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Defining Twenty-First Century Skills

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Abstract

As the previous chapter indicates, there has been a significant shift in advanced economies from manufacturing to information and knowledge services. Knowledge itself is growing ever more specialized and expanding exponentially. Information and communication technology is transforming the nature of how work is conducted and the meaning of social relationships. Decentralized decision making, information sharing, teamwork, and innovation are key in today’s enterprises. No longer can students look forward to middle class success in the conduct of manual labor or use of routine skills – work that can be accomplished by machines. Rather, whether a technician or a professional person, success lies in being able to communicate, share, and use information to solve complex problems, in being able to adapt and innovate in response to new demands and changing circumstances, in being able to marshal and expand the power of technology to create new knowledge, and in expanding human capacity and productivity.

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... This proclivity towards games causes students to be more inclined, competitive, cooperative, and consistently seeking information and solutions to solve problems. The gaming Thinking, creativity, collaboration, and communication (Binkley et al., 2012) [4]. Critical Thinking comprises skills like reasoning, problem-solving, computational thinking, and decision making (Binkley et al., 2012) [4]. ...
... The gaming Thinking, creativity, collaboration, and communication (Binkley et al., 2012) [4]. Critical Thinking comprises skills like reasoning, problem-solving, computational thinking, and decision making (Binkley et al., 2012) [4]. Creativity includes uniqueness, innovative thinking, originality, inventiveness, and the ability to perceive failures as an opportunity to improve (Binkley et al., 2012) [4]. ...
... Critical Thinking comprises skills like reasoning, problem-solving, computational thinking, and decision making (Binkley et al., 2012) [4]. Creativity includes uniqueness, innovative thinking, originality, inventiveness, and the ability to perceive failures as an opportunity to improve (Binkley et al., 2012) [4]. Lepper (1985) [5] suggested that the degree of proclivity that students have towards learning through game-based learning methods is determined by the characteristics of the game. ...
... There are several definitions for the concept of 21st century competencies (Ananiadou & Claro, 2009;Binkley et al., 2012;Dede, 2010) that have been recommended by diverse organizations such as Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2005) and the Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture (2008). These have been widely adapted and included in national curricula in many western countries. ...
... These have been widely adapted and included in national curricula in many western countries. In this study we consider the term 21st century competencies as an umbrella concept of desired skills and competencies for a person to survive in a future society (Binkley et al., 2012). The emphasis is on higher level thinking skills (creative thinking, problem solving and critical thinking), communication and collaboration skills as well as tools of digital technology and digital literacy skills. ...
... Teachers are facing this challenge in their everyday work and they solve the problem in practice when teaching their subject matter. Thinking on a higher level, cooperation and information management skills are the new standard of learning outcome and achieving that outcome requires the development of both content and teaching methods practices (e.g., Binkley et al., 2012). Finnish HE teachers stress 21st century competencies, such as cooperation, problem solving and information management skills. ...
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Home economics (HE) teachers are obligated to develop their education so that the subject is current and promotes the well-being of the individual, family and larger community. This qualitative study provides insight into the student competencies and skills that Finnish HE teachers perceive to be important in the future and also how HE teaching should evolve to meet these needs. Data about future competencies and teaching practices among Finnish HE teachers were collected during an in-service training session that was organised after recent curriculum changes and updates. An interactive online discussion was used consisting of written reflections of 14 upper-secondary Finnish HE teachers that taught 21st century HE competencies (e.g., housing, textile care, food preparation and consumer skills). They said that this combination of skills promoted pupils’ reflective thinking, which they will need at home, work and in the wider society. Teachers also said that personal development skills help build students’ self-confidence and facilitate the joy of learning, which promotes wellbeing. Teachers valued HE literacy skills including housing and textile care, consumer knowledge and recipe literacy. Teachers also highlighted digital technology skills as important HE skills. Concerning the future of HE teaching, the teachers aimed to reduce teacher-directed lecturing and reduce contents and cooking in their lessons. Instead, they aimed to increase student-centred learning through the use of suggested pedagogical tools. KEYWORDS: FUTURE SKILLS; HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION; 21ST CENTURY COMPETENCIES; PEDAGOGY; IN-SERVICE EDUCATION; TEACHER EDUCATION
... They have been referred to using several terms such as key competences (Council of the European Union, 2018), future competences (Marope et al., 2019) and transformative competencies (OECD, 2019). In some contexts, they have been called twenty-first century skills (Binkley et al., 2012) and competences (Ananiadou & Claro, 2009), generic employability skills (Curtis & McKenzie, 2002), soft skills (Robles, 2012), graduate attributes (Barrie, 2012;Hager & Holland, 2006) and generic capabilities (Bowden et al., 2000). These interchangeable terms, often used as synonyms, have remained rather loose and ill-defined while allowing space for competing and divergent conceptualizations (Rigby et al., 2009;Sin & Reid, 2005). ...
... Future competences enable students to solve problems and act successfully in a self-organized manner in uncertain settings and various contexts . They are seen to entail not only the mobilization of knowledge and skills but also personality traits such as attitudes and values (Binkley et al., 2012;OECD, 2019;Rigby et al., 2009). Thus, future competences are much more than just a set of general skills or pieces of knowledge. ...
... One example of this is the research project Assessing and Teaching of 21st Century Skills (ATC21S), implemented between 2009 and 2012 and sponsored by Microsoft, Cisco and Intel. Based on an extensive international analysis of twenty-first century skills frameworks, the project resulted in a model for describing and assessing the skills needed in the twenty-first century (Binkley et al., 2012). ...
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Higher education institutions are challenged to develop innovative educational solutions to meet the competence development requirements set by the emerging future. This qualitative case study aims to identify the future competences considered important for higher education students to acquire during their studies and how the development of these competences can be supported with learning analytics. Reflection on these issues is based on three dimensions (subject development, object, and social environment) of future competences. A special emphasis is placed on the views of 19 teaching professionals gathered from group interviews and analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. The findings indicate that subject development-related future competences, such as reflective competence, self-awareness and self-management, learning literacy, and personal agency and self-efficacy were strongly identified as necessary future competences. The potential of learning analytics to support their development was also widely recognized as it provides means to reflect on learning and competence development and increase one’s self-awareness of strengths and weaknesses. In addition, learning analytics was considered to promote goal-orientation, metacognition and learning to learn, active engagement as well as learning confidence. To deal with complex topics and tasks, students should also acquire object-related competences, such as changeability and digital competence. In addition, they need cooperation and communication competence as well as a developmental mindset to operate successfully in social environments. The use of learning analytics to support most of these object and social environment-related competences was considered promising as it enables the wide exploitation of digital tools and systems, the analysis and visualization of social interactions, and the formation of purposeful learning groups and communal development practices. However, concrete ways of applying learning analytics were largely unacknowledged. This study provides useful insights on the relationship of important future competences and learning analytics while expanding on previous research and conceptual modelling. The findings support professionals working at higher education institutions in facilitating successful conditions for the development of future competences and in advancing purposeful use of learning analytics.
... This proclivity towards games causes students to be more inclined, competitive, cooperative, and consistently seeking information and solutions to solve problems. The gaming Thinking, creativity, collaboration, and communication (Binkley et al., 2012) [4]. Critical Thinking comprises skills like reasoning, problem-solving, computational thinking, and decision making (Binkley et al., 2012) [4]. ...
... The gaming Thinking, creativity, collaboration, and communication (Binkley et al., 2012) [4]. Critical Thinking comprises skills like reasoning, problem-solving, computational thinking, and decision making (Binkley et al., 2012) [4]. Creativity includes uniqueness, innovative thinking, originality, inventiveness, and the ability to perceive failures as an opportunity to improve (Binkley et al., 2012) [4]. ...
... Critical Thinking comprises skills like reasoning, problem-solving, computational thinking, and decision making (Binkley et al., 2012) [4]. Creativity includes uniqueness, innovative thinking, originality, inventiveness, and the ability to perceive failures as an opportunity to improve (Binkley et al., 2012) [4]. Lepper (1985) [5] suggested that the degree of proclivity that students have towards learning through game-based learning methods is determined by the characteristics of the game. ...
Conference Paper
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) within the finance industry can be considered as a transformative approach as it enables the financial institutions to enhance their performance capacity. The use of artificial intelligence within the finance sector helps the industries to streamline the processes and optimise their management efficiently for various types of operations pertaining to credit decisions-making, financial risk assessment and management and quantitative trading. The paper aims at analysing the proactive approach that can be taken with the use of AI in order to enhance effective management within the financial sector. The empirical study conducted in the paper utilizes various types of secondary materials with a qualitative approach. The findings of the study demonstrate the enhanced capacity of AI that can be used for a proactive approach, utilised for the assessment of risks or threats prior to any mismanagement incident. In this regard, fintech companies such as Enova, Ocrolus, ZestFinance, and DataRobot and so on have taken a predominant position in aiding the financial industries to use AI-based systems that aids the management process. However, the inclusion of AI within the financial sector is faced with certain challenges such as lack of knowledge regarding technological infrastructure, poor financial investment especially for government aided banks, unawareness of the employees and weak collaboration with the IT industry. Regardless, AI technologies in recent years have achieved great advancement, leading to the enhancement of its capacity to assist the effective management within the financial sector.
... With the expansion of the global knowledge economy, the goals, content, methods and evaluations of the global education system have become closely linked to the general competencies or skills required by individuals and society in the twenty-first century beyond content knowledge (Ananiadou & Claro, 2009;Binkley et al., 2012;Care et al., 2016). Various international organisations and most countries have developed twentyfirst century competencies frameworks that select and define the necessary skills or competencies that students need to master as part of the aims for education or learning outcomes (Ananiadou & Claro, 2009;Deng & Zhengmei, 2021;Voogt & Roblin, 2012), which is intended to facilitate individuals' success, society's well-function and national economic prosperity, and increase in global competitiveness, as well as help students become better citizens in the increasingly multicultural society (Anderson-Levitt & Gardinier, 2021;Binkley et al., 2012). ...
... With the expansion of the global knowledge economy, the goals, content, methods and evaluations of the global education system have become closely linked to the general competencies or skills required by individuals and society in the twenty-first century beyond content knowledge (Ananiadou & Claro, 2009;Binkley et al., 2012;Care et al., 2016). Various international organisations and most countries have developed twentyfirst century competencies frameworks that select and define the necessary skills or competencies that students need to master as part of the aims for education or learning outcomes (Ananiadou & Claro, 2009;Deng & Zhengmei, 2021;Voogt & Roblin, 2012), which is intended to facilitate individuals' success, society's well-function and national economic prosperity, and increase in global competitiveness, as well as help students become better citizens in the increasingly multicultural society (Anderson-Levitt & Gardinier, 2021;Binkley et al., 2012). Along with international organisations and national governments, technology corporations are also one of the powerful actors in twenty-firstcentury-competencies-based education (Anderson-Levitt, 2021;Griffin et al., 2012). ...
... The Curricula in the three countries are examined based on eleven competencies (see Table 1). The analytical framework used in this study follows the framework developed by the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first Century Skills (ATC21S), which groups ten competencies into four broad categories: Ways of Thinking, Ways of Working, Tools of Working and Living in the World (Binkley et al., 2012). Competencies in Ways of Thinking consists of creativity, critical thinking and metacognition and emphasises higher-order thinking skills. ...
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Integrating twenty-first century competencies into the curriculum has become an important issue for education reform worldwide. This study examines and compares twenty-first century competencies demonstrated in mother tongue curriculum standards in China, the United States and Finland. It identifies key similarities and significant differences among them. It shows that the Finnish Curriculum has a more balanced distribution of twenty-first century competencies. While communication and critical thinking are stressed in all three, critical thinking is prioritised in the American Curriculum. In addition to communication and critical thinking, the Chinese Curriculum emphasises citizenship based on national identity, metacognitive strategies and aesthetics. The American Curriculum focuses on information and ICT literacy, and the Finnish Curriculum highlights personal and social responsibility concerning cultural awareness and citizenship. The significant differences between these three Curricula are related to the countries’ tradition of curriculum theories – the Chinese integrate Western theories and the Confucian tradition, the American follow the Anglo–American curriculum and the Finnish have roots in Bildung-Didaktik. Curriculum objectives should take into consideration both subject knowledge and skills and the student as a whole person. Additionally, different curriculum traditions should be considered and learned during the curriculum design process.
... Regarding teaching in the 21st century, specific skills are specified for students to be successful in occupations at present and in the future. These skills are creative thinking, innovation, critical thinking, problem-solving, metacognition, communication, working together, information literacy, technology literacy, citizenship, life, and occupational skills, cultural awareness, and social responsibility (Binkley et al., 2012;Trilling & Fadel, 2009). Apart from formal educational systems, the focus is on the roles of long-distance learning, the importance of integrated teaching, practice, and lifelong learning science. ...
... Digital teaching and learning include interesting points which do not exist in the traditional method such as time for processing knowledge and responding, better interaction among students, knowledge gain and exchange among students, ability to be an open discourse leader. All students gain equivalently more than close personal conversations; and motivation and participation are higher in the teaching and learning process (Dorier & Maab, 2012;Hammond, Austin, Orcutt & Rosso, 2001;Rashty, 1999;Entwistle & Tait, 1995;Biggs, 1996;Khalaf & Zin, 2018;Singh, Yusoff, & Oo, 2009;Kelmendi, 2019;Lewin, & Lundie, 2016;Binkley et al., 2012;Trilling & Fadel, 2009;Carr, Balasubramanian, Atieno, & Onyango, 2018;Rana, Greenwood, Fox-Turnbull, & Wise, 2018;Harriman, 2014;Kelmendi, 2019;Li, Qi, Wang, & Wang, 2014;Phra Sitthichai Rinrit & Charbudboontarik, 2020;Khwana, & Khwana, 2019). ...
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This paper presents social studies digital pedagogy innovation for social studies teachers for new normal Thaischooling. The purpose of this study is to enable social studies teachers to change teaching methods from traditional social studies teaching to social studies digital teaching. It also expands the area in the context of social studies more widely. Social studies pedagogy is transformative teaching for educating learners to understand human living as an individual and cohabitation in societies. Learners should be equipped with abilities to adapt themselves according to the environment, manage limited resources, understand changing development according to eras and various factors, understand themselves and other people, be patient and accept differences, have morals, and apply knowledge in living and development of digital citizenship. Social studies teachers are expected to apply such concepts suitably for the contexts and environment of new normal schooling. Teaching innovation is distinctive in the teaching and learning process with the focus on the learner as a maker. In this approach, digital technology is integrated with the teaching and learning process by selecting teaching methods, media, activities, and evaluation suitable for the contents. The methods and activities enhance learners to achieve objectives of teaching and learning as well to use students’ learning performance for evaluating and developing their competencies.
... Metacognitive thinking is necessary to continue learning and adapting to new situations. According to Binkley et al. (2012), metacognition is a required skill for the 21st century, and learning is recognized as contributing to social justice, sustainable development, and global citizenship (UNESCO, 2019). Metacognition refers to individuals' awareness, judgments, and beliefs about their cognitive potential and the conscious acts of cognitive operations (Flavell, 1976;Zohar and Barzilai, 2013;Yerdelen-Damar et al., 2015). ...
... They will find themselves in unfamiliar cultural contexts that may challenge their understanding of the world, making it necessary to develop new dispositions, knowledge, and skills (Bennet and Moriarty, 2016). The willingness to learn continuously is one of the ten skills denominated for the 21st century (Binkley et al., 2012). The European Commission (2001) defined lifelong learning as any learning activity undertaken throughout life to improve knowledge, skills, and competencies with a personal, civic, social, or work perspective. ...
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Initial teacher education should prepare pre-service teachers to develop effective teaching and lifelong learning tendencies. This study aimed to identify the component to consider in pre-service teachers’ assessment processes that promote lifelong learning and develop metacognition skills. For this, it analyzed how the planned and implemented actions by the teacher educators in Practice-based Teacher Education programs promoted metacognition and lifelong learning in the pre-service teachers. The method was a mixed explanatory sequential design. Quantitative and qualitative instruments were applied. Information was obtained from the learning and assessment resources (72 syllabi and 14 assessment tasks) and pre-service teachers’ opinions (survey: n = 231, interviews: n = 8). The findings identified three main components: (i) authentic and relevant assessment tasks, (ii) prior communication of instructions and evaluation criteria, and (iii) frequent performance-focused feedback from peers and teacher educators during and at the end of assignments. The study results can be valuable in teacher education programs to strengthen assessment processes, promote lifelong learning tendencies, and develop metacognitive skills among the teachers in training.
... Kenyataan ini mungkin menyebabkan guru takut gagal, dan banyak dari mereka mungkin percaya bahwa mereka tidak diberikan dukungan yang mereka butuhkan untuk mengembangkan kemampuan ini dalam diri mereka atau siswa mereka. Guru dan siswa harus fasih dalam semua skill dan literasi abad ke-21: keterampilan belajar, literacy skills, dan keterampilan hidup (Ananiadou & Claro, 2009;Binkley et al., 2012;Ferrari, 2012;Partnership for 21st Century, 2007;van Laar et al., 2020;Voogt & Roblin, 2012), karena misi fakultas adalah membekali mahasiswa untuk menavigasi lingkungan baru ini. ...
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This article is conceptual, resulting from a literature review from various printed and electronic sources. It describes the essential features of utilizing digital technology to improve educational institutions. They are intended for faculty or higher education and teacher education and training providers. Both professional development programs for in-service and pre-service teachers must provide technology-rich experiences in all aspects of education and training. Education worldwide is experiencing a significant paradigm shift in educational practice, teaching, and learning under an ICT-enabled learning environment. 21st Century Education explicitly implies that teachers must master ICT. As the front line to advance education, teachers are not sufficiently equipped to utilize technology in the classroom. The best method for preparing teachers for ICT-based teaching is to let them do it. Learning ICT skills alone is not enough, but using ICT to improve teaching and learning is key to integrating technology and pedagogy. Technology-enabled learning experiences that encourage and enable the use of technology to enhance learning, assessment, and teaching practice should be provided by all institutions participating in preparing future educators.
... Producing qualified graduates with relevant skills have come to be a focus of interest in our education systems. As cited in Global Partnership for Education, 21 st Century skills are abilities and attributes that can be taught or learned to enhance ways of thinking, learning, working, and living in the world (Binkley et al., 2012). These skills include creativity and innovation, critical thinking/problem solving/decision making, learning to learn/metacognition, communication, collaboration (teamwork), information literacy, ICT literacy, citizenship (local and global), life and career skills, and personal and social responsibility (including cultural awareness and competence). ...
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The main objective of the study is to analyze the EU labor market needs and expectations in 21st Century skills in five countries from the point of view of academicians and HR managers. The meta-analysis research method was used to analyze the current reports of Turkey, the Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, and Spain. The research results and findings of each country report have been comparatively analyzed. The research sample consists of five national reports. All views obtained from 28 human resources managers and 14 academicians were examined. According to research results, HR managers have more practical and pragmatist expectations from graduates such as business intelligence, knowledge of foreign languages, and continuous learning. Academicians emphasize graduates’ data mining ability, which refers to critical thinking. While academicians give high priority to communication and problem-solving, HR managers prioritize collaboration/team working skills. Agility skills defined as the ability to adapt to the changing conditions, are put in the second place by HR managers. According to academicians and HR managers, the most important 21st Century skills, in five countries, are communication, collaboration, and self-direction. There exists a need for innovative teaching materials to teach aforementioned skills to higher education students.
... Collaborative skill adalah kemampuan untuk berkolaborasi atau bekerja sama dengan banyak pihak, di mana pun, kapan pun, dan dengan siapa pun (Harman & Stein, 2015). Collaborative skill juga diartikan sebagai kemampuan individu untuk dapat berinteraksi dan bekerja secara efektif dengan orang lain dalam satu tim, mampu berpartisipasi secara aktif, membimbing serta bertanggung jawab terhadap sesama (Binkley et al., 2011). Berdasarkan definisi-definisi di atas, maka collaborative skill dapat disimpulkan sebagai suatu kemampuan individu untuk dapat berinteraksi dan bekerja secara efektif dengan orang lain dalam satu tim, mampu berpartisipasi secara aktif, membimbing serta bertanggung jawab terhadap sesama. ...
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The research explored the description of learning agility and the effect of each independent variable, namely online learning, grit, and collaborative skill on learning agility of millennial employees in DKI Jaya. This quantitative research applied an associative approach with data collected through questionnaires with a total of 387 millennial employees in DKI Jaya. This research suggested that millennial employees in DKI Jaya performed good learning agility, online learning, grit, and collaborative skill. Using simple regression analysis, it was known that online learning and collaborative skill each had significant effect on learning agility, while grit was found not to have significant effect on learning agility of millennial employees in DKI Jaya. By this research, the institutions were supposed to continuously support the development of learning agility, online learning, grit, and collaborative skill of millennial employees in DKI Jaya for the sustainability of the institutions.
... The list of 21st century skills was developed by conducting a content analysis of various websites, blogs, and journal articles about 21st century skills, life skills, and soft skills and identifying the most commonly cited skills (e.g. Binkley et al., 2012;Gerstein, 2013;Lai and Viering, 2012;National Research Council, 2011). Once the first author secured approval to conduct this study from the university's Institutional Review Board, they created a digital version of the survey using the Qualtrics commercial survey platform and asked students to complete the survey during or after class at the end of the semester. ...
Article
Open educational resources (OER), which are teaching, learning, and research materials that are openly licensed, are growing in popularity in higher education. Previous studies have focused on faculty and student perceptions and use of OER. In this study, we examined how actively engaging students as curators and designers of OERs through project-based learning as part of an open educational practice shaped students’ attitudes, motivation, and learning. This paper presents post-course survey data collected from 69 undergraduate and graduate students from six different courses that featured OER design projects, including: (1) A digital media online course; (2) Online tools for teaching and learning website; (3) History/social studies wiki pages; (4) Campus resources film project; (5) Professional learning networks for educators online course; and (6) Teaching with technology eBook. Findings indicate that shifting students’ roles from consumers to curators and creators of OERs increased motivation, improved attitudes about learning, aided the achievement of course learning objectives, and supported the development of valuable skills for 21st century success.
... In the literature, there are various names and classifications regarding knowledge society skills, such as "21st-century skills (Ananiadou & Claro, 2009;Binkley et al., 2012;Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009;van Laar et al., 2017), new literacy skills (Mioduser et al., 2008), knowledge-related skills (Anderson, 2008)" in K12 education. In this study, knowledge-related skills were grounded suggested by Anderson (2008). ...
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This study aims to implement an exemplary instructional design-based ICT integration to allow students to acquire both course achievement and knowledge society skills. The research used the case study method. The participants consist of 30 students, who attend the course of Science and Technology at the 7th grade level in a state school, along with a teacher and two mentor researchers. During the application process, the researchers asked to prepare a video from students. Video content was associated with course outcomes. The data was collected through logs of tablet usage, videos of the tablet screen, reflection reports, informal and semi-structured interviews, participant observation, focus group meetings, and achievement tests. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, paired sample t-test, Jaccard similarity analysis, and content analysis. The findings showed that students’ course achievement had improved significantly. In addition, it revealed that the students analyzed, organized, and evaluated the information both through the applications provided to them on the tablets and by choosing and using the tools and equipment they had in their laboratories and working collaboratively. Moreover, the teacher stated that she had an authentic experience that gave her the opportunity to improve her competencies on how to integrate ICT according to contextual conditions. In conclusion, the implementation is presented by setting goals within the contextual conditions from a micro perspective and to achieve an effective and efficient instructional design-based ICT integration through the design, implementation, analysis, review of the process as well as improvements where necessary.
... La robótica educativa se inscribe en el construccionismo de Papert (1986) que destaca la importancia de la acción activa de construcción en el proceso de aprendizaje. La robótica educativa tiene un excelente potencial para involucrar a los discentes en retos educativos de una cierta complejidad en el que puedan desarrollar competencias como la colaboración, la resolución de problemas y la creatividad (Bellanca & Brandt, 2010;Binkley et al., 2012; En el caso de México, un total de 24 niños conformaron 4 equipos representativos, los cuales mostraban variadas características que fueron consideradas estratégicamente con fines de investigación. Se tomaron en cuenta los siguientes criterios: ...
Book
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En la era digital, teniendo en cuenta que estamos en un mundo cada vez más complejo y digitalizado, es una necesidad poder desarrollar las competencias y la cultura digital para poder ejercer un rol de ciudadano activo y creativo. Desarrollaremos este cambio de paradigma entre consumidor de tecnologías y agente creativo digital en el primer capítulo del libro. Tras ello presentaremos un modelo de competencias para el siglo XXI y la noción de desafío auténtico y complejo como oportunidad educativa. Trataremos igualmente de las diferentes actitudes que influyen en nuestra orientación activa y creativa, así como los valores humanistas que deben permitir desarrollar el pleno potencial, único y diverso, de cada uno de los discentes. Trataremos tras ello, la formación del profesorado así como los diferentes usos de la tecnología que pueden permitir desarrollar un programa educativo basado en las competencias del s.XXI y la orientación tecnocreativa ante los desafíos de las diferentes comunidades. Entre los usos que trataremos, pondremos nuestro foco sobre el aprendizaje de la programación y de la robótica educativa para el desarrollo del pensamiento computacional. A lo largo del libro encontraremos diferentes testimonios y casos prácticos que permitirán ilustrar de manera práctica las diferentes ideas educativas del libro. Antes de finalizar la introducción quisiéramos destacar que el libro no tiene un carácter prescriptivo y presenta diferentes reflexiones, prácticas y resultados de investigación que tienen como objetivo aportar pistas de reflexión para el lector. Este libro es una invitación a las soluciones creativas y reflexivas para la mejora continua de la educación, y a la promoción de los valores humanistas que pueden contribuir tanto a una mejor educación como a una sociedad más justa y democrática en la que la educación es una prioridad de desarrollo.
... This reiterates the key notion from the Future of Jobs Report [3] that stresses how working with people is a top skill that defines the workplace in the lead-up to 2025. Therefore, it is not surprising that teamwork is considered an essential skill, and demanded by labor markets [4]. To answer this call, universities have started emphasizing teamwork in their courses [5]. ...
Article
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This study examines the effects of a design thinking intervention on first-year students’ teamwork skills from a multi-actor perspective. A design thinking course was evaluated throughout a semester. Six-hundred-and-forty university students participated, guided by twenty-six facilitators. The students received in-class training and worked in multi-disciplinary teams to develop a solution for a real-life problem. In this quasi-experimental study, data were collected twice: in the middle (t1), and at the end (t2) of the course. Each time, students were rated by their teammates, themselves, and the course facilitator, using a rubric to map teamwork skills. The results show a significant improvement in teamwork skills, as consistently observed in the three ratings. The results also show a significant effect of sex on the improvement over time. Female students showed more considerable progress than male students. This study addresses researchers’ demands regarding the lack of robust evidence to assess the impact of design thinking in higher education settings. Furthermore, building on the data from a large sample size and an intervention designed in a replicable way, this study contributes to the available empirical evidence that helps one to adopt and implement design thinking in universities to develop essential skills, such as teamwork.
... Digital literacy, which is one of the 21st century skills, means having the necessary skills to use technology and benefiting from the opportunities offered by ICT (Binkley et al., 2012;Tyner, 2014). Technology, when used in developmentally appropriate ways, can facilitate learning by enhancing learning opportunities for every child. ...
Article
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The use of technology in preschool teaching practices plays a key role in making the learning process easier and more effective. It is significant to use technology in the preschool period by the teachers when the learning capacity is high. This study aims to investigate the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) by teachers in the preschool period with an explanatory sequential design, which is one of the mixed research methods. There were 327 participants in the quantitative stage, and 35 participants in the qualitative stage of the research. Research data were collected in the quantitative part of the study with the “ICT Use in Early Childhood Education Scale”, and in the qualitative part, an interview form consisting of four research questions was used. As a result of the research, it was revealed that teachers’ ICT use was high. According to the variable of teachers’ participation in in-service training, it was determined that the use of ICT created a significant difference in favor of the teachers participating in the training. To support the basic ICT skills, it was determined that participants benefited from enabling ICT use by children, using ICT in the classroom, giving ICT training to children, online applications and coding studies. In order for the children to develop positive attitudes towards ICT, it was revealed that the participants made use of doing activities, giving information, attracting attention and being a role model. It was revealed that the participants used ICT in the teaching process in preparing activities, presenting visual materials, watching videos and online applications. For teachers to support individual learning needs, it was found that they planned individual activities, enabled individual ICT use and performed online sharing.
... The advancements in technology and internet access and the adoption of 21st century learning principles have pushed educators to utilize other means of content delivery or instruction (Onyema & Daniil, 2017;Binkley, et. al., 2012); hence, the adoption of flexible learning modalities by Higher Education Institutions. There are varying definitions of flexible learning. Some common terms that are associated with it includes distance learning, online or e-learning and blended learning. Flexible learning refers to pedagogical approaches that allow flexibility in terms ...
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The Corona Virus Disease (COVID)-19 brought drastic changes in the operations of schools and universities around the world. In the Philippines, schools and universities need to suspend the face-to-face learning modality to help reduce the transmission of the deadly virus. With this, higher educational institutions (HEI) implemented flexible learning in order to continue cater to the needs of all learners. Flexible learning involves a shift from a traditional teacher-centered approach to learning into a more student-centered and technology-based approach through the shifting into flexible modalities such as online learning and modular learning. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the readiness of university stakeholders towards the implementation of flexible learning. An online survey was conducted among students, parents and faculty members of a Higher Education Institution in Northern Philippines. Results revealed that university stakeholders are in favor of the use of flexible learning as the main learning modality in the midst of the pandemic. The students and faculty members were also found to possess the basic tools that are needed for the adoption of flexible learning in the university. These tools include available devices or gadgets that have internet connectivity, available learning areas at home for flexible learning activities, basic ICT skills, and previous experience with online learning. Moreover, parents have shown support for the use of flexible learning which is crucial in ensuring success of any educational endeavor. However, certain issues must also be addressed in order to ensure the success of flexible learning implementation by the university.
... The contents of each curriculum are framed by the concept of transversal competence, the Finnish interpretation of twenty-first century skills (Binkley et al., 2012). The concept refers to "an entity of knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, and will" (FNBE, 2016a, p.36) needed in modern society and in the future. ...
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This book brings together a collection of work from around the world in order to consider effective STEM, robotics, and mobile apps education from a range of perspectives. It presents valuable perspectives—both practical and theoretical—that enrich the current STEM, robotics, and mobile apps education agenda. As such, the book makes a substantial contribution to the literature and outlines the key challenges in research, policy, and practice for STEM education, from early childhood through to the first school-age education. The audience for the book includes college students, teachers of young children, college and university faculty, and professionals from fields other than education who are unified by their commitment to the care and education of young children.
... This process is carried out by "social actors" and community members who undertake linguistic to and communicative tasks in specific settings and areas of action (Council of Europe, 2001). These actors communicate by listening and understanding different types of verbal messages; speaking briefly and clearly; following the process of writing; writing different types of texts for various purposes; and being able to read and understand different texts by adopting strategies suitable for different reading purposes and various text types (Binkley et al., 2012). Therefore, communication is closely related to language skills. ...
... A daptation to university/college l ife is considered as a complex and critical process for college students due to the series of cognitive strategies and skills (executive functions) that must be implemented to self-regulate their learning, responding adequate to higher education exigences; at the same time, these infl uence the ability to adapt and academic performance, mainly during the fi rst year courses (freshman year) (Besserra-Lagos et al., 2018;Cazan, 2012;Gallegos et al., 2018;Sáez et al., 2018;Zuñiga-Vilches et al., 2020). In higher education it is key to develop competencies to adapt to the 21st Century, as well as to the different scenarios throughout life (Sáez et al., 2018), between them "Ways of thinking", mainly, learning to learn, allowing the development of skills to know, manage, and to self-regulate college students own learning process (Binkley et al., 2012). ...
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... Hal penelitian ini sesuai dengan hasil penelitian yang didapat oleh Binkley et al. penegasan bahwa kapasitas berpikir kreatif seseorang memiliki tingkatan (level) berdasarkan karya yang diciptakan dalam mata pelajaran yang bersangkutan [18]. Sementara itu, Tohir et al. percaya bahwa berpikir kreatif dapat diperoleh dan elemen kognisi yang luas ini dapat ditingkatkan melalui pengajaran dan pelatihan [19]. ...
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... itive skills . The perceived importance of such skills has led to the current "21st Century Skills" movement, in which several organizations have created skills frameworks that emphasize this broader array of important skills, such as the growing importance of applied skills related to use of information and communication technology in our society (Binkley et al . , 2012;Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2014) . In addition, recognition of the importance of developing skills in students so that they can successfully navigate their education and career pathways has also resulted in development of standards for that purpose (American School Counselor Association, 2004; National Career Development Associ ...
... One key issue that regularly surfaces in the media and among policy-makers is the polarisation between digital technological developments in society and the role of education in preparing future citizens (Binkley et al., 2012;Selwyn, 2011). This polarisation has been manifested in different ways over the last two decades and has dominated public discourse on children, schooling, and the educational use of technology. ...
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Der Perspektivrahmen Medien & Informatik vereint institutionelle Voraussetzungen der aktuellen Deutschschweizer Lehrpläne für die Volkschule sowie fachspezifische Ansprüche der Medienwissenschaften beziehungsweise der Wissenschaft der Informatik in einem Modell. Zudem ermöglicht er eine Anschlussdiskussion zur gymnasialen Ausbildung. Der Perspektivrahmen Medien & Informatik zeigt auf, wie sowohl perspektivenbezogene als auch perspektivenvernetzende Inhalte und Prozesse konstruiert werden können und macht einen ersten Vorschlag eines entsprechenden Modells. Damit bietet der Perspektivrahmen Medien & Informatik eine Diskussionsgrundlage, um eine gemeinsame Fachdidaktik an der Pädagogischen Hochschule Bern an- und weiterzudenken.
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Nowadays, collaborative learning in a virtual environment is highly relevant, especially in distance education and during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. Therefore, higher education institutions are striving to develop software tools for collaborative online learning and to support large numbers of students working simultaneously. For this purpose, it is important to collect information about the ongoing process of the collaborative work, especially learning and interaction data, e.g. how the students interact with the other group members and whether or how they exchange information with the teachers. These collected data are then analysed with methods of learning analytics with the help of the software tools and the results are used to support learners and teachers. In this paper, an architecture is proposed that enables collaborative writing by hundreds of students divided into many groups. It uses the synergy of the learning environment Moodle and the online editor Etherpad Lite. The needed software tools can be easily integrated into it. A prototype of the architecture and first required methods of data collection and learning analytics have already been developed and successfully tested in a first pilot usage with about 300 students. The long-term goal of this project is to support collaborative writing in near real time using self-developed software.
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Until recently, most of the digital literacy frameworks have been based on assessment frameworks used by commercial entities. The release of the DigComp framework has allowed the development of tailored implementations for the evaluation of digital competence. However, the majority of these digital literacy frameworks are based on self-assessments, measuring only low-order cognitive skills. This paper reports on a study to develop and validate an assessment instrument, including interactive simulations to assess citizens’ digital competence. These formats are particularly important for the evaluation of complex cognitive constructs such as digital competence. Additionally, we selected two different approaches for designing the tests based on their scope, at the competence or competence area level. Their overall and dimensional validity and reliability were analysed. We summarise the issues addressed in each phase and key points to consider in new implementations. For both approaches, items present satisfactory difficulty and discrimination indicators. Validity was ensured through expert validation, and the Rasch analysis revealed good EAP/PV reliabilities. Therefore, the tests have sound psychometric properties that make them reliable and valid instruments for measuring digital competence. This paper contributes to an increasing number of tools designed to evaluate digital competence and highlights the necessity of measuring higher-order cognitive skills.
Preprint
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Hochschulen des öffentlichen Dienstes haben sich bereits nach der ersten Coronawelle um die Rückkehr zum "Normalen" bemüht. Dabei wird häufig auf die Wichtigkeit der Präsenzlehre hingewiesen. Der Beitrag macht deutlich, dass die für Hochschulen typische Heterogenität (Lebenslagen, Leistungsniveaus, Lernpotienziale) unbedingt digitale Lösungen benötigt und es nicht darum gehen kann, dass das neue Normal die alte, häufig schwerfällige und entwicklungsbedürftige Präsenzlehre sein kann und dass digital gestützte Lehre auch die Stärkung von Problemlöse- und Transferkompetenzen zur Folge hat.
Chapter
The focus of this chapter is on workplace learning from the organizational point of view. The chapter reviews multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary research literature on learning organization starting from the seminal works by Argyris and Schön, and Senge, and continuing with the studies of the development of measuring characteristics of learning organization by Marsick and Watkins. The relationship between individual and organizational learning is discussed. Also concepts other than learning organization have been used in research studies in order to describe learning taking place in organizations. The concepts such as knowledge creation, expansive learning and innovativeInnovative knowledge communities are examined. Finally, the emerging ecological approach and the concept of ecosystems from the learning organization perspective is discussed. The review shows that in all of the main lines of research in the field, individual- and organization-level learning are seen to be highly interdependent and indivisible. Chronologically, we can see movement from intra-organizational examination toward inter-organizational and networked learning, and very recently toward the concept of ecosystem. Altogether, the theories of organizational level learning discussed in this chapter provide different perspectives and diverse conceptual tools to understand learning that goes beyond individual cognitive activity. It is expected that, in the future, research on learning organizations will continue to be relevant and further enriched by other concepts and models such as those presented in this chapter. The direction of the research seems to extend from intra-organizational studies toward research on wider networks or ecosystems of organizations and the interconnections between them.
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The pursuit of global competence (GC) is heavily promoted as part of university education in Japan, where the government exhorts universities to equip graduates with skills that will enable them to function as global citizens. Foreign language (FL) educators are often expected to cultivate these globally competent individuals. However, there is little consensus on what GC actually is, and limited evidence that existing models of GC are actually applicable in the Japanese context. This study used a qualitative survey targeting professionals, researchers, university teachers and students to determine the attributes that are seen to comprise GC, and the challenges faced in achieving GC in the Japanese context. Findings highlighted the primacy of FL communication skills, as well as openness, extraversion, emotional stability, and a willingness to engage. To overcome challenges to the achievement of these attributes, we suggest that FL educators need to tap into learners’ individual identities and aspirations, rather than pursuing generic and decontextualized approaches to the development of GC.
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This study responds to the growing demand to adapt the content and methods of teacher training programs to reflect the rapid emergence of new, nonpareil 21st century professions in the labour market, predominantly due to the information technology revolution. It is clear that future teachers will increasingly be expected to have a wider range of professional teaching skills, but also transversal skills and competences. For this purpose, a Slovak research team at Matej Bel University prepared an experiment by transforming a traditional foreign language CLIL course into a new course Global Encounters in Local Settings, aimed at developing not only pre-service teachers’ multilingual and intercultural competences, but also a variety of other transversal skills and competences (critical thinking, intercultural competence, time management, teamwork, plurilingual and interpersonal communication skills and others). The innovative components in the new course are student-centredness, service learning and the collaboration between domestic and foreign students. GELS pilot teaching was launched in February 2020 and has been repeated during four following semesters (up to December 2021), despite severe pandemic constraints. The author presents some results from the verification of this pedagogical innovation in the teachers’ university training curriculum. It has been tested by three quantitative-qualitative research methods: pre-term and post-term questionnaires, content analysis of students’ seminar work, reflective individual diaries and group reports. Although the results from all of them are briefly stated, this focused on the results from the last mentioned analysis – diaries and group reports. The results of the data analysis show that this innovation has proved to be feasible and effective in achieving an increase in students’ transversal skills, especially project management skills, interpersonal skills, communication skills, ICT skills, time and project management, tolerance and flexibility, critical and reflective thinking skills and open-mindedness.
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Der Perspektivrahmen Medien & Informatik vereint institutionelle Voraussetzungen der aktuellen Deutschschweizer Lehrpläne für die Volkschule sowie fachspezifische Ansprüche der Medienwissenschaften beziehungsweise der Wissenschaft der Informatik in einem Modell. Zudem ermöglicht er eine Anschlussdiskussion zur gymnasialen Ausbildung. Er lehnt sich an den Perspektivrahmen Sachunterricht an. Der Beitrag zeigt auf wie sowohl perspektivenbezogene als auch perspektivenvernetzende Inhalte und Prozesse konstruiert werden können und macht einen ersten Vorschlag eines Perspektivrahmens. Damit bietet der Perspektivrahmen Medien & Informatik eine Diskussionsgrundlage, um eine gemeinsame Fachdidaktik an den Pädagogischen Hochschulen kantonal und interkantonal weiterzudenken.
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For all its conveniences, the modern life goes away much to be wished. To make effective communication, not only do people need adequate language skills but also cultural ability where a cultural boundary can be achieved. As such, the work of English teachers is expected to not only provide and facilitate students to acquire English skills but also the ability to engage with culture. This study aims to expose the views and beliefs of EFL teachers regarding cultural competence in the English teaching process. The courses were for twenty- nine teachers with experience in teaching at other educational institutions, namely schools, universities, and English courses. Based on the data collected using a series of questionnaires and interviews, it was found that most teachers have good ideas for integrating culture and cultural competence into their English teaching practice. Besides, they view culture as an integral part of language. In addition, teachers' knowledge of target culture was found to be highly fragmented. In their teaching practice, they report that a variety of strategies have been used to facilitate the teaching of language in culture. However, it was found that the way the intended customs were integrated with English teaching was not considered sufficient; therefore, more concerted efforts are being made to address this problem. Cultural competence forms one of the most important skills in this age of globalization, and especially in the development of students as a language learner and as a society. This is because students will benefit from that knowledge, not only their language skills, but also their ability to communicate and interact with other people whose cultures are different from them (Byram, Gribkova, and Starkey, 2002). Therefore, language teachers not only need to equip learners with adequate language skills but also need to develop their learners' cultural skills as they deliver their language education.
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Araştırmamızda denizde emniyet ve gemi güvenliğini sağlamak üzere gemide veya denizcilik eğitim kurumlarında belirli periyotlarda eğitim alması gereken gemiadamlarının hayat boyu öğrenme eğilimlerini ölçmek amaçlanmıştır. Bu araştırmanın örneklemini gemilerde görev yapan 336 gemiadamı oluşturmaktadır. Veri toplama aracı olarak Yelkin Diker Coşkun (2009) tarafından geliştirilen altılı likert tipli "Yaşam Boyu Öğrenme Eğilimi Ölçeği" kullanılmıştır. Araştırma yapılırken gemiadamlarında cinsiyet, yaş, medeni hal, öğrenim düzeyi, kıdem, çalışılan gemi tipi, sefer bölgesi ve mesleki kategori gibi değişkenlerin etkileri de incelenmiştir. Araştırmada elde edilen veriler IBM SPSS Statistics Version 26 programına aktarılarak analiz edilmiştir.
Conference Paper
Developed economies have recently become more complex than ever before. As the European Union is transforming into a knowledge-based economy, more and more attention is paid to skill formation, in view of the fact that skills have become the most valuable resource in the twenty-first century, often available only scarcely for economic actors. All this implies that, in order to maintain and/or develop competitiveness of the European Union - as well as of the member states -, the knowledge capital base of an economy has to be developed and continuously maintained. Digital skills started to play an important role in the process and the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated digital skills demand in many occupations, especially non-ICT ones. The aim of this paper is to examine the needs and the importance of digital skills in occupations across the EU through a literature review and descriptive statistics, and to outline possible solutions to develop digital skills use in this forming new ecosystem of economies, digital technologies and the humans operating and applying them.
Chapter
The STEAM approach combining science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics is a promising method for promoting students’ creative technological competencies, but it has received little research interest in the field of early education. This chapter explores this approach in pre-school and grades 1 and 2 of primary school (ages 6–8), and examines how creative use of technologies is related to various learning areas in young students’ learning projects. We present 13 interdisciplinary projects in which invention pedagogy, a Finnish approach to STEAM education, was implemented. Invention pedagogy emphasizes the learning of twenty-first century competencies through multidisciplinary, creative, technology-enhanced design and creative processes. Three data sets (i.e., teachers’ project plans, descriptions and reflections) and visual representations of the projects, were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and co-occurrence network analysis. The findings indicate that young students are able use various technological activities representing five technological dimensions: crafting, design, engineering, documenting and sharing, and programming. The underlying connections between the activities and implemented learning areas revealed three orientations to STEAM education: the maker orientation, competence orientation, and digital orientation. These orientations represent varying emphases of young students’ STEAM education and suggest new directions for further developing the approach.
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With the release of Chinese students' development core literacy, how to clarify the elements of students' core literacy at the stage of basic education in Beijing in combination with the functional positioning of Beijing is an important basis for implementing the current core literacy into curriculum and teaching. The study employed 11 experts from education, medical treatment, aerospace, finance and other industries, adopted Delphi method, text analysis method and analytic hierarchy process, and determined 8 elements and connotations of innovation ability, civic quality, communication and cooperation, scientific quality, humanistic quality, life and health, learning ability and self-development through four rounds of expert consultation, and gave corresponding weights. The determination of this element will promote the implementation of core literacy in the fields of curriculum, teaching materials, teaching and evaluation, and help to cultivate students' character and ability to adapt to the future social development.
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Health literacy (HL) represents an important determinant of health and is considereda necessary prerequisite for health-promoting behaviour as well as the maintenance andpromotion of health. Strengthening HL is an important aspect of prevention and healthpromotion in the context of (teacher) education and it is partially integrated into theGerman Professional Standards for Teachers. Previous study results of (prospective) teacherspoint to deficient training regarding health-related competencies in the context of theirqualification. Overall, there are too few studies on prospective teachers’ HL and only few thatfocus on the key health-related competencies of HL in the context of prospective teachers’health. Linking this study examined the HL and health status of student teachers (ST) andteacher trainees (TT) and their differences. In addition, the association between the twoconstructs will be elaborated. In this study, 195 ST and 242 TT participated in an onlinesurvey, which used questionnaires to assess HL and health status. The statistical analysis tookinto consideration t-tests, product-moment correlations, and multivariate regression analyses. With the exception of key HL competence communication and cooperation, the other key HLcompetencies were significantly stronger among ST. In contrast, TT assessed their healthstatus significantly better. In terms of correlations, ST and TT abilities to self-regulate playeda leading role. In ST, self-regulation represented the statistically strongest predictor forhealth status, but in TT, proactive approach to health represented the strongest predictor.
Thesis
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Digitalization is a growing phenomenon that is changing the way organizations, people and societies operate. It influences on the products and services along with the activities inside the organization. Digital transformation is challenging companies as well as people to be digitally advanced and as a result, the skills industries require from their employees have changed to be more dynamic in nature. The change of skills demands investigation of the required digital skills and their integration in the universities' curriculum. This study realizes the shift of demand in skills and explores the organizational changes as well as the digital skills that are in demand in the Finnish industries. The study follows qualitative method of collecting data from company experts and academics using open-ended interviews. The result suggests that the organizations are highly invested in digitalization and integration of digital skills in their companies. With increased interest in digitalization in companies, the skills gap between the company's demand and the availability in the workforce is widening. Results also revealed that the companies look for candidates with hard digital skills as well as cognitive skills in digital environment. From Industrial Engineering and Management perspective, the study emphasis on the digital skills for IEM discipline along with the approaches and importance of including them in the program. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Past two years in LUT has been amazing in every way. Studying and working in LUT, has given me the sense of individuality and has guided me towards discovering a meaningful life. My aim to take this thesis was to challenge myself with the topic and experience the work life in LUT.
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Affordances are action possibilities provided by the environment. This study investigated university EFL learners’ perceptions of the critical thinking learning affordances in their course learning environment. The participants were a cohort of 156 fourth-year English majors from a Chinese university where the English department was under a curriculum reform to promote students’ language learning and critical thinking development. The instrument of this study was the Learning Environment Affordance Survey_Critical Thinking (LEAS_CT) with a set of multiple-choice questions. The data analysis methods used in the study included descriptive statistical analysis, factor analysis, and MANOVA tests. The results showed that the English majors had strongly positive perceptions of the critical thinking learning affordances, which included four types: Rich Resources, Interactive Negotiation, Quality Task, and Community Culture. The results also revealed that high-achieving students had significantly better perceptions of the critical thinking learning affordances than lower-achieving students. Responses to the multiple-choice questions indicated that the English majors considered content-rich materials, teacher-facilitation, and small-group/peer learning benefited them most in terms of critical thinking development. Factors that influenced their perceptions of learning affordances and implications concerning integrating critical thinking into the tertiary EFL curriculum were discussed.
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Education is undergoing a period of sustained change from a focus on traditional skills and compliance to positional authority, to a focus on 21st century skills and more adaptable behaviors. In the light of this changing context, this study examined the role of school principalship and identified those attributes which teachers and students recognize as being desirable in a school leader today. Principals come in all shapes and sizes, have different leadership styles, spend time on different things, and are judged on their performance based upon what they say and do, how well their school is performing, and how happy the led are with their leader. The study looked at the various leadership styles emerging from the extensive literature. The statements used in the survey were drawn from six different principal styles, with five attribute statements for each style. Teachers and students (N = 405) across nine schools completed a two-part survey in which they were asked to rank leadership attributes in order of importance. In this way we identified specific attributes deemed desirable in a school leader. The results showed high statistical significance. The findings were quite conclusive: Teachers and students preferred the Integrated Leadership style which combines instructional and transformational leadership and agreed on the importance of principal as role model for both students and colleagues. This key element of the principal’s role was linked to two other attributes, these being that a principal should (a) foster a shared vision in the school, and (b) have a vision for the school that they help to develop with colleagues. These findings give rise to some interesting questions, one being: What does it mean to be a role model in the context of 21st century education? A second being, what is the link between shared vision and role modeling?
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Primary knowledge is the knowledge for which our cognitive architecture has evolved so that we acquire it quickly and effortlessly. We are intrinsically motivated to process it. Secondary knowledge is the knowledge for which our cognitive architecture has not had enough time to evolve: it requires time, cognitive resources and is hardly motivating. This study proposed to test these evolutionary characteristics using the experimental paradigm of logical reasoning. We conducted five experiments (n = 720) varying (i) the content of syllogisms (primary or secondary knowledge), (ii) the presentation order of the knowledge types, (iii) the added extrinsic cognitive load, and (iv) the type of syllogism. Results showed that primary knowledge increased performance, emotional and cognitive investment and decreased perceived cognitive load. Second, presenting primary knowledge first would encourage participants to be motivated throughout the task, while presenting secondary knowledge first would undermine their motivation. Third, secondary knowledge seemed to lead to a feeling of conflict that consumed cognitive resources. All together, these results suggested that primary knowledge should be taken into account and not left aside because it is something “already learned”.
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This study aims to determine the levels of twenty-first century learner and teacher skills use of teacher candidates studying in Northern Cyprus. It also aims to determine the relationship between the teacher candidates' levels of using their learner and teacher skills. The study employs a quantitative methodology, a single survey model with a correlational survey model are employed and a causal-comparative research approach is adopted. A total of 1048 teacher candidates from three different universities participated in the study. The teacher candidates' level of using twenty-first century learner and teacher skills was found to be generally high. The results obtained from the study revealed that gender made a significant difference in terms of teacher candidates' use levels of cognitive, autonomous, administrative, techno-pedagogical, affirmative, and generative skills. In a similar line, the results revealed that the institutions in which the teacher candidates were studying affected their usage levels of cognitive skills, autonomous, collaboration and flexibility skills, innovativeness, administrative, techno-pedagogical, flexible teaching skills and generative skills. Whether the teacher candidates had completed the teaching practice course also made a significant difference in their usage levels of cognitive skills, collaborative and flexibility skills as well as their use of generative skills. In the study, a moderate, positive, and significant relationship was found between the teacher candidates' levels of using their learner and teacher skills.
Research
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The study explored the effectiveness of a proposed blended learning program for developing some twenty-first century skills use by EFL in-service teachers at Al Azhar. The instruments of the study included the EFL teachers' twenty-first century skills knowledge test and an observation checklist of EFL teachers' performance of the twenty-first century skills. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design utilizing two groups; one group was experimental and the other was a control group. The total number of the participants in the two groups for the study was (n=60). Results of the study indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of the experimental and control groups on the post-administration of EFL teachers' twenty-first century skills knowledge test in favor of the experimental group. Further, there was a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of the experimental group and the control group on the post-administration of the observation checklist of EFL teachers' performance of the twenty-first century skills in favor of the experimental group. This result demonstrates that the proposed program was effective in developing EFL in-service teachers use of twenty-first century skills, and that improvement was a gradual process as a result of the training. Finally, the study also suggests that further research should be conducted related to blended learning based programs for developing other twenty-first century skills.
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The change towards the information society implies that many countries have to change their curricula, because students need to develop competencies that are not addressed in the traditional curricula. A case study approach was applied to examine curriculum changes in ICT-supported pedagogical practices from 28 countries. The analysis focused on curriculum content and goals of the ICT-supported pedagogical practices, how these aims were implemented in practice and which outcomes for students and teachers could be observed. The results showed that the curriculum content often was not new but rather was delivered in a different way. Many ICT-supported pedagogical practices strove to realize new goals important for lifelong learning in an information society. Content and goals were offered in curricular settings, often crossing the traditional boundaries of academic subjects. In many of the cases students worked on topics that were meaningful to them.
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This paper reports the initial results of a study that was designed to develop and test an instrument that could identify the elements of an individual's capacity for lifelong learning. We anticipated that the components of this capacity would include a complex mix of dispositions, lived experiences, social relations, values, attitudes and beliefs and that these various factors would coalesce to shape the nature of an individual's engagement with any particular learning opportunity. The instrument that was developed—the Evaluating Lifelong Learning Inventory—was trialled with pupils across a range of ages and subject to factor analytic study. The data have proved robust over successive factor analytic studies, allowing the identification of seven dimensions of learning power and reliable scales to assess these. These dimensions appear to be capable of differentiating between efficacious, engaged and energized learners and passive, dependent and fragile learners. Whilst further, larger scale field trials will be necessary to confirm these early results, the findings would appear to have significant implications for conventional models of curriculum design and classroom practice.
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Computer-based simulations can give a more nuanced understanding of what students know and can do than traditional testing methods. These extended, integrated tasks, however, introduce particular problems, including producing an overwhelming amount of data, multidimensionality, and local dependence. In this paper, we describe an approach to understanding the data from complex performances based on Evidence-Centred Design (ECD), a methodology for devising assessments and for using the evidence observed in complex student performances to make inferences about proficiency. We use as an illustration the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments Study, which is being conducted to exemplify how non-traditional skills might be assessed in a sample-based national survey. The paper focuses on the inferential uses of Evidence-Centred Design, especially how features are extracted from student performance, how these extractions are evaluated, and how the evaluations are accumulated to make evaluative judgements.
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The NISE issues papers to facilitate the exchange of ideas among the research and development community in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET) education and leading reformers of SMET education as found in schools, universities, and professional organizations across the country. The NISE Occasional Papers provide comment and analysis on current issues in SMET education including SMET innovations and practices. The papers in the NISE Research Monograph series report findings of original research. The NISE Conference and Workshop Reports result from conferences, forums, and workshops sponsored by the NISE. In addition to these three publication series, the NISE publishes Briefs on a variety of SMET issues.
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Collaborative problem solving skills are considered necessary skills for success in today's world of work and school. Collaborative learning refers to learning environments in which small groups of people work together to achieve a common goal, and problem solving is using cognitive processing to find a solution to a problem. Thus, collaborative problem solving is defined as problem solving activities that involve interactions among a group of individuals. This paper will address several key issues (e.g. theory and measurement of collaborative problem solving and issues in measuring problem solving processes). We rely on computerisation of the administration, scoring and reporting of collaborative problem solving skills, thus potentially increasing reliability and validity.
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Many schools are moving to develop benchmark tests to monitor their students' progress toward state standards throughout the academic year. Benchmark tests can provide the ongoing information that schools need to guide instructional programs and to address student learning problems. The authors discuss six criteria that educators can use to develop, select, or purchase benchmark tests: alignment, diagnostic value, fairness, technical quality, utility, and feasibility. Together, these criteria determine benchmark tests' ability to provide both accurate information about students' progress and useful feedback to improve instruction. (Contains 2 Figures.)
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Ola Erstad is professor at the Institute for Educational Research, University of Oslo, Norway. He has been working both within the fields of media and educational research. Erstad has been Head of research at a national R&D centre leading several large-scale projects on new technologies in Norwegian schools. Sociocultural learning theory has been a theoretical stance, and he has been active in different international networks. He is leader of a research group at the Faculty of Education, Oslo, called ‘TransAction-learning, knowing and identity in the information society’ and is leading a research project called “Local literacies and community spaces – Investigating transitions and transfers in the ‘learning lives’ of Groruddalen,” funded by the Norwegian Research Council. He has published on a broad set of issues based on different research projects, such as; ‘media literacy,’ ‘digital competence,’ ‘school development and ICT,’ ‘project work with digital tools,’ ‘assessment and new media,’ and ‘formal and informal ways of learning.’ Recent publications are ‘Trajectories of remixing – digital literacies, media production and schooling’ in Digital Literacies by C. Lankshear and M. Knobel (2008), Peter Lang, and ‘Changing assessment practices and the role of ICT’, in International handbook of Information Technology in Education (2008), New York: Springer.
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Introduction Part One: Cultures (Cultures of Our Past Culture of Our Future RO, Extended RW, Revived Cultures Compared) Part Two: Economies (Two Economies: Commercial and Sharing Hybrid Economies Economy Lessons) Part Three: Enabling the Future (Reforming Law Reforming Us Conclusion)
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