition, immunopotentiaton, cholesterol removal, reduction of cardiovascular disease, prevention of obesity and constipation, bacteriocin production, use in fishery, poultry, pig, cattle feed and pet food. Looking at the ever-increasing demand of prebiotics, in this review, recent trends in prebiotic production from new novel sources, from food industrial wastes, prebiotic supplementation in food, commercially available prebiotic agents, prebiotic production by various techniques and future perspectives has been discussed. The critical insight into this hot research area aims to stimulate further ponderance.
... I tests (ANOVA, Dunnett) hanno dimostrato un massimo valore di crescita di L.casei (145,90%), L.acidophilus (171,67%), S.thermophlus (185,84%) a 10h di incubazione con concentrazione di 10mg di Sp. De Caire et al. (24) hanno approfondito lo stesso effetto, studiando la sospensione di Sp. sulla crescita nel latte di 4 lactobacilli (Streptococcus thermophilus TH4, Lactobacillus delbruekii YL1, Lactobacillus lactis C2 e Lactobacillus acidophilus LO1). Una frazione algale (3mg/ml) è stata aggiunta in un campione (0,6ml) di latte parzialmente scremato al 10% e trattata per 20 minuti a 100°C. ...
Article
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In the recent years, a growing interest for nutraceutical algae (tablets, capsules, drops) has been developed, due to their effective health benefits, as a potential alternative to the classic drugs. This review explores the use of cyanobacterium Spirulina, the microalgae Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and the macroalgae Klamath, Ascophyllum, Lithothamnion, Chondrus, Hundaria, Glacilaria, Laminaria, Asparagopsis, Eisenia, Sargassum as nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, in terms of production, nutritional components and evidence-based health benefits. Thus, our specific goals are: 1) Overview of the algae species currently used in nutraceuticals; 2) Description of their characteristics, action mechanisms, and possible side effects; 3) Perspective of specific algae clinical investigations development.
... This biomass accumulation and chlorophyll-A production is higher in S. platensis (SP-6), S. platensis (CCMB) when compared with other strains (Figures 4 and 5). On the basis of these studies, biomass was found to be a reliable indicator of cell growth [23], and maximum growth rate was observed for S. platensis (SP-6) and S. platensis (CCMB). Chlorophyll-A is a very important pigment, extensively used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries [24]. ...
Article
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The effect of modified Zarrouk’s medium on the growth response of 6 different Spirulina strains was evaluated. Specific growth rate, doubling time, mean daily division rate, biomass, and chlorophyll-A contents were analyzed. Growth patterns of these strains were monitored continuously for 40 days. The results revealed significant differences in the growth parameters for different strains. S. platensis (SP-6) and S. platensis (CCMB) showed the maximum specific growth rates (µ = 6.1, µ = 5.8), doubling times (Td = 6.93, Td = 6.87), mean division rates (k = 0.27, k = 0.23) biomasses (5.1, 5.0 g/l) and chlorophyll A contents (78, 65 µg/ml) respectively, when compared with the other strains used in this study. Therefore, S. platensis (SP-6) and S. platensis (CCMB) strains can be suggested for large scale commercial cultivation with modified Zarrouk’s medium. This provides the basis of a low cost medium for cultivating Spirulina, which is known to be a promising microalgae with several benefits.
... The activity of substances contained in blue-green algae on the growth of potential probiotic bacteria is almost referred to species such as Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris (Beheshtipour, Mortazavian, Haratian, & Darani, 2012;Bhowmik, Dubey, & Mehra, 2009;De Caire, Parada, Zaccaro, & de Cano, 2000), while no data are available as regards AFA. ...
Article
The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) and two of its extracts, Blue extract and Pure-PC on Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 growth ability and antimicrobial activity. The influence of these compounds on the viability and the resistance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions of L. acidophilus DDS-1 was monitored by plate count agar. The antimicrobial activity of cell-free culture supernatants (CFCSs) of L. acidophilus grown with or without AFA, Blue extract or Pure-PC, was determined against Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 35150 and Candida albicans ATCC 14053 by agar well diffusion and time kill-studies. Media supplemented with AFA, Blue extract or Pure-PC, stimulated the growth of L. acidophilus as compared to the standard MRS broth and enhanced the CFCSs antimicrobial effects. The highest stimulation was observed in media containing Pure-PC, that prolonged L. acidophilus growth up to 72 h.
... In addition, the probiotic bacteria are sensitive to pH, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and dissolved oxygen in fermented milk ( Zhao et al., 2006). Some researchers have observed that growth of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic media was promoted by Spirulina platensis extracellular product ( De Caire et al., 2000). Therefore, it proved to be suitable for the cost-effective manufacture of novel functional fermented non-dairy yogurts.This addition will improve sensory characteristics of the final products. ...
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In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the ingredient formulation and processing parameters of Spirulina platensis incorporated soy yogurt production such as temperature, time, and amount of Spirulina platensis on the sensory evaluation responses on 9 point Hedonic rating. Besides, the physico–chemical properties such as pH, titratable acidity, viscosity and penetration of the Spirulina platensis incorporated soy yogurt were also analysed. The analyses show that the Spirulina platensis incorporated soy yogurts have a pH from 3.43 to 5.55, acidity from 0.64 to 2.32 (%), Brookfield viscosity from 752 to 903 Centipoise and penetration from 362 to 432 1/10th mm at 25°C during the optimization process. From the analysis of variance, the R2 of all response variables is more than 0.77 that indicates that a high proportion of variability was explained by the model. Based on the response surface 3D plot of the sensory evaluation, the optimum acceptability of the Spirulina platensis incorporated soy yogurt processing parameter are at temperature of 40°C, 12 h of the fermentation duration and 0.80% (w/w) of the Spirulina platensis.
... In particular, seaweeds are rich in PS that can potentially be used as prebiotic functional substances in both human and animal health practices (1).Various researchers have shown that algae and their products are potential sources for promoting the growth of probiotic microorganisms (1,10,11,12,13). Red algae of the genus Laurencia J. V. Lamour exist in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and are an extremely rich source of secondary metabolites with diverse structural features, mainly halogenated sesquiterpenes and C15 acetogenins (14,15). ...
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Laurencia obtusa (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) has tremendous nutritional value, being high in proteins, oligosaccharides, vitamins, essential minerals, and fatty acids, and it is a rich source of amino acids and trace elements. In this study, L. obtusa was extracted and subjected to phenolic, sugar and flavonoid analyses.The fatty acid, vitamin and phytosterol contents in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated when it was incubated with L. obtusa dry biomass. The fatty acids in the lipid extract were analysed after converting them into methyl esters using gas chromatography, and vitamin concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). According to the achieved results, the total fatty acid levels and vitamin contents of the S. cerevisiae prepared with algal extract increased at different rates. Our results showed that α-tocopherol decreased in the group in which the S. cerevisiae was added the algal extract. When compared to the control group, ergesterol increased in the group in which L. obtusa extract was added. Additionally, when compared to the control group in which L. obtusa extract was added, stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2) increased in the other groups. Palmitoleic acid (16:1) increased in the L. obtusa culture medium, but palmitic acid decreased in the L. obtusa culture medium. In conclusion, it was determined that the L. obtusa extract added to the development medium of S. cerevisiae caused differences in the synthesis of some vitamins and fatty acids.
... The Spirulina yogurt would offer a unique combination of probiotic benefits and enhanced carotenoid/b-carotene content to combat diarrhea and deficiency of vitamin A prevalent among the pre-school children, especially in the rural areas. The beneficial effect of addition of Spirulina biomass on microbiological viability and growth of lactic acid and probiotic bacteria in fermented milk and yogurt has been reported in several studies (De Caire et al. 2000;Varga et al. 2002;Behesh- tipour et al. 2012). Beheshtipour et al. (2013) suggested that combination of probiotic bacteria with Spirulina platensis in fermented milk products enhances the functional and nutritional properties of the product. ...
Article
Incorporation of Spirulina in milk as thermally dried powder has the disadvantages of non-uniform distribution with undesirable odor and flavor. Through homogenization (200 ± 10 bar), complete dispersion of fresh Spirulina biomass (7% w/w) in milk was achieved and thereafter a carotenoid enriched probiotic yogurt was developed. Confocal microscopy revealed porous Spirulina-milk protein matrix integrated with smaller fat globules in the yogurt. Spirulina led to a 29.56% increase in Lactobacillus acidophilus count, a 20% reduction in fermentation time and a total probiotic count of 1.2 × 10⁷ CFU mL⁻¹. The protein, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid and β-carotene content (on dry w/w basis) were 3.58 ± 0.08 g 100 g⁻¹, 0.407 ± 0.018 mg g⁻¹, 0.235 ± 0.016 mg g⁻¹ and 13.28 ± 0.08 µg g⁻¹, respectively. During storage (18 days at 6–8 °C), the L. acidophilus count reached 8.83 ± 0.11 log CFU mL⁻¹ with 103.03% increase in the viability by day three and the yogurt retained 71.5% carotenoids. The probiotc Spirulina yogurt was found to be acceptable to consumers as evaluated by affective consumer test.
... Iron has been reported to be better absorbed in algae than iron sulfate and other components. As a result, seaweed can be a sufficient source of iron for anemic pregnant women [49]. Mazinani et al. [50] reported a significant increase in the amount of iron in cheeses fortified with the Spirulina Platensis alga. ...
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Currently, processed fruits (sour fruit and fruit paste) are consumed as one of the most popular goodies in the some countries, and the position of this product in the food basket of Iranian families is gradually becoming important. Algae are an excellent potential source of natural compounds that can be used as a functional food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Sargassum ilicifolium, Ulva lactuca, and Gracilaria cortica algae at different concentrations (1.5 and 3%) on the chemical and nutritional properties of processed fruit formulations. Fatty acid profiles were measured by gas chromatography. Vitamin contents were measured using HPLC. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was used to measure minerals. In the fatty acid profile, 21 fatty acids including saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, and PUFAs were identified. The predominant fatty acids in samples were palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. E and B1 vitamins varied from 6.19 to 22.63 mg/g and 5.38–19.10 mg/g in sour fruits and fruit paste, respectively. Among the minerals, iodine was at the highest level in all samples (5.06–607.46 mg/g). In conclusion, these seaweeds can be used as a suitable source of fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins in the formulation of functional processed fruits, which are essential for human health.
... The increase in the growth of S. thermophilus could be due to the impact of S. platensis having a high level of protein [33]. The growth and viable count of S. thermophilus in fermented milk including S. platensis was more than the control at the end of storage time [33,34]. ...
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The aim of this study was to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium lactis) by the addition of Spirulina platensis into ayran. The effects of S. platensis at 0 %, 0.25 %, 0.5 %, and 1 % concentrations on the growth of probiotic bacteria were studied before and after fermentation and on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days of storage. The S. platensis had a significant effect on the growth of S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus and B. lactis and the biochemical variables. The addition of S. platensis, significantly increased the growth of probiotics compared to the control after fermentation and within storage. Samples containing S. platensis had significantly higher titratable acidity levels compared to the control during the study period. The mixing of S. platensis at 1 % gave the highest total solid and protein content compared to the control samples. Viscosity values of samples having S. platensis decreased during storage time. The addition of algal biomass at 0.25 %, 0.5 %, and 1 % significantly decreased Hunter color parameters; L* and b* values compared to the control. Spirulina platensis has great potential for enhancing the growth of probiotic bacteria and the nutritional content of ayran.
... According to previous studies, addition of S. platensis lead to increasing viable cells of L. bulgaricus through artificial media (Parada et al.,1998). The increasing cells of L. bulgaricus bacteria in probiotic yogurt including microalgae due to interactions between L. bulgaricus and B. animalis in milk (Varga et al., 1999a;De Caire et al., 2000). Also, there are some of studies proved that the existing of probiotic bacteria, containing Bifidobacteria, can raise proteolytic efficiency and amended the viability of L. bulgaricus in milk product (Donkor et al., 2006). ...
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Recently, fermented milk industry comprehensive probiotic bacteria are a popular and universal issue with trade significance. There are various products are obtainable in public markets. The viability of probiotic bacteria in final product of fermented milk and yogurt products up to the time of utilization is the most important object of search in milk industry. Spirulina is the most vastly famous microalgae utilized for enriching fermented milk products. That incorporation of Spirulina into probiotic fermented products along with promoting viability of probiotic bacteria will grow their functional properties due to their critical nutrient quality which is beheld as "functional food". Addition of microalgae especially Spirulina into fermented milk for promoting viability of probiotics and impacts on their acidification characteristics is a topic of this discussion.
... Several authors (de Caire et al., 2000;Varga et al., 2002;Bhowmik et al., 2009;Guldas and Irkin, 2010;Beheshtipour et al., 2013;Mazinani et al., 2016;Yamaguchi et al., 2019;Martelli et al., 2020b) evaluated the effect of Arthrospira spp. ...
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The main objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Arthrospira platensis F&M-C256 (spirulina) biomass in a vegetal soybean drink or in water, as substrate for lactic acid fermentation by the probiotic bacterium Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ATCC8014 (LAB8014) and to evaluate the fermented products in terms of bacteria content and organic acids content, biochemical composition, total phenolics, and phycocyanin content, in vitro digestibility, in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. After 72 h of fermentation, a bacterial concentration of about 10.5 log CFU mL−1 in the broths containing the soybean drink + spirulina + LAB8014 (SD + S + LAB8014) or water + spirulina + LAB8014 (W + S + LAB8014) was found. Lactic acid concentration reached similar values (about 1.7 g L−1) in the two broths, while a different acetic acid concentration between SD + S + LAB8014 and W + S + LAB8014 broths was observed (7.7 and 4.1 g L−1 , respectively). A. platensis biomass was shown to be a suitable substrate for LAB8014 growth. After fermentation, both broths contained a high protein content (>50%). In both broths, total phenolics, in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity increased after fermentation (+35, +20, and +93% on average, respectively), while phycocyanin content decreased (−40% on average). Digestibility of W + S + LAB8014 broth statistically improved after fermentation. This study highlights the potential of A. platensis F&M-C256 biomass as a substrate for the production of new functional lactose-free beverages.
... In addition to high quality proteins, it contains high amounts of calcium, vitamin B12, Vitamin A, B2, B6, E, K and H, many essential minerals and enzymes. Spirulina is also very rich in terms of iron content (Henrikson, 1994;de Caire et al., 2000;Varga et al., 2002;Akalin et al., 2009;Radulović et al., 2010). ...
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Spirulina has been used for many years as human food because of its high protein content and nutritional value. The plenty of biologically important compounds in the algae, provide new opportunity for producing functional dairy products The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the powdered Spirulina platensis on the titratable acidity and pH of probiotic Doogh samples containing Mentha piperita during the refrigerated storage. In this research, Doogh samples were enriched with different concentrations of Mentha piperita (0.5 and 1%) and Spirulina platensis (0, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.8%). The treatments were stored at 4 °c for 21 days. pH and acidity of samples were measured at regular (7-day) intervals. The results showed that an increase in the concentration of Spirulina platensis induced a significant increase in the titratable acidity of probiotic Doogh during cold storage. However, the pH decreased slowly with the increasing alga content. There was no significant difference in pH and titratable acidity between samples with various concentrations of powdered Mentha piperita during storage time.
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In recent years, increasing consumer's demand for even cleaner label, functional, safe and high quality products has led to searching for new antimicrobial agents of natural origin that can improve quality and safety with reducing the impact on the product composition. In this scenario the use of algae extracts in food formulations as antimicrobial agents is taking more and more interest. In particular, the antimicrobial potential of Arthrospira platensis has already been tested in vitro, using the agar well diffusion method or the broth dilution method, that can provide a quantitative estimation of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Even if several methods are already in use to test the MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of antimicrobials, the aim of the present research was to propose impedance measurement as a valid method for the in vitro evaluation of MIC and MBC of a natural antimicrobial extract of A. platensis. To this purpose, six different concentrations of A. platensis extract (0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2%, 0.25%, 0.3% and 0.5% v/v) were tested on Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia liquefaciens, two species commonly involved in food spoilage, and Listeria innocua, as representative of the human food borne pathogenic species Listeria monocytogenes. The results obtained confirmed the in vitro antimicrobial potential of A. platensis extract, but also highlighted how MIC and MBC could be different depending on both the concentration of antimicrobial and the tested strain. Furthermore, the proposed method allowed the identification of MIC and MBC values in a new way never used before for this purpose.
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Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, a blue-green microalga, is a rich source of organic nutrients. Microalgae are used as food supplements with enhanced nutritional and functional values. Consumption of fermented milk products such as yogurt has recently increased. Both oven-dried and fresh Arthrospira biomass supplemented into yogurt at different concentrations of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% (w/v) and 1, 5, and 10% (v/v), respectively improved physicochemical properties. Arthrospira supplemented in yogurt fermentation gave faster decrease in pH value with green color index of finished yogurt. Oven drying is a convenient method; however, fresh biomass gave similar nutritional value with higher C-phycocyanin content. During storage, pH, titratable acidity, and color of yogurt showed negligible variations. Results indicated that Arthrospira increased both nutritional composition and functional properties of yogurt as a natural food ingredient.
Article
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a long history of applications in the food industry for fermentation and preservation. This feature is due to their metabolic products that can improve the nutritional and sensory characteristics of foods as well as their antimicrobial compounds that contribute to extend the shelf life of food products. Some emerging technologies including pulsed electric fields (PEF), power ultrasound (US), high-pressure processing (HPP), ultraviolet (UV), and microwave (MW) have attracted great attention for their implementation in the food industry as mild processing technologies. They have the advantage of efficiently inactivating the microorganisms, along with maintaining the fresh attributes of the food products. When applied at a sub-lethal level, these technologies present the potential to enhance several processes, such as improved microbial growth and fermentation conditions, as well as modified metabolic properties of LAB. This review covers the characteristics of LAB and their applications in the food industry. It discusses the impacts of emerging technologies on these microorganisms, with a special focus on microbial inactivation, growth stimulation, and improvement of the beneficial features of LAB by emerging technologies.
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Bioactive compounds, e.g., protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins and minerals, found in commercial form of microalgal biomass (e.g., powder, flour, liquid, oil, tablet, or capsule forms) may play important roles in functional food (e.g., dairy products, desserts, pastas, oil-derivatives, or supplements) or feed (for cattle, poultry, shellfish, and fish) with favorable outcomes upon human health, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects, as well as prevention of gastric ulcers, constipation, anemia, diabetes, and hypertension. However, scale up remains a major challenge before commercial competitiveness is attained. Notwithstanding the odds, a few companies have already overcome market constraints, and are successfully selling extracts of microalgae as colorant, or supplement for food and feed industries. Strong scientific evidence of probiotic roles of microalgae in humans is still lacking, while scarce studies have concluded on probiotic activity in marine animals upon ingestion. Limitations in culture harvesting and shelf life extension have indeed constrained commercial viability. There are, however, scattered pieces of evidence that microalgae play prebiotic roles, owing to their richness in oligosaccharides—hardly fermented by other members of the intestinal microbiota, or digested throughout the gastrointestinal tract of humans/animals for that matter. However, consistent applications exist only in the dairy industry and aquaculture. Despite the underlying potential in formulation of functional food/feed, extensive research and development efforts are still required before microalgae at large become a commercial reality in food and feed formulation.
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The influence of water extracts of Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris (1%) on sensory, chemical and microbiological changes was investigated in vacuum packaged sardine fillets at 4 ± 1 °C for 15 days. Mineral content and bioactive chemical components of microalgae samples were also detected by ICP-MS and GC–MS, respectively. The results showed that S. platensis and C. vulgaris were rich in mineral. Main components in the extracts of C. vulgaris and S. platensis were 3,5-dichloro-6- nitrocholestane (31.74%) and dioctylamine (67.64%), respectively. The extracts prolonged sensorial shelf life of sardine for 3 days although S. platensis group was more preffered than C. vulgaris. These microalgae extracts delayed lipid oxidation and inhibited bacterial growth apart from Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria in sardine meat. The study result revelaed that both extracts can be used as antioxidant and antimicrobial additives to maintain sensory characteristic of sardine fish.
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The choices for dairy products have increased in recent years because of medical recommendations or lifestyle preferences. This study was set out to assess the importance of Spirulina platensis fortification in vegan kefir production at the ratio of 0.25% and 0.50%. The most notable plant-based milk substitutes, soy milk and almond milk, were used to produce kefir. Titratable acidity, pH, water holding capacity, and microbiological counts were measured in kefir samples for 21 days. Additionally, color, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content analysis, and rheological properties were evaluated. Increasing Spirulina platensis concentration increased the counts of lactobacilli and lactococci and the total phenolic content of kefir, whereas pH values of kefir samples decreased. An increase in the Spirulina platensis amount was correlated with lower L*, a*, and b* values than control samples. According the results, Spirulina platensis can be considered as a promising functional food component to improve the prebiotic potential and bioactive quality of foods.
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Today the human has become more cautious about their diet and health. Meanwhile pollutant has badly affected the human food stuff. The adulterated food is available for consumption which has very adverse effect on human health. Thus demand of healthy and pure food has increased. So, the world’s attention has drawn on the area of probiotic. Probiotic has a good and healthy source of diet for human from centuries. On the other side, algaes are emerging1 as dietary supplements. Researcher thought about the combination of both in fermented dairy products as medium. Their effort was to enhance the functionality of food quality with addition of algae into it. In result of this combo, the viability of probiotic bacteria was also increased, acidity of food was also increased and their storage quality was also enhanced. There was more viability during storage to deliver more probiotics to human at time of their consumption. This study reviews the supplementation of Spirulina platensis on different fermented dairy products and its’ effect on their physiochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes.
Chapter
Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth of bifidogenic and lactic acid bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Typically, the prebiotics consist of dietary fibers and oligosaccharides. Prebiotics exert a plethora of health-promoting effects, owing to which multimillion food and pharma industries have been established. Production of functional foods containing prebiotic ingredients is an area that has dominant featuring in the food industry in recent years and a very promising market, not only for economic reasons but also by scientific evidence of its benefits. Looking at the ever-increasing demand of prebiotics, recent trends in prebiotic production from new novel sources, from food industrial wastes, prebiotic supplementation in food, commercially available prebiotic agents, prebiotic production by various techniques, and future perspectives have been discussed. Aiming to satisfy this new market, some prebiotics especially inulin and fructooligosaccharide have been incorporated into a wide variety of foods and beverages that are part of a natural diet as dairy products, breads, cereals, dietary supplements, and others. Through this growth, consumers can appreciate tasty meals while promoting beneficial effects to their own health. The critical insight into this hot research area aims to stimulate further ponderance.
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Spirulina water extract (SWE) has a good potency as an immunostimulant. Lactobacillus bulgaricus & Streptococcus thermophilus are lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that produce exopolysaccharide exudate. Vibriosis is a common infectious disease for aquatic cultivans caused by Vibrio spp. This study determines the ability of SWE in combination with L. bulgaricus & S. thermophilus as immunostimulant (Artemia challenge test) assay against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. harveyi . Factorial Design with two factors namely SWE doses (0, 300, 600, and 900 ppb) and Vibrio spp. treatment (non -Vibrio spp., Vibrio harveyi (Vh), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp), Vibrio vulnificus (Vv), Vh-Vp, Vv-Vp, Vp-Vh, and Vp-Vv-Vh) were applicated. SWE was diluted and LAB at a concentration of 10 ⁸ cell/mL were fermented in three days at 30°C. Ten newly hatched Artemia nauplii were enriched with fermented and non-fermented SWE for one hour, then challenged with 10 ⁸ cell/mL Vibrio spp. The survival of Artemia was recorded every 6 hours. Results showed that the survival rate of Artemia enriched with 300 ppb concentration of SWE and LAB was significant than control ( p <0.05). It is concluded that there is a positive effect on the bioencapsulation of the minimum concentration of SWE and LAB secretion to accelerate Artemia’s immune response.
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Alginate polysaccharide/oligosaccharide (APS/AOS) has been proven as a good immunostimulant. FNCC–0041 & FNCC–0040 are lactic acid bacteria (LAB) producing exopolysaccharides. Vibrio bacteria are pathogenic for aquatic cultivans. This study determines the performance of APS/AOS in combination with LAB as immunostimulants. These were conducted in Artemia challenge test assay against three species of Vibrio spp., namely Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) , V. harveyi (Vh), and V. vulnificus (Vv). The treatments were prepared by Factorial Design with two factors (APS/AOS doses and Vibrio spp.) and replicated three times. The APS/AOS concentration was 0, 300, 600, 900 ppm. There were 8 levels of vibrio challenges, namely non - Vibrio, Vp, Vh, Vv, Vp-Vh, Vh-Vp, Vv-Vp, and Vp-Vh-Vv. LAB and APS/AOS were fermented with seawater encapsulated by newly hatched Artemia’s nauplii for one hour. Ten nauplii were taken out and challenged with 10 ⁸ cells/mL Vibrio. Its survival rate (SR) was counted every six hours until reached 100% mortality. Results show that SR of all nauplii Artemia bio encapsulated treatments was higher than control (p<0.05). The best survival rate was reached from 400 ppm AOS. It has appeared that there is a synergically positive effect among the bio encapsulated AOS and LAB to accelerate the Artemia’s immune system.
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Raw bioresources for food production are the object of attention and study worldwide. Protein deficiency in nutrition is a global problem that is difficult to solve based on traditional crop and livestock resources. Microalgae is a valuable protein-mineral-vitamin supplement to human food, capable of increasing the adaptive potential of the body. The advantage of microalgae as a source of protein and essential micronutrients lies in the economy of their cultivation using simple nutrient media. Microalgae are promising for use as functional food products both in biomass (powders, syrups) and as sources of biologically active substances. Unlocking the potential of microalgae requires advanced methods of biotechnology and synthetic biology, which is associated with the need to isolate and modify the secondary metabolites of cyanobacteria to obtain a wide range of biologically active ingredients. Microalgae is a promising dietary supplement for creating innovative food products that are beneficial to health. The development of innovative food products containing microalgae requires the complex work of scientists and practitioners from all branches of the food industry. We are currently beginning a journey towards creating products enriched with microalgae.
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Challenge studies were set up feeding Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus fermented milk and two different pathogenic microorganisms: Listeria monocytogenes and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli . Mice were fed for 8 consecutive days with fermented milk and then challenged with the pathogens. The survival rate in control mice was 62% for Listeria and 83% for E. coli , while 100% protection was observed for the 20 d per vial in treated mice. Colonization of the liver and spleen by E. coli was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with fermented milk; the pathogen was not detected on the 5th day postchallenge. In the Listeria challenged mice, the pathogen was present in 1 to 2 log units lower than control up the 10th day. The levels of antipathogen sera and intestinal antibodies were 2 to 4 times higher in the treated mice, with lower values in the Listeria treated mice. The mechanism of protection in both types of infections was discussed. The results obtained suggested that milk fermented with L. casei and L. acidophilus could be used as a prophylactic against selected infections.
Article
Because the human gut microbiota can play a major role in host health, there is currently some interest in the manipulation of the composition of the gut flora towards a potentially more remedial community. Attempts have been made to increase bacterial groups such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus that are perceived as exerting health-promoting properties. Probiotics, defined as microbial food supplements that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance, have been used to change the composition of colonic microbiota. However, such changes may be transient, and the implantation of exogenous bacteria therefore becomes limited. In contrast, prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacterial species already resident in the colon, and thus attempt to improve host health. Intake of prebiotics can significantly modulate the colonic microbiota by increasing the number of specific bacteria and thus changing the composition of the microbiota. Nondigestible oligosaccharides in general, and fructooligosaccharides in particular, are prebiotics. They have been shown to stimulate the growth of endogenous bifidobacteria, which, after a short feeding period, become predominant in human feces. Moreover, these prebiotics modulate lipid metabolism, most likely via fermentation products. By combining the rationale of pro- and prebiotics, the concept of synbiotics is proposed to characterize some colonic foods with interesting nutritional properties that make these compounds candidates for classification as health-enhancing functional food ingredients.
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Spirulina has been used for many years as human food because of its high protein content and nutritional value. Some strains also produce bioactive substances that may inhibit or promote microbial growth. Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus were grown in rich media, MRS and RM, as well as in minimal saline medium with and without addition of extracellular products obtained from a late log phase culture of Spirulina platensis in Zarrouk medium. In both MRS and RM media, the extracellular products significantly promote the growth of the lactic acid bacteria assayed. This stimulatory effect was observed in media with pH adjusted to 5.3, 6.3 and 7.0. No effect was observed in minimal saline medium.
Article
This review summarises the effects of lactic acid bacteria on lactose malabsorption, bacterial/viral or antibiotic associated diarrhoea, and describes the impact of lactic acid bacteria on cancer and the fermentative products in the colon. Eight studies (including 78 patients) demonstrated that lactase deficient subjects absorbed lactose in yogurt better than lactose in milk, while two studies (25 patients) did not support this. Two studies (22 patients) showed that unfermented acidophilus milk was absorbed better than milk, while six studies (68 patients) found no significant differences. Addition of lactose hydrolysing enzyme, lactase, to milk improved lactose malabsorption in seven studies (131 lactose malabsorbers), while one study (10 malabsorbers) demonstrated no improvement. Lactic acid bacteria alleviated travellers' diarrhoea in one study (94 individuals) while a study including 756 individuals was borderline statistically significant. One study (50 individuals) did not find an effect of lactic acid bacteria on travellers' diarrhoea. Six studies (404 infants) demonstrated a significant effect of lactic acid bacteria on infant diarrhoea, while one study (40 infants) did not. Lactic acid bacteria moderated antibiotic associated diarrhoea in three studies (66 individuals), while two studies (117 individuals) were insignificant. Lactase deficient subjects benefit from a better lactose absorption after ingestion of yoghurt compared with milk and from milk added lactase, whereas ingestion of unfermented acidophilus milk does not seem to improve lactose absorption. The majority of studies support that lactic acid bacteria alleviate bacterial/viral induced diarrhoea, especially in infants, while the effect on antibiotic associated diarrhoea is less clear. Experimental studies indicate an effect of lactic bacteria on human cell cancer lines, but clinical evidence is lacking. A 'stabilising' effect of lactic acid bacteria on the colonic flora has not been documented.
W3) fatty acids in the brain and retina: evidence for their essentiality Lactic acid bacteria growth promoters from Spirulina platensis Systemic and local augmentation of the immune response in mice by feeding with milk fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or Lactobacillus casei
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Neuringer, M. & Connor, W.E. 1986 n-3(W3) fatty acids in the brain and retina: evidence for their essentiality. Nutrition Reviews 44(9), 285±294. Parada, J.L., Zulpa de Caire, G., Zaccaro de MuleÂ, M.C. & Storni de Cano, M.M. 1998 Lactic acid bacteria growth promoters from Spirulina platensis. International Journal of Food Microbiology 45, 222±228. Perdigo n, G., Alvarez, S. & Medici, M. 1992 Systemic and local augmentation of the immune response in mice by feeding with milk fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or Lactobacillus casei. In Foods nutrition and Immunity (Dynamic Nutrition Research), eds. Paubert-Braquet, M., Dupont, Ch. & Paoletti, R. pp. 66±76. Basel: Karger. ISBN 3-80555605-5.
Lactic acid bacteria and the human gastrointestinal tract Prevention of infections produced by Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes feeding milk fermented with lactobacilli
  • R Henrikson
  • Microalga
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Henrikson, R. 1994 Microalga Spirulina. Urano, Barcelona. Hove, H., Norgaard, H. & Mortensen, P.B. 1999 Lactic acid bacteria and the human gastrointestinal tract. European Journal Clinical Nutrition 53, 339±350. Nader de Macõ as, M.E., Romero, N.C., Apella, M.C., Gonza lez, S.N. & Oliver, G. 1993 Prevention of infections produced by Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes feeding milk fermented with lactobacilli. Journal of Food Protection 56, 401±405.
Algaculture: la Spirulina, un espoir pour le monde de la faim
  • R D Fox
Systemic and local augmentation of the immune response in mice by feeding with milk fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or Lactobacillus casei
  • G Perdigón
  • S Alvarez
  • M Medici