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Abstract and Figures

This paper is one of a set of lessons prepared for the course of “Theory of Architecture” (Faculty of Architecture — “La Sapienza” University of Rome). The didactic aim was to present — to students attending the first year of courses — some methods for the beginning stages of design and their applicability to any kind creative work. The brief multimedia hypertext quoted at the end of this paper was carried out in collaboration with the “LaMA” (Laboratorio Multimediale di Architettura) as a test for new educational tools applied to first our “e-learning” experiences.
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Nexus Network Journal 11 (2009) 257-272 NEXUS NETWORK JOURNAL –VOL. 11, NO.2,2009 257
© 2009 Kim Williams Books, Turin
Alessandra Capanna
Via della Bufalotta 67
00139 Roma ITALY
Keywords: music, architecture,
Daniel Libeskind, Bela Bartòk,
Steven Holl, Peter Cook, Ernest
Bloch, golden section
Music and Architecture: A Cross
between Inspiration and Method
Abstract. This paper is one of a set of lessons prepared for the
course of “Theory of Architecture” (Faculty of Architecture –
“La Sapienza” University of Rome). The didactic aim was to
present – to students attending the first year of courses – some
methods for the beginning stages of design and their
applicability to any kind creative work. The brief multimedia
hypertext quoted at the end of this paper was carried out in
collaboration with the “LaMA” (Laboratorio Multimediale di
Architettura) as a test for new educational tools applied to first
our “e-learning” experiences.
The analogies, coincidences, affinities and bonds existing between architectural and
musical compositions have been the object of research since ancient times. Traveling
through the history of this theme is very interesting, especially when it is possible to
identify the social and cultural aspects that are interpreted in the different forms of
composition: pictorial, poetic, musical and architectural. In this regard, for those who are
interested in the study of the ways in which the contemporary architect works, one
question appears central: How do projects (often very well known and in some way part of
the collective cultural memory) that are explicitly declared to derive from musical pieces,
pursue that intent? The academic approach seems to fluctuate between scientific operative
methods and an aesthetic method, where a subdivision between the practical and theoretic
spheres is still acceptable.
A study structured in this way is part of a larger reflection on the critical reading of an
architectural project aimed at decoding the graphic signs and their motivations, expressed
or implicit, conscious or unconscious, which are part of a group of symbolic memories and
of intermittent recollections of the most powerful icons of our academic formation. The
same symbols also belong to other fields of knowledge, and the capacity to de-codify them
globally is part of the architect’s long formative journey. Hypothetically, this journal is
never-ending, in that it does not simply constitute a basis of indispensable knowledge for
the architect in training, but becomes an essential part of the development of each
individual architect’s personal way of working, and of how abstract ideas are translated into
the concrete spaces of everyday life.
The goal of this present paper is to study three works of architecture that explicitly refer
to works of classical musical rather than to vaguer generic principles of harmony and
musicality, for which a serious comparative analysis becomes more difficult. Each of the
three works takes a different approach to its particular musical theme.
Music as Inspiration
Daniel Libeskind’s analytical work operates in the field of architecture’s second
invariant, defined by Bruno Zevi as the study of asymmetry and dissonance that is realized
1590-5896/09/020257-16 DOI 10.1007/s00004-008-0092-z
Music and Architecture: A Cross between Inspiration and Method
in the conscious application of a design method which results, on one hand, from the
illogical chains produced by liberal associations of the mind and, on the other, from the
logic of the deformation as a singular case of the variation of the composed theme, of the
topological order, of the deconstruction. A direct consequences of this is what is defined as
a rarefaction or dissolution of the architectural sign, which in reality leads to an abstraction
that is often extreme, but also to a closure that architecture shares with all other forms of
artistic expression.
The consequential and inevitable reduction to silence in “compositional writing” has been
compared to other, more recent musical forms where the paroxysmal crescendo of the
sound are contrasted by sudden long pauses, both metaphoric expressions of the
contemporary condition. These concepts may be expressed in a slightly cryptic way in a
collection of drawings that Libeskind entitled “Chamber Works”,1 in the same cryptic way
that some contemporary scores adopt a system of notes without the staff.
Fig. 1. Chamber Works, drawing by Daniel Libeskind [1983]. Image courtesy of Daniel Libeskind
The title “Chamber Works” in itself evokes a “chamber architecture” in the same way in
which we might speak of “chamber music”, a complete composition in all its parts, realized
through the use of a reduced number of elements, only those absolutely necessary to give
body to the logic of the written text. The two series of these drawings, the horizontal and
the vertical, form a continuum of graphic inventions that Kurt W. Foster [Libeskind 1991]
defines as “spatial music”, a kaleidoscopic collection of lines and symbols that represent the
same double axial structure of sounds; melody and/or chords, horizontal and/or vertical
structure, regulated by the common principle of liberal variation (fig. 1).
This methodological process, experimented in the pictorial form in “Chamber Works”,
is also applied in the project of the extension of the Berlin Museum with the section
dedicated to the Jewish Museum Department [Libeskind 1992], where even in a
constructed architecture the permanence of a design idea derived from the chance vicinity
of apparently heterogeneous graphical points, is realized.
The topological deformation of the six-pointed star in the plan of the Berlin museum,
the figure that generates the idea of the place, is the Star of David, transformed from a
neutral symbol of religious faith into the memory of the holocaust through the alteration of
the traditional geometry. This star, disjointed and no longer recognizable, becomes the
path through the museum (figs. 2, 3, 4, 5).
Fig. 2. Aerial model of the extension to the Berlin Museum with the Jewish Museum Department.
©SDL. Image courtesy of Studio Daniel Libeskind
Fig. 3. Plan view of the model of the extension to the Berlin Museum with the Jewish Museum
Department. ©SDL. Image courtesy of Studio Daniel Libeskind
Music and Architecture: A Cross between Inspiration and Method
Fig. 4. Realistic zinc model of the extension to the Berlin Museum with the Jewish Museum
Department. ©SDL. Image courtesy of Studio Daniel Libeskind
Fig. 5. Topological transformation of the Star of David in the plan of Libeskind’s Berlin Museum
with the Jewish Museum Department. Drawing by the author.
Fig. 6. Elevations of the extension to the Berlin Museum with the Jewish Museum Department.
©SDL. Image courtesy of Studio Daniel Libeskind
The dramatic zigzag, cut by oblique beams of light coming from slits in the perimeter
walls, regulates the sequence of the expository sections in the only order possible for this
space of contradictions, revealing the invisible and giving voice to silence (fig. 6).
The figurative effect is that of an architecture that, as Libeskind says, is “reduced to a
sign of its absence” [Libeskind 1983]. As an extreme expression of the contemporary work
it is pursued at various levels:
the adoption of metallic surfaces for the outside hull that reflect the images of
the surroundings, immaterialize the walled masses which, in contrast, are
characterized by the consistent prevailing of solids over voids;
the definition of the design of the elevations, whose punctuation dots, defined
by the same graphic matrix of the cryptic “Chamber Works” are no longer
windows to look out of, but non-oriented slits that permit of blades of light to
enter like non-articulated screams in the hollows of the holocaust museum;
in the declared reference to the dodecaphonic music presented in its final
expression of an ineluctable reduction to silence, which is physically perceived in
Moses und Aaron
. The alternation of instrumental and vocal music
as the maximum rarefaction of the body of sound immediately precedes the
definitive dying out of the words, no longer sung, but spoken “o Wort, du
Wort.” With these eloquent monosyllables that create the figurative image of the
death of every possible expression, the work, reduced to silence, can not but
cease at the second act.2
Music and Architecture: A Cross between Inspiration and Method
The non-musical realization of the word as used by Schönberg, would be the respective
voice of the non-architectural symbol as experimented in “Chamber Works” and reiterated
in the Berlin extension, both burdened by numerous symbolic accents, both relative to each
composed construction in itself and involving the destiny of the artistic expression in a
more general sense, as well as in the interpretation of the theme of remembrance.
In this particular case, the architect quite diffusely recounted (see, for instance “Between
the lines” in [Libeskind 1997]) all the reflections and personal studies on the musical work
that he transferred to the project. Therefore, the physical space and sound are in a
reciprocal relationship because the one inspired the other, even if it depends on constitutive
laws that are not easily shown to correspond, with the exception of the particular
association of the deconstructive style with the dissolution of the order introduced by the
dodecaphonic music. This is not so much a generic study of chaos as it is an interpretation
of disharmony as a new order, different from that of the classical order where harmonic
laws dominate.
Music as Image
Peter Cook is the author of design experiences imbued in ideals that began with the
historical group Archigram.
In the early 1980s he was involved in transferring the graphic form of Ernest Bloch’s
concert for violin into the composition of the plan of an ideal city:
A simple exercise was the interpretation of a piece of a violin concerto by
Ernest Bloch. Not a piece that I know, but one that looked tempting on
paper. The notes become towers, the stave becomes a street, the supporting
markings become walls. Around the time, I had set a series of short projects
for students on idea of “music” as a direct architecture … [Cook 1992].
Fig. 7. Bloch City with towers arranged on musical staffs. Image courtesy of Peter Cook
Fig. 8. Street view of Block City. Image courtesy of Peter Cook
Fig. 9. The measures of the concerto by Bloch that provided the layout for Peter Cook’s Bloch City.
Image courtesy of Peter Cook.
The notes on the staff represent the planimetric position of tall cylindrical skyscrapers
while the musical lines are the urban highways of the “great march” [Cook 1985] (figs. 7,
8, 9).
As support for the melody, the extension of the staff is virtually infinite, and represents
the basis of the fluent character of verbal and sound expression: it provides a road in space
and time to the completion of the musical experience.
Music and Architecture: A Cross between Inspiration and Method
The spatial and temporal continuation, acquired in architecture as an evolution of
perspective representation that fixes only an instant of the perception, is commonly
obtained by using the composed figure of a path along which knowledge of space is
accumulated as a succession of events. Rather than an indistinct, empty place, the road is
the urban connection that confers continuity even in the presence of strong discretizing
elements of caesura.
Bloch City’s urban highways are three parallel staffs, cut diagonally by a fourth that
appears as a link with some other place outside this system, which remains open and
extensible both in the horizontal direction for its possible transcription of the whole
concert, but also in the vertical, hypothesizing the representation of the entire polyphonic
body of the orchestra.
From the geometric-mathematical point of view, we can see that internally the system is
entirely lacking in continuous solutions, while it tends toward an external left and right
limit with regard to the written beginning and end of the physical space, represented by
The substantial disregard of this project for the natural and, in the final analysis,
hypothetical context, strongly underlines the idea that the musical
and the
of architecture both have the same nature, described by the same discrete
graphical elements, by the same punctuation marks, by the same syntactic colouring. This
is evident in this case because the project re-proposes an identical architectural and musical
graphic composition, but it also makes a limit case evident in the correspondence that is
obviously realized in the common compositional writing in both fields by using the traits
that are characteristic of each.
The dividing “bars” of the beats are represented as bridges, rhythmic separations that
acknowledge the units of space and time by establishing a correspondence between the
musical measure – the beat – and the formal urban unit – the neighborhood.
The notes are re-interpreted as towers in a knowing formal transposition: it is in fact
possible to note that this concert piece is full of chords and triplets that constitute the
vertical structure or harmony of the text. In contrast to the continuous horizontal
movement of the melody, even from a figurative point of view, Bloch City’s tall buildings
clearly represent the vertical aspect of harmony; they also reproduce the tall building’s
discrete and punctual form and the notes united in chords.
The symbol of expression repeated on all the accompanying chords (left hand of the
script for the piano, lower staff in the figure) indicates a
sound, meaning that the
notes have to be held for the entire length of its value and also slightly accentuated: this fact
highlights a formal discontinuity in the execution on the piano of a succession of harmonic
sounds which is well expressed in the project of the isolated figures of cylindrical towers
whose form, other than being the same as the notes in their modern representation – no
longer quadrangular as is found with the ancient
– is, in itself, closed, repelling,
concluded; they do not formally admit any continuity with other geometric figures.
The connecting symbol, superimposed on the staff, is the indication that reunites this
discontinuity, denoting the need to “play” the indicated piece as a whole. The continuous
linear buildings, containing offices and studios that trace the form and the position of the
buildings are therefore syntactically and formally precise.
Music as Method
This line of study, undertaken on an ideal level by Peter Cook, bringing suggestive ideas
that derive from other horizons to the field of architecture, is also pursued and verified in
the concrete reality of Steven Holl’s construction in a home in the green country spaces of
Texas that interprets the continuous and discontinuous tonal properties of the horizontal
and vertical structures.
The Texas Stretto House condenses the temporal and spatial scansion of one of Bèla
Bartòk’s most singular concerts, “Music for String Instruments, Percussions and Celesta”
[Bartòk 1937] (fig. 10).
The composition in four movements presents a clear distinction between heavy,
discontinuous percussion elements and the lighter string elements, where sound flows
without interruption.
Fig. 10. Bars from “Music for String Instruments, Percussions and Celesta” [Bartòk 1937]. Mirrored
form. Drawing by the author
The building, made up of four distinct yet related parts, represents the structural co-
presence of alternating heavy and light elements: heavy orthogonal walls, primarily
containing the service areas, and light curved metallic roofs connecting them.
The inversion of the theme in the work by Bartòk, not so much for the
as for the tonal substance, is the beginning of the second movement; the violins assume a
discrete character with their
3 entrance, while the piano, a chord instrument that is
struck, comes in with a melodic phrase, connected; an inversion which is well expressed in
the guest house, an autonomous volume where the walls become soft, curved, continuous,
while the roof becomes heavy and material.
However, these perceptive similarities are only the most evident traits of a precise,
constant and knowledgeable transcription of the musical work into the architectural design,
a composition where the opposing themes of continuity and discontinuity are already
expressed in their entirety in the first movement, and are repeated obsessively (and on
different levels) throughout the course of all four movements.
It is interesting above all to observe how the
modality is pursued by sliding the
entrances of the
theme up until the re-uniting finale.
For the entire length of the piece, the
style is manifested with an increasing
intensity up until the entrance of the celesta, an architectural instrument which Bartòk used
to explore compositions regulated by the golden ratio, to arrive at a successive, sudden
Music and Architecture: A Cross between Inspiration and Method
decrease in the intensity in the finale, where the theme, only slightly modified, is presented
in a mirrored form, going back to the original tonality.
The Stretto House travels the same temporal and spatial course: the sliding of the
entrances can be read in the passages created in the walled masses; the architectural
thickening of the central part corresponds to the orchestral thickening/broadening obtained
by the gradual entrance of an ever increasing number of instruments; the central insertion
in one of the most intense movements of the physical image of the harmonic relationships
that define the cut of the windows in the two lateral views, recalls the entrance of the
celesta where the tonal passages are of interest – the “distances” between one note and
another – corresponding to the measure of the geometric relationships that run between the
rectangles set in the windows (fig. 11).
Fig. 11. Comparison of Bartòk’s specular composition and Holl’s Stretto House.
Drawing by the author
The rapid emptying of the built masses that ends with the symbolic hollowness of the
last patio on the top floor, where a pool and a flooded room completely reflect the thematic
structure, giving an identical ending to the composition. The final walled element visualizes
the others, imprisoned in the construction, and in its reflection, it depicts the theme in its
Formally, the internal construction of the two works are of great interest, because they
are both proportioned according to the golden ratio (fig. 12).
The study of these harmonic measures runs throughout the entire oeuvre of Bartòk and
is identifiable in “Microcosmos,” an academic compilation for piano, as well as a particular
exercise composed at various levels in “Music for String Instruments, Percussions and
The 89 measures in the first movement are divided in two golden segments: from the
gradual crescendo, from the
in the beginning of the composition reaches the
apex at the end of bar 55, to the
which leads to
after the
last 34 bars, to the more internal subdivision in golden measures of the timbered pushing
and releasing the
soft pedal
, executed in decreasing progression; bars 34-21, 21-13, 13-8.4
In Steven Holl’s house, a first division in anthropometrical measures, (expressed in the
foot/inch system), of the areas within the blocks of walls, is simply repeated in the voids
and solids on both the ground and upper floors, and recalls the measures 21+13 feet that
are typical of the Fibonacci series. A timbered internal division of the solids and voids of
the main façade is easily deduced by the golden drafting process of the decomposition as
studied in Hanning, known to us by the rich epistolary rapport with Le Corbusier. It is also
possible to see a more general harmonic disposition of the glass walls composed of
rectangular windows.
Fig. 12. Identification of the golden section in the plan and elevations of the Stretto
House. Drawing by the author
Music and Architecture: A Cross between Inspiration and Method
A first effect is created by making the slight variations in the quota of the vertical section
coincide with the inclines and declines of the
: this coincidence becomes rigorous by
simply “counting” in the first passage, the different levels (that go up and down) from the
entrance to the living room and the art gallery, and another in the second, in the interior
where there is another inversion to reach the study/studio.
Even the voices, in the
, show an alternation of inclines and declines, in the
entrances: the second, the fourth, the sixth and the eighth, … each enters a fifth higher
than the last, while the third, the fifth and the seventh, all go down a fifth.
Finally, the arrangement of the rectangular walls is not left to chance: the reciprocal
position corresponds graphically exactly to the beat as it is found in the figure that is
expressly cited by Steven Holl in a watercolour connected to this project.
The beat in question is an ulterior re-proposal of the main theme, performed in this case
by the second cello.
There is one last observation to make regarding the superimposition of the longitudinal
views of the curving roofs which lie on different floors: the figure reminds us of the
compostion of different musical phrases produced contemporarily by the various
instruments. In the continuous counterpointing of the “Music for String Instruments,
Percussions and Celesta,” the voices of different violins and other strings overlap, each
occupied with the execution of its own piece. In the continuous counterpointing of the
Texas house, the timbre of the architecture is realized synchronically as though to sew it
back together using the symbolic roofs in the form of a musical bond made tri-dimensional;
the relentless discontinuous presence of the walled boxes.
Multimedia Architecture
We can see that the most evident characteristic linking the projects that have been
discussed here is their close relationship to music. The nature of their reciprocal bonds, as
well as the reasons behind their mutual connections, are quite diverse. They substantially
belong to two broad categories. The first of these tends to establish similarities or even
equivalents in the exterior expression by imitating the formal characteristics. It is therefore a
form of translation from one language to another.
Instead, the second category contains works that acknowledge the same compositional
rules. These are not always easily identifiable if the observation is limited to their exterior
aspects, and because of this it is necessary to look deeper, at the compositional structure,
ordering concepts, and structural logic, and to see if, and to what degree, these elements are
the same in both the architectural and the musical works.
In the different cases, the cause of these correspondence is sometimes believed to depend
on the mutual dependence of the logical/compositional structure deriving from
mathematical laws, intended not so much as a body of rules aimed at calculation but as
general criteria to give logical sense to the procedures of organized thought.
Each composition, whether it be musical, architectural, or artistic in the broad sense –
comprising the most extreme fringes of abstractionism – consists in identifying one theme,
in its simple or complex repetition, by using the technique of variation, in the intentional
ordered or casual arrangement, continuous or discontinuous, of the different elements in
the final constitution of this complex operation into an entity that is the complete work.
The physical effects, the similarities, are more immediately recognized than the
demonstration of their logical, mathematical origins.
A very useful tool for this, but also for a more precise verification on what has been
expressed here with concepts that are not always easily discernible, is the computer utilized
to elaborate hypertext structures able to take advantage of its simultaneous potential and
multimediality in the analyses of those architectural structures that may be defined as
The musical pieces to which the designers refer are not always easily identifiable: we find
ourselves in the position of having to accept the designer’s declarations, which are
sometimes full of poetic references.
The process of comparative analysis is therefore long and sometimes lacking in
objectivity. The simultaneousness of seeing and hearing that which is created by a hypertext
instrument is therefore necessary as a means of comparison.
This method has been adopted for the Texas Stretto House. The brief hypertext which
was realized includes all of the elements of study identified, compared and described above
with regard to Steven Holl’s work (figs. 13, 14, 15).
The result seems more clearly exhibited, and most of all, accessible even to those who are
not accustomed to staffs, eighth-, sixteenth-, thirty-second- and sixty-fourth-notes, to
musical timbres and harmonic constructions, disharmonies, dissonance, thematic
inversions, and all that is part of the musical lexicon. This form of expression is sometimes
verbally very similar to that which is used in an architect’s common language, rich in
metaphors, metonymies, meta-languages and every sort of symbolism and speculation that
tend to the limits of abstraction.
Fig. 13. Extracts from the multimedia analysis of Holl’s Stretto House. Slide by the author
Music and Architecture: A Cross between Inspiration and Method
Fig. 14. Extracts from the multimedia analysis of Holl’s Stretto House. Heavy elements – orthogonal
brick walls – kettledrums. Slide by the author
Fig. 15. Extracts from the multimedia analysis of Holl’s Stretto House. Light elements – metallic
roofs – violins. Slide by the author
1. A set of twenty-eight drawings done by Daniel Libeskind while he was the head of
the Architecture Department at the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.
2. The double identification of the reduction to silence by using the term “word”, which in the
German language is monosyllabic, is not banal. On one hand, the evident linguistic symbolism
pursued in the reduction of the number and the variety of phonemes in a quantitative
“diminuendo” expressed the impossibility to communicate, on the other, the analogy that is not
exquisitely formal, but structural, with the way in which most of the musical compositions are
concluded – defined by Libeskind as a reduction to silence – that often occurs by reiterating the
note that returns to the tonal theme which alone, plays for the entire length of the last beats, tied
into a singular, last and final afflatus.
3. The “Bartòk pizzicato” consists of elevating the chord and then suddenly releasing it; the effect
thus obtained is more intense than the light pizzicato that is commonly used by playing the
chords of the strings as you would a guitar.
4. Explicit referral to the Fibonacci succession 1:1:2:3:5:8:13:21:34:55:89… is found in [Szabolcis
5. The multimedia presentation was a
Macromedia Director
production, originally created in 1995
with an Apple system Mac, now “unreadable”, but “translated” into a more static
presented at the recent conference “Sound and Image”, Aula Magna in the Facoltà di Medicina,
30 May 2008.
ALEXANDER, C. and P. EISENMAN. 1983. Contrasti sul concetto di armonia in architettura,
Architettura e musica. 1981.
Atti del Convegno “Musica, Spazio, Architettura”. 1995.
Quaderni della Civica Scuola di Musica
BARTÒK, Bèla. 1937.
Music for String Instruments, Percussion and Celesta
(score). Series:
Philarmonia 201.
COOK, P. 1985., Le laboratoire d’image.
Techniques & Architecture
358: 96-101.
COOK, P. 1993. Six Conversations.
Architectural Monographs
DANDREL, L. 1990. Vers une architecture sonore.
Architecture d’Aujourd’hui
FUTAGAWA, Y. 1993. Steven Holl.
GA Architect
HOLL, S. 1993. Costruzione in quattro parti.
Point and Line to Plane
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, Weimar, 1923).
Chamber Works
———. 1985. Le traces de l’invisible.
Technique & Architecture
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———. 1992.
Extension to the Berlin Museum with Jewish Museum Department
. Berlin: Ernst &
———. 1997.
. Munich-New York: Prestel.
MEYER, L.B. 1967.
Music, the Arts and the Ideas
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La Sezione Aurea. Arte, natura, matematica, architettura e musica
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XENAKIS, I. 2008.
Music and Architecture
. Sharon Kanach, trans. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press.
About the author
Alessandra Capanna is an Italian architect living and working in Rome. She has taken her degree in
Architecture at University of Rome “La Sapienza”, from which she also received her Ph.D, with a
thesis entitled “Strutture Matematiche della Composizione”, concerning the logical paradigms in
music and in architecture. She is the author of
Le Corbusier. Padiglione Philips, Bruxelles
2000), on the correspondence between the geometry of hyperbolic paraboloids and technical and
acoustic needs, and its final and aesthetics consequences. Among her published articles on
mathematical principles both in music and in architecture are “Una struttura matematica della
composizione”, remarking the idea of self-similarity in composition; “Musica e Architettura. Tra
ispirazione e metodo”, about three architectures by Steven Holl, Peter Cook and Daniel Libeskind;
and “Iannis Xenakis. Combinazioni compositive senza limiti”, taken from a lecture given at the
Dipartimento di Progettazione Architettonica e Urbana at the University of Rome. She is teacher at
the First Faculty of Architecture of Rome “La Sapienza” . She has taken part to Nexus Conferences
III and VI speaking about “Conoids and Hyperbolic Paraboloids in Le Corbusier's Philips Pavilion”
(2000) and “BiOrganic Design. A New Method for Architecture and the City” (2006). She is a
member of the editorial board of the
Nexus Network Journal.
Architecture usually excites the audience through its special physique or structure. Using the arts such as music or utilizing digital mathematics science related to architecture could lead to the creation of special work of art. The aim of this article was to find a relationship between music and architecture and mathematics and the analysis of the parameters of this relationship in traditional Iranian architecture. To answer these questions, this article followed a qualitative research method along with comparative analysis and logical reasoning in theoretical studies and effective parameters. Accordingly, the present study is aimed to investigate the relationships and commonalities between music and architecture and mathematics and the various theoretical approaches in this regard. Then, there is a part studying the similarities between music and architecture and mathematics in traditional Iranian architecture. The results revealed that there is a deep, conceptual, and fundamental connection between music and traditional Iranian architecture the appearance of which is obvious in analysis and investigation of different parameters such as rhythm, high and low, hierarchy, numbers, mathematics, geometry, and color indicating compatibility of two or manifold presence of concept, physics and mathematics. Thus, the connection between parameters of “music-architecturemathematics” relationship in traditional Iranian architecture could be divided to two main approaches. In the conceptual-physical approach, elements such as color, rhythm, music, and high and low are important in traditional architecture. In the concept of mathematical-physical approach, elements such as numbers and symbolism.
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Contrasti sul concetto di armonia in architettura
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Le laboratoire d’image
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Bèla Bartòk, Sa vie et son oeuvre
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Costruzione in quattro parti
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HOLL, S. 1993. Costruzione in quattro parti. Lotus 77.
Music for String Instruments, Percussion and Celesta (score). Series: Philarmonia
  • Bèla Bartòk
BARTÒK, Bèla. 1937. Music for String Instruments, Percussion and Celesta (score). Series: Philarmonia 201.