Brief History of the Tissue Bank, Charles University Hospital, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic

University Hospital
Cell and Tissue Banking (Impact Factor: 1.25). 02/2000; 1(1):17-25. DOI: 10.1023/A:1010128228619


A brief history of the Tissue Bank (TB) of the University Hospital Hradec Krlov, Czech Republic, established by Dr. R. Klen in 1952 is presented. In Dr. Klen's original concept the TB was defined as a department specialised in the harvesting, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of various kinds of tissue for clinical and experimental practice. The first kinds of tissue collected in cadaveric donors were corneas, bone and skin. Xenogeneic cartilage and bone grafts were prepared at the same time. Later, preparation of soft connective tissues and chorion–amnion was introduced. During the first 15 years of activity a total of 11,443 grafts preserved by hypothermy at +4C or freezing in absence of cryoprotectants (–20C) were prepared. In the 60's freeze-drying of tissue grafts was introduced and the bank of cryopreserved cell lines was established. In the 80's cryopreservation of haematopoietic progenitor cells for clinical transplantations was started and the spectrum of tissue grafts was enlarged (xenogeneic pericardium and allogeneic specially treated dura mater for neurosurgical operations, pigskin for burn treatment, demineralised bone for parodontology and implantology). In the 90's human keratinocyte culture for treatment of burns and chronic skin defects was started. The human milk bank and organ bank co-operating with the Regional Transplantation Centre are component parts of the TB as well. The TB is an institutional member of the European Association of Tissue Banks and annually delivers approximately 1000 grafts that are used in University and county hospitals as well as in surgeons' private practices. Health insurance companies reimburse all grafts on a non-profit and tax-free basis.

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Available from: Pavel Mĕricka
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    • "The elective subject " Basis of Harvest and Preservation of Tissues " was established at the Charles University in Prague Medical Faculty Hradec Králové by authors in the academic year 2001/2002 both in Czech and English versions as an extension of teaching activities of the Tissue Bank University Hospital Hradec Králové existing before [1] [2]. The schedule of this subject was traditionally divided to lectures, practicals and a final seminar. "
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT 1. Background The design and initial experience with the e-learning course: „Basis of Harvest and Preservation of Tissues“used as a support of an elective subject is presented The aim of the e-learning course was to enable the students to learn individually the theoretical principles of the subject and to present the gained knowledge at the final seminar. 2. Methods All functions of the course were operated in moodle, local application of the Charles University in Prague, Medical Faculty Hradec Králové. The course was divided into 3 main topics corresponding with topics of lectures: 1. Principles of tissue and organ donation, 2. Low temperature preservation of cells, tissues and organs, 3. Quality and safety assurance in practice of tissue and procurement establishments. A test consisting of 5 questions selected randomly from the bank of questions followed each topic. If the student answers correctly at least 3 questions he is allowed to pass to the next topic. The fourth topic „ Basic processes in the tissue establishment and principles of their validation“was added in the electronic version as a tool to repeating and enlargement of knowledge . The fifths topic was represented by a database for uploading theses presented by students at the final seminar. The final test consisted of 15 questions (5 ones from each basic topic). It was necessary to answer correctly at least 10 questions to receive a certificate of completing the course. 3. Results The course was put into operation during the summer term of the school- year 2012/2013. To the date 15 of September the total of 23 students enrolled (17,ie. all students of the elective subject in the Czech version, 2 students of this subject in the English version, 2 postgraduate students and 2 medical doctors).All enrolled students used the course for on - line learning, downloading, or printing course study materials. All undergraduate students were obliged to use it for preparation, consultation and presentation of seminar theses, ie 10 minute Power Point presentations followed by 5 minute discussion. Verification of the course is planed during the summer term of the school-year 2013/2014. 4. Conclusions The first experience showed that the presented e-learning course could serve as a useful support of the elective subject „Basis of Harvest and Preservation of Tissues“. It enlarged substantially the choice of study materials that can be regularly updated, so that the students receive the newest information. It can be attractive also for students that are not enrolled in the elective subject because of its limited capacity (not more than 20persons) The efficiency of such form of education must be, however a subject of further verification.
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    ABSTRACT: Skin allografts were first used at the end of the last century by Girdner [Girdner JH. Skin grafting with graft taken from the dead subject. Med Rec (NY) 1881;20:119-20]; however, routine storage of human tissue developed only in the 1930s to 1940s [Webster JP. Refrigerated skin grafts. Ann Surg 1944;120:431-49] when reliable preservation methods became available. The first proper skin bank was the US Navy Skin Bank, set up in 1949 [McCauley RL. The skin Bank. In: Herndon DN, editor. Total burn care. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1996. p. 159-63]. Several skin banks were subsequently established in the United States and Europe, and in most cases they were organized as multitissue banks. Nowadays, it is estimated that 30 to 50 tissue banks are active in the United States, working according to the American Association of Tissue Banking (AATB) standards (AATB. Standards for tissue banking; 1984) and federal regulations (Real E S and regulations. Fed Regist. 1993).
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    ABSTRACT: The author presents a summary of current safety standards for allogeneic and xenogeneic biological skin grafts. The fundamental document relevant to allogeneic transplants, establishing the minimal level of safety guaranteed in European Union states, is the European Parliament and Council Directive (2004/23/EC) from March 31st 2004. This Directive determines that grafts will be prepared by a licensed or accredited tissue bank, and that this arrangement must be put in place by the member states within 2 years. In the Czech Republic licensing of tissue banks took place immediately after issuance of the Directive. Licensing was also a condition for product reimbursement by insurance companies. To gain a licence, tissue banks had to fulfil many safety criteria associated with screening of living or deceased donors for health suitability, providing traceability of the donor-recipient route, prevention of secondary and cross-contamination during processing and storage of the harvested tissues, proof of product microbiology check up, and cold chain control. The Tissue Bank of the Faculty Hospital in Hradec Králové is one of the two tissue banks that gained the broader type of 'multifunctional' licence and was granted registration number MTB 006. Obtaining the licence was facilitated by completion of a new workplace project conceived as a combination of cryogenic and clean-room technology. Currently, this tissue bank prepares cryopreserved dermoepidermal and dermal grafts as well as amnion and chorioamnion grafts. All tissue banks will have to renew their licences again according to the conditions established by a new law about human tissues and cells which is currently in preparation. Neither the Directive of the European Parliament nor the Transplantation Law of the Czech Republic regulates the issue of xenografts. Since availability of allogeneic biological covers is limited, it is significant that the WHO perspective on the use of xenogeneic biological covers, as established in 2005, is positive. This attitude should also be taken in the Czech Republic. The directives of the European Union pertinent to medical devices of biological origins can be applied only to devitalized tissues--and moreover, the domestic pig is not on the risk animal list. The author presumes that to guarantee safe use of viable xenografts it is necessary to follow the general principles of quality control as applied in the workplace for many years, as well as general medicinal product safety principles, including strict veterinary control of breed of animals whose tissues are used for the preparation of xenografts.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Acta chirurgiae plasticae
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