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Coping with consistency under multiple design constraints: The case of the Nokia 9000 WWW browser


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Consistency is a commonly accepted but sometimes problematic design goal. External and internal consistency may conflict, and sometimes the best solution is inconsistent in both respects. We describe user interface design issues and several usability studies for the Nokia 9000 Communicator WWW browser and for WWW pages optimised for the browser. The results show how within the same, restricted design domain, different forms of consistency have to be favoured over others in solving various design problems.
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Coping with Consistency under Multiple Design
Constraints: The Case of the Nokia 9000 WWW Browser
Heli Hjelmeroos
Nokia Telecommunications Oy
P.O. Box 735
FIN-33101 Tampere
Pekka Ketola
Nokia Mobile Phones
P.O. Box 68
FIN-33721 Tampere
Kari-Jouko Räihä
University of Tampere
Department of Computer Science
P.O. Box 607
FIN-33101 Tampere
Consistency is a commonly accepted but sometimes
problematic design goal. External and internal consistency
may conflict, and sometimes the best solution is
inconsistent in both respects. We describe user interface
design issues and several usability studies for the Nokia
9000 Communicator WWW browser and for WWW pages
optimized for the browser. The results show how within
the same, restricted design domain, various forms of
consistency have to be favored over others in solving
various design problems.
Consistency, design constraints, WWW browser, web page
design, PDA, mobile phone
Graphical browsers for the World-Wide Web (WWW)
have been available for only about six years. In that
relatively short time, they have become one of the most
common tools of information workers. Browsing the web
can take several hours of a work day, and browsing habits
and patterns are already deeply rooted in the way we carry
out our daily work.
WWW browsers are typically used in personal computers.
However, new implementations for mobile devices are
rapidly becoming available, for instance in PDA devices
[11]. Designing a WWW browser for such a platform is
faced with many problems caused by the small size of the
device, the low data transfer rate, small memory, and
limited processing capacity.
Although people are highly adaptive to new platforms,
their previous experiences are, nevertheless, critical in
shaping their expectations [7]. A web browser on a new
platform should behave in a reasonably similar manner as
browsers in other environments, to achieve external
consistency. On the other hand, few devices are built for a
single application only; the browser should also work in
harmony with the other applications to guarantee internal
consistency. The designer is often faced with a difficult
design issue: how to weigh the different factors, or design
constraints, that point in different directions.
It is precisely for this reason why consistency is a
somewhat controversial design principle. While it is
generally agreed that consistency is a worthwhile goal to
strive for [8, 9], many authors [1, 2, 7] warn about the
pitfalls of taking only one aspect of consistency as the
guiding force in design. The overall goal, of course, should
be to produce a usable product.
Nokia 9000 Communicator is a mobile device that
incorporates a WWW browser. In this paper we discuss
several issues that were encountered and had to be solved
during the design process. We often had to weigh the
relative importance of external consistency, internal
consistency, and customized solutions for difficult
problems. Most decisions had to be made without the
possibility for a usability test, because the schedule was
extremely tight and the project highly confidential to retain
the first mover advantage.
For each design issue we explain the reasoning that led to
the chosen solution. We then discuss whether the solution
turned out to be successful in various evaluations and tests
that were carried out after the release of the product.
It turned out that some solutions worked and some caused
unexpected problems. Sometimes opting for consistency
would have been the right choice, sometimes not. Even
well justified design decisions proved wrong because it was
difficult to foresee how deeply rooted some browsing
patterns already were. Thus we expect our story to be
useful for developers of new mobile browsers: they should
benefit by becoming aware of some pitfalls to avoid.
To make things even more complicated, designing and
studying the browser is not enough: its usability depends
on the content that is browsed. We designed and tested
several versions of the same web site, optimized for
different browsing platforms. Here we have yet another
dimension of consistency: whether the site should
consistently look the same on all platforms, or whether it
should be changed to make use of the idiosyncrasies of a
particular environment (e.g., to avoid problems caused by
small screen size or low data transfer rate). Some findings
on this issue will also be discussed.
The physical device
Nokia 9000 Communicator (Figure 1) was released in
March 1996 [5, 6]. It is a portable device that unifies the
functionalities of a mobile phone and a computer.
Figure 1.
Nokia 9000 Communicator.
The Nokia 9000 device has two user interfaces. Figure 1
shows it in a state where it is opened up; this interface is
called the Communicator. When the cover is closed, a
normal mobile phone interface (located on the back side of
the cover) can be used.
The physical interface of the Communicator contains a
graphical grayscale LCD display. The size of the screen is
640*200 pixels (120*38 mm) and the working area for
applications is 540*200 pixels. To the left of the screen
there are two physical buttons for scrolling the view. To
the right there are four physical command buttons. The
meaning of each command button is shown in the
rightmost column of the screen.
The device also contains a small but fairly complete
keyboard. Keys for accessing the applications are located
in the top row of the keyboard (thus replacing ordinary
function keys). Arrow keys can be seen in the lower right
hand corner of the keyboard. No pointing device (neither a
stylus nor a trackball) is available.
The applications
The principal task of the Nokia 9000 is to communicate
with the environment. All other features are designed to
support this task. Technically, several communication
methods are supported, including a voice call, data call,
fax call and messaging (SMS).
The primary application of the Nokia 9000 is the mobile
phone. However, in addition to the phone it contains
several other applications, all in one physical package. The
applications include an address book, a note book, a
calendar, a fax viewer and composer, an e-mail client, and
a WWW browser. In this paper we focus on the design of
the browser, referred to as the N9000 Browser, and on the
design of web pages to be viewed by the browser.
The N9000 Browser
The mobile phone market is highly competitive. At the
time of its release, Nokia 9000 was a revolutionary
product. It took years before other products with matching
functionality became available.
To develop such products, exceptional security measures
need to be taken. Most of the work was done inside the
company by the development team. When outside
evaluators were used, strict nondisclosure policies were
applied. This fact alone had the consequence that extensive
usability evaluation in the traditional sense simply could
not be done.
Another reason for only limited pre-release evaluation was
the fact that Nokia 9000 is an embedded system. Because
of design and implementation restrictions, it was not
possible to release versions for beta testing.
Thus, although the design went through several iterations
with paper mock-ups, simulations, and prototypes of
increasing sophistication, the evaluations at that phase
were still informal, involved a small group of people, and
are not available to be discussed here. Furthermore, most
of the studies focused on the general user interface of the
Communicator, not particularly on the N9000 Browser.
In the following, we concentrate on the released design. To
evaluate how successful the design decisions were, two
rounds of evaluation have been carried out under different
circumstances and for different user types. Both studies
included participants from several European countries.
The first study was carried out by different persons non-
systematically in 1996. These can be called friendly-user
tests because all participants were eager to see what
possibilities the Communicator has to offer. The
observations were made in normal use situations.
Users were asked to mention positive and negative
impressions about the Communicator after having used the
device for some weeks. The answers were recorded using
videotapes and questionnaires. The participants in this
study were novice Communicator users. The study focused
on finding the questions that users have when they start
using the Communicator and on the concepts and
functions that are not easy to learn.
The first study was used as a guideline for the second,
more systematic study, which was carried out among
critical Communicator error hunters and developers of
third-party software. A questionnaire was sent at the
beginning of 1997 via e-mail to the readers of two mailing
lists. The goal of the second study was to find out what
topics were causing usability problems in the N9000
Browser and also to find out if usage rate affects the
acceptance of the system. We also wanted to see
specifically whether problematic design decisions had
caused usability problems. 53 persons took part in this
study. Their experience with the N9000 Browser varied
from 0 to 12 months. The frequency of use varied, too,
between daily use and no use at all.
Optimized web pages
The web browsing experience depends not only on the user
interface of the N9000 Browser, but also on the contents of
the web pages that are browsed. To study the effect of web
page design, we implemented three versions of a web site
that was assumed to be particularly useful for owners of the
Communicator: Club Nokia. It is an on-line magazine
targeted at mobile people. The early Club Nokia had five
sections: Contest, Backroom, Magazine, Support, and
Locator. Contest and Backroom provided visual attraction
and a place for technical experiments. Magazine contained
short stories about, e.g., the wireless lifestyle. The Support
section contained product information and support for
Communicator users. Finally, Locator was a collection of
links for mobile users.
In our study we created three different versions of the web
site with almost the same content. One version was for PC
users with a fast connection and normal size display, one
for laptop users with a slower connection but a reasonable
sized display and one for Communicator users with a slow
connection and a small display.
Information about the usefulness of the optimized pages
was collected in two ways. First, users of the N9000
Browser were interviewed to find out their browsing
habits. In addition, a semi-formal usability test was carried
out in a usability laboratory with 14 participants. The
majority of the test users were partly mobile professionals,
25-30 years old, and familiar with the Communicator.
Although the focus of the test was in browsing using the
Communicator, each test session also contained a part
where the users browsed the normal pages of the web site
using a PC. This made it possible to compare the browsing
behavior of the same users under different conditions.
The Nokia 9000 is a collection of several applications. The
killer application of the Communicator is e-mail. The
N9000 Browser was assumed to appeal to a certain fraction
of the market, but it was not envisioned as a heavy duty
application. The figures on use frequency given above
confirm the validity of this assumption. The situation is
rapidly changing, though, as mobile Internet usage
becomes more common [11].
There is an in-house style guide that the application
interfaces are assumed to follow. Because of the role of the
N9000 Browser, it did not have a large impact on the
original style guide. Naming and navigation principles that
worked well with applications that had less functionality
could cause difficult problems for the N9000 Browser, as
we shall see. Occasionally it would have been tempting to
opt for other solutions and abandon internal consistency,
but this was not possible: the style guide had to be
External consistency, i.e., providing functionality and
behavior that was familiar from PC-based browsers, would
clearly have been desirable. This was difficult, though,
because of the physical constraints of the device. Further-
more, the fact that the operating system of the
Communicator is not in common use on the PC platform
necessarily makes it difficult to achieve this goal.
WWW actions without a pointing device
The Communicator does not have a pointing device. This
causes some design problems for the browser. A selection
method for both text and graphics has to be implemented.
Hypertext navigation in the N9000 Browser is selecting
rather than pointing.
Link selection is implemented in the following way. The
user selects a link in the document by using the scroll
buttons. Scroll up moves the focus to the previous link, or
scrolls the document up if the previous link is not visible.
Scroll down moves the focus to next link or scrolls the
document down. If the next or previous link is not in the
visible area, it is not selected until it is scrolled to the
visible area.
While this is simple, it clearly created a problem: how to
distinguish between normal scrolling of the page and
scrolling from link to link.
Data transfer rate
The data transfer rate in cellular connection is currently
limited to 9600 bps which is significantly lower than the
rate used in fixed network connections. In wireless devices
also establishing the connection is slow (from a few
seconds to half a minute) – in fact, from 10 to 20 times as
slow as in wired networks.
Even though the majority of web users is used to low data
transfer rates [3, 4], the time needed for establishing the
connection is a new phenomenon particular to the mobile
environment. Since staying connected is costly, the user
has the option to close the connection while s/he works
locally. Thus, there may be a need to establish the
connection several times during a working session.
Moreover, the users of the Communicator are not average
web users. They are used to high speed connections in the
office, and the change from megabytes to kilobytes is
dramatic. In fact, it creates a situation where two forms of
external consistency compete with each other: whether the
pages should look the same on various platforms, or
whether they should load with roughly the same speed on
various platforms. Both cannot be achieved
We now turn to individual design problems and discuss
how the constraints described above were taken into
consideration in each case.
Where to start?
When normal web browsers are launched, they open a
default document or “homepage”. External consistency
would require similar behavior from the N9000 Browser.
However, because of the nature of the wireless
environment it was decided that the default state of the
browser is off-line (no connection). Forcing the user to
wait for half a minute or more before seeing anything
useful was not a tempting design solution. Therefore we
abandoned the approach where a default document is
always fetched. Instead, a Hotlist view containing a user
customizable list of bookmarks is shown. This is a natural
view because it offers a clear starting point without a need
to establish a connection. Moreover, the Hotlist as the
main view increases internal consistency, since other
Communicator applications also launch with various list
views, typically the list of contacts.
This design decision was estimated to be a possible
usability problem because it violates external consistency.
This turned out not to be the case: all evaluations indicated
that the Hotlist as a starting point is easily understood and
Providing the necessary functionality
In well designed web sites, much of the time users just
click-click-scroll-click.However, the browser provides a
wealth of operations that may not be used quite so often
but that still are essential for serious use of the web. These
include the history view, ability to save documents on disk,
ability to enter the URL using the keyboard, support for
multiple browser windows, etc.
In the N9000 Browser, some of the functionality (such as
multiple windows) can safely be ignored, since it would
not be useful given the small size of the screen. However,
there are still far too many operations that need to be
supported to make them fit on the screen at once.
In the Communicator in general, and in the N9000
Browser in particular, functions are placed in separate
views, not for example in menus. Recall that there are only
four command buttons available in the Communicator, and
that their meaning changes from view to view. Moreover,
the style guide reserves (in most cases) the lowest button
for returning to the previous level in the view hierarchy.
Thus there are, in essence, at most three buttons available
for moving down and one button for moving up in the view
hierarchy. Some views may provide a combination of
operations and movement buttons, thereby reducing the
number of buttons available for downward movement.
It is obvious, then, that users of the N9000 Browser will
have to navigate more than the users of conventional
browsers to reach all desired operations. What operations
should be available with each view, and how should the
views be arranged?
We decided to distribute the functionality on three levels,
each level containing a set of views. Figure 2 shows the
three levels as a simplified state diagram. The grouping of
states is based on the services that each state offers and on
the services needed in the state. For instance, when the
user starts the browser, s/he can either edit the Hotlist,
fetch a document or change the browser settings. In this
view it is not necessary to use the saving functionality.
Our idea is that when the user moves from layer 2 to layer
3, s/he makes a logical transition from working locally
within the device to being connected to the Internet. The
transition is reflected in the functionality offered by the
command buttons. When the user is in the “within device”
state s/he can use local operations, such as saving pages
locally, and when s/he is in the “connected state, the
navigation tools are available.
Hotlist view
Hotlist edi
Saving view
istory vie
ayer 1
ayer 2
ayer 3
Figure 2.
Layering the functionality.
Typically, browsing starts by selecting a link from the
Hotlist. There is a clear state transition from the Hotlist
view to the Document view (Figure 3). This view appears
on layer 2 in Figure 2.
Figure 3.
The Document view.
The design of this view was based on the idea that a
document has two logical functions: it is a document that
the user wants to read and it is also a navigation platform.
The command buttons in the Document view are selected
to support the reading task. This view contains buttons for
saving the document, for closing the connection for the
reading period in order to save expensive on-line time, and
for closing the document. Consequently, there are two
buttons for moving down, one command button, and one
button for moving up in the view hierarchy.
The other function of a document, navigation, is supported
in the Navigation view (Figure 4). This view appears on
layer 3 in Figure 2. The view contains tools for using the
hypertext functionality in the document and for fetching
documents from the history list. The state transition from
the Document view is indicated by changing the command
button names and by activating a link in the document.
Figure 4.
The Navigation view.
Although the layering of the functionality was considered
carefully and the result is logical, the separate reading and
navigation states of the document were still expected to be
the hardest part for the user to understand in this browser.
After all, no other implementation uses the same logic.
User studies confirmed this expectation.
The concept of distributing the browser functionality on
many levels did not cause major problems to the users. It
was easily understood and accepted. However, the use of
separate reading and navigation modes had the effect that
it was not always clear what operations could be executed
in the different states. It was difficult for the users to
understand that the modes were separate and that there are
different commands available in these views.
A common confusion situation was met when the user had
fetched a document from the Hotlist view. After the opera-
tion s/he wanted to start to navigate immediately without
extra mode changes. Figure 5 shows the state transitions
that are needed to activate the navigation mode from the
Hotlist view.
Figure 5.
State transitions from the Hotlist
to the navigation mode.
The conceptual model that the users typically expected was
different: more straightforward and more natural (Figure
6). In this view, only one state transition would be needed
to enable the navigation tools. In this case our design
model is too complex.
Figure 6.
The functionality expected by the users.
In retrospect, the logical and balanced layering of the
functionality should not have been the key design
principle. Instead, we should have identified the most
common operations and grouped them together. This,
however, would require some other solution to the problem
of separating page scrolling from hopping from link to
The Back button
One difficult design problem is visible in the Navigation
view in Figure 4. As explained earlier, the lowermost
command button is used for moving upwards in the view
hierarchy. The style guide requires that this button is
called “Back – a perfectly reasonable choice for all other
purposes but not for the N9000 Browser. How should the
common Back operation be made available?
The solution was to use a different name, “Previous”, for
the command that moves back to the previous page in the
history list. This was a decision that was forced by design
constraints that enforced internal consistency. We expected
problems with external consistency, and indeed, were not
let down. Even after users realize the meaning of the two
buttons, they still consistently struggle with them. This is
not surprising considering the fact that the Back operation
is the most commonly used single navigation mechanism
in normal web browsing [10].
Optimization of the web pages for the mobile browser
When web sites are optimized for mobile use, at least the
following issues have to be considered:
1. content of the optimized site (is all material equally
relevant, which pictures are important enough) –
important to optimize download times;
2. page layout – important to make use of the small
screen area; and
3. navigation (how to structure the site, how to create
descriptive links) – important to minimize the number
of file transfers.
Choosing the content
We made the choice based on interviews of the users.
Travel information seemed to be the most interesting
section to the users of Club Nokia. Information about the
Communicator and product support were also expected to
be interesting. These parts of the site were designed with
special care to fit the N9000 Browser.
Again, it turned out that user behavior is difficult to
predict. In spite of the possibility to use the web while
travelling, users said that they would like to look for travel
information mainly before the trip. On the other hand, if
users had a need for a specific information and they knew
in advance where to find it using the WWW, they were
likely to use the Communicator for browsing the web also
while travelling.
Contrary to what we expected, users were quite interested
also in entertaining stories. They said that short, amusing
tales would be adequate to read for example when waiting
at an airport lounge.
Page layout
Communicator test users did not complain about the size
of the N9000 Browser window. They did not need graphics
or animation – they wanted to get to the text information
fast. When comparing the optimized pages with the
graphical, large display site of Club Nokia, users often said
that it is almost more comfortable to read text from the
Communicator's screen.
Links and navigation
There is no external pointing device in Communicator to
move freely within page and links. Links and pages should
be designed so that users can move easily with the
browser’s command buttons (next link, previous link).
Introducing the content, navigation support and descriptive
text links should be designed to fit into the communicator's
Although users could wait to get to the information they
needed, predictability of the links became very important.
Especially when the data transfer rate is low, it is essential
to use descriptive links to avoid the frustration of down-
loading useless pages. More research on link naming
policies is clearly needed.
The most often used way to navigate was to use the
navigation tools of the N9000 Browser (the Previous
command and the History view). The reason is probably
that the command button is always there, consistently and
independently of individual page design. A further
advantage is that it is conveniently near the thumb. In
addition, most of our pages in the tests were more than one
screenful long, so that the navigation links within the
pages were not constantly accessible.
In the second user study that was carried out for the N9000
Browser, the users were asked the question “What was the
major problem for you?” We tried to identify problems
that are bothering users after the initial difficulties and
during the daily use. Most problems concerned the low
data transfer rate (19%) and connectivity problems (21%).
These problems are typically caused by slow network
systems and not the device. The second group of problems
contained the general difficulty of understanding the user
interface (13%), complexity of settings (13%) and software
bugs (13%).
Contrary to what we assumed, the two modes of viewing
the document caused a relatively small number of
complaints (8%). This indicates that in the long run, users
are willing to learn new patterns of behavior, but problems
that are out of their control (low data transfer rate) are
Studies of the web pages optimized for the N9000 Browser
showed that visual or even structural external consistency
of the pages was not important to the users – making good
use of the platform was much more crucial.
The cases discussed above contain (a) a situation where
internal consistency and device specific solutions were the
right design choice (the start-up view), (b) a situation
where careful design under hard physical constraints
produced a solution with usability problems (layering the
functionality), and (c) a case where internal consistency
drove to a design that caused confusion in the users (the
Back button). In each case, the success or problem rate of
the chosen solution was hard to predict accurately in
advance by logical reasoning.
The evaluations showed that the layering of the document
functionality causes problems in the beginning of use but
not in the long run. Speed and connectivity problems were
not usability problems in the beginning but they are prob-
lems in the long run. Table 1 lists what usability problems
were anticipated during the design process and what
problems the users reported. The severity is indicated by
the number of plus signs: two plus signs are a serious
The results indicate that when an application is designed
in a way that differs from a generally accepted and used
style, users may have difficulties in adopting to the new
functionality, especially in the learning phase. Users don’t
easily accept differences to systems they have already
Problem Expected Study 1 Study 2
Connection establishment time
++ +++
Data transfer rate
++ ++ +++
Connectivity problem
Layered functionality
++ +++ +++
External consistency
+++ ++
Table 1.
Expected and found problems.
With the increased use of PDAs, wearable computers and
other smart products, the need for mobile web browsers is
growing fast, and we hope that our experiences are useful
in their development. Future versions of the N9000
browser have already solved differently many of the
problems discussed here.
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... d manuals.Also Jones & Marsden (2005)see that interaction design should address not only software and hardware but also product identity and the whole package presented to the user, including the marketing, customer care, charging plans, etc. The goal is to provide a " solid, distinct, understandable, trustworthy, and satisfying user experience " .Hjelmeroos et al (2000)investigate usability of the mobile web browser in Communicator 9000, and list findings that are related to the user interface style of Communicator, page visualization method, connection, and the sites. Their finding was that both consistency and inconsistency between the PC browser and a mobile browser is desired, and it is very hard t ...
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The increasing importance of the web in people's daily life calls for device-independent access to existing web sites. More than two billion people have a mobile phone today, and for many of them, a mobile phone may be the only way to connect to the web. There is an order for full web access on mobile phones, but it faces several challenges and the user experience is often poor. This dissertation has its focus in the area of human-computer interaction and user experience research. The overall goal of the research has been to improve the end user experience when browsing the web with a mobile phone. Previous research has identified that the user's internal state, context, and system affect the user experience, but product development needs a more concrete and comprehensive list of attributes. To understand the user experience building blocks in the case of mobile browsing, we ran several usability studies with mobile web browsers in both a laboratory and a mobile context. We also conducted 35 contextual inquiry interviews in Finland, United States, Japan, and the United Kingdom. The studies revealed that mobile browsing user experience is affected by the user's state, context, mobile device, browser application, network infrastructure, and web sites. Identifying these characteristics composes the main contribution of this dissertation. The mobile browser development activity at Nokia serves as a case study, in which we have considered the identified attributes and aimed to create a browser that fits well into the mobile context. Our field study results and early feedback from the market have been encouraging, which shows that taking the user experience characteristics into account helps creating positive user experiences. Finally, this dissertation adduces topics for future user experience research by discussing the difference between user experience and experience in general, the effects that pricing has on the user experience, and the role of a user's expectations in evaluating the user experience.
... The Simon was also the first to use a touchscreen and stylus and include other new features such as an address book, a calendar, a calculator, and an appointment scheduler. Access to the mobile web was introduced by the Nokia 9000 Communicator launched in 1996 [4]. In 2000, the first mobile phone camera was unveiled in Sharp's J-SH04 model, which had a 0.3-megapixel (MP) resolution and allowed users to send images electronically. ...
... The Communicator had a QWERTY keyboard, enabled word processing, sending faxes or e-mails and browsing the Web in a limited waythe many features that are now common on the so-called smartphones. However, when it came to its web browsing utility, as suggested by Hjelmeroos et al. (2000), consistency between the PC and the mobile browser was not always to be desired. It was realized at the time (Roto, 2006) that mobile phones were not capable of displaying large web pages and that, therefore, specific mobile-optimized web pages would be needed. ...
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This chapter discusses the complex histories of the ubiquitous and multiplatform web in terms of its standardization practices. These practices took place at the interfaces of different industries (telecommunications, online services, content provision, handset manufacturing) that were on the course to converge and constitute the new industry of the ubiquitous web. The chapter focuses on the dialogues among these industries and demonstrates how their power struggles at different stages of the web evolution conditioned the design of the multiplatform web that currently appears as satisfactory for most industry players and sustains the value of the web as a global public good.
... There has not been a clear answer, whether the user interface style on a mobile Web browser should be consistent or inconsistent with a PC Web browser and in which circumstances [78]. ...
Individual autonomous fact-checking is a crucial response strategy to food safety misinformation. Based on the theory of planned behavior, the present study considered individual trust in and user experience of using a fact-checking platform and conducted a survey to explore the public’s behavioral intentions toward fact-checking. The results revealed that the hypothesis of trust as a mediator was partially supported. Perceived behavioral control was the most positive factor for promoting the public’s use of the fact-checking platform; furthermore, user experience, benevolence (trust), and competence (trust) could significantly and positively affect people’s fact-checking behavioral intentions. The results further indicated that the integrity (trust) revealed by the platform had significant and negative effects on individuals’ fact-checking behavioral intentions.
Modern mobile devices support accessing Web-based social networking services from the user interface (UI) of Web browsers, applications, and mobile widgets. While effectively accessing these services, people may find it tedious to switch between multiple user interfaces in order to be aware of the latest content. Aiming for an improved user experience, we experimented with integration of these services into mobile devices' main user interface. The integrated content is presented beyond application silos and automatically filtered to highlight the relevant elements. A mobile system called LinkedUI was developed and deployed in one lab test and one field study. Three findings emerge from these studies. Firstly, it is feasible to construct an alternative device UI that supports integration of Web content across applications and services via hyperlinking. Time, publisher (e.g., contacts), content types, and geographical locations are key dimensions for association of content. Secondly, the alternative device UI enables better usability of accessing social networking services than accessing them from individual Web sites on mobile devices. It helps people to be aware of the latest content during microbreaks. Thirdly, automatic filtering, on the basis of one user's data, is one promising approach to identifying relevant content. Given filtered content, most people using the automatic filtering approved the functionality and experienced a better sense of control that is arguably due to the reduced information volume.
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A “percent-done progress indicator” is a graphical technique which allows the user to monitor the progress through the processing of a task. Progress indicators can be displayed on almost all types of output devices, and can be used with many different kinds of programs. Practical experience and formal experiments show that prograss indicators are an important and useful user-interface tool, and that they enhance the attractiveness and effectiveness of programs that incorporate them. This paper discusses why progress indicators are important. It includes the results of a formal experiment with progress indicators. One part of the experiment demonstrates that people prefer to have progress indicators. Another part attempted to replicate earlier findings to show that people prefer constant to variable response time in general, and then to show that this effect is reversed with progress indicators, but the results were not statistically significant. In fact, no significant preference for constant response time was shown, contrary to previously published results.
From the Publisher: In 1996, recognizing this book, ACM's Special Interest Group on Documentation (SIGDOC) presented Ben Shneiderman with the Joseph Rigo Award. SIGDOC praised the book as one "that took the jargon and mystery out of the field of human-computer interaction" and attributed the book's success to "its readability and emphasis on practice as well as research." In revising this best-seller, Ben Shneiderman again provides a complete, current, and authoritative introduction to user-interface design. The user interface is the part of every computer system that determines how people control and operate that system. When the interface is well designed, it is comprehensible, predictable, and controllable; users feel competent, satisfied, and responsible for their actions. In this book, the author discusses the principles and practices needed to design such effective interaction. Based on 20 years experience, Shneiderman offers readers practical techniques and guidelines for interface design. As a scientist, he also takes great care to discuss underlying issues and to support conclusions with empirical results. Interface designers, software engineers, and product managers will all find here an invaluable resource for creating systems that facilitate rapid learning and performance, yield low error rates, and generate high user satisfaction. Coverage includes the human factors of interactive software (with added discussion of diverse user communities), tested methods to develop and assess interfaces, interaction styles (like direct manipulation for graphical user interfaces), and design considerations (effective messages, consistent screen design, appropriate color).
Adequate treatment of cardiac failure should reflect both clinical rules and quantitative evaluation of hemodynamics. For the latter we assumed an extensive model of heart and vessels: For the left and right ventricles the EMAX models were assumed with ...