Article

Hempseed as a nutritional resource: An overview

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Abstract

The seed of Cannabis sativa L. has been an important source of nutrition for thousands of years in Old World cultures. Non-drug varieties of Cannabis, commonly referred to as hemp, have not been studied extensively for their nutritional potential in recent years, nor has hempseed been utilized to any great extent by the industrial processes and food markets that have developed during the 20th century. Technically a nut, hempseed typically contains over 30% oil and about 25% protein, with considerable amounts of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. Hempseed oil is over 80% in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and is an exceptionally rich source of the two essential fatty acids (EFAs) linoleic acid (18:2 omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 omega-3). The omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (n6/n3) in hempseed oil is normally between 2:1 and 3:1, which is considered to be optimal for human health. In addition, the biological metabolites of the two EFAs, gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 omega-6; GLA) and stearidonic acid (18:4 omega-3; SDA), are also present in hempseed oil. The two main proteins in hempseed are edestin and albumin. Both of these high-quality storage proteins are easily digested and contain nutritionally significant amounts of all essential amino acids. In addition, hempseed has exceptionally high levels of the amino acid arginine. Hempseed has been used to treat various disorders for thousands of years in traditional oriental medicine. Recent clinical trials have identified hempseed oil as a functional food, and animal feeding studies demonstrate the long-standing utility of hempseed as an important food resource.

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... Hemp plants thrive well, and its seeds are utilized in the production of hemp oil. The remaining byproduct is used in the production of hempseed meal (HSM), which is found to be rich in crude protein (CP), approximately 30 to 38% on a dry matter (DM) basis and fiber, making it an ideal candidate as a feedstuff for ruminant animals [1,[5][6][7][8]. Hempseed oil is also abundant in essential fatty acids. ...
... It contains 50 to 70% linoleic acids and 15 to 25% alpha-linolenic acids [9]. It contains around 80% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and essential amino acids, especially arginine [5]. These polyunsaturated essential fatty acids, and easily digestible complete protein properties of hempseeds provide nutritional benefits to humans and animals [10]. ...
... These polyunsaturated essential fatty acids, and easily digestible complete protein properties of hempseeds provide nutritional benefits to humans and animals [10]. It has an ideal omega 6 to omega 3 essential fatty acids ratio for optimal human health [5,11]. These polyunsaturated essential fatty acids can be utilized as another energy source for the animal while potentially improving the immune function [1]. ...
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Hempseed meal (HSM) is the byproduct of hemp seeds and is rich in crude protein and fiber, making it an ideal candidate as a feedstuff for ruminants. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of HSM on the carcass traits of crossbred Boer goats. Forty castrated goat kids (approximately six months, 25.63 ± 0.33 kg) were assigned to one of four treatments (n = 10) in a completely randomized design. Goats were fed pelleted diets (50% forage and 50% concentrate) with additional supplementation of HSM: control with 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of the total diets. Goats were harvested and processed after a 60-day feeding trial. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the mean values of dressing percentages, carcass weights, body wall thickness, and ribeye area among treatments. Marbling scores and percentages of moisture, fats, proteins, and collagen in the muscles showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) among the treatments. Results suggest that including up to 30% of HSM in the diet of growing meat goats does not affect their carcass traits.
... However, it has many other applications ( Figure 4). It is used in various industries including food, cosmetics, energy and textiles [7,18,57,58]. Studies have also indicated a potential use of Cannabis in bioremediation of contaminated soils. ...
... For example, in Asian societies, Cannabis seeds have been an important diet for many generations [7]. One of the important nutritive values of Cannabis seeds is the abundance of two essential fatty acids (EFAs) linolenic acid (omega-3) and linoleic acid (omega-6) [58]. The ratio of omega 6 to omega-3 in Cannabis seeds is 3:1, which is optimal for human health [58,67]. ...
... One of the important nutritive values of Cannabis seeds is the abundance of two essential fatty acids (EFAs) linolenic acid (omega-3) and linoleic acid (omega-6) [58]. The ratio of omega 6 to omega-3 in Cannabis seeds is 3:1, which is optimal for human health [58,67]. Additionally, Cannabis is ranked among the top known crops rich in the EFAs [63,67]. ...
Article
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Cannabis sativa L. is an illegal plant in many countries. The worldwide criminalization of the plant has for many years limited its research. Consequently, understanding the full scope of its benefits and harm became limited too. However, in recent years the world has witnessed an increased pace in legalization and decriminalization of C. sativa. This has prompted an increase in scientific studies on various aspects of the plant’s growth, development, and use. This review brings together the historical and current information about the plant’s relationship with mankind. We highlight the important aspects of C. sativa classification and identification, carefully analyzing the supporting arguments for both monotypic (single species) and polytypic (multiple species) perspectives. The review also identifies recent studies on suitable conditions and methods for C. sativa propagation as well as highlighting the diverse uses of the plant. Specifically, we describe the beneficial and harmful effects of the prominent phytocannabinoids and provide status of the studies on heterologous synthesis of phytocannabinoids in different biological systems. With a historical view on C. sativa legality, the review also provides an up-to-date worldwide standpoint on its regulation. Finally, we present a summary of the studies on genome editing and suggest areas for future research.
... The share of carbohydrates is high at 20-30%, with a significant proportion of this fraction being dietary fiber (primarily insoluble) [17]. Hemp seeds are also a valuable source of many mineral components (e.g., P, K, Mg, Ca, Na and Fe) [18]. ...
... In the studied material, the fiber content was 28.88 and 27.42% (Table 1; p < 0.05). According to other authors, these values range from 27.6% to as much as 33.8% [18,31]. Among other things, fiber-rich hemp can be used to create new bakery formulas. ...
Article
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This publication characterizes the nutritional value of the Polish hemp seeds of the ‘Bialobrzeskie’ and ‘Henola’ varieties, including the profile/content of fatty acids and amino acids. Hemp seeds were found to be rich in protein, fat, and dietary fiber. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) dominated the unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) profile. Their average share within the total fatty acids (FA) was as high as 75%. Linoleic acid belonging to this group accounted for 55% of the total FA. Lipid profile indices (Σ n−6/Σ n−3, Σ PUFA/Σ SFA, the thrombogenicity index, the atherogenicity index and the hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) proved the high nutritional value of hemp oil. Considering the tyrosine + phenylalanine and histidine contents, hemp protein exhibited a great degree of similarity to egg protein, which is known and valued for its high biological value.
... Hemp seeds contain a high level of dietary fibre; B vitamins and bioelements such as manganese, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and iron. Moreover, they are rich in fats that contain essential fatty acids [15], mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids and linoleic, oleic and alpha-linolenic acids [16][17][18]. They constitute highly appreciated edible seed oil. ...
... They constitute highly appreciated edible seed oil. For its amino acid profile, hemp seeds resemble such protein-rich foods as meat, milk, eggs and soy [17,19]. However, the seeds also contain significant amounts of antinutritional compounds such as phytic acid, trypsin inhibitors and tannins [20,21]. ...
Article
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Recently, a series of papers reported preparation and physicochemical properties of various kinds of water treated in contact with various gases with low-temperature, low-pressure glow plasma of low frequency (LPGP). Consecutive papers presented results of watering numerous herbal plants with those kinds of water in planting of numerous herbal plants. Always, the watering influenced the yield and quality of the crops and considerably changed the composition of the essential oils extracted from the watered plants. This paper provides the effects of watering of Cannabis sativum var. Finola with water LPGP-treated either in the air (LPGPA), under molecular nitrogen (LPGPN) or carbon dioxide (LPGPC). Cannabis sativa, particularly its botanic class called hemp, attracts great attention for its numerous applications. They include rope, textiles, clothing, shoes, food, paper, bioplastics, insulation, biofuel and industrial fibre. The watering was maintained for 12 weeks. Regardless of the kind of the used plasma-treated water, a considerable increase in the plant crop yield was noted for first 7 weeks. Further cultivation resulted in a minute increase in the yield. The watering with LPGPC offered the highest crop yield, followed by nontreated water, LPGPN and LPGPA. The yield of essential oil per 1 g of plant was independent of the used kind of plasma-treated water. Watering Finola with LPGPA resulted in a decrease in the level of cannabidivarin (CBD V) and considerable increase in the deal of Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). The levels of the remaining components of the essential oil slightly decreased with respect to that in the control sample. Almost identical trends in the influence of watering upon the composition of essential oil were observed in the case of LPGPN. However, an unusually strong decrease in the level of CBD V accompanied by a very high increase in the level of Δ9-THC could be noted. The performed study provided strong evidence that watering seeds and plants of Finola with various kinds of the LPGP-treated water could modulate and even tailor the crop yield, functional properties of the plant and essential oils extracted from it. The composition of the essential oil isolated from the plant watered with LPGPN suggests its application as a substitute of medical marijuana (medical cannabis).
... Hemp by-products, although underutilized, could be used as novel feed for ruminants [13]; among these by-products, hempseed cake, which is obtained together with oil during the mechanical extraction of the seed, appears to be of particular interest for animal feeding. It has a high biological value of protein with an amino acid profile comparable to that of soybean [14]. The fat content is around 10% of the dry matter (DM) with an FA profile particularly beneficial to humans. ...
... In fact, about 70% of total FAs are linoleic (C18:2n-6) and linolenic (C18:3n-3) acid, which are essential FAs because the human body is unable to synthetize them. Moreover, hemp has a C18:2n-6/C18:3n-3 ratio around 2:1-3:1, which is considered ideal for human health [14][15][16]. ...
Article
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Cull dairy cows are important contributors to total beef production in the USA and in Europe. Hempseed cake is a by-product of oil production and it is rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA). This study aimed to investigate the effect of adding hempseed cake to the diet of Italian Simmental (IS) cull dairy cows on performances and meat quality. Twenty-six cull dairy cows were divided into three dietary groups: hay-based, corn silage-based and pasture-based diets. Within each group, the animals were equally divided into two treatments according to the protein source of the concentrate: hempseed cake (HEMP) or soybeans meal (SB). The trial lasted four months. HEMP showed similar in vivo performance and carcass characteristics, such as average daily gain (p > 0.05) and dressing percentage (p > 0.05), compared with SB. Meat characteristics, such as ether extract content and Warner–Bratzler shear force, were also similar between experimental groups (p > 0.05). Considering FA composition, HEMP showed similar saturated FA and polyunsaturated FA content (p > 0.05) but lower desirable fatty acids (p < 0.05) content and a tendentially lower hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio (p < 0.10) than SFA. Hempseed cake can substitute soybean in the diet of cull dairy cows without effects on performance or meat quality.
... 2,3 Hemp proteins are rich in essential amino acids (EAA), with sufficient nutritional quantities for infants and/or children as recommended by FAO/WHO. 4 On average, the whole hempseed is composed of 26-37.5% lipids, 25% crude protein and 28% fibre, while hempseed cake contains 11% lipids, 33% crude protein and 43% fibre with considerable amounts of vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. [5][6][7][8] Hempseed cake is a rich source of proteins but is often discarded as a waste due to the complexity of recovering proteins. From the perspective of sustainable development and utilization of by-products generated during food processing, hempseed cake has excellent potential for producing, for example, a valuable protein flour, meal or ingredient. ...
... From the perspective of sustainable development and utilization of by-products generated during food processing, hempseed cake has excellent potential for producing, for example, a valuable protein flour, meal or ingredient. Although there is literature describing the nutritional quality of hempseed and hempseed oil, 6 relatively little information exists on the extraction and use of hempseed cake protein. To use hempseed cake as a protein source or as a protein ingredient, it is essential to achieve efficient protein recovery and separate it from unwanted fibre and residual oil. ...
Article
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Background: Hempseed meal, a by-product of hempseed oil processing stream, is a potential alternative source for food proteins. Efficient extraction of proteins from hempseed meal is challenging owing to difference in the structure and solubility of various protein fractions present in the seed. In the present study, protein was extracted from hempseed meal using four different solvents, including aqueous NaOH, KOH, NaHCO3 , and NaCl, at four different concentrations with an aim of improving the recovery of protein fractions rich in essential amino acids. Results: Extraction using alkaline solvents provided superior protein recovery (60-78%) compared with NaCl solution and control extractions (20-48% and 21%, respectively). The concentration of alkali or salt (0.25-1 M) had a minor but significant impact on the yield. Amino acid composition analysis revealed that hemp seed meal contains 24% (54.5 ± 0.19 mg/g) essential amino acids of total amino acids, and extraction with NaOH, KOH, NaHCO3 , and NaCl did not improve the selective extraction of essential amino acids compared to control experiments. SDS-PAGE analysis allowed the identification of edestin and albumin in the extracts obtained with NaHCO3 and NaCl solvents, with results further showing that the type of extraction solvent influences the protein extraction selectivity. Conclusions: Although alkali solvents provides superior extraction yields, extraction with water resulted in extracts containing the highest proportion of proteins bearing essential amino acids. According to the results of SDS-PAGE, extraction using alkali solvents induced protein cross-linking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... There is accumulating evidence that PUFAs and phytosterols protect against NAFLD [22]. Since hemp seed oil contains PUFAs, high concentrations of phytosterols and essential fatty acids [23], it looks to be a promising phytotherapy against NASH. Thus, in this study, the Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15, 864 3 of 20 ameliorative action of a nanoemulsion preparation of hemp seed oil against experimental NASH was investigated. ...
... There is accumulating evidence that PUFAs and phytosterols protect against NAFLD [22]. Since hemp seed oil contains PUFAs, high concentrations of phytosterols and essential fatty acids [23], it looks to be a promising phytotherapy against NASH. Thus, in this study, the ameliorative action of a nanoemulsion preparation of hemp seed oil against experimental NASH was investigated. ...
Article
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Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common type of metabolic liver disease which is characterized by fatty changes associated with hepatocyte injury, lobular inflammation, and/or liver fibrosis. Nanoemulsions are kinetically stable colloidal systems characterized by small droplet size. Hemp seed oil is a natural oil derived from Cannabis sativa seeds. The current study was designed to formulate nanoemulsion preparations of hemp seed oil with promising enhanced biological activity against high fat (HF) diet induced NASH in rats. Four nanoemulsion formulas (NEFs) were formulated based on high-pressure homogenization technique and evaluated for droplet size, zeta potential (ZP), polydispersity index (PDI), electrical conductivity, pH, and viscosity, as well as the preparation stability. The best NEF was selected to perform an in vivo rat study; selection was based on the smallest droplet size and highest physical stability. Results showed that NEF#4 showed the best physiochemical characters among the other preparations. Twenty male rats were assigned to four groups as follows: normal, NASH control, NASH + hemp seed oil and NASH + hemp seed oil NEF4. The rats were tested for body weight (BWt) change, insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic pathology. The hemp seed NEF#4 protected against NASH progression in rats and decreased the % of BWt gain compared to the original Hemp seed oil. NEF#4 of Hemp seed oil showed greater protective activity against experimental NASH and IR in rats. Hence, we can consider the nanoemulsion preparations as a useful tool for enhancing the biological action of the hemp seed oil, and further studies are warranted for application of this technique for preparing natural oils aiming at enhancing their activities.
... Hemp is an industrial crop that is commonly used in the textile, pharmaceutical, and paper industries. Hemp seeds are a by-product of hemp processing and contain 25-30% oil [1], 20-30% protein and other nutritional substances [2]. Hemp seed oil (HSO) contains more than 80% unsaturated fatty acids and a high content of functional components, including linoleic acid (LA), linolenic acid (LNA) and other essential fatty acids, as well as tocopherols, vitamin A, minerals, etc., which have a positive impact on cardiovascular, mental and immune diseases and can be added to foods as functional fats [3,4]. ...
Article
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In this study, Hemp seed oil (HSO) emulsions stabilized with hemp seed protein (HPI) were prepared and treated with high intensity ultrasonic (HIU). The effects of different treatment powers (0, 150, 300, 450, 600 W) on the properties, microstructure and stability of emulsions were investigated. HIU-treated emulsions showed improved emulsifying activity index and emulsifying stability index, reduced particle size, and increased absolute values of ζ-potential, with the extreme points of these indices occurring at a treatment power of 450 W. Here, the emulsion showed the best dispersion and the smallest particle size in fluorescence microscopy observation, with the highest adsorbed protein content (30.12%), and the highest tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) retention rate (87.64%). The best thermal and oxidative stability of the emulsions were obtained under HIU treatment with a power of 450 W. The D43 and the peroxide values (POV) values after 30 d storage were the smallest at 985.74 ± 64.89 nm and 4.6 μmol/L, respectively. Therefore, 450 W was optimal HIU power to effectively improve the properties of HPI-stabilized HSO emulsion and promote the application of HSO and its derivatives in food processing production.
... Recently, oilseed crops such as camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) and hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) have been rediscovered and reintroduced in agriculture due to their wide-range use in biofuel production, chemistry and food industry (Callaway 2004;Nain et al. 2015;Della Rocca and Di Salvo 2020). Considerable amounts of cakes are left after oil production from camelina and hemp seed. ...
... Its global market is projected to increase from $3.5 billion in 2019 to $18.8 billion in 2025, with a compound annual growth rate of 32.17% [13]. Hemp seed contains low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content but a high amount of protein and a good proportion of healthy unsaturated fatty acids [14,15], creating the demand in the food and beverage industries. Hemp seed oil is a nutritional supplement added to skincare and medicinal products [12,16]. ...
Article
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Background Plant growth devices, for example, rhizoponics, rhizoboxes, and ecosystem fabrication (EcoFAB), have been developed to facilitate studies of plant root morphology and plant-microbe interactions in controlled laboratory settings. However, several of these designs are suitable only for studying small model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Brachypodium distachyon and therefore require modification to be extended to larger plant species like crop plants. In addition, specific tools and technical skills needed for fabricating these devices may not be available to researchers. Hence, this study aimed to establish an alternative protocol to generate a larger, modular and reusable plant growth device based on different available resources. Results Root-TRAPR (Root-Transparent, Reusable, Affordable three-dimensional Printed Rhizo-hydroponic) system was successfully developed. It consists of two main parts, an internal root growth chamber and an external structural frame. The internal root growth chamber comprises a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) gasket, microscope slide and acrylic sheet, while the external frame is printed from a three-dimensional (3D) printer and secured with nylon screws. To test the efficiency and applicability of the system, industrial hemp ( Cannabis sativa ) was grown with or without exposure to chitosan, a well-known plant elicitor used for stimulating plant defense. Plant root morphology was detected in the system, and plant tissues were easily collected and processed to examine plant biological responses. Upon chitosan treatment, chitinase and peroxidase activities increased in root tissues (1.7- and 2.3-fold, respectively) and exudates (7.2- and 21.6-fold, respectively). In addition, root to shoot ratio of phytohormone contents were increased in response to chitosan. Within 2 weeks of observation, hemp plants exhibited dwarf growth in the Root-TRAPR system, easing plant handling and allowing increased replication under limited growing space. Conclusion The Root-TRAPR system facilitates the exploration of root morphology and root exudate of C. sativa under controlled conditions and at a smaller scale. The device is easy to fabricate and applicable for investigating plant responses toward elicitor challenge. In addition, this fabrication protocol is adaptable to study other plants and can be applied to investigate plant physiology in different biological contexts, such as plant responses against biotic and abiotic stresses.
... Since the last decades, the cultivation of industrial hemp (i.e., with a THC concentration not exceeding 0.3 % in USA and 0.2 % in EU of the dry weight of the reproductive part of the plant at flowering) is not subject to legal restrictions. This has opened the possibility of using hemp vegetative production, and not only the protein-and fat-rich seeds, as food or dietary supplement (Callaway, 2004). Moreover, public opinion on cannabis has changed recently, and this species is more frequently valued for if therapeutic benefits (Metcalf et al., 2021;Schluttenhofer and Yuan, 2017). ...
Article
Microgreens are an increasingly popular type of nutritionally dense green leafy vegetables. Being eaten raw, they can contribute to a healthier diet being a rich source of essential nutrients such as minerals, vitamins, and bioactive metabolites. This study reports for the first time the mineral profile, obtained by ICP-OES (20 elements plus nitrate), of six hemp varieties grown as a microgreen. Moreover, we evaluated the bioaccumulation capacity of heavy metals. The data indicated that hemp microgreens are above all a good source of K (22.2 ± 2 mg kg⁻¹ fw; mean ± s.e.) and Ca (12.6 ± 2 mg kg⁻¹ fw), among the macrolements, and Fe (145.1 ± 4 μg kg⁻¹ fw) and Zn (10.4 ± 0.4 μg kg⁻¹ fw), among the microelements. Considering the RDA, microgreens are particularly valuable in meeting the nutrient requirement of Se (on average, 33.9% of the RDA). Moreover, although hemp is being associated with soil bioremediation, microgreens do not have a notable tendency to accumulate toxic heavy metals in the edible fraction. Our results highlighted the ample variation among cultivars and imply that in our controlled conditions the genetic factor has a predominant role in establishing the elemental profile. Our study indicates that hemp microgreens can provide a rich and specific contribution of mineral elements to the human diet, and it paves the way for the exploitation of this industrial crop in the lucrative microgreen sector.
... Many foods containing hemp are available on the market. Hempseeds are a source of unsaturated fatty acids, protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals (Callaway, 2004). Hemp sprouts are rich in polyphenols (e.g., flavanones and flavonols), which positively affect the cardiovascular apparatus and the metabolic system (Menezes et al., 2017). ...
... Günümüzde ise Hindistan'dan Doğu Avrupa'ya pek çok ülkede hem insanlar hem de evcil hayvanlar için gıda amaçlı kullanılmaktadır. Çin'de kavrulmuş kenevir tohumu atıştırmalık olarak satılırken, Rusya'da 'siyah' yağ olarak tereyağı ve margarinlerde değerlendirilmektedir (Callaway, 2004). Çin'de 4500 yıldan beri yetiştiriciliği yapılan kenevirin tarih içerisinde kullanımı çok farklı alanlara taşınmıştır. ...
Conference Paper
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Aristoteles’e göre erdemler, iç iyiler ve dış iyiler olmak üzere ikiye ayrılır. İç iyilerin en değerlisi bilgidir. Dış iyilerin en değerlisi ise dostluktur. Aristoteles’e göre dostluk bir erdemdir. Çünkü dostluk sosyal yaşam için zorunlu bir unsurdur. Bütün öteki iyilere sahip olsa bile hiç kimse dostlardan uzak bir yaşamı düşünemez. Çünkü doğası gereği insan ister zengin olsun ister fakir her durumunu paylaşacağı dostlara ihtiyaç duyan sosyal bir canlıdır. Sosyal yaşam ise ancak iyilik üzerine kurulabilir. İyilik düzeni de ancak iyilerin birlik ve beraberliği ile mümkündür ki bu da dostluğu erdem kılan temel nedendir. Birlik ve beraberlik hem kendileri iyiliktir hem de iyilikleri daha iyi ve daha çok yapmanın; çoğaltmanın yegâne yoludur. O halde, yalnızca bireyleri birbirine yakınlaştırıp bir arada tutmakla kalmayan dostluk olgusu, devletlerin de ayakta kalmasını sağlayan temel bir dinamiktir. Bu nedenle yasa koyucular adaletten daha çok dostluk üzerinde dururlar. Çünkü dostluk fikir birliği demektir, uzlaşım ve uylaşım sanatı demektir. Bu nedenle dostlar arasında adalete dahi gerek duyulmayabilir ama adil olanlar dostluğa her zaman gereksinim duyarlar. Çünkü, dostluk birbirinden uzak kuvvetler, farklı dünyalar; boyutlar ve perspektifler arasında bir denge sanatı demektir. Aristoteles’e göre dostluk ne yarara ne hazza dayanır; aslolan erdeme dayalı dostluklardır. Çünkü, bir toplumda ancak böylesi dostluklar sayesinde iyilik, fazilet, onur, eleştirel düşünce ve felsefe gibi yüksek değerler yerleşebilir. Ne yazık ki böylesi yüksek ve ulvi düşüncelere sahip insan sayısı her zaman azınlıkta kalmaktadır. Çünkü bu bilgiyi araştırıp uygulayabilecek erdem sahibi insan sayısı son derece azdır. Bu bulgu ayrıca şu hususu da göstermektedir ki, genel bir dostluk anlayışından söz etmek mümkün değildir. O halde, öncelikle yapılması gereken gerçek dostluğun ne olduğunu ortaya koymaktan geçmektedir.
... Hemp wastes are used as raw materials for biofuel and cement replacement [9]. Hemp seeds are used as food and nutritional supplements for essential amino acids, proteins, and polyunsaturated fatty acids [10], and hemp seed oil also contains lignanamides and polyphenolic compounds with biological activities [11,12]. ...
Article
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Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) contains a variety of secondary metabolites, including cannabinoids, such as psychoactive (−)-trans-Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol. The present study was conducted to identify the major phenolic components contained in hemp root, which has been relatively under-researched compared to other parts of hemp. The aqueous ethanol extract of hemp roots was fractionated into methylene chloride (MC), ethyl acetate (EA), and water (WT) fractions, and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis was performed. The main ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing phenolic compound contained in the EA fraction was identified as p-coumaric acid by comparing the retention time and UV absorption spectrum with a standard. Silica gel column chromatography was performed to isolate a hydrophobic derivative of p-coumaric acid contained in the MC fraction. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis identified the isolated compound as ethyl p-coumarate. For comparative purposes, ethyl p-coumarate was also chemically synthesized by the esterification reaction of p-coumaric acid. The content of p-coumaric acid and ethyl p-coumarate in the total extract of hemp root was estimated to be 2.61 mg g−1 and 6.47 mg g−1, respectively, by HPLC-DAD analysis. These values correspond to 84 mg Kg−1 dry root and 216 mg Kg−1 dry root, respectively. In conclusion, this study identified p-coumaric acid and ethyl p-coumarate as the main phenolic compounds contained in the hemp roots.
... C. saliva L. has recently received a lot of attention for its nutritional and pharmaceutical value, although in the past, it was grown mainly for the fibers from hemp stalk and for the oil from hemp seeds [5][6][7]. The medicinal use of cannabis has been known for over 5000 years, and the pharmacological properties of cannabinoids, dominant in cannabis, can be useful in the treatment of various diseases [7,8]. ...
Article
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This study investigated the effects of particle size and ultrasonic parameters on the yields of bioactive compounds extracted from the leaves and inflorescences of hemp. The total flavonoid and anthocyanin contents were determined using the spectrophotometric method. The response surface methodology (RMS) was employed to optimize the yield of bioactive substances. On the basis of the developed model, the highest flavonoid yield was obtained under the following extraction conditions: particle size, 0.59 mm; extraction time, 10.71 min; ultrasound intensity, 7.13 W∙cm−2; extraction yield, 9.28 mg QE∙g−1; determination coefficient, R2 = 0.97. The optimal conditions for extracting anthocyanins were as follows: particle size, 0.25 mm; extraction time, 15 min; ultrasound intensity, 8.60 W∙cm−2; extraction efficiency, 20.27 mg Cy-GE∙100 g−1; determination coefficient, R2 = 0.87. This study helped confirm the importance of pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction in obtaining bioactive compounds from hemp.
... Recently, oilseed crops such as camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) and hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) have been rediscovered and reintroduced in agriculture due to their wide-range use in biofuel production, chemistry and food industry (Callaway 2004;Nain et al. 2015;Della Rocca and Di Salvo 2020). Considerable amounts of cakes are left after oil production from camelina and hemp seed. ...
... Major chemical classes reported in C Sativa are depicted in Fig. 4. Additionally, Cannabis comprises more than 30% oil, with polyunsaturated fatty acids accounting for more than 80% of the total, mainly linoleic ω-6 and -linolenic ω-3 acids. Anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombotic effects and an increase of general metabolism and fat burning have all been linked to ω-3 (Callaway 2004). The hemp seed oil has a ω-6/ω-3 ratio of roughly 3:1, which is excellent for human health. ...
Chapter
Bhanga (Cannabis) has been reported with numerous therapeutic, traditional, commercial, and sacred uses in India and across the globe. Its uses are deeply rooted in the cultural, social, and economic lives of the people. The inclusion of Cannabis under ‘Scheduled E1’ drugs in India restricts its use. However, being a crop of economic and medicinal importance, the pharmaceutical and various other sectors are showing much interest in the plant. The present review article delineates traditional, culinary, cosmetic, ritual, social, spiritual, recreational, economic, and therapeutic uses of Cannabis. The review illustrates various uses of Cannabis across the globe; noted from articles, publications, and books providing description of various parts, viz. leaves and seeds (Bhanga), flowering and fruiting tops (Ganja), resin (Charas), extract, tincture, and whole plant, stalks (Fibers). The review may be helpful to researchers, clinicians, and pharmaceutical companies to carry out further research for developing cost-effective healthcare options.
... Major chemical classes reported in C Sativa are depicted in Fig. 4. Additionally, Cannabis comprises more than 30% oil, with polyunsaturated fatty acids accounting for more than 80% of the total, mainly linoleic ω-6 and -linolenic ω-3 acids. Anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombotic effects and an increase of general metabolism and fat burning have all been linked to ω-3 (Callaway 2004). The hemp seed oil has a ω-6/ω-3 ratio of roughly 3:1, which is excellent for human health. ...
... Hemp is mainly grown in Europe, Asia, and North America [5]. Hemp fiber is used for clothing, paper, building insulation, and composite materials [6,7]. Hemp seeds are a rich source of vitamins A, C, and E, minerals, and β-carotene and contain approximately 30% protein, 25% starch, and 30% oil [8]. ...
Article
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In the last decade, the demand for edible niche oils has increased. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the seeds hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) varieties: ‘Finola’ (FIN-314)’, ‘Earlina 8FC’, and ‘Secuieni Jubileu’, and cold and hot pressed oils were prepared from each seed. The seeds were examined for moisture content, granulometric distribution, bulk density, and fat content. Seeds were pressed without and with preconditioning (60 °C), and oil yield and pressing time were recorded. The oil was filtered through cellulose membranes. Oil–water content, oil color, fatty acid profile, and sterol content were studied. From the study conducted, there are significant differences in the parameters of oil recovery and its quality compared to ‘Finola’ seed oil, which is widely reported in the literature. ‘Finola’ oil yield was the lowest, with an average of 79% compared to ‘Earlina’ (82%) and ‘S. Jubileu’ (84%). All oil samples contained a comparable amount of sterols, with campesterol (0.32 mg/g), β-sitosterol (1.3 mg/g) and Δ5-avenasterol (0.15 mg/g) predominating. From the organoleptic evaluation, it was evident that both varieties hemp oils and marc (‘Earlina’ and ‘S. Jubileu’) were not bitter like the “Finola” oil and marc. More detailed studies in this direction have to be undertaken.
... Hemp-derived products are rich in linoleic acid (L, 18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (Ln, 18:3ω3, commonly abbreviated as ALA) defined as essential fatty acids (EFAs) [22]. Moreover, hempseed oil is reported to contain remarkable amounts of stearidonic acid (St, C18:4ω3, often abbreviated as SDA) [9,23] commonly found in marine organisms and γ-linolenic acid (γLn, C18:3ω6, often named GLA,) [24,25], which has been found in a few vegetable oils, including primrose, borage and blackcurrant oils [22]. ...
Article
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The growing demand in natural matrices that represent a source of dietary and nutraceutical molecules has led to an increasing interest in Cannabis sativa, considered to be a multipurpose, sustainable crop. Particularly, the considerable content in essential fatty acids (FAs) makes its derived-products useful food ingredients in the formulation of dietary supplements. In this research, the FA and triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of hempseed oils and flours were investigated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection as well as liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), respectively. Furthermore, a recently introduced linear retention index (LRI) approach in LC was successfully employed as a useful tool for the reliable identification of TAG species. A total of 30 FAs and 62 glycerolipids were positively identified in the investigated samples. Relative quantitative analyses confirmed linoleic acid as the most abundant component (50–55%). A favorable omega6/omega3 ratio was also measured in hemp-derived products, with the α-linolenic acid around 12–14%. Whereas, γ-linolenic acid was found to be higher than 1.70%. These results confirm the great value of Cannabis sativa as a source of valuable lipids, and the further improvement of the LRI system paves the way for the automatization of the identification process in LC.
... Recently, oilseed crops such as camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) and hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) have been rediscovered and reintroduced in agriculture due to their wide-range use in biofuel production, chemistry and food industry (Callaway 2004;Nain et al. 2015;Della Rocca and Di Salvo 2020). Considerable amounts of cakes are left after oil production from camelina and hemp seed. ...
... The cultivation of industrial hemp is regulated by national laws and allowed in several European countries only for monoecious and dioecious varieties registered in the EU plant variety database, containing less than 0.2% of the psychoactive Δ9-THC (Commission of the European Communities 2004). This crop, native to Asia and Indian subcontinent, today is grown in many countries (Sandler and Gibson 2019), with a strong increase in the use of its processed products in the manufacturing of paper, varnishes, inks, and biofuel, and in the phytoremediation, food and animal feed, medicine, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and construction industries (Callaway 2004;Rehman et al. 2013). ...
Article
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The use of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) essential oil (EO) has shown a significant increase in interest and use during recent years. In this work, a new and simple reversed-phase HPLC with photodiode-array (PDA) detector method has been developed and optimized for the detection and quantification of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA). The cannabinoids were extracted from the EO by partition with n -hexane and water, followed by sonication, evaporation to dryness under nitrogen, and reconstitution with methanol:chloroform (9:1, v/v) before HPLC-PDA analysis. The method shows good selectivity and robustness, linearity in the range 0.5–100 mg L ⁻¹ with R ² higher than 0.999 for all cannabinoids analyzed, LOD of 0.11–0.16 mg L ⁻¹ , and LOQ of 0.35–0.48 mg L ⁻¹ . The recovery was between 78 and 100% and the intra-day and intermediate precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), was < 4% and 4–10%, respectively.
... Those results are in line with what is reported in the literature [4,36,37]. Moreover, as described in previous studies [5,38], the presence of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid was also detected in all the samples (Table S1). ...
Article
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The interest in hemp seed oil has recently increased, due to the latest regulations which allow its use as food. Hemp seed oil is characterized by a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are highly prone to oxidation. Accelerated thermal oxidation (60 °C, 18 days) has been applied to nine types of cold-pressed hemp seed oils to monitor the evolution of the samples during oxidative deterioration. The results showed that the only determinations of primary (peroxide value) and secondary (TBARs) oxidation products did not allow a sufficient or correct evaluation of the oxidative changes of hemp seed oils during storage. In fact, samples at the end of the test were primarily characterized by a high presence of oxidation volatile compounds and a significant decrease of antioxidants. Several volatiles identified before the accelerated storage, such as the predominant α-pinene and β-pinene, gradually decreased during the accelerated storage period. On the other hand, aldehydes (hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, heptanal, (E,E)-2,4-hexadienal, (E)-2-heptenal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal, 2-octenal, nonanal, nonenal, 2,4-nonadienal, (E,E)- 2,4-decadienal and 2,4-decadienal), ketones (1-octen-3-one, 3-octen-2-one, (E,E)-3,5-octadien-2- one and 3,5-octadien-2-one), acids (propionic acid, pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid and heptanoic acid) and 2-pentyl-furan increased during the accelerated storage, as principal markers of oxidation.
... The increased cultivation of industrial hemp in Lithuania linked to the government's policy and the increased demand for raw materials in the industry. Hemp seeds are one of the most valuable parts of the plant used for food, forage and cosmetics (Callaway 2004;Cerino et al. 2021;Sapino et al. 2005). Previous studies suggest that hemp could become a promising food crop due to its high nutritive value and antioxidant properties of hemp seed (Grigoriev, Illarionova, and Shelenga 2020;Maria et al. 2019). ...
Article
The study aims to investigate industrial hemp growing potential in the Nordic-Baltic region, to assess the impact of various agrotechnological measures on macro: calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and micronutrient: boron, iron, manganese, copper, zinc accumulation in hemp seeds, and to determine biologically active compounds and beneficial elements: elements cobalt, aluminium, sodium accumulation trends. Obtained results indicate that hemp seeds are rich in K (0.69-0.90%) followed by P (0.41-0.51%), Mg (0.42-0.46%), and Ca (0.10-0.19%). It was determined that Fe (181-334 mg/kg) was the main abundant microelement followed by Mn (58-81 mg/kg), Zn (55-68 mg/kg), Cu (13-20 mg/kg), and B (7-16 mg/kg) independently from applied agrotechnological measures. The amount of biologically active compounds ranged from 6.55 to 12.39 mg/gRUE and from 2.52 to 4.74 mg/gRUE, respectively, for TPC and TFC. A significant amount of beneficial elements Al (6.0-12.6 mg/kg) and Na (0.90-16.1 mg/ kg) except Co were obtained. Results presented in this study indicate that seeds of industrial hemp grown in the Nordic-Baltic region could be considered as an important source of essential minerals and biologically active compounds.
... For thousands of years seeds of hemp, a plant from the Cannabaceae family (Cannabis sativa L.), have been an important source of nutrients in Old World cultures [Callaway 2004] with hempseed oil (HSO) being one of the major components that account for about 35% of the seed [Liang et al. 2015]. Depending on the variety HSO may contain up to 80% PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids), while linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid contents may reach up to 60% Despite the confirmed nutritional value of HSO, it is rarely preferred as a food material by humans due to concerns related to its tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinoid contents. ...
Article
The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of using increasing levels of hemp seed oil (HSO) instead of soybean oil (SO) in broiler diets during the first 21 d of the starting period on growth, meat and serum parameters and the fatty acid profile of abdominal fat. A total of 200 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to 4 dietary groups having different levels of HSO as 5 replicates. Dietary groups included the control (basal diet and 100% SO), HOG1 (basal diet and 25% HSO+75% SO), HOG2 (basal diet and 50% HSO+50% SO), and HOG3 (basal diet and 100% HSO). Results showed that each level of HSO in the diet significantly suppressed growth when compared to the control group (P<0.05) with the worst performance observed in HOG3 (P<0.05). Dietary HSO did not affect meat quality and serum parameters. However, HSO prevented meat oxidation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration in the 1st d of storage was significantly low in all the HSO groups and in the 7th d of storage only in the HOG3 group (P<0.05). The abdominal fat profile was modulated by dietary HSO, with the highest α-linolenic acid (ALA) was detected in the HOG3 group (P<0.05). ƩMUFA (total monounsaturated fatty acid) and ƩPUFA (total polyunsaturated fatty acid) contents of abdominal fat changed depending on the level of HSO in the diet. Consequently, despite the advantageous effects of HSO on abdominal fatty acids and meat oxidation its levels added to the diet in the current study were not suitable for broiler chickens at an early age. KEYWORDS: malondialdehyde concentration / meat colour/ fatty acid profile/ soy oil *This research was funded by the Selcuk University; scientific research projects (BAP) with the project number 20401075 in 2020.
... Horts and shives are used to make light concretes and mortars for various applications, including wall building, insulation, and underflooring. Hemp can also manufacture various construction materials, including roofing tiles and insulation (Callaway 2004). Hemp-based products can be used to build foundations, beneath floors, walls, roofs, paneling, pipes, and paint, as well as to replace wood and other materials in the construction of homes and other structures. ...
... Cannabis is highly used and described genus in Ayurveda to provide various pharmacological bioactive compounds and benefits. Now a days, people take interest in this multipurpose plant due to the presence of high content of various nutrients along with bioactive therapeutic compounds having analgesic, anti-spasmodic, anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antineoplastic, neuro-protective, immunosuppressive, anti-nociceptive, antiepileptic, and anti-depressant properties (Carchman et al. 1976;Ameri et al. 1999;Callaway 2004;Gomes et al. 2008;Appendino et al. 2011) Cannabinoids, the major fundamental phytoconstituent of this genus which are chemically a unique class of terpenophenolic compounds having pharmaceutical potential such as anti0inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, anti-arthritic, neuro antioxidative, etc. (De Petrocellis et al., 2011). Apart from this, hemp is also used by the mankind as natural fibres in the textile industry and as seed oil in the cosmetic production (Gautam et al. 2013;Clarke and Merlin 2013;Russo et al. 2008;Farag and Kayser 2017). ...
Chapter
Cannabis sativa (hemp) as multifunctional crop have traditional application as fiber, food, paper, textile and pharmaceutical potential as inflorescences and seed as sources of exciting bioactive secondary metabolites. The Genus Cannabis is the only producer of phytocannabinoids. Extensive studied have been made to describe the origin history, geographical ranges and genetic identity of the Cannabis species but it remains obscured to date. Various high through put genetic marker have been studied to assess the genetic diversity in hemp varieties. Studies also indicated that domestication origin affects the genetic groups of hemp which further consequences on the chemical diversity of the cannabis. Chemotaxonomy using chemical markers also played a crucial role in differencing and allocating the Cannabis taxa. Cannabinoids ratio and terpene composition are the major marker to play an important role in studying chemical diversity of Cannabis sp. Cannabis genus is the only source of phytocannabinoids the dominant chemical class. Other than cannabinoids terpene and non-cannabinoid phenolic compounds also contribute in the chemical diversity of the species. The vast array of phytochemicals presents in the genus have potential application in pharmaceutical industries. However, due to its legalization status very limited study on its chemical and genetic diversity have been done. Therefore, the species needs attention to explore its commercial value.
... Hemp seed protein is abundant in edestin and albumin, which makes it easily digestible, and provides a beneficial supply of essential amino acids, particularly arginine and glutamic acid (Odani and Odani, 1998;Callaway, 2004). Hemp seed flour is free from gluten and is not known to have any known allergens, hence it does not cause any problem in individuals with celiac disease (Dunford et al., 2015). ...
Article
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“Hemp” refers to non-intoxicating, low delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) cultivars of Cannabis sativa L. “Marijuana” refers to cultivars with high levels of Δ9-THC, the primary psychoactive cannabinoid found in the plant and a federally controlled substance used for both recreational and therapeutic purposes. Although marijuana and hemp belong to the same genus and species, they differ in terms of chemical and genetic composition, production practices, product uses, and regulatory status. Hemp seed and hemp seed oil have been shown to have valuable nutritional capacity. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating phytocannabinoid with a wide therapeutic index and acceptable side effect profile, has demonstrated high medicinal potential in some conditions. Several countries and states have facilitated the use of THC-dominant medical cannabis for certain conditions, while other countries continue to ban all forms of cannabis regardless of cannabinoid profile or low psychoactive potential. Today, differentiating between hemp and marijuana in the laboratory is no longer a difficult process. Certain thin layer chromatography (TLC) methods can rapidly screen for cannabinoids, and several gas and liquid chromatography techniques have been developed for precise quantification of phytocannabinoids in plant extracts and biological samples. Geographic regulations and testing guidelines for cannabis continue to evolve. As they are improved and clarified, we can better employ the appropriate applications of this uniquely versatile plant from an informed scientific perspective.
... C. sativa L. can be differentiated into two distinct chemotypes based on the content of the principle psychoactive component, ∆ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (∆ 9 -THC). The drug-type material [37], in the automotive industry, in varnishes and inks [38], and as plant biomass for bioenergy production [39]. ...
Article
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Cannabis sativa L. is a plant belonging to the Cannabaceae family, cultivated for its psychoactive cannabinoid (Δ9-THC) concentration or for its fiber and nutrient content in industrial use. Industrial hemp shows a low Δ9-THC level and is a valuable source of phytochemicals, mainly represented by cannabinoids, flavones, terpenes, and alkaloids, with health-promoting effects. In the present study, we investigated the phytochemical composition of leaves of the industrial hemp cultivar Futura 75, a monoecious cultivar commercially used for food preparations or cosmetic purposes. Leaves are generally discarded, and represent waste products. We analyzed the methanol extract of Futura 75 leaves by HPLC and NMR spectroscopy and the essential oil by GC-MS. In addition, in order to compare the chemical constituents, we prepared the water infusion. One new cannabinoid derivative (1) and seven known components, namely, cannabidiol (2), cannabidiolic acid (3), β-cannabispirol (4), β-cannabispirol (5), canniprene (6), cannabiripsol (7), and cannflavin B (8) were identified. The content of CBD was highest in all preparations. In addition, we present the outcomes of a computational study focused on elucidating the role of 2α-hydroxy-Δ3,7-cannabitriol (1), CBD (2), and CBDA (3) in inflammation and thrombogenesis.
... [1]. Hemp is mainly used for industrial purposes such as cosmetics and foods [2,3], while marijuana has a long history of being used as a medicine to reduce pain, treat neurodegeneration and neuroprotection and multiple sclerosis, control epilepsy and provide anticancer effects [4][5][6]. The main cannabinoids in cannabis are cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and Δ− 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). ...
Article
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Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) is mainly a psychoactive compound in the cannabis plant. The immunoassay, an alternative method to HPLC and GC, can be used to analyze and measure Δ9-THC. This method provides high sensitivity and specificity by using antibodies specific to the desired substances. Currently, plants provide several benefits over traditional expression platforms to produce recombinant antibodies, such as lower production costs and scalability. Therefore, this study aims to produce a recombinant anti-Δ9-THC monoclonal antibody (mAb) with transient expression using N. benthamiana. The highest expression level of the plant-produced mAb was estimated to be 0.33 ug/g leaf fresh weight. Our results demonstrate that the antibody provided in vitro affinity binding related to Δ9-THC and the metabolites of Δ9-THC, such as cannabinol (CBN). Moreover, the antibody also showed binding efficiency with Δ9-THC in cannabis extract. Moreover, plant-produced mAbs provide efficiency against Δ9-THC and can be applied for further immunoassay applications.
Chapter
After a decades-long legal hiatus, hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) has begun to experience a renaissance as a plant for all reasons. Although much hyperbole has been given to hemp’s potential to “save the world,” the crop has historical precedent as a source of fibers, feed/food, fuel, biomolecules, and more. The crop’s numerous potential uses and unique characteristics could help support the transition of our current linear consumer economies into more circular economies that allow for greater recycling or upcycling of products and lower carbon footprints. This chapter reviews a number of the current and potential uses for hemp and some of the challenges that may be faced on the path to making hemp a vital component of sustainable societies.
Article
Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) and divalent cadmium Cd(II) are among the most dangerous metal ions in aqueous solutions. The removal of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) from aqueous media requires serious attention. This study reports on the potential of adsorbents produced from hemp seeds to simultaneously remove Cr(VI) and Cd(II) from a synthetic aquatic medium. Pristine hemp seeds (PHS) were carbonized to obtain carbonized hemp seeds (CHS). The surface of the CHS was impregnated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles to yield a composite CHN. The biomaterials were characterized by SEM-EDX, FTIR, XRD and BET. The characterization revealed that CHS and CHN differed from the PHS adsorbent by exhibiting distinct properties such as higher cation exchange capacity, larger surface area, and porous surface morphology. The SEM images of CHS and CHN were porous. FTIR results of the adsorbents exhibited functional groups such as –OH, –COOH, –C=O and –NH2 that could easily bind to the metals ions. XRD spectra revealed that cellulose materials disintegrated in CHS and CHN. The adsorption data were fitted into kinetics and isotherm models for assessing the uptake mechanism(s). The adsorption rate was rapid in the initial stages until equilibrium was reached after 40 min. The rate data correlated with the pseudo-second-order (PSO) model. The average removal efficiency of Cr(VI) was 19.29, 33.43, and 48.28 mg/g and for Cd(II) 20.19, 40.16, and 42.12 mg/g by PHS, CHS, and CHN respectively. CHS and CHN were better adsorbents than PHS.
Article
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds has been traditionally used as food and their consumption is increasing nowadays. They have a remarkable nutritional value, but scarce information is available about mineral elements and their bioavailability. The objectives of this study were to determine the mineral element and phytate contents of eight different varieties of whole hemp seeds and commercial hulled hemp seeds. Phosphorus was the most abundant mineral element with higher content in hulled seeds (1.1 g/100 g) than whole seeds, as well as potassium, magnesium, and zinc. Calcium, manganese, and copper contents were higher in whole seeds. Iron content (8 mg/100 g) was similar in whole and hulled seeds; while sodium was below 5 mg/100 g. Phytate was abundant in hemp (especially hulled) seeds (4 g/100 g), and could compromise iron and zinc absorption (phytates/Fe and phytates/Zn molar ratios above 20 and 15, respectively), as well as involve poor phosphorous absorption. These seeds represent a valuable contribution to manganese (>5 mg/100 g) and copper (>1.4 mg/100 g) intake, approaching 100% and 50%, respectively, of daily NRVs, with a serving size of 30 g. Hemp seeds are an apparently excellent source of minerals, although phytates content should be taken into account to properly interpret nutritional claims.
Article
An experiment was conducted during winter (rabi) season 2017–18, at the Department of Genetics and PlantBreeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, to assess the genetic divergence for yield and yieldcomponent among 60 spontaneous mutant lines of lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus ssp. culinaris). Hierarchical clusteranalysis grouped maximum numbers of genotypes in cluster II. Maximum intra cluster distance was exhibited by cluster II followed by cluster IV and cluster III whereas, maximum inter cluster distance was observed between cluster III and cluster VI followed by cluster V and cluster VI and cluster I and VI. Based on the high yield and yield contributing traits and their presence in distant clusters, the genotypes, viz. RKL 61F-2-15, RKL 58F-3715, RKL 1003-68G, Garima, RKL 1003-69G-A, RKL 23C-2741A and RKL 26C-345 can be effectively used in hybridization programmefor lentil improvement to obtain desirable segregants. The first six principal component (PC) explain more than 65%of the total variability. Based on Principal factor (PF) scores, genotypes RKL 3-94, RKL 26C-340, RKL 50E-273,RKL 73GIII-13, RKL 51E, RKL 23C-2741 and RKL 26C-345 can be regarded as early maturing and high yielding.Genotypes, viz. RKL 61F-2-15, RKL 58F-3715, RKL 1003-68G, Garima, RKL 1003-69G-A, RKL 23C-2741A andRKL 26C-345 belongs to diverse clusters can be considered as better parents to be used in hybridization programme.
Article
Cannabis has been used for different purposes since the past, and although the interest in cannabis is increasing day by day, the cannabis plant has been avoided for a while. Underlying the consumer's negative opinion of hemp is the psychoactive substance content of the plant. Contrary to popular belief, cannabis cultivated for industrial purposes is a cannabis variety with reduced psychoactive substance content and legal limits to support consumption. Although trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in cannabis, which is responsible for the psychoactive effect, is an objectionable component that should be considered in industrial cannabis production, cannabidiol (CBD), which has the same molecular weight, has analgesic for chronic and non-chronic pain, antiepileptic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antidepressant properties. THC component is not found in cannabis seeds, which are used as food for protein source purposes. In this study, the chemical properties of trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) compounds, which have the same molecular properties, were compiled by examining their effects on health, applicable legal limits, and research on compounds.
Article
The aim of the present study was the utilization of supercritical CO2 as a green medium in various processes: starch gel drying, supercritical extraction from hemp seed flour (SCE process), hemp seed oil (HSO) impregnation (SCI process), as well as integrated process of hemp seed flour (HSF) extraction and starch gels impregnation (SCE-SCI process) for development of added-value materials that can be used as phytopharmaceuticals. Optimization of starch aerogels was performed by variation of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and pressure (8, 10, and 20 MPa) in order to obtain materials with high porosity, which will enable maximal loading capacity for hemp seed extracts. Proposed scCO2-assisted processes of SCE from HSF, SCI and SCE-SCI were performed at pressure of 30 MPa and temperature of 60 °C. It was shown that conditions of starch gel drying significantly influenced material morphology (porosity was in a range of 48-82%), which consequently determined aerogel loading capacity. FTIR analysis confirmed that scCO2 did not have effect on polymer composition nor it remained in polymer after drying process. The highest loading of both HSO and HSF extract (24.9 and 29.78%, respectively) was achieved when aerogel obtained at 10 MPa and 45 °C was tested as a carrier. Furthermore, chemical analysis showed that both HSO and HSF extract are rich in unsaturated fatty acids especially linoleic acid (54-59%) and α-linolenic acid (15-18%). These essential fatty acids have well-established health benefits including protection against cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases.
Conference Paper
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The objective of this study was to examine the chemical composition, antioxidant potential of hemp seed cake (HSC) and usage tests HSC in the starting pig diets. Twenty-four castrated [(Landrace × Large White) × Duroc], 8 WK of age with initial body weight at 17.00 ± 0.50 kg. They were divided into one of three dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments were the control group fed basal diet and the groups fed diet contained 2.5 and 5% HSC, respectively. The results found that hemp seed cake had significant nutritional value, including ash 5.20%, carbohydrates 49.87%, Crude fiber 18.17%, and Crude fat, water, and protein 6.84, 7.69, 30.40% respectively. In addition, it has a total energy value of 3,799 kcal/kg. According to the HSC's antioxidant potential evaluation, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant potential capacity (APC) and antioxidant activity on DPPH reaction (ADA-DPPH) were 14.92 mg GAE/g DW, 10.97 mg GAE/g DW and 39.28%, respectively. Using 2.5 and 5% HSC in starting pig diet showed no significant difference (P<0.05) in body weight gain, average daily feed intake, average daily gain, and feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no effects on antioxidative enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Peroxidase in test pigs (P>0.05). Therefore, up to 5% of HSC can be used in starting pig feed formula.
Article
One of the challenges in substituting dairy by alternative proteins is that single and mixed gel properties can be very different whereas the need of mixing is often driven by nutritional aspects. However, mixing plant proteins could also open a door to new textures. The main goal of this study was to investigate the impact of binary mixing of hemp (H), yellow pea (P), and brown lentil (L) protein concentrates/isolates on their gel and water-holding properties. Dispersions of reconstituted proteins and mixtures thereof were gelled using glucono-δ-lactone (GDL), transglutaminase (TG), and temperature (T) at a final protein content of 12% (w/w). Mixtures of pea and lentil proteins showed gel strengths for TG and T-induced gels that are proportional to the ratio of the mixture constituents (linear mixing behavior), whereas synergistic effects were observed for GDL-induced gelation. In contrast, all mixtures containing hemp exhibited a non-linear mixing behavior for the three gelation methods, usually resulting in lower gel strengths compared to theoretically expected values. The study showed that mixing plant-based proteins of different protein sources can lead to very different mixing behavior in terms of gel properties, showing either a reinforcing, an indifferent or a weakening effect compared to the theoretically expected properties. The results can help developing more targeted plant protein-based soft gel products such as yogurt alternatives with specific techno-functional properties, while improving the nutritional characteristics.
Article
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Native to China, hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is an annual herb whose anatomical parts are widely used by for technical, food, and medical purposes. Hemp is traditionally considered a controversial crop due to its cannabinoid content. For industrial and food usage, however, the content of psychoactive tetrahydroxycannabinol (known as THC) is limited by EU Regulation (0.2%). In some countries, including the Czech Republic, the supportive and therapeutic effect of THC has led to the legalization of controlled cultivation (Elkoplast Slušovice, hemp with 6–19% THC) and the use of hemp on prescription. Due to the high content of proteins, fats, and fibre in hemp seeds, they are suitable for increasing the nutritional value of food. For cereal products, it is recommended to use wholemeal or defatted flour in dosages limited by the sensory quality of the final products, e.g., up to 10% for pastry. The use of the leaf and flower part in powdered form is acceptable in the amount of 4% max. Within the laboratory production of hemp-enriched cut-out biscuits and bread buns of standard consumer quality, the expected rise in the content of protein and dietary fibre was confirmed.
Chapter
Nutraceuticals are a type of nutritional supplement used for healthcare in addition to nourishment. They can be used to maintain the body’s structure and function to promote health, slow down the aging process, prevent chronic diseases, and extend life. Echinacea, ginseng, green tea, glucosamine, omega-3, lutein, folic acid, and cod liver oil have been popular global nutraceuticals in the past few decades. The majority of nutraceutical products are regulated like pharmaceuticals, food additives, and dietary supplements. Nutraceuticals can be classified based on the source, methods of action, chemical structure, composition, etc. In addition to the recreational and medicinal value, Cannabis has been widely established globally as a primordial source of fiber, protein, and fat with great nutritional value. Cannabis has been legally utilized as human food in the United States for the past 10 years. The hemp seed oil is an excellent prophylactic and therapeutic potential to prevent and treat various human-related health ailments. Cannabis contains active bioactive ingredients and oils with polyunsaturated fatty acids, which can be a potent nutraceutical for the current and future generations. Cannabis alone or in combination with the other existing nutraceutical (s) can provide additive or synergistic protective effects to improve human healthcare. It is estimated that by 2028, the worldwide cannabis nutraceuticals market is projected to be worth 19.25 billion USD. The present chapter dwells on the concept of nutraceuticals, the classification of nutraceuticals, their health benefits, and the potential of cannabis as a nutraceutical source.
Article
The study investigated the nutritional profile and nutraceutical composition of the seeds (whole and defatted) of two monoecious hemp cultivars (Carmaleonte, Codimono) and one dioecious cultivar (CS) grown during the 2018 and 2019 crop seasons. The phenolic acid profiles, both free and bound, antioxidant activity (AA), protein content (PC), total phenolic content (TPC), β-carotene, lutein content, and condensed tannins (CT) were studied, and the effects of genotype (G), year (Y), and GxY interaction were also measured. The results indicated the stronger involvement of the year in the nutritional and antioxidant properties of the whole seeds than in those of the defatted seeds, as indicated by the analysis of the variance. The PC, TPC, AA, sum of phenolics free (SPF), and sum of phenolics bound (SPB) were significantly affected by year, while the lutein and some phenolic acids, free and bound (ferulic and p-coumaric acids and N-trans-caffeoyltyramine), showed significant effects of the genotype. In this respect, the Carmaleonte revealed the highest content of ferulic and p-coumaric acids, as well as CS of N-trans-caffeoyltyramine. A prevalence of Y effect over G was measured in the free and bound fraction of the phenolics of the whole seeds, in contrast to the defatted seeds, in which significant effects of GxY were also measured. Moreover, the Pearson’s correlation coefficients indicated a strict involvement of precipitations in the variation of the phenolics accumulation, above all with bound p-hydroxybenzoic acid (r = 0.71 **), bound syringic acid (r = 0.69 *), bound N-trans-caffeoyltyramine (r = 0.64 *), and SPB (r = 0.60 *). As phenolics bound fractions have strong biological activities, (including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities) the high concentrations of N-trans-Caffeoyltyramine B in the CS defatted seeds suggest that it is valuable ingredient for functional foods.
Article
One-third of hempseed is composed of fiber, yet this major nutrient is far understudied than the seed's oil, protein, polyphenol or cannabinoid fractions. Here we provided a comprehensive and novel study covering the monosaccharide-linkage composition, physical, functional and microbiota-shifting properties of the fiber-rich (>77%) hempseed hull, which is a major industrial processing by-product. Xylose and cellulose-derived 4-linked glucopyranosyl linkage residue dominated the monosaccharide profile and 1D/2D NMR molecular assignments of hempseed hull. Processing with extrusion technology altered the particle size distribution, FTIR structural characteristics, X-ray diffraction crystallinity and thermal stability of hempseed fiber. Extruded hempseed fiber showed significantly greater soluble fiber content, water and oil binding capacity, dynamic modulus and flow viscosity values in oil and oil-water dispersions, delayed starch gelatinization and inhibited its retrogradation. Integration of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the rapidly emerging metaproteomics revealed a higher population of Megasphaera elsdenii and Lactobacillus spp., along with their expressed ferredoxin and enolases respectively, in porcine faecal samples after fermentation with hempseed hull fiber. Higher production of propionic, butyric and valeric acid from the microbiota was further observed in fiber-treated faecal inoculum. Finally, the possible microbiota modulating-effect of fiber-bounded unique phenylpropionamides (N-trans-caffeoyltyramine and lignanamides) from hempseed hull was assessed for the first time.
Article
Cold‐pressed hempseed oil (HSO) is known to have many health benefits due to many phytochemicals and high polyunsaturated fatty acids content. In this study, HSO oleogels were prepared with 3%, 5%, and 7% natural waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax to evaluate their potential as solid fat replacements in margarines and spreads. Firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, solid fat content (SFC), crystal structures, and melting properties of these oleogels were evaluated. In general, HSO oleogels except for RBW‐HSO oleogels had lower gel strength and weaker crystal network than the corresponding soybean oil (SBO) oleogels. In contrast, RBW‐HSO oleogels had comparable gel strength to SBO oleogels. After removing polar compounds from HSO, waxes except for RBW provided oleogels with greater firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and stronger crystal network. Therefore, it was concluded that polar compounds negatively affected the physical properties of wax‐HSO oleogels but not those of RBW‐HSO oleogels. Margarine samples were prepared with SW‐ and RBW‐HSO oleogels, and their firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and melting properties were examined. The firmness of these margarines indicated that wax‐HSO oleogels may achieve the firmness of commercial spreads with less than 3% wax while the firmness of stick margarines cannot be achieved even with 7% wax. Although the properties of wax‐HSO oleogels should be further improved, they showed potential as solid fat replacements in margarines and spreads.
Chapter
Cannabis is the most versatile species. Hemp and marijuana have been used for fibre, oil, medicinal and recreational purposes from millennia. Throughout the last century, the plant has been generally outlawed because of its psychotropic effects in many nations. In recent past, the studies on cannabis revealed the evidence of its high medicinal properties and its uses in treating life threatening diseases, which leads to the relaxation of legislation in many counties. Now, the genetic and genomics as well as the cannabis derived products enjoys renewed attention. In this chapter, the discussion was made on the advent of genomics and breeding strategies to improve various traits of cannabis. This will bring insights on future direction of cannabis breeding.
Article
An Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) of 1 µg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) per kilogram (kg) of body weight (bw) per day was recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for its assessment of possible acute health risks from the intake of industrial hemp food products. The scientific basis for this opinion, such as their choice of a Point of Departure for identification of the Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) for THC on the central nervous system, and the seeming absence of an experimental No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL), is critically reviewed. Moreover, the risk assessment for an ARfD derivation for THC is then reconsidered. In contrast to the EFSA Scientific Opinion of 2015, a higher LOAEL is presently identified from pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies, and forensic data, in representative cohorts of healthy humans after oral administrations of low THC doses. A NOAEL for THC is derived through this combination of results, demonstrating a threshold for impairment of psychomotor function only after intake of an oral THC bolus beyond 2.5 mg for the average healthy adult. This 2.5 mg dose produces mean THC blood serum levels of <2 ng/mL, as well as do two doses when taken daily within a time interval of ≥6 h. The forensic threshold of THC that is correlated with the impairment of psychomotor function is known to be between 2 and 5 ng/mL in blood serum for adults. For an appropriately spaced intake of 2 × 2.5 mg THC per day, an adult can therefore be regarded as being at the NOAEL. Applying a default uncertainty factor of 10 for intraspecies variability to a NOAEL of 2 × 2.5 mg (over ≥6 hours) for THC, yields a "daily dose of no concern" or a "tolerable upper intake level" of 0.50 mg, corresponding to 7 µg/kg bw. Starting with a NOAEL of only 2.5 mg, consumed as a single bolus, the lowest possible daily THC Acute Reference Dose would therefore be 0.25 mg, or 3.5 µg/kg bw for healthy adults, as the absolutely most conservative estimate. Other justifiable estimates have ranged up to 14 µg/kg bw per day.
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The control of proliferation and epithelial restitution are processes that are poorly understood. The effects of (n-3), (n-6) and trans fatty acids on proliferation of subconfluent IEC-6 cultures and restitution of wounded IEC-6 monolayers were investigated. Incorporation of supplemented fatty acids into cellular phospholipid was also assessed. Sulforhodamine B protein dye binding assay was utilized to assess the proliferative effects of fatty acids on growth of IEC-6 cultures. Incorporation of supplemental fatty acids into cellular phospholipid was examined by thin-layer chromatography combined with gas chromatography. The modulation of epithelial restitution was examined by razor blade wounding confluent IEC-6 monolayers grown in media supplemented with various fatty acids. Inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis by indomethacin during the wounding assay was also assessed. Both (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids significantly inhibited growth of this intestinal epithelial cell model at concentrations above 125 mmol/L. The trans fatty acid, linoelaidate 18:2(n-6)trans, inhibited growth of IEC-6 cells at concentrations above 250 mmol/L. Another trans fatty acid, elaidate 18:1(n-9)trans, was well-tolerated at concentrations as high as 500 mmol/L. Eicosapentanoic 20:5(n-3), linoleic 18:2(n-6), a-linolenic 18:3(n-3), g-linolenic 18:3(n-6) and arachidonic 20:4(n-6) acids all significantly enhanced cellular migration in the IEC-6 model of wound healing. Eicosapentanoate, linoleate, a-linolenate, g-linolenate and arachidonate are all capable of improving reconstitution of epithelial integrity following mucosal injury. Inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis reduced the enhancement of restitution by n-6 fatty acids back to control levels. J. Nutr. 129: 1791-1798, 1999.
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In most of the western world where industrial hemp, Cannabis sativa, is licensed for cultivation, the plants must not exceed a level of 0.3% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal intoxicating constituent of the species. Because there are no publicly available germplasm hemp collections in North America and only a very few, recent North American cultivars have been bred, the future breeding of cultivars suitable for North America is heavily dependent on European cultivars and European germplasm collections. Based mostly on material from Europe, this study surveyed THC levels of 167 accessions grown in southern Ontario, making this the largest survey to date of germplasm intended for breeding in North America. Forty-three percent of these had THC levels ≥0.3% and, therefore, are unsuitable for hemp development in North America. Discrepancies were found between THC levels reported for some germplasm holdings in Europe when they were grown in Canada and, accordingly, verification of THC levels developed in North America is necessary.
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Several sources of information suggest that man evolved on a diet with a ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acids of approximately 1 whereas today this ratio is approximately 10:1 to 20-25:1, indicating that Western diets are deficient in omega 3 fatty acids compared with the diet on which humans evolved and their genetic patterns were established. Omega-3 fatty acids increase bleeding time; decrease platelet aggregation, blood viscosity, and fibrinogen; and increase erythrocyte deformability, thus decreasing the tendency to thrombus formation. In no clinical trial, including coronary artery graft surgery, has there been any evidence of increased blood loss due to ingestion of omega 3 fatty acids. Many studies show that the effects of omega 3 fatty acids on serum lipids depend on the type of patient and whether the amount of saturated fatty acids in the diet is held constant. In patients with hyperlipidemia, omega 3 fatty acids decrease low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol if the saturated fatty acid content is decreased, otherwise there is a slight increase, but at high doses (32 g) they lower LDL cholesterol; furthermore, they consistently lower serum triglycerides in normal subjects and in patients with hypertriglyceridemia whereas the effect on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) varies from no effect to slight increases. The discrepancies between animal and human studies most likely are due to differences between animal and human metabolism. In clinical trials eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the form of fish oils along with antirheumatic drugs improve joint pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; have a beneficial effect in patients with ulcerative colitis; and in combination with drugs, improve the skin lesions, lower the hyperlipidemia from etretinates, and decrease the toxicity of cyclosporin in patients with psoriasis. In various animal models omega 3 fatty acids decrease the number and size of tumors and increase the time elapsed before appearance of tumors. Studies with nonhuman primates and human newborns indicate that DHA is essential for the normal functional development of the retina and brain, particularly in premature infants. Because omega 3 fatty acids are essential in growth and development throughout the life cycle, they should be included in the diets of all humans. Omega-3 and omega 6 fatty acids are not interconvertible in the human body and are important components of practically all cell membranes. Whereas cellular proteins are genetically determined, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of cell membranes is to a great extent dependent on the dietary intake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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It has been reported that essential fatty acid levels may be low and that there may be reduced levels of delta-6-desaturase metabolites of linoleic acid in patients with atopic eczema. Good therapeutic results have been reported on the use of evening primrose oil (Efamol) in adults but not in children. Efamol contains gamma-linolenic acid, the delta-6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. The authors have studied 24 children with atopic eczema: 12 of them were treated with a higher dose of evening primrose oil than in previous studies and 12 with placebo olive oil. The clinical status and plasma, neutrophil and lymphocyte fatty acid composition in these children have been evaluated. After 4 weeks the eczema of essential fatty acid-treated children significantly improved in comparison with that of placebo-treated children (p less than 0.01). There were significant changes in plasma fatty acid composition between the basal values and the end of active treatment, and between the placebo and actively treated children. Neutrophil and lymphocyte fatty acid composition did not seem to be related to disease activity.
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Hand dermatitis is a common therapeutic challenge with limited and unsatisfactory therapy modules. A possible beneficial role of oral evening primrose oil needs to be investigated. Pharmacological doses of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) could improve the water permeability barrier of the epidermis in chronic hand dermatitis. Clinical improvement, changes in the lipogram and epidermal lipid composition could define functional improvement of the skin. Electron-microscopic evaluation of the epidermal lipid bilayer could underline the efficacy of essential fatty acids in chronic hand dermatitis. Thirty-nine patients with chronic (> 1 year), stable hand dermatitis entered a 24-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Patch test with the European standard of allergens, haematogram and serum IgE values were determined before commencement of the study. Active therapy (600 mg/day of GLA) was administered to half the patient group. Medication was given for 16 weeks and observations continued for another 8 weeks. Patients were assessed clinically, using a visual analogue scale at 4-week intervals. Plasma and red blood cell lipograms, as well as skin biopsies, were taken before therapy, after the 16-week supplementation period and at week 24. Tissue was used for histological evaluation, electron-microscopic assessment and epidermal lipid analysis. Improvement in clinical parameters was present in the Epogam and placebo groups, but no statistical difference could be confirmed between the groups. Haematogram, blood and epidermal biochemistry were normal at baseline. No change in the lipid composition of plasma red cells or epidermis could be detected during the trail. Ultrastructurally skin specimens showed no change during the study period. The study indicates that the therapeutic value of orally administered GLA for chronic hand dermatitis is not superior to that of placebo.
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A diet including 2-3 portions of fatty fish per week, which corresponds to the intake of 1.25 g EPA (20:5n-3) + DHA (22:6n-3) per day, has been officially recommended on the basis of epidemiological findings showing a beneficial role of these n-3 long-chain PUFA in the prevention of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. The parent fatty acid ALA (18:3n-3), found in vegetable oils such as flaxseed or rapeseed oil, is used by the human organism partly as a source of energy, partly as a precursor of the metabolites, but the degree of conversion appears to be unreliable and restricted. More specifically, most studies in humans have shown that whereas a certain, though restricted, conversion of high doses of ALA to EPA occurs, conversion to DHA is severely restricted. The use of ALA labelled with radioisotopes suggested that with a background diet high in saturated fat conversion to long-chain metabolites is approximately 6% for EPA and 3.8% for DHA. With a diet rich in n-6 PUFA, conversion is reduced by 40 to 50%. It is thus reasonable to observe an n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio not exceeding 4-6. Restricted conversion to DHA may be critical since evidence has been increasing that this long-chain metabolite has an autonomous function, e.g. in the brain, retina and spermatozoa where it is the most prominent fatty acid. In neonates deficiency is associated with visual impairment, abnormalities in the electroretinogram and delayed cognitive development. In adults the potential role of DHA in neurological function still needs to be investigated in depth. Regarding cardiovascular risk factors DHA has been shown to reduce triglyceride concentrations. These findings indicate that future attention will have to focus on the adequate provision of DHA which can reliably be achieved only with the supply of the preformed long-chain metabolite.
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Human beings evolved consuming a diet that contained about equal amounts of n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids. Over the past 100-150 y there has been an enormous increase in the consumption of n-6 fatty acids due to the increased intake of vegetable oils from corn, sunflower seeds, safflower seeds, cottonseed, and soybeans. Today, in Western diets, the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids ranges from approximately 20-30:1 instead of the traditional range of 1-2:1. Studies indicate that a high intake of n-6 fatty acids shifts the physiologic state to one that is prothrombotic and proaggregatory, characterized by increases in blood viscosity, vasospasm, and vasoconstriction and decreases in bleeding time. n-3 Fatty acids, however, have antiinflammatory, antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic, hypolipidemic, and vasodilatory properties. These beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids have been shown in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and, in some patients with renal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most of the studies were carried out with fish oils [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. However, alpha-linolenic acid, found in green leafy vegetables, flaxseed, rapeseed, and walnuts, desaturates and elongates in the human body to EPA and DHA and by itself may have beneficial effects in health and in the control of chronic diseases.
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to affect the immune response and administration of the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid has been reported to be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS) and EAE. In this study we have investigated the effects of oral feeding of plant lipid rich in the omega-6 fatty acid gamma-linolenic acid from Borago officinalis on acute and relapse disease and the immune response in EAE using SJL mice. EAE was induced by an encephalitogenic peptide (92-106) of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), and mice were fed the plant lipid daily from 7 days after EAE induction to assess the effects on acute disease and from day 25 to assess the effects on disease relapse. The clinical incidence and histological manifestations of acute EAE, and the clinical relapse phase of chronic relapsing EAE (CREAE) were markedly inhibited by omega-6 fatty acid feeding. A significant increase in the production of TGF-beta1 in response to concanavalin A (Con A) at day 13 and a significant increase in TGF-beta1 and PGE2 to Con A, PPD and MOG peptide (92-106) at day 21 were detected in spleen mononuclear cells from fatty acid-fed mice. There was no difference in interferon-gamma, IL-4 and IL-2 production between the fatty acid-fed and control groups. Significantly higher TGF-beta mRNA expression was found in the spleens of omega-6 fatty acid-fed mice at day 21. There were no differences in spleen cell proliferative response to Con A, PPD and MOG peptide (92-106). Biochemical analysis of spleen cell membrane fatty acids revealed significant increases in the eicosanoid precursor fatty acids dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in response to gamma-linolenic acid feeding, indicating rapid metabolism to longer chain omega-6 fatty acids. These results show that oral feeding of gamma-linolenic acid-rich plant lipid markedly affects the disease course of acute EAE and CREAE and is associated with an increase in cell membrane long chain omega-6 fatty acids, production of PGE2 and gene transcription and, on activation, secretion of TGF-beta1.
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The present paper describes the historical use of cannabis, starting with its use in Assyria and China. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of cannabis action are explained, including the identification of the cannabinoid receptors CB(1) and CB(2), as well as the isolation of endogenous cannabinoids from the brain and periphery. The use of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol as an anti-vomiting and anti-nausea drug for cancer chemotherapy, and as an appetite-enhancing agent is described. Clinical work in multiple sclerosis, which may lead to the approval of tetrahydrocannabinol as a drug for this condition, is presented. Preclinical and clinical investigations with cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabis constituent, are also described. Recent work with cannabidiol in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis may lead to clinical investigations. A synthetic cannabinoid, HU-211 (Dexanabinol), is in advanced clinical stages of investigation as a neuroprotectant in head trauma. The above clinical approaches may ultimately lead to the realization that cannabinoids are valuable clinical drugs in numerous fields.
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Immunological unresponsiveness or hyporesponsiveness (tolerance) can be induced by feeding protein antigens to naive animals. Using a classical oral ovalbumin gut-induced tolerance protocol in BALB/c mice we investigated the effects of dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on high-and low-dose oral tolerance (and in non-tolerised animals, i.e. effects of antigen challenge alone) in relation to lymphoproliferative, cytokine and antibody responses. Fish oil rich in long-chain n-3 fatty acids decreased both T-helper (Th) 1- and Th2-like responses. In contrast, borage (Borago officinalis) oil rich in n-6 PUFA, of which gamma-linolenic acid is rapidly metabolised to longer-chain n-6 PUFA, increased Thl-like responses and decreased Th2-like responses, and possibly enhanced suppressor cell or Th3-like activity. These findings are in general agreement with other studies on the effects of long chain n-3 PUFA on immune system functions, and characterise important differences between long-chain n-3 and n-6 PUFA, defining more precisely and broadly the immunological regulatory mechanisms involved. They are also discussed in relation to autoimmune disease.
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Remodeling of lipoprotein particles in the postprandial period is considered to be an important source of atherogenic particles, but acute changes occurring after meals have been little studied. We sought to characterize changes in LDL particle composition occurring after a single meal, with particular reference to potential lipid exchange with particles carrying dietary fatty acids. In a balanced design, 8 healthy subjects ingested isoenergetic meals of different fat content: low-fat, rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). We investigated changes in LDL composition 4 and 6 h after meal ingestion. The LDL triacylglycerol-to-protein ratio closely mirrored the plasma triacylglycerol concentrations after each of the meals, and there was a strong association between these variables in both the fasting and postprandial states (P < 0.001). A postprandial increase in LDL triacylglycerol was associated with a decrease in LDL cholesterol. There were no effects of the ingestion of a single meal on the LDL density profiles for protein or for any of the lipid components. The fatty acid composition of total LDL lipids changed in the postprandial period, with an enrichment in PUFA after the PUFA-rich meal and in SFA after the SFA-rich meal. The changes observed in LDL composition after single meals are in accord with the proposition that there is neutral lipid exchange in the postprandial period, with triacylglycerol enrichment of LDL particles at the expense of cholesteryl esters. The change in the fatty acid composition of LDL particles implies significant lipid exchange with particles containing dietary fat.
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Among the fatty acids, it is the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which possess the most potent immunomodulatory activities, and among the omega-3 PUFA, those from fish oil-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)--are more biologically potent than alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Some of the effects of omega-3 PUFA are brought about by modulation of the amount and types of eicosanoids made, and other effects are elicited by eicosanoid-independent mechanisms, including actions upon intracellular signaling pathways, transcription factor activity and gene expression. Animal experiments and clinical intervention studies indicate that omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and, therefore, might be useful in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Coronary heart disease, major depression, aging and cancer are characterized by an increased level of interleukin 1 (IL-1), a proinflammatory cytokine. Similarly, arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and lupus erythematosis are autoimmune diseases characterized by a high level of IL-1 and the proinflammatory leukotriene LTB(4) produced by omega-6 fatty acids. There have been a number of clinical trials assessing the benefits of dietary supplementation with fish oils in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in humans, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and migraine headaches. Many of the placebo-controlled trials of fish oil in chronic inflammatory diseases reveal significant benefit, including decreased disease activity and a lowered use of anti-inflammatory drugs.
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Several sources of information suggest that man evolved on a diet with a ratio of ω6 to ω3 fatty acids of ∼ 1 whereas today this ratio is ∼10:1 to 20–25:1, indicating that Western diets are deficient in ω3 fatty acids compared with the diet on which humans evolved and their genetic patterns were established. Omega-3 fatty acids increase bleeding time; decrease platelet aggregation, blood viscosity, and fibrinogen; and increase erythrocyte deformability, thus decreasing the tendency to thrombus formation. In no clinical trial, including coronary artery graft surgery, has there been any evidence of increased blood loss due to ingestion of ω3 fatty acids. Many studies show that the effects of ω3 fatty acids on serum lipids depend on the type of patient and whether the amount of saturated fatty acids in the diet is held constant. In patients with hyperlipidemia, ω3 fatty acids decrease low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol if the saturated fatty acid content is decreased, otherwise there is a slight increase, but at high doses (32 g) they lower LDL cholesterol; furthermore, they consistently lower serum triglycerides in normal subjects and in patients with hypertriglyceridemia whereas the effect on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) varies from no effect to slight increases. The discrepancies between animal and human studies most likely are due to differences between animal and human metabolism. In clinical trials eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the form of fish oils along with antirheumatic drugs improve joint pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; have a beneficial effect in patients with ulcerative colitis; and in combination with drugs, improve the skin lesions, lower the hyperlipidemia from etretinates, and decrease the toxicity of cyclosporin in patients with psoriasis. In various animal models ω3 fatty acids decrease the number and size of tumors and increase the time elapsed before appearance of tumors. Studies with nonhuman primates and human newborns indicate that DHA is essential for the normal functional development of the retina and brain, particularly in premature infants. Because ω3 fatty acids are essential in growth and development throughout the life cycle, they should be included in the diets of all humans. Omega-3 and ω6 fatty acids are not interconvertible in the human body and are important components of practically all cell membranes. Whereas cellular proteins are genetically determined, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of cell membranes is to a great extent dependent on the dietary intake. Therefore appropriate amounts of dietary ω6 and ω3 fatty acids need to be considered in making dietary recommendations, and these two classes of PUFAs should be distinguished because they are metabolically and functionally distinct and have opposing physiological functions. Their balance is important for homeostasis and normal development. Canada is the first country to provide separate dietary recommendations for ω6 and ω3 fatty acids.
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Fifteen laboratories participated in a collaborative study to determine total, saturated, unsaturated, and monounsaturated fats in cereal products by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Cereal products, representing a wide range of cereal grains and processes, were hydrolyxed in 8N HCI and extracted with ethyl and petroleum ethers. FAMEs were produced by the reaction of the mixed ether extracts with sodium hydroxide in methanol (NaOH/MeOH) and then with boron trifluoride reagent (14% BF3 in MeOH). They were quantitatively determined by capillary GC. Total fat was calculated as the sum of individual fatty acids expressed as triglyceride equivalents in accordance with nutrition labeling guidelines. Saturated, unsaturated, and monounsaturated fats were calculated as sums of individual fatty acids. The total fat contents of samples ranged from 0.56 to 12.64%. A split design was used to determine performance parameters of results obtained by 15 laboratories on 24 samples. Of the 24 samples, 7 were blind duplicates and 5 were independent materials. Statistical analysis for total fat yielded a relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr) range of 1.32 to 13.30% and a relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) range of 4.42 to 22.82%. The goal of this study was to determine total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated, and monounsaturated fat in cereal-based products by complete extraction, methylation, and quantitation of total fatty acids. The acid hydrolysis-capillary GC method for determining total, saturated, unsaturated, and monosaturated fats in cereal products has been adopted by AOAC INTERNATIONAL.
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Hemp meal (HM) is derived from the processing of hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) seeds. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritive value of HM for ruminants. Two ruminally fistulated cows were used in a randomized complete-block design to estimate in situ ruminai dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability of HM relative to canola meal (CM), heated canola meal (HCM) and borage meal (BM) meal. Intestinal availability of rumen undegraded CP was estimated using a pepsin-pancreatin in vitro assay. Twenty growing lambs were utilized in a completely randomized design to determine total-tract nutrient digestibility coefficients of diets in which HM replaced CM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% as a protein source. Results of the in situ study showed that the soluble-CP fraction of HM was similar to that of HCM and lower (P < 0.05) than those of CM and BM. Rate of degradation of the potentially degradable CP fraction and effective CP degradability of HM was higher (P < 0.05) than HCM and lower (P < 0.05) than CM and BM. Rumen undegraded CP and intestinal digestibility of RUP were highest (P < 0.05) for HM and HCM (average 782.5 and 644.5 g kg-1 of CP, respectively), intermediate for CM (473.9 and 342.9 g kg-1 of CP, respectively) and lowest for BM (401.5 and 242.3 g kg-1 of CP, respectively). However, total available CP was similar for the four protein sources (average 857.8 g kg-1 of CP). Feeding up to 200 g kg-1 HM did not affect voluntary intake or total-tract nutrient digestibility coefficients for sheep fed a barley-based diets. Hemp meal is an excellent source of RUP, with high post-ruminal availability, and may be used to replace CM with no detrimental effects on nutrient utilization by sheep.
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Hempseed oil was dispensed in an open clinical trial involving in- and outpatients, for the treatment of chronic Ear, Nose and Throat disorders (external otitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis), acute external otitis, and one case of trauma, for a total of 117 cases. The application of hempseed oil made it possible to reduce the period of treatment of all mentioned cases by eight days (9%), compared with standard treatments. The results allowed us to consider hempseed oil as an effective means for treating ENT disorders as well as injuries resulting from traumas or burns.
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Researchers tend to picture the people of Ice Age Europe as big-game hunters where masculine muscle and brawn were essential to survival. New discoveries from the Czech Republic indicate, however, that the Gravettian people--who lived from Spain to southern Russia some 29,000 to 22,000 years ago--used nets rather than speed and might to capture vast numbers of hares, foxes, and other mammals. That would make them the earliest known net hunters, and it may help explain the larger, more settled populations that are a hallmark of Gravettian times.
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Hempseed offers a unique nutritional package, in terms of dietary oil, protein, vitamins and minerals, which can be produced at high latitudes (> 50° latitude). Hempseed oil is highly unsaturated and contains both essential fatty acids (linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) in a nutritionally balanced ratio, in addition to considerable amounts of biochemically important gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA). The protein in hempseed is complete, in that it contains all of the essential amino acids in nutritionally significant amounts, and lacks the nutritional inhibiting factors found in soya. Hempseed could become a viable replacement for imported soya in Northern Europe, particularly as feed stock for animals.
Article
The recently reported cases of skin lesions discussed here were produced under conditions which indicate a lack of some growth factor. In no case were conditions such that uncomplicated fat-deficiency could result. It would be impossible, therefore, for these rats to respond to small doses of unsaturated fats. An adequate supply of all water soluble growth factors must be fed if the typical fat deficiency results are to be obtained. Growth should approximate that given by the daily consumption of 0.65 gm. or more of high grade dried yeast.
Article
The oil content, the tocopherol composition, the plastochromanol-8 (P-8) content and the fatty acid composition (19 fatty acids) of the seed of 51 hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) genotypes were studied in the 2000 and 2001 seasons. The oil content of the hemp seed ranged from 26.25% (w/w) to 37.50%. Analysis of variance revealed significant effects of genotype, year and of the interaction (genotype year) on the oil content. The oil contents of the 51 genotypes in 2000 and 2001 were correlated (r = 0.37**) and averaged 33.19 1.45% in 2000 and 31.21 0.96% in 2001. The -tocopherol, -tocopherol, -tocopherol, P-8- and -tocopherol contents of the 51 genotypes averaged 21.68 3.19, 1.82 0.49, 1.20 0.40, 0.18 0.07 and 0.16 0.04 mg 100g–1 of seeds, respectively (2000 and 2001 data pooled). Hierarchical clustering of the fatty acid data did not group the hemp genotypes according to their geographic origin. The -linolenic acid yield of hemp (3–30 kg ha–1) was similar to the -linolenic acid yield of plant species that are currently used as sources of -linolenic acid (borage (19–30 kg ha–1), evening primrose (7–30 kg ha–1)). The linoleic acid yield of hemp (129–326 kg ha–1) was similar to flax (102–250 kg ha–1), but less than in sunflower (868–1320 kg ha–1). Significant positive correlations were detected between some fatty acids and some tocopherols. Even though the average content of P-8 in hemp seeds was only 1/120th of the average -tocopherol content, P-8 content was more closely correlated with the unsaturated fatty acid content than -tocopherol or any other tocopherol fraction. The average broad-sense heritabilities of the oil content, the antioxidants (tocopherols and P-8) and the fatty acids were 0.53, 0.14 and 0.23, respectively. The genotypes Fibrimon 56, P57, Juso 31, GB29, Beniko, P60, FxT, Flina 34, Ramo and GB18 were capable of producing the largest amounts of high quality hemp oil.
Article
Research from the 1930s to the 1950s established that a deficit of n-6 essential fatty acids (EFAs) leads to an inflammatory skin condition in both animals and humans. In a common inherited skin condition, atopic dermatitis (eczema), there was evidence of low blood EFA concentrations and of a therapeutic response to exceptionally high doses of linoleic acid. More recently, it has been established that there is no deficit of linoleic acid in atopic eczema. Concentrations of linoleic acid instead tend to be elevated in blood, milk, and adipose tissue of patients with atopic eczema, whereas concentrations of linoleic acid metabolites are substantially reduced. This suggests reduced conversion of linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). In most but not all studies, administration of GLA has been found to improve the clinically assessed skin condition, the objectively assessed skin roughness, and the elevated blood catecholamine concentrations of patients with atopic eczema. Atopic eczema may be a minor inherited abnormality of EFA metabolism.
Article
Blood samples were collected from 48 atopic eczema patients and 33 normal subjects in Bristol, and from 434 normal individuals worldwide. In the plasma phospholipids in the atopic eczema patients, the concentrations of linoleic acid and the ratio of linoleic acid to its metabolites were significantly elevated as compared with both sets of controls. In the atopic eczema patients there were major abnormalities in the red cell phospholipids with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids being significantly elevated and the concentrations of most essential fatty acids being significantly reduced. Patients with atopic eczema thus show abnormalities related both to desaturation of essential fatty acids and to their incorporation into red cell membranes.
Article
We have measured all the essential fatty acids (EFA) in plasma phospholipids in forty-one adults with atopic eczema and fifty normal controls. The major dietary n-6 EFA, linoleic acid, was significantly elevated, but all its metabolites, 18:3n-6, 20:3n-6, 20:4n-6, 22:4n-6, and 22:5n-6 were significantly reduced. The major dietary n-3 EFA, alpha-linolenic acid, was also elevated, though not significantly, while all its metabolites were also significantly reduced. These observations suggest that atopic eczema is associated not with any defect of EFA intake, but with abnormal metabolism, possibly involving the enzyme delta-6-desaturase. Treatment with oral evening primrose oil produced partial correction of the n-6 EFA abnormality, but had no effect on the n-3 EFAs.
Article
In the plasma phospholipids of a group of 50 young adults with atopic eczema, there was an elevation of cis-linoleic acid associated with a deficit of gamma-linolenic acid and of the prostaglandin precursors, dihomogammalinolenic acid and arachidonic acid. This suggests that atopics have a deficit in the function of the delta-6-desaturase enzyme which converts linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid. Carriers of cystic fibrosis tend to be phenotypically atopic, supporting previous suggestions that in homozygote cystic fibrosis patients the key defect may be in the delta-6-desaturase enzyme. Atopic patients may be exceptionally sensitive to side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. They fail to flush in response to application of niacin compounds to the skin, a reaction mediated by prostaglandins. A deficit of prostaglandin precursors would explain both of these observations. That the observed biochemical deficit plays a causative role in the manifestations of atopy was indicated by the fact that in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, gamma-linolenic acid in the form of evening primrose oil (Efamol), partially corrected both the biochemical abnormalities and the clinical state.
Article
The proportions of linoleic acid in total plasma lipids and phospholipids were significantly greater and those of oleic acid were lower in pre-puberal and puberal atopic patients as compared with age-matched healthy controls. The n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio of the triacylglycerol fraction was also lower in atopic patients. However, no significant decreases in the proportions of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid were observed in plasma lipids of atopic patients, suggesting that delta 6-desaturase activity is not impaired in atopic patients. We provide an explanation for the beneficial effects of raising the n-3/n-6 ratio of dietary oils in the context of suppressing allergic hyper-reactivity in humans.
Article
The advanced stages of many illnesses and their treatments are often accompanied by intractable nausea, vomiting, or pain. Thousands of patients with cancer, AIDS, and other diseases report they have obtained striking relief from these devastating symptoms by smoking marijuana.1 The alleviation of distress can be so striking that some patients and their families have been willing to risk a jail term to obtain or grow the marijuana. Despite the desperation of these patients, within weeks after voters in Arizona and California approved propositions allowing physicians in their states to prescribe marijuana for medical indications, federal officials, including the President, . . .
Article
A 10-kDa protein was isolated from resting seeds of hemp (Cannabis sativa) by buffer extraction, gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The protein did not inhibit bovine trypsin. It consisted of subunits composed of 27 and 61 residues and was held together by two disulfide bonds. The complete amino acid sequence was identified by protein analysis, and had 20 mole% of amino acids containing sulfur. The protein was most similar to a methionine-rich protein of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and to Mabinlin IV, a sweetness-inducing protein of Capparis masaikai. The high methionine content and the absence of trypsin inhibitory activity suggested that the seed protein can be used to improve the nutritional quality of plant food-stuffs.
Article
Altered composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been observed in allergic individuals and it has been proposed that this is due to an impairment of delta-6-desaturase activity. We have studied the composition of PUFA in serum phospholipids in twenty-two 12-15 year old children with asthma and/or allergic dermatitis and 23 non-atopic controls of similar age. The relative levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and total n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) were lower (1.46% +/- 0.54 vs. 1.90% +/- 0.58, P = 0.01 for DHA and 2.34% +/- 0.67 vs. 2.80% +/- 0.77, P < 0.05 for total n-3 LCP) and the ratio of total n-6 to n-3 LCP was higher (P < 0.01) in the allergic children than in the controls. In addition to these differences, the relative levels of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, C22:5n-3) and the ratio of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DHGLA, C20:3n-6) were also lower in the 12 allergic children with positive skin prick test, as compared with the SPT negative children (both P < 0.05). In non-allergic children, the levels of total n-3 correlated with n-6 LCP (r = 0.76, p < 0.001). Furthermore, the n-3 LCP, i.e. EPA, DPA and DHA, correlated significantly with each other (r = 0.52-0.78, all p < 0.01) and correlated with n-6 LCP, i.e. C20:2, DHGLA and AA respectively (r = 0.56-0.83, all P < 0.01). Most of these correlations were absent in allergic children. Higher levels of C20:2n-6 and lower levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) were recorded in 11 allergic children with serum IgE above the median level (56 kU/l), as compared to 11 with lower IgE levels (both P < 0.05). Furthermore, the levels of C20:2n-6 correlated with the IgE levels in the children (r = 0.65, P = 0.001). The findings could not confirm an impaired delta-6-desaturase activity in allergic school children and suggest that a disturbance of LCP metabolism is associated with allergic diseases.
Article
We have shown that the age-associated increase in prostaglandin E(2) production contributes to the decline in T cell-mediated function with age. Black currant seed oil (BCSO), rich in both gamma-linolenic (18:3n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18:3n-3) acids, has been shown to modulate membrane lipid composition and eicosanoid production. Our objectives were to 1) test whether dietary supplementation with BCSO can improve the immune response of healthy elderly subjects, and 2) determine whether the altered immune response is mediated by a change in the factors closely associated with T cell activation. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled (soybean oil) study was conducted to examine the effect of 2 mo of BCSO supplementation on the immune response of 40 healthy subjects aged >/=65 y. In vivo immune function was determined by delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were tested for in vitro immune response. In subjects supplemented with BCSO, the total diameter of induration at 24 h and individual responses to tetanus toxoid and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were significantly higher than their baseline values. The change in response to tetanus toxoid was significantly different from that of the placebo group. The BCSO group showed a significant increase in proliferative response of PBMCs to the T cell mitogen phytohemagglutinin that was not significantly different from that observed in the placebo group. BCSO had no effect on concanavalin A-induced mitogenic response, interleukin 2 and -1beta production, and PBMC membrane fluidity. Prostaglandin E(2) production was significantly reduced in the BCSO-supplemented group, and this change was significantly different from that of the placebo group. BCSO has a moderate immune-enhancing effect attributable to its ability to reduce prostaglandin E(2) production.
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