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Organic Farming History and Techniques

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  • Banasthali Vidyapith (Raj.) India
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Organic Farming History and Techniques

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Organic farming involves holistic production systems that avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and genetically modified organisms, thereby minimizing their deleterious effect on environment. Agriculture area under organic farming ranges from 0.03% in India to 11.3% in Austria. Organic farming is beneficial for natural resources and the environment. Organic farming is a system that favors maximum use of organic materials and microbial fertilizers to improve soil health and to increase yield. Organic farming has a long history but show a recent and rapid rise. This article explains the development stages, techniques and status of organic farming worldwide. The sections are: the development and essential characteristics of organic farming; the basic concepts behind organic farming; historical background; developmental era of organic farming; methods of organic farming; relevance of organic farming in the Indian context; comparative account between organic farming and conventional farming; importance of organic farming in environmentally friendly approaches; working with natural cycles; relevance of organic crop production in food security; yield potential and trends of organic farming; rural economic linkage its scope and limitations; and legislation procedures adopted by various countries. Organisations and financial aspects of organic farming are briefly discussed. KeywordsOrganic farming-Farming system-Biodiversity-Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-Conventional agriculture-Nutrient management-Habitat management
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287
E. Lichtfouse (ed.), Agroecology and Strategies for Climate Change,
Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 8, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-1905-7_12,
© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012
Abstract Organic farming involves holistic production systems that avoids the use
of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and genetically modified organisms, thereby mini-
mizing their deleterious effect on environment. Agriculture area under organic
farming ranges from 0.03% in India to 11.3% in Austria. Organic farming is benefi-
cial for natural resources and the environment. Organic farming is a system that
favors maximum use of organic materials and microbial fertilizers to improve soil
health and to increase yield. Organic farming has a long history but show a recent
and rapid rise. This article explains the development stages, techniques and status of
organic farming worldwide. The sections are: the development and essential charac-
teristics of organic farming; the basic concepts behind organic farming; historical
background; developmental era of organic farming; methods of organic farming;
relevance of organic farming in the Indian context; comparative account between
organic farming and conventional farming; importance of organic farming in envi-
ronmentally friendly approaches; working with natural cycles; relevance of organic
crop production in food security; yield potential and trends of organic farming; rural
economic linkage its scope and limitations; and legislation procedures adopted by
various countries. Organisations and financial aspects of organic farming are briefly
discussed.
Keywords /RGANICFARMINGs&ARMINGSYSTEMs"IODIVERSITYs!RBUSCULARMYCORRHIZAL
FUNGIs#ONVENTIONALAGRICULTUREs.UTRIENTMANAGEMENTs(ABITATMANAGEMENT
K.K. Behera (*s!!LAMs36ATSs63HARMA
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University,
Banasthali, Rajasthan, 304022, India
e-mail: kambaska@yahoo.co.in
(0D3HARMA
University Departments of Botany, Ranchi University,
Ranchi, India
Organic Farming History and Techniques
Kambaska Kumar Behera, Afroz Alam, Sharad Vats,
Hunuman Pd. Sharma, and Vinay Sharma
288 K.K. Behera et al.
1 Introduction
Organic agriculture is one among the broad spectrum of production methods that
are supportive of the environment. Agriculture remains the key sector for the economic
development for most developing countries. It is critically important for ensuring
food security, alleviating poverty and conserving the vital natural resources that the
world’s present and future generations will be entirely dependent upon for their
survival and well-being. The world populations will inevitably double by the middle
of the twenty-first century, that we are soon to enter, that is in the space of just two
generations. Over 90% of the developing nations, especially in Asia and to an ever
greater extent will be in the urban areas which follow up the green revolution strategy
(Rothschild 1998).
Green revolution technologies such as greater use of synthetic agro chemicals
like fertilizers and pesticides, adoption of nutrient responsive, high-yielding varieties
of crops, greater exploitation of irrigation potentials etc. has boosted the production
output in most of cases. Without proper choice and continues use of these high
energy inputs is leading to decline in production and productivity of various crops
as well as deterioration of soil health and environments. The most unfortunate
impact on Green Revaluation Technology (GRT) not only on Indian Agriculture but
also the whole world is as follows:
 #HANGEINSOILREACTION
2. Development of nutrient imbalance/deficiencies
3. Damage the soil flora and fauna
4. Reduce the earth worm activity
5. Reduction in soil humus/organic matter
 #HANGEINATMOSPHERICCOMPOSITION
7. Reduction in productivity
8. Reduction in quality of the produce
9. Destruction of soil structure, aeration and water holding capacity
All these problems of GRT lead to not only reduction in productivity but also
deterioration of soil health as well as natural eco-system. Moreover, today the
rural economy is now facing a challenge of over dependence on synthetic inputs
ANDDAYBYDAYITCHANGEINPRICEOFTHESEINPUTS&URTHERWORLD!GRICULTUREWILL
face the market competition due to globalization of trade as per World Trade
Organization (WTO). Thus apart from quantity, quality will be the important
factor. Such as Agriculture gave birth to various new concepts of farming such as
organic farming, natural farming, bio-dynamic Agriculture, do-nothing agriculture,
eco-farming etc.
The essential concept of the practices is “Give back to nature”, where the philoso-
phy is to feed the soil rather them the crop to maintain the soil health. Therefore, for
sustaining healthy ecosystem, there is need for adoption of an alternatives farming
system like organic farming.
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2 The Features of Organic Farming
Organic farming gives importance to environmental protection and helps to sustain
ECOLOGICALISSUESSUCHASSOILCONSERVATION&ARMERSWHOUNDERTAKEORGANICFARMING
practice crop rotation to enrich the soil with natural mineral resources. Organic
farmers have to follow the norms set by the local organic farming associations and
they are not allowed to cultivate genetically modified (GM) crops (Alistair 2007;
(ASLBERGER2010). The minerals for the crop known as crop nutrients are given using
insoluble nutrient sources through soil microorganisms that increase nitrogen levels
IN THE SOIL &OR INSTANCE ALTERNATING LEGUMES WITH THE MAIN CROP WOULD INCREASE
NITROGENLEVELSINTHESOIL#HEMICALDRUGSARENOTADMINISTEREDONFARMANIMALSTO
control fleas or parasite problems. Instead, these problems are controlled by moving
the animals to new pastures and by using home remedies to control the plant and
animal pests. Organic gardening, including vegetable gardening, is also a part of
organic farming. Many flower and vegetable gardens are using composite manure
FOR THEIR mOWERING PLANTS AND SHRUBS INSTEAD OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS (ASLBERGER
2001; Rai 2006).
The basic concepts behind organic farming are:
1. It concentrates on building up the biological fertility of the soil so that the crops
take the nutrients they need from steady turnover within the soil nutrients pro-
duced in this way and are released in harmony with the need of the plants.
 #ONTROLOFPESTSDISEASESANDWEEDSISACHIEVEDLARGELYBYTHEDEVELOPMENTOF
an ecological balance within the system and by the use of bio-pesticides and vari-
ous cultural techniques such as crop rotation, mixed cropping and cultivation.
3. Organic farmers recycle all wastes and manures within a farm, but the export of
the products from the farm results in a steady drain of nutrients.
4. Enhancement of the environment in such a way that wild life flourishes.
In a situation where conservation of energy and resources is considered to be
important community or country would make every effort to recycles to all urban
and industrial wastes back to agriculture and thus the system would be requiring
only a small inputs of new resources to “Top Up” soil fertility (Table 1).
India represents only 0.03% area (43,000 ha) out of total cultivated (143 million
ha) area.
Table 1 Area under organic farming in % of total agricultural area in important countries
(Bhattacharya and Gehlot 2003)
#OUNTRY % of cultivated area #OUNTRY % of cultivated area
Austria 11.30 Australia 2.31
Switzerland 9.70 &RANCE 1.40
Italy 7.94 USA 0.23
Denmark 6.51 Japan 0.10
Sweden 6.30 #HINA 0.06
United Kingdom 3.96 India 0.03
Germany 3.70
290 K.K. Behera et al.
2.1 Essential Characteristics of Organic Farming
The most important characteristics are as follows:
1. Maximal but sustainable use of local resources.
2. Minimal use of purchased inputs, only as complementary to local resources.
3. Ensuring the basic biological functions of soil-water-nutrients-human continuum.
4. Maintaining a diversity of plant and animal species as a basis for ecological
balance and economic stability.
 #REATING AN ATTRACTIVE OVERALL LANDSCAPE WHICH GIVEN SATISFACTION TO THE LOCAL
people.
6. Increasing crop and animal intensity in the form of polycultures, agroforestry
systems, integrated crop/livestock systems etc. to minimize risks.
Many scientists at different levels have elaborated the concept of organic farming
but according to Lampkin (1990) Organic farming is a production system which
avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic compounded fertilizers, pesticides,
growth regulators and live stock feed additives. According to national organic stan-
dards board of the U.S. defines organic farming as an ecological production
management system that promotes and enhances bio diversity, biological cycles and
soil biological activity. Organic farming refers to organically grown crops which are
not exposed to any chemicals right from the stage of seed treatments to the final post
HARVESTHANDLINGANDPROCESSING2AMAND0ATHAK2008).
!CCORDINGTO)&/!-2010) Organic farming “should sustain the health of soil,
plant animal, human and planet”. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and
cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects.
Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared
environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved.
It relies on the four principles of health, ecology, fairness and care.
Organic farming relies on crop rotation, crop residues, animal manures, legumes,
green manures, off-farming organic wastes, agricultural cultivation, mineral bearing
rocks and aspect of biological pest control to maintain soil productivity and tilth to
supply plant nutrients and also to control insects, weeds and other pests (Lampkin
1990). In a broader sense it includes bio-fertilizers, bio diversity and biotechnology.
3 History of Organic Farming
The concept of organic farming was started 1,000 years back when ancient farmers
started cultivation near the river belt depending on natural resources only. There is
brief mention of several organic inputs in Indian ancient literature like Rig-Veda,
Ramayana, Mahabharata and Kautilya Arthasashthra etc. In fact, organic agriculture
has its roots in traditional farming practices that evolved in countless villages and
farming communities over the millennium.
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3.1 Historical Perspective of Organic Farming
/RGANICFARMINGISANOLDESTPRACTICEDATING BACKTO@.EOLITHICAGEPRACTICEDBY
ANCIENTCIVILIZATIONLIKE-ESOPOTAMIA(WANG(OBASINETC4HESCRIPTSOF2AMAYANA
describes that all dead things – rotting corpse or stinking garbage returned to earth
are transformed into wholesome things that nourish life. Such is the alchemy of
MOTHER EARTH AS INTERPRETED BY # 2AJAGOPALACHARI 4HE -AHABHARATA  "#
mentions of Kamadhenu,the celestial cow and its role on human life and soil fertility.
+AUTILYA !RTHASHASTRA  "# MENTIONED MANURES LIKE OIL CAKE EXCRETA OF
animals. Brihad-Sanhita by Varahmihir described how to choose manures for differ-
ENT CROPS AND THE METHODS OF MANURING 2IG 6EDA n "# MENTION OF
organic manure in Rig Veda 1, 161, 10. Similarly, Green Manure in Atharva Veda II
"#IN3UKRA)66nITISSTATEDTHATTOCAUSEHEALTHYGROWTH
the plant should be nourished by dung of goat, sheep, cow, water as well as meat.
A reference of manure is also made in Vrksayurveda by Surpala (manuscript,
OXFORD.O"3IXn4HE(OLY1URAN!$STATEDTHATATLEASTONE
third of what you take out from soils must be returned to it implying recycling as
post-harvest residue. A number of studies have revealed the importance to organic
farming systems in the present era for sustainable development of human existence.
Worldwide concerned have been raised both developed and developing countries
for personal health, safe environment, food security and fight against global warm-
ing through organic farming, while others have cited the challenge of organic
production and ability to use specialized skills (i.e. human capital) as drivers of
conversion of organic agriculture (Midmore et al. 2001.IEMEYER AND,OMBARD
20030ADEL2001a; Lairon 2010). Ideological, philosophical, and religious beliefs
can also motivate towards organic farming alongside concerns over profitability and
market demand food quality and safety environmental protection and more broadly,
LEVELSOFPESTICIDE USE #ONACHER AND #ONACHER 1998; Willer and Gillmor 1992;
(ONG1994; Rigby et al. 2001; Svensson 1991(OWLETTETAL2002; Kaltoft 1999).
Broadly speaking, these motives include concern over the environmental impact of
farming system, personal, family, or consumer health, safety and farm profitability
#ACEK AND ,ANGNER 1986; Lockeretz and Madden 1987 (ENNING ET AL 1991;
(ENNING1994(ALLAND-OGYORODY2001!DDITIONALFACTORSINTHE#ANADIANAND
US context include dissatisfaction with farm work, the decline of the family farm,
financial problems associated with conventional farming, lifestyle and the desire to
LIVEHARMONIOUSLY WITHNATURE (ALL AND-OGYORODY 2001; Sullivan et al. 1996).
The conversion for tradition farming towards organic is by no means exhaustive,
it does illustrate that the trends are multi-factorial. Based on the literature, we
conclude that there are four broad themes underlie in organic farming: (1) profit/
economic/financial issues; (2) environmental concerns; (3) health and safety concerns
and (4) ideological/philosophical motives. The relative importance of these four
themes does not appear to be consistent across the various studies, suggesting varia-
tion across countries, commodities, etc. Moreover, the relative importance of these
STUDIESAPPEARSTOBECHANGINGOVERTIME&OREXAMPLEONLYOFRESPONDENTSIN
292 K.K. Behera et al.
THESTUDY OF(ENNINGETAL 1991) indicate that profitability is the most important
factor in their decision to go for organic farming, while 56% of producers surveyed
BY (ALL AND -OGYORODY 2001) cite profitability as a very important factor for
organic agriculture and stated that a shift has occurred in the ideological orientation
of organic farming. Similar conclusions have been drawn in the European and US
INTHISCONTEXT0ADEL2001a, b; Rundlof and Smith 2006).
Organic farming practice is known since ages. The ancient Indian manuscripts
also describe the importance of dead and decaying matter in nourishment of life and
soil fertility, respectively. Importance of organic manure and recycling post-harvest
residues has also been dealt in various sections of these literatures. Organic farming
has been recognized worldwide for personal health, safe environment, food security
and fight against global warming. Ideological, philosophical and religious beliefs
have also triggered the use organic farming with a commercial outlook taking care
of environment and quality product.
4 Developmental Era of Organic Farming
The development of the organic farming era worldwide had gone through mainly
three stages, Emergence, Development, and Growth in chronological sequence.
4.1 Era of Emergence (1924–1970)
The beginning of organic farming could trace back to 1924 in Germany with Rudolf
Steiner’s course on Social Scientific Basis of Agricultural Development, in which
his theory considered the human being as part and parcel of a cosmic equilibrium
that he/she must understand in order to live in harmony with the environment.
Therefore, a balance must be struck between the spiritual and material side of life
(ERRMANNAND0LAKOLM19910FEIFFERHASAPPLIEDTHESETHEORIESTOAGRICULTUREAND
gave birth to biodynamic agriculture (Kahnt 1986). It was developed at the end of
THE S IN 'ERMANY 3WITZERLAND %NGLAND $ENMARK AND THE .ETHERLANDS
(ERRMANNAND0LAKOLM1991; Kahnt 1986; Diercks 1986). In Switzerland in 1930,
POLITICIAN(ANS -UELER GAVEIMPETUS TO ORGANICBIOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE (IS GOALS
were at once economic, social and political as they envisioned autarchy of the farmer
and a much more direct and less cluttered connection between the production and
CONSUMPTION STAGES (ERRMANN AND 0LAKOLM 1991 .IGGLI AND ,OCKERETZ 1996).
-ARIA-UELER APPLIED THESE THEORIES TO ORCHARD PRODUCTION .IGGLI AND ,OCKERETZ
1996!USTRIANDOCTOR(ANS0ETER2USHADAPTEDTHESEIDEASANDINCORPORATEDTHEM
in a method founded on maximum utilization of renewable resources (Gliessman
1990(ANS -UELERAND (ANS 0ETER 2USH LAID THE THEORETICAL FOUNDATION FOR THE
organic-biological agriculture and its development in the Germanic speaking coun-
TRIESANDREGIONS.IGGLIAND,OCKERETZ1996; Rigby et al. 20013IR!LBERT(OWARD
293
/RGANIC&AR MING(ISTORYAND4ECHNIQUES
WAS THE FOUNDER OF THE ORGANIC FARMING MOVEMENT (IS BOOK An Agricultural
Testament summarized his research works of 25 years at Indore in India, where he
DEVELOPEDTHEFAMED)NDORE#OMPOSTING0ROCESSWHICHPUTTHEANCIENTARTOFCOM-
posting on a firm scientific basis and explained the relationship between the health
of the soil, the health of plants and the health of animals (Du and Wang 2001).
Rodale. J. I. began his research and practice on organic farming in the United States
OF!MERICA(ISPRIMARYGOALWASTODEVELOPANDDEMONSTRATEPRACTICALMETHODSOF
rebuilding natural soil fertility. By 1942, he published the magazine Organic
Gardening#OLEMAN1989,ADY%VE"ALFOURSTARTEDTHE(AUGHLEY%XPERIMENT
THE lRST STUDY COMPARING CONVENTIONAL AND NATURAL FARMING METHODS (ER IDEAS
inspired the formation of the Soil Association that was founded in 1946 in England.
The Soil Association attempted to return humus and soil fertility to their basic
place in the biological balance. It was founded on the theories propagated by Sir
!LBERT (OWARD IN HIS AGRICULTURAL TESTAMENT OF  3OIL !SSOCIATION 2001).
During 1950–1960s thanks to doctors and consumers whose awareness constantly
grew with regard to food and its effect on health, organic fanning (lemaire-boucher)
BEGANTOTAKEHOLDIN&RANCE3/%,2002.ATUREAND0ROGRESS!SSOCIATIONWAS
FOUNDED -OKICHI /KADA STARTED NATURAL AGRICULTURE IN IN *APAN (IS MAIN
thoughts were to respect and emphasize the function of nature and soil in the agri-
cultural production and to coordinate the relationship between human being and
nature through increasing soil humus to get the yields without fertilizer and agri-
cultural chemicals. The environmental and health issues exacerbated in the
1950s–1960s of the last centuries in Japan facilitated the development of natural
agriculture. The essentials of natural agriculture became the important contents of
Japanese agricultural, standard of organic agricultural products (Sheng et al.1995;
Yu and Dai 1995).
4.2 Era of Development (1970–1990)
The research and practice of organic agriculture expanded worldwide after the
1960s. In particular, the expansion and dual polarity of organic agriculture started
with the oil crisis of 1973 and the growing sensitivity to agro-ecological issues. This
was a time of new ideas, significant sociological transformations, protest move-
ments and the proliferation of alternative life styles. The new thoughts in terms of
using natural resources rationally, protecting the environment, realizing low input
and high efficiency, ensuring food security, returning to the earth and maintaining a
sustainable development of agriculture, such as organic, organic-biological, bio-
dynamic, ecological, and natural agriculture were remarkably developed in their
CONCEPTS RESEARCH AND PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES (ERRMANN AND 0LAKOLM 1991; Rigby
et al. 2001; Du and Wang 2001; May 2001 0ACINI ET AL 2002  #ONACHER AND
#ONACHER 1998).William Albrecht gave a definition of ecological agriculture in
1970, in which the ecological principle was introduced to the production system of
ORGANICAGRICULTURE#OLEMAN1989). In England the Soil Association created a logo
294 K.K. Behera et al.
and in parallel introduced the notion of legally formulated specifications and quality
controls that gave a legally binding guarantee for the consumers (Yussefi and Willer
2003; Soil Association 2001). The largest non-governmental organization of organic
AGRICULTUREINTHEWORLD)&/!-)NTERNATIONAL &EDERATION OF /RGANIC!GRICULTURE
-OVEMENTSWASFOUNDEDIN.IGGLIAND,OCKERETZ1996). The major organic
AGRICULTURE ASSOCIATIONS AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS IN THE WORLD SUCH AS &.!"
&EDERATION .ATIONALED !GRICULTEURS "IOLOGIQUES &)", &OR 3CHUNGS )NSTITUTE
&UER"IOLOGISCHEN,ANDBAUNOWTHELARGESTORGANICRESEARCHINSTITUTEWORLDWIDE
WEREFOUNDEDDURINGSnS&!/2007; Greene 2001). These organizations
played an important role in standardizing the production and market of organic
products and promoting research and consumer’s awareness. The legislative action
on organic farming started gradually in the different countries and regions as the
guidelines for organic farming. In the United States the regulation on organic farm-
INGWASIMPLEMENTEDIN THESTATEOF /REGONINANDINTHE STATEOF#ALIFORNIA
in1979, respectively (Greene 2001). The United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA) made an investigation on a large scale on organic farming in the 69 organic
farms of 23 states and published the Report and Recommendations on Organic
Farming, in which the development status and potential remained as issues and the
research directions were analyzed. In this report the definition and guideline for the
organic farming were given, and an action plan for the development of organic
farming was called for. The publication of this report was a milestone in legislation
and development of organic farming in the United States (USDA 1980)N&RANCE
the organic farming regulation was implemented in 1985 (Graf and Willer 2001;
Dai 1999).
The development of organic agriculture initiated the use of natural resources to
protect the environment and to ensure food security with sustainable development
of agriculture. Subsequently many organizations and Associations were created
with legally formulated specifications and quality controls. All these organizations
played a pivotal role and made valiant efforts to investigate large scale organic farming
with precise scientific validation.
4.3 Era of Growth (Since 1990)
The organic farming worldwide entered a new stage of growth in the 1990s. The
trade organizations for organic products were founded, organic farming regulations
were implemented and organic farming movement was promoted by both govern-
MENTALAND NONGOVERNMENTALORGANIZATIONS)NTHE lRST"IO&ACH&AIRnNOW
THEBIGGESTFAIRFORORGANICPRODUCTSWORLDWIDEEMERGEDIN'ERMANY)4#1999).
The federal government of the United States published the regulation for organic
food products in 1990 (Greene (20014HE%UROPEAN#OMMISSION ADOPTED%5
regulation 209191 on organic agriculture in 1991. This regulation became a law
in 1993 and was granted in almost all European Union countries since 1994
295
/RGANIC&AR MING(ISTORYAND4ECHNIQUES
)&/!- AND &!/2002 )N THE .ORTH !MERICA !USTRALIA AND *APAN THE MAJOR
markets for organic products, published and implemented organic regulations in
succession (Yussefi and Willer 2003.IGGLIAND,OCKERETZ1996). The International
&EDERATION OF /RGANIC !GRICULTURE -OVEMENTS )&/!- AND THE &OOD AND
!GRICULTURE/RGANIZATIONOF THE 5NITED .ATIONS&!/SETOUT Guidelines for the
Production, Processing, Labeling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods in
1999. This guide line is of importance to international harmonization of the organic
FARMINGSTANDARDS&!/AND7(/2001). Organic farming had rapidly developed
worldwide during this stage. The main drivers of steady market and production
growth were the commitment of many retail chains as well as favorable policy con-
ditions. Together these had created conditions favoring a harmonious increase in
supply and demand. The state support for organic farming research and legal frame
work was increasingly gaining importance since the end of the 1990s. Organic agri-
culture is holistic production management systems which promotes and enhances
agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological
activity. It emphasizes the use of management practices in preference to the use of
farm inputs, taking into account that regional conditions require locally adapted
systems. This is accomplished by using, where possible, cultural, biological and
mechanical methods, as opposed to using synthetic materials, to fulfils any specific
function within the system terms, such as Organic, Biological, Biodynamic, and
Ecological are recognized as organic farming in the EU regulations (Yussefi and
Willer 2003&!/2002&!/AND7(/2001). Although organic agriculture is one
among the broad spectrum of methodologies which are based on the specific and
precise standards with different names such as organic, biological, organic-biological,
bio-dynamic, natural and ecological agriculture, there are some common followed
PRINCIPLESINTHEORGANICAGRICULTURE(ENMANNETAL+AHNT1986.IGGLIAND
Lockeretz 1996 )&/!-AND&!/2002&!/AND7(/2001). These principles
are summarized as follows:
1. Maintain long-term soil fertility though biological mechanism.
2. Recycle wastes of plant and animal origin in order to return nutrients to the land,
thus minimizing the use of external inputs outside systems, and keep the nutrients
cycle within the system.
 0ROHIBIT THE USE OF SYNTHETIC MATERIALS SUCH AS PESTICIDES MINERAL FERTILIZERS
chemical ingredients and additives.
4. Using natural mechanism and rely on renewable resources to protect the natural
resources.
5. Raise animals in restricted areas and guarantee the welfare of the animals.
6. Adapt local environment and diversified organization.
The rapid growth of organic farming at global scale started during the end part of
twentieth century, several trade organizations were founded, regulations were imple-
mented and movements were promoted by both governmental and nongovernmental
organizations. This led to rapid development of organic farming with co-ordinate
and rational approach.
296 K.K. Behera et al.
5 Methods of Organic Farming
The farming practice which involves the use of eco-friendly methods to grow crops
and the exclusion of synthetic products, such as chemical fertilizers, insecticides
and pesticides are described as organic farming. It is practiced on 32.2 million
hectares of land over the world (Bhattacharya and Gehlot 2003). The International
Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements)&/!-CARRIESOUTTHETASKSRELATED
to setting standards and regulation of organic farming activities worldwide. A holistic
approach towards growing crops, organic farming methods helps apply simple and
eco-friendly techniques in farming. Use of compost fertilizers, crop rotation and
biological pest control, are some of the features of organic farming methods. The
farming methods that make use of the various traditional agricultural practices like
minimum tillage, composting, crop rotation, biological pest control, etc., and
exclude the application of synthetic fertilizers, insecticides, growth regulators
and genetic modification of crop species, are included in organic farming methods.
The use of modern technology in combination with organic farming practices helps
in creating a balanced and sustainable environment for crop growth (Anonymous
2000). Organic farming methods take a integrated approach in growing crops rather
than exploiting the available natural resources The use of organic farming methods is
aimed at enhancing the productivity of crops without the use of any kind of synthetic
materials and adopting a sustainable approach towards farming (Luttikholt 2007).
Organic agriculture systems are based on four strongly interrelated principles
under autonomous ecosystems management: mixed farming, crop rotation and
organic cycle optimization. The common understanding of agricultural production
in all types of organic agriculture is managing the production capacity of an
agro-ecosystem. The process of extreme specialization propagated by the green
revolution led to the destruction of mixed and diversified farming and ecological
buffer systems. The function of this autonomous ecosystem management is to
meet the need for food and fibres on the local ecological carrying capacity
(Smukler et al. 2010).
5.1 Cultivation
0OLYCULTUREIS AN IMPORTANT ASPECT OF ORGANICFARMING )N THE TRADITIONAL FORM OF
farming monoculture is practiced, which includes growing a single crop in a given
PIECEOFLAND(ANSENAND*ONES1996%DWARDS*ONESAND(OWELL2001). Though
the motive behind cultivating a single crop is to reduce cost incurred in fertilizers,
seeds and pesticides etc.; however, it creates problems in the long run. The reduc-
tion in the fertility of the soil owing to the extraction of nutrients over a long period
and soil erosion result from the practice of monoculture. Moreover, the pests become
IMMUNETOTHECHEMICALSUSEDFORTHEIRCONTROL0OLYCULTUREISACOMPLETELYDIFFERENT
approach towards farming as compared to monoculture. In this method of farming,
297
/RGANIC&AR MING(ISTORYAND4ECHNIQUES
a variety of crops are cultivated on a single piece of land. It helps attract different
soil microbes. Some crops act as repellents to pest and these results in pest control,
in an organic manner (Walker 1992; Gitay et al. 1996).
In organic agriculture systems, one strives for appropriate diversification, which
ideally means mixed farming, or the integration of crop and livestock production on
the farm. In this way, cyclic processes and interactions in the agro-ecosystem can be
optimized, like using crop residues in animal husbandry and manure for crop pro-
duction. Diversification of species biotypes and land use as a means to optimize the
stability of the agro-ecosystem is another way to indicate the mixed farming
concept. The synergistic concept among plants, animals, soil and bio-sphere support
this idea (James 1998; Albrecht and Mattheis 1998).
5.2 Fertility
Organic farming has expanded rapidly in recent years and is seen as a sustainable
alternative to intensive agricultural systems, developed over the last 50 years
(Stockdale et al. 2001.UTRIENTMANAGEMENTINORGANICSYSTEMSISBASEDONFERTILITY
BUILDINGLEYSTOlXATMOSPHERICNITROGEN.COMBINEDWITHRECYCLINGOFNUTRIENTS
VIABULKYORGANICMATERIALSSUCHASFARMYARDMANURE&9-ANDCROPRESIDUESWITH
only limited inputs of permitted fertilizers (Torstensson 1998 &AERGE AND -AGID
2003#OMPOSTSAREUSEDTOENHANCESOILFERTILITYINORGANICFARMINGMETHODS'REEN
manuring too, is a nice way to add nutrients to the soil. It is the practice of growing
plants with prolific leaf growth like alfalfa and burying them in the soil before the
cultivation of the main crop. The green manuring crops add organic matter to the soil
that is necessary for plant growth (Berry et al. 20020ULLEMANETAL2003).
5.3 Crop Rotation
Within the mixed farm setting, crop rotation takes place as the second principle of
organic agriculture. Besides the classical rotation involving one crop per field per
season, inter cropping, mixed cropping and relay cropping are other options to opti-
mize interactions. In addition to plant functions, other important advantages such as
weed suppression, reduction in soil-borne insects and diseases, complimentary
nutrient supply, nutrient catching and soil covering can be mentioned (Wibberley
1996; Berzsenyi et al. 2000).
5.4 Organic Cycle Optimization
Organic farming is considered a promising solution for reducing environmental
burdens related to intensive agricultural management practices. These changes in
agricultural practices led to numerous environmental problems like high consumption
298 K.K. Behera et al.
of non-renewable energy resources, loss of biodiversity, pollution of the aquatic
environment by the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus as well as by pesticides
&EBERETAL1997).
Each field, farm, or region contains a given quantity of nutrients. Management
SHOULDBEUSEDINSUCHAWAYTHATOPTIMALUSEISMADEOFTHISlNITEAMOUNT&IG1).
(i) This means that the nutrients should be recycled and used a number of times in
different forms.
II #ARESHOULDBETAKENTHATONLYAMINIMUMAMOUNTOFNUTRIENTSACTUALLYLEAVE
the system so that “import” of nutrients can be restricted.
The quantity of nutrients available to plants and animals can be increased within the
system by activating the edaphon, resulting in increased weathering of parent material.
5.5 Pest Control
Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production world-
wide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental
!TMOSPHERIC  .&IXATION 
NUTRIENT SUPPLY
CROP RESIDUES
FEED STRAW
FOOD
SEWAGE,SLUDGE,
COMPOST etc.
MANURES
LIVESTOCK
PEOPLE
SOILS CROPS
Fig. 1 Organic cycle of an organic farming system
299
/RGANIC&AR MING(ISTORYAND4ECHNIQUES
impacts of conventional farming (Bengtsson et al. 2005). It is an important aspect in
the growth of any crop. Organic pest control involves undertaking various activities
to control pests without using chemical pesticides and insecticides. The growth of
beneficial insects is encouraged by growing suitable plants which attract them.
Beneficial insects are actually predators which control harmful insects. Disease
resistant varieties are chosen for cultivation, in order to keep diseases at bay without
having to spend money on costly pesticides. Special types of crops known as com-
panion crops are grown to control pests (Mader et al. 2002; Oehl et al. 2004). These
crops help in diverting or discouraging the growth of harmful pests. Biological
pesticides such as neem extract are useful in controlling many different pests. The
practice of crop rotation helps in disturbing the reproduction cycles of pests, thereby
inhibiting their growth and protecting the crops (Iglesias et al. 2003).
6 Organic Farming in India: Relevance in Present Context
In India, only 30% of total cultivable area is covered with fertilizer, where irriga-s
tion facilities are available and in the remaining 70% of arable land, which is
MAINLYRAINFEDNEGLIGIBLEAMOUNTOF FERTILIZERSISBEINGUSED &ARMERSINTHESE
areas often use organic manure as sources of nutrients are readily available either
in their own farm or in their locality.
4HE.ORTH%ASTERN(ILLSOF)NDIAPROVIDESCONSIDERABLEOPPORTUNITYMILLIONs
hectare) for organic farming due to least utilization of chemical inputs, which
can be exploited for organic production.
India is an exporting country and does not import any organic products. The s
main market for exported products is the European Union. Recently India has
APPLIEDTOBEINCLUDEDONTHEh%54HIRD#OUNTRY,ISTvANOTHERGROWINGMARKET
is USA.
There has been plenty of policy emphasis on organic farming and trade in the s
recent years in India.
There are many states and private agencies involved in promotion of organic s
farming in India. These include-various ministries and department of the govern-
ment at the central and state levels such as;
Universities and Research centress
.ON'OVTORGANIZATIONS.'/s
Eco farmss
#ERTIlCATIONBODIESLIKE).$/#%24%#/#%243+!,AND!0/&ETCs
The central and state governments have also identified Agri-Export Zone for
agricultural exports in general and organic products in some states:
)N 5TTAR 0RADESH AND 5TTARANCHAL THE $IVERSIlED !GRICULTURE 3UPPORT 0ROJECTs
$!30ISPROMOTEDFORORGANICFARMING
)N"ANGALORE +ARNATAKA AND .ILGIRIS 4AMIL.ADU WITH  OUTLETS IN SOUTHs
India helps for supply the organic products from small growers.
300 K.K. Behera et al.
)2&4 )NTERNATIONAL 2ECOURSES FOR &AIRER 4RADE BASED IN -UMBAI PROCURESs
organic cotton and agro products to sell them to Indian & foreign buyers to help
the rural marginal farmers.
Ion Exchange, Mumbai; a private company is engaged for export and domestic s
marketing of organic products in India.
)N (IMACHAL 0RADESH THE NET INCOMES PER HECTARE FROM ORGANIC FARMING WASs
found to be 2–3 times higher both in case of maize and wheat due to higher pro-
duction and also for higher price were obtained by organic produce.
)N(ARYANANETRETURNSWASHIGHERnTIMESINBASMATIRICESOYBEANSARHARs
and wheat because of 25–30% price premium on organic produce and lower cost
of production and marketing.
In Maharashtra; popularization of organic cotton production was due to high s
cost benefit ratio of organic cotton 1:1.63 as against 1:1.47 for conventional
cotton.
In Gujarat; organic production of chickoo, banana and coconut had higher s
profitability.
In Karnataka; groundnut, jowar, cotton, coconut and banana were grown as s
organic. The major problems faced by organic farmers were found to be initial
lower yields, no price incentives, no separate markets for organic produce,
besides lack of and high costs of certification (Table 2).
Table 2 #ONVENTIONALFARMINGVSORGANICFARMING
#ONVENTIONALFARMING Organic farming
i. It is based on economical orientation,
heavy mechanization, specialization
and misappropriates development of
enterprises with unstable market
oriented programme
i. It is based on ecological orientation, efficient input
use efficiency, diversification and balanced
enterprise combination with stability
ii. Supplementing nutrients through
fertilizers, weed control by
herbicides, plant protection
measures by chemicals and rarely
combination with livestock
II #YCLEOFNUTRIENTSWITHINTHEFARMWEEDCONTROLBY
crop rotation and cultural practices, plant protec-
tion by non-polluting substances and better
combination of livestock
iii. Based on philosophy of to feed the
crop/ plants
III@&EEDTHESOILNOTTOTHEPLANTISTHEWATCHWORD
and slogan of organic farming
IV 0RODUCTIONISNOTINTEGRATEDINTO
environment but extract more
through technical manipulation,
excessive fertilization and no
correction of nutrient imbalances
IV 0RODUCTIONISINTEGRATEDINTOENVIRONMENTBALANCED
conditions for plants and animals and deficiencies
need to be corrected
v. Low input : output ratio with
considerable pollution
V (IGHINPUTOUTPUTRATIOWITHNOPOLLUTION
vi. Economic motivation of natural
resources without considering
principles of natural up gradation
vi. Maximum consideration of all natural resources
through adopting holistic approaches
301
/RGANIC&AR MING(ISTORYAND4ECHNIQUES
7 Environmentally Friendly Production System
Since one of the key aspects of organic farming is to forsake the use of synthetic
chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and feed additives, in contrast to other agricultural
production approaches, organic farming is conducive to protection of surface and
underground water from these pollutants. Organic farming benefits the environment
through protection of wildlife habitats, conservation of landscapes, and reduction of
environmental pollution. It is well documented that organic agriculture contributes
to long-term conservation of soil, water, air and protection of wild life, their habi-
tats, and their genetic diversity (Redman 1992; Van Mansvelt and Mulder 1993;
Lampkin 1997). Reganold et al. (2001) assessed the environmental impact of organic
and conventional apple production systems by using a rating index employed by
scientists and growers to determine the potential adverse impact of pesticides and
fruit thinners (Reed 1995). The results show that the total environmental impact
rating of the conventional system was 6.2 times that of the organic system. Organic
farming also aims to maintain and improve soil fertility over the long run. It may be
expected to produce a satisfactory and high quality crop with minimal use of
resources. An organic farming system requires the use of catch crops, the recycling
of crop residues, and the use of animal manure and the use of organic rather than
artificial fertilizer. All these measures are assumed to promote accumulation of
ORGANICMATTERINTHESOIL(ANSENETAL2001). Organic farming prohibits the use of
pesticides and artificial fertilizers and encourages sympathetic habitat management,
such as nitrogen-building leys to increase soil fertility (Lampkin 1990). Organic
matter has profound impacts on soil quality, such as enhancing soil structure and
fertility and increasing water infiltration and storage. If the soil organic matter con-
tent drops below3.5%, the soil suffers an increased risk of erosion (Brady and Weil
1999; Redman 1992). Stolze et al. (2000) concluded that organic farming performs
better than conventional farming with regard to soil organic matter. A major objec-
tive of organic farming is to encourage a higher level of biological activity in the
soil, in order to sustain its quality and thereby promote metabolic interactions
between the soil and plants. Axelsen and Elmholt (1998) estimated that a transition
to 100% organic farming in Denmark would increase microbial biomass by 77%,
the population of springtails by 37%, and the density of earthworms by 154% as a
NATIONWIDEAVERAGE#ONVERSIONTO ORGANIC FARMING PROVIDESOPPORTUNITIESTOSIG-
nificantly increase biological activity of the soil. Microbial biomass in soil was
higher in organic farming systems receiving higher amounts of organic inputs
(Gunapala and Scow 1998; Bossio and Scow 1998; Lundquist et al. 1999). In a
long-term field trial in northwestern Switzerland, the effects of organic and conven-
tional land use managements on earthworm populations and on soil erodibility were
investigated. The study result shows that earthworm biomass and density, as well as
the population diversity were significantly greater in the organic plots than in the
conventional plots. Likewise, the aggregate stability of the organic plots, when
determined by means of percolation, was significantly better. Therefore, erosion
susceptibility is greater on plots farmed conventionally (Siegrist et al. 1998).
302 K.K. Behera et al.
Organic farming is a concept for following the rule of nature. It is also operates
on the natural principles of sustainability. Soil is one of the most important natural
resources, which needs proper management for organic production requirement.
&ORDOINGSOONESHOULDRELYONORGANICTECHNIQUESLIKECROPROTATIONUSINGNATURAL
manures and green manures, no addition of synthetic substances, proper manage-
ment of air and water, providing drainage, following integrated pest control, using
biological methods of disease and pest control. Using traps, use of predators,
increasing the population of beneficial plants and animals, addition of organic mate-
rial in the soil, using legume, use of bio fertilizers, modifying cropping systems, use
of cover crops, catch crops and establish proper soil-crop-animal-human being system.
Such a system should follow an integrated system approach so as to make the entire
production system biologically active, ecologically sound and economically viable.
In short locally available natural material should be used to increase soil productivity
by improving soil environment.
Organic farming is considered a promising solution for reducing environmental
burdens related to intensive agricultural management practices. Organic agriculture
combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and
promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. The main
strengths lie in better resource conservation, since the farm relies mainly on internal
resources and limits the input of external auxiliary materials. This results in less
fossil and mineral resources being consumed. A further important effect is the very
restrictive use of pesticides, leading to markedly lower eco-toxicity potentials on the
one hand and higher biodiversity potentials on the other.
7.1 Quality Product
In the consumer’s mind, organic produce must be better and healthier than that pro-
duced under conventional farming system. This image is also the main motive for
consumers who are willing to pay premium prices for purchasing organic food.
Organic agriculture can be viewed as an attempt to overcome at the individual, as
much as the collective, level the “risky freedoms,” such as contamination of food
supplies with pesticides, pollution, and radioactive fallout etc., associated with pro-
cessed food and a chemically based agriculture (Lockie et al. 2000&ROMASCIEN-
tific point of view, however, it is difficult to provide or substantiate the supposed
health benefits, since food quality is composed of various partial aspects and with-
OUTUNIFORMEVALUATIONSTANDARDS#ROPQUALITYISPUTFORWARDASANIMPORTANTARGU-
ment for organic farming (Adam 2001; Koepf et al. 1976). Several investigations
have clearly shown that the type of fertilizations, contrary to the principle of organic
FARMINGDOESNOTAFFECTPLANTQUALITY(ANSEN1981; Evers 1989a, b, c#ROPQUALITY
is not dependent on the principle difference between inorganic fertilization and
organic manuring. Side-effects caused by synthetic pesticides and drug feeding are
not found in organic farming, which is a positive result. The use of herbicides has
303
/RGANIC&AR MING(ISTORYAND4ECHNIQUES
been documented to increase cyanide, potassium nitrate, and other toxins in
CROPS&REESEETAL2000; Uzogara 2000(OWEVERTHEEXCLUSIONOFPESTICIDESMAY
also result in increased concentrations of secondary plant metabolites and of myco-
toxins of field fungi. Eltun (1996) reported higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol
and nivalenol in grain samples from organic than from conventional farming.
&URTHERMORE IN THE SAME EXPERIMENT NO PESTICIDE RESIDUES WERE FOUND IN GRAIN
samples grown conventionally. The exclusion of pesticides does not necessarily
mean that crop products do not contain unwanted substances. The evaluation of
food quality by taking into account the criteria, such as appearance and nutritional
value exclusively is not satisfying. Today we have to consider ethical criteria such
as environmental, social, and political dimensions of food production, processing,
and packaging. Regarding the latter, more or less discussions have been mentioned
IN THE PRECEDING SECTIONS (ERE ONLY THE DIFFERENCES OF PRODUCT APPEARANCE AND
NUTRITIONAL VALUE BETWEEN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL ARE DISCUSSED 0LOEGER AND
Vogtmann 1996).
There appears to be a common perception amongst consumers that organic
METHODSRESULTINFOODSOFHIGHERNUTRITIONALQUALITY.EVERTHELESSTHEREARESCANTY
reports, which compare the quality of organic food with foods grown convention-
ally, under comparable and controlled conditions, in terms of their nutrient com-
position or their effects on humans and animals. Adverse effect of chemicals, used
in conventional framing, on mankind cannot be overlooked. Unintentional con-
sumption of pesticides or chemical containing food has imposed severe health
risks. This has made organic farming an alternative and better source of food
production.
7.2 Appearance
.ORMALLYPRODUCTAPPEARANCEREFERSTOSIZESHAPECOLORANDTASTEETC/RGANICALLY
produced food sometimes fails to match the perfection achieved through conven-
tional farming, especially for fruit and vegetables. It is widely believed that
organically produced food tastes better than conventional, but conclusive scien-
tific evidence to prove that this is the case is hard to come by. Lindner (1985)
using a panel of 30–50 consumers who were deliberately not informed about the
basis of the comparison, found that vegetables produced organically under care-
FULLYCONTROLLED EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS DID TASTE BETTER(OWEVERINTHESAME
study, a panel of trained tasters found no significant differences (Lindner 1985).
Duden (1987) has also found taste differences in favor of organically produced
tomatoes and potatoes respectively. It is also demonstrated that in all aspects of
fruit quality, the organic fruit was at least equal to fruit produced in the conven-
tional farming system, and was higher in some important variables (taste, firm-
ness, dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, vitality index) (Weibel et al. 1998;
Reganold et al. 2001).
304 K.K. Behera et al.
7.3 Nutritional Value
.UTRITIONAL VALUE CAN BE MEASURED MAINLY BY CHEMICAL CONTENTS OF A PRODUCT
(ARMFULSUBSTANCESINCLUDEPESTICIDERESIDUESNITRATES NATURAL TOXINS AND HEAVY
metals, etc., while beneficial nutrients encompass protein, vitamins, trace elements,
etc. Organic food shall come from an organic production system with sound envi-
ronment. During the production, processing, and handling of organic food, only
natural substances and operational methods with minimum pollution to environ-
MENT ARE ALLOWED TO BE USED (OWEVER SYNTHETIC CHEMICAL PESTICIDES FERTILIZERS
GROWTHREGULATORANDGENETICENGINEERINGAREPROHIBITED)&/!-2000). In contrast
to conventional produce, organically produced products should be environmental-
safe and healthier, and the risk of produce grown organically being contaminated
with pesticide residues is much smaller than with conventionally produced crops.
Schupbach’s experiment implies that there are in fact differences between organic
and conventional produces as far as pesticide residues concerned. When food genu-
inely produced using organic methods are tested, the result is much more clear-cut
(Schupbach 1986).
#ONCERNINGUPTAKEANDUTILIZATIONOFNITRATESBYPLANTSWORKIN3WITZERLANDHAS
compared nitrate levels in vegetables from organic and conventional production
SYSTEMSANDSHOWSCLEARDIFFERENCESBETWEENTHETWO.OTONLYISNITRATEACCUMULA-
tion lower in organically produced vegetables, but the ratio of protein-nitrogen to
nitrate-nitrogen is much higher (Temperli et al. 1982; Vogtmann et al. 1984).
Twenty-nine valid studies that compared the nutrient contents of organic and non-
organic foods showed significantly higher amounts of minerals, vitamins, and dry
matter in organic food (Adam 2001).
The presence or absence of harmful substances in food is still only one side of
the issue of nutritional value. Various studies have shown increased use of nitrogen
fertilizers result in not only higher levels of nitrate, but also higher levels of free
amino acids, oxalates and other undesirable compounds, as well as in lower levels
OFVITAMIN#INPARTICULAR#ALCIUMPHOSPHORUSMAGNESIUMANDSODIUMCONTENTS
are also affected by levels of fertilizer use, and so are trace elements. The use of
organic manure and appropriate soil management practices in organic agriculture
means that a much wider and more balanced range of nutrients are available to crops
THANISTHECASEWHENREADILYSOLUBLE.0+MINERALFERTILIZERISAPPLIEDANDTAKENUP
directly by the plant (see, Schuphan 1975(UNDREDSOFRIGOROUSTESTSHAVEFAILEDTO
reveal better-tasting properties or improved nutritional value, but have consistently
SHOWNTHATORGANICPRODUCEHASLOWERNITRATEANDPROTEINCONTENTS#ONVENTIONALLY
farmed food seems to be better for children, although rodents apparently favor
organic food (Trewavas 2001; Woese et al. 1997).
&OODMYCOTOXINS FROM CONTAMINATINGFUNGIWHICHCANBECONTROLLEDBY SPE-
cific fungicides) definitely contribute to European cancer rates and threaten food
SAFETY&UMONISINANDPATULINAREBOTHREPORTEDTO BE HIGHER IN ORGANIC PRODUCTS
and failure to use effective fungicides on organic farms has led to these farms
acting as repositories of disease (Lovejoy 1994; Kirchmann and Thorvaldsson 2000;
305
/RGANIC&AR MING(ISTORYAND4ECHNIQUES
Zwankhuizen et al. 1998; Eltun 1996). All the above quality characteristics can be
measured quantitatively thus providing a basis for comparison. But subjective values
will also play a major role in the consumer’s perception of quality. The main reason
of consumer’s increasing recognition of and interests in organic food is due to con-
sumer’s identification that comparing with conventional farming approaches, organic
plays a significant role in environmental protection and farming sustainability.
8 Working with Natural Cycles
In organic farming, the agro-ecosystem is considered as a whole. All living organ-
isms within the ‘farm ecosystem’ are considered to be in a dynamic equilibrium
with each other. This concept applies to crops, pests and their natural enemies, as
well as to farm animals, wildlife or microorganisms in compost and soil. It is applied
regardless of the underlying mechanisms (predator–prey relationship; parasite-host
relationship; competition for substrate, light, space etc.) (Roger 1987; Oram 2003).
The equilibrium can be influenced by appropriate management practices, which are
themselves part of the natural cycles (indirect control). This is preferable to direct
control of pests or diseases, which represents an intervention from outside the agro
ECOSYSTEM(ALD1999; Gabriel et al. 2006). In other words, the difference is whether
the farmer lets and helps nature find a new equilibrium between pests and beneficial,
ORWHETHERHEHIMSELFATTEMPTSTOCONTROLTHEPESTBYSPRAYING&ARMANIMALSAND
their health are also considered in the context of the entire farm ecosystem and the
same conclusions apply. Another implication of the principle is that all measures
taken should have as little impact on natural cycles as possible. This applies particu-
larly to effects of crop protection measures on non-target organisms, and to the
side-effects of veterinary drugs on animals, and on the environment after excretion.
This principle also emphasizes the importance of the flow of materials within the
‘farm ecosystem’, which is also the unit that is subject to inspection and certifica-
tion. Materials originating from outside the farm are called ‘off-farm inputs’ or
simply ‘inputs’. The use of inputs always means an open cycle on the farm and
should be minimized (although it can never be zero). If inputs have to be used, they
should preferably come from other organic farms, thus closing the cycle on a wider
scale (Thorup-Kristensen et al. 2003; Zehnder et al. 2007).
8.1 Soil Fertility
Organic farming also aims to maintain and improve soil fertility over the long run.
It may be expected to produce a satisfactory and high quality crop with minimal use
of resources. An organic farming system requires the use of catch crops, the recy-
cling of crop residues, the use of animal manure, and the use of organic rather than
artificial fertilizer. All these measures are assumed to promote accumulation of
306 K.K. Behera et al.
ORGANICMATTERINTHESOIL(ANSENETAL2001). Organic farming prohibits the use of
pesticides and artificial fertilizers and encourages sympathetic habitat management,
such as nitrogen building leys to increase soil fertility (Lampkin 1990). Organic
matter has profound impacts on soil quality, such as enhancing soil structure and
fertility and increasing water infiltration and storage. If the soil organic matter con-
tent drops below 3.5%, the soil suffers an increased risk of erosion (Brady and Weil
1999; Redman 1992). Stolze et al. (2000) concluded that organic farming performs
better than conventional farming with regard to soil organic matter. A major objec-
tive of organic farming is to encourage a higher level of biological activity in the
soil, in order to sustain its quality and thereby promote metabolic interactions
between the soil and plants. Axelsen and Elmholt (1998) estimated that a transition
to 100% organic farming in Denmark would increase microbial biomass by 77%,
the population of springtails by 37%, and the density of earthworms by 154% as a
NATIONWIDEAVERAGE#ONVERSIONTOORGANICFARMINGPROVIDESOPPORTUNITIESTOSIG-
nificantly increase biological activity of the soil. Microbial biomass in soil was
higher in organic farming systems receiving higher amounts of organic inputs
(Gunapala and Scow 1998; Bossio and Scow 1998; Lundquist et al. 1999).
In a long-term field trial in northwestern Switzerland, the effects of organic and
conventional land use managements on earthworm populations and on soil erodibil-
ity were investigated. The study result shows that earthworm biomass and density, as
well as the population diversity, were significantly greater in the organic plots than in
the conventional plots. Likewise, the aggregate stability of the organic plots, when
determined by means of percolation, was significantly better. Therefore, erosion sus-
ceptibility is greater on plots farmed conventionally (Siegrist et al. 1998).
8.2 Nutrient Management
.UTRIENTELEMENTSESSENTIALTOCROPGROWINGINCLUDE.0+#A-G AND SOME
trace elements. Among them, nitrogen is of great importance in organic plant grow-
INGBECAUSEOFITSINmUENCEONPLANTYIELDS4HE.CYCLINGOFANORGANICFARMSHOULD
be based mainly on a site-specific and market-oriented crop rotation including green
manure planting and on an optimized manure handling and application system.
.UTRIENTCYCLINGISRELATIVELYEFlCIENTINORGANICFARMINGSYSTEM#OBBETAL1999).
Long term rotation trials on sandy loam confirm the outstanding importance of legu-
minous fodder crops in terms of humus accumulation (26 t/ha after five courses of
a 5-year crop rotation) and continuous yield security of succeeding crops. A biennial
ALFALFACROPCOULDACCUMULATEKG.PERHAOFWHICHKGWASUSEDASANIMAL
fodder, 320 kg bound in the roots, and 80 kg calculated as loss due to volatilization
ANDDENITRIlCATION!SUBSTANTIALAMOUNTOFTHERESIDUAL.COULDBEDETERMINEDAS
ADDITIONAL. SOURCES FOR THE SUCCEEDINGCROPS2AUHEETAL1987(ODTKEET AL
(1998) reported that if maize was inter cropped with either cowpea or jack bean in
ANORGANICFARMINGSYSTEM .CONTENTINTHE LEAVESOF THEMAIZEWASSIGNIlCANTLY
increased and grain yield of the maize was markedly improved too.
307
/RGANIC&AR MING(ISTORYAND4ECHNIQUES
8.3 Role of Arbuscualr Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF)
Organic farming has developed from a wide number of disparate movements across
the world into a more uniform group of farming systems, which operate broadly
WITHIN THE PRINCIPALS OF THE )NTERNATIONAL &EDERATION OF /RGANIC !GRICULTURE
Movements (Stockdale et al. 2001). Though the exact production methods vary con-
siderably, general principals include the exclusion of most synthetic biocides and
fertilizers, the management of soils through addition of organic materials and use of
CROPROTATION )&/!-1998). The exclusion of soluble mineral fertilizers and the
very limited use of biocides in organic agriculture mean that it is reliant largely on
BIOLOGICALPROCESSESFORSUPPLYOFNUTRIENTSINCLUDINGTHERELIANCEON.2 fixation as
THEMAINSOURCEOF.2 to crops, and for protection of crops from pests and disease.
Indeed, it is one of the central paradigms of organic agriculture that an active soil
microbial community is vital for functioning of the agro ecosystem (Lampkin 1990).
7ITHINTHISPARADIGM!-&!RBUSCUALR-YCORRHIZAL&UNGI) are usually considered
to play an important role and it is assumed that they can compensate for the reduced
USEOF0FERTILIZERS'ALVEZETAL2001).
-ANYAUTHORSREPORTHIGHERLEVELSOF!-&COLONIZATIONHIGHERPROPAGULESNUM-
BERSORHIGHERDIVERSITYINORGANICFARMING(OWEVERTHEACTUALIMPORTANCEOF!-&
to the functioning of organic agro ecosystems and in particular to crop performance
REMAINSTOBEDETERMINED3OMEEVIDENCEINDICATESTHAT!-&AREINDEEDCAPABLEOF
COMPENSATING FOR LOWER INPUTS OF 0 FERTILIZER IN ORGANIC SYSTEMS +AHILUOTO AND
Vestberg (1998FOUNDTHAT!-&INANORGANICALLYMANAGEDSOILWEREASEFFECTIVEAT
INCREASINGCROPAVAILABLE0ASSUPERPHOSPHATEWASONACONVENTIONALSOIL(OWEVER
this does not always translate into higher yields even when phosphorus use effi-
ciency is higher (Ryan et al. 1994; Galvez et al. 20010ROLIlC!-&COLONIZATIONIN
organic systems may even be associated with reduced yield in some cases because
OFTHECARBONDRAINBYTHE!-&$ANNETAL1996/THERAUTHORSHAVEFOUND!-&
to be no more effective, and in some cases less effective than rock phosphate at
increasing crop growth on organically managed soils (Scullion et al. 1998). Dann
et al. (1996 SHOWED THAT EVEN WHERE THERE WAS GOOD !-& COLONIZATION ON AN
organically managed soil, crops responded positively to super phosphate fertilizer
INASIMILARWAYTOCROPSONCONVENTIONALSOILSUGGESTINGTHAT!-&DONOTPROVIDE
A UNIQUE METHOD OF ACCESSING 0HOSPHOROUS TO THE HOST PLANT A CONCLUSION ALSO
reached by Ryan and Ash (1999).
$ETERMININGTHEREASONFORTHE APPARENTLY POOR PERFORMANCE OF!-&INSOME
organic systems is difficult because organic systems vary considerably in the detail
of their management practices and the practices used prior to conversion. As a
RESULTTHEREARE LIKELY TO BEDIFFERENTREASONSFOR POOR PERFORMANCE OF !-&IN
DIFFERENTSYSTEMS ,ONGTERMCONVENTIONALHIGHINPUTMANAGEMENTREDUCES!-&
DIVERSITYANDMAYFAVOURINEFlCIENT!-&(ELGASONETAL1998; Daniell et al. 2001;
Johnson et al. 1992; Johnson 1993).
4HUSATCONVERSIONTHE!-&POPULATIONMAYBEREDUCEDTOASMALLNUMBEROF
species tolerant of intensive farming practices. Building up species diversity will be
IMPORTANTTOENSURINGTHEDEVELOPMENTOFANEFFECTIVE!-&COMMUNITY(OWEVER
308 K.K. Behera et al.
there are no available data to indicate the mechanisms involved in the re-colonization
of agricultural land, the time required, or the most effective management options to
accelerate the process. Some data have indicated that organic systems may fail to
DEVELOPANEFFECTIVE!-&COMMUNITYEVENAFTERSEVERALYEARS3CULLIONETAL1998).
4HISMAYBETHERESULTOFMANAGEMENTPRACTICESUNFAVORABLETO!-&&ORINSTANCE
SOIL0CONCENTRATIONSMAYREMAIN TOOHIGHIFTHE0FERTILIZERSPERMITTED INORGANIC
production are used frequently (Dekkers and Vander Werff 2001; Scullion et al.
1998). Excessive tillage to control weeds and frequent cultivation of non-mycorrhizal
crops could also hamper development of a diverse AM community. Unfavorable
soil moisture and temperature, and plant disease, can also suppress the AM associa-
tion and consequently community development. Another reason for the failure of
SOMEORGANICSYSTEMSTODEVELOPANEFFECTIVE!-&COMMUNITYMAYBETHELIMITED
AVAILABILITYOF!-&PROPAGULES OFNEWSPECIES 2ECOLONIZATIONISLIKELY TOOCCUR
from adjacent natural and semi-natural habitats such as hedges, woodland and
unmanaged grassland. The vectors of propagules may include animals, growing
roots, agricultural machinery and soil eroded by wind and water (Ryan and Graham
2002; Warner et al. 1987). While root growth and movement by animals is likely to
be slow and involve small numbers of propagules, tillage operations can move soil
and propagules more than a meter in a single operation, depending on the machin-
ery in question and the slope (Rew et al. 1996; Tsara et al. 2001; van Muysen and
Govers 20021UINEETAL2003). Single water erosion events can move soil several
hundred meters while wind can disperse spores very large distances as can farm
machinery. Evidence from re-colonization of abandoned agricultural land suggests
LARGENUMBERSOF!-&SPECIESCANESTABLISHAFTERONLYYEARS7ARNERETAL1987;
Morschel et al. 2004(EDLUND2002(EDLUNDAND'ORMSEN2002).
(OWEVERTHEEARLYSTAGESOFRECOLONIZATIONOFSOILSARECHARACTERIZEDBYSIGNIl-
cant heterogeneity including areas with potentially very low infectivity. This is likely
to be especially true of large fields where distance from the source of propagules may
be large, or in intensively managed landscapes, where semi-natural habitats may be
FEWINNUMBER!NOTHERFACTORTHATMAYHELPEXPLAINTHEPOORPERFORMANCEOF!-&
in some organic systems is the suggestion that modern crop cultivars are not respon-
SIVETO!-&ANDTHEREFORERECEIVELITTLEBENElTFROMTHE!-ASSOCIATIONEVENTHOUGH
COLONIZATIONWITH EFFECTIVE!-& MAY BE HIGH"OERNERETAL1996; Manske 1990;
(ETRICKETAL1996; Aguilera-Gomez et al. 1998(OWEVERAWIDEDEGREEOFVARIA-
TIONIN !-&DEPENDENCYIN BOTHMODERNANDOLDCULTIVARSHAS BEENDEMONSTRATED
Stoppler et al. (1990(ETRICKETAL1993, 1996) suggesting that this is not the only
factor. The apparent lack of benefit for the host crop may even be simply a result of
the host crop receiving benefits other than those being measured.
9 Status of Organic Crop Production in Food Security
Global food production increased by 70% from 1970 to 1995, largely due to the
application of modern technologies in developing countries, where food production
INCREASEDBY(OWEVERGLOBALFOODPRODUCTIONMUSTGROWTOTHESAMEEXTENT
309
/RGANIC&AR MING(ISTORYAND4ECHNIQUES
in the coming three decades, as pointed out above, to meet human demand (Bruinsma
2003#ASSMAN ET AL 2003; Eickhout et al. 2006). Two principal possibilities for
achieving this increase have been identified: intensifying agricultural production on
existing cropland or ploughing up natural land into cropland, i.e. clearing pastures
and rangelands, cutting forests and woodland areas, etc. Some experts have a posi-
tive view that food production can be greatly increased if high-yielding production
is widely applied and the expansion of arable land in the world is expected to only
slightly increase from 1,400 Mha in 2006 to 1,600 Mha in 2030 (Bruinsma 2003;
&!/2007; Bouwman et al. 2005). In 2025, the world’s farmers will be expected to
produce an average world cereal yield of about 4 metric tons per hectare if condi-
tions are optimized. There are recent claims that sufficient food can be produced by
organic agriculture, expressed in terms such as ‘organic agriculture can feed the
world (Dyson 1999; Woodward 1995; Vasilikiotis 2000; Leu 2004; Tudge 2005;
"ADGLEYAND0ERFECTO2007). The following three arguments have been put forward:
(i) Lower production of most crops can be compensated for by increased production
of legumes, in particular of grain legumes, while a change to a diet based mainly
on vegetables and legumes will provide enough food for all (Woodward 1995).
(ii) Realities in developing countries must be taken into account: Increased food
SUPPLY DOES NOT AUTOMATICALLY MEAN INCREASED FOOD SECURITY FOR ALL 0OOR AND
hungry people need low-cost and readily available technologies and practices to
INCREASEFOODPRODUCTION0RETTYETAL2003). (iii) Organic agriculture can get the
food to the people who need it and is therefore the quickest, most efficient, most
cost-effective and fairest way to feed the world (Leu 2004). These arguments
confuse the original scientific question with other realities interacting with food
sufficiency, such as change in dietary composition, poverty, finance, markets, dis-
TRIBUTIONSYSTEMETC(OWEVERTHEBASICSCIENTIlCQUESTIONREMAINSANDREQUIRESA
stringent review and evaluation of the production potential of organic and conven-
tional systems. A fundamental question is whether organic yields can be increased
radically or whether more natural ecosystems have to be converted into cropland.
The following four observations indicate that intensification rather than area expan-
sion is necessary:
(1) Agricultural land is steadily decreasing as it is being taken over for urban or
industrial use (Blum et al. 2004), (2) global warming may reduce the potential for
HIGHERYIELDSINLARGEPARTSOFTHEWORLD0ARRYETAL2005), (3) significant areas of
farmland may be used for fuel production, competing with food production
.ONHEBEL2005) and (4) cropland simply cannot be expanded, due to shortage of
suitable land. On the other hand, current yield increases appear to be falling below
the projected rate of increase in demand for cereals challenging scientists to do their
BESTTOINCREASECROPPRODUCTIVITYPERUNITAREA#ASSMANETAL2002; Evans 1998).
&OODPRODUCTION IS COUPLED TO A MORAL IMPERATIVEAS SUFlCIENT FOOD SUPPLY IS A
cornerstone of human welfare. Development of agricultural practices ensuring food
sufficiency is a basic human requirement, a prerequisite for satisfactory social
conditions and a necessity for civilizations to flourish. Lack of food, on the other
hand, is a tragedy leading not only to suffering and loss of life but also to inhuman
behavior, political instability and war (Borlaug 1970). In fact, eradication of
famine and malnutrition has been identified as the most important task on Earth
310 K.K. Behera et al.
5. -ILLENNIUM 0ROJECT 2005). Thus, when discussing different forms of crop
production, it is of the utmost importance to examine without prejudice the forms of
agriculture that can contribute to food sufficiency and security, at present and in the
future. Separation of facts and wishful thinking is absolutely necessary and only an
unbiased review of the scientific literature can provide objective answers to the
questions put forward below. A strong belief and enthusiasm for certain solutions
cannot be allowed to hamper the search for objectivity. The overall aim of this chapter
was to examine a morally important aspect of organic agriculture. This was achieved
by examining the following questions:
 #ANSUFlCIENTCROPPRODUCTIONBEOBTAINED THROUGHCONVERSIONTOANDOR INTRO-
duction of organic production?
 #ANFUTUREFOODDEMANDBECOVEREDBYORGANICAGRICULTURE
3. Is it possible to significantly increase organic yields in the future
10 Yield Attributes of Organic Farming
A review by Badgley et al. (2007) points out that organic agriculture is misjudged
concerning crop production and its potential to supply sufficient food. According
to their review, only small yield reductions occur through organic agriculture in
developed countries, but organic yields are higher than conventional yields in
developing countries. This conclusion is supported by a large number of other
papers, which may be taken as evidence of its scientific reliability. We re-examined
the papers cited by Badgley et al. (2007) to determine whether their conclusions
AREBASEDON VALIDASSESSMENTS (OWEVERDUE TO THEIR LIMITED ACCESSIBILITYAND
often lower scientific credibility, non-peer-reviewed conference papers, institu-
tion reports and magazine articles were not considered. The reexamination of
papers reporting high organic yields showed that the data were used in a biased
WAYRENDERINGTHECONCLUSIONSmAWED&IRSTLYNONEOFTHE ORGANICSTUDIESCITED
reported higher crop output from organic production than from conventional over
a whole rotation, but only for single years. Secondly, when yields were higher
during a single year in organic production, this was coupled to one or both of the
following conditions: (1) The amount of nutrients applied to the organic system
through manure and compost was equal to or even higher than that applied to the
conventional system through inorganic fertilizers, (2) non-food crops (legumes)
WEREGROWNAND INCORPORATED IN THEPRECEDING YEAR TOPROVIDETHE SOIL WITH.
Thirdly, on-farm data were compared with mean yield data within a region. Such
comparisons have no validity, since the possible factors behind the differences
are not given.
In summary, the yield data reported were misinterpreted and any calculations
based on these data are likely to be erroneous. The paper by Badgley et al. (2007)
ALSOPRESENTSCOMPREHENSIVEYIELDlGURESFROMDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES(OWEVEROF
THE YIELDlGURESREPORTED ORIGINATEFROMTHESAMEPAPER 0RETTYAND(INE
311
/RGANIC&AR MING(ISTORYAND4ECHNIQUES
2001). A closer inspection revealed that crop yields were based on surveys and
there was no possibility to check crop performance variables and the science behind
the data. In fact, only six papers for developing countries cited by Badgley et al.
(2007) were derived from peer-reviewed journals. In four papers, rice yields in con-
ventional systems were compared with so-called intensified rice production.
(OWEVER INTENSIlED RICE PRODUCTION USES MINERAL FERTILIZERS ALTHOUGH AT LOWER
rates, and is not an organic form of agriculture by European standards (Sheehy et al.
2004; Latif et al. 2005).
Our conclusion is therefore that the argument that organic agriculture can
produce similar or even higher yields than conventional does not hold given the
boundary conditions outlined above.
11 Trends in Organic Crop Yields
Yield trends over time were analyzed in four Swedish comparative studies to deter-
mine the potential to increase production through organic and conventional man-
agement. The underlying question is whether yields are following the same trends
in organic agriculture as in conventional. In the study by Kirchmann et al. (2007),
the initial 10-year period was characterized by a relatively constant yield differ-
ence between the organic and conventional system. Thereafter, yields increased in
both systems but the increase was larger in the conventional system than in the
organic, despite higher additions of animal manure to the organic system. In two
other studies without animal manure which used green manure for organic produc-
tion and fertilizer for conventional, the relative yield differences between systems
were much larger (Torstensson et al. 2006; Aronsson et al. 2007&URTHERMORENO
yield increase was observed in the organic system over the 5–6-year experimental
period, where as conventional yields increased in one experiment and remained
constant in the other. In studies without animal manure, there is good reason to
assume that organic yields barely increase over the longer term, as residual soil
NUTRIENTSARE DEPLETEDATFASTERRATESTHANINSTUDIESWITH MANUREAPPLICATION&OR
instance, in relatively fertile soils, a decade or more may be needed before residual
soil nutrients are sufficiently exhausted for a yield reduction to become apparent
(Denison et al. 2004). In another experiment run for 12 years at a fertile site, each
crop in the rotation was grown every year and animal manure was applied in rela-
tion to the level of nutrient removal by harvested crops (Ivarson and Gunnarsson
2001). Differences between organic and conventional yields were smaller at this
SITEINPARTICULARFORFORAGECROPS(OWEVERTHEREWERENOINDICATIONSTHATORGANIC
yields would increase more or decrease less over time than conventional yields.
Based on the four experiments presented above, we conclude that there is no
evidence that yields increase more in organic agriculture than in conventional.
(OWEVERTHEREISEVIDENCETHATCONVENTIONALAGRICULTUREHASAGREATERCAPACITYFOR
increased yields than organic agriculture.
312 K.K. Behera et al.
12 Global Scale Food Production
In summary, this review shows that the reduction in crop yields through large-scale
conversion to organic agriculture would, on average, amount to 40%, with a range
of variation of 25–50%. A 40% reduction in yield on a global scale is equivalent to
the amount of crops required by 2.5 billion people. This estimate is in fact identical
to that calculated by Smil (2001), who assessed the role of industrial nitrogen
fixation for global food supply. Smil (2001, 2002CONCLUDEDTHATTHE(ABER"OSCH
process for industrial fixation of atmospheric nitrogen provides the very means of
survival for 40% of humanity and that only half of the current world population
could be supported by pre-fertilizer farming, even with a mainly vegetarian diet.
The similarity of these estimates confirms the strategic role of fertilizers as a
keystone for the well-being and development of mankind. It is obvious that world-
wide adoption of organic agriculture would lead to massive famine and human
death. This is something that advocates of organic agriculture are silent about,
perhaps because of the severe moral dilemma it poses.
13 Restoration of Biodiversity
Organic agriculture relies largely on locally available resources and is dependent
upon maintaining ecological balance, developing biological processes to their opti-
mum and respecting natural evolution processes of plants, animals, and landscapes.
Organic agriculture, which provides more habitats for various organisms, has a
much higher biodiversity potential than conventional farming systems do (Redman
1992; Mander et al. 1999).Organic agriculture is also committed to conservation of
biodiversity within the agricultural system, both from a philosophical perspective
and from the practical viewpoint of maintaining productivity. Biological pest con-
trol on organic farms, for example, relies on maintaining healthy populations of pest
predators. By adopting a crop rotation system, in time (over several years rotations)
or in space (through intercropping or by growing several different crops on a hold-
ing at any onetime), the build up of harmful pests and disease can be reduced and
biodiversity increased (Stolton et al. 2000; Zhu et al. 2000; Jackson 1997).
In recent years, researches have been carried out on organic agriculture’s effects
on biodiversity (Youngberg et al. 1984; Isart and Llerena 1996; Whalen et al. 1998;
&EBERETAL1997, 1998#HAMBERLAINETAL1999; Van Elsen 2000(AASETAL2001).
Many investigations show positive effects of organic farming on the diversity of arable
field plants. In organically farmed fields, the density and species diversity of the
WEEDmORAISLARGERTHANINCONVENTIONALMANAGEDlELDS&OREXAMPLEATBOTH%NGLISH
and Danish locations, about five times as much weed biomass, 2.4–5.3 times
greater weed density, significantly greater species diversity was found in the former
THANINTHE LATTER (ALDAND 2EDDERSEN 1990). These effects on the weed flora are
primarily the result of the ban on herbicides in organic farming (Reddersen 1999).
313
/RGANIC&AR MING(ISTORYAND4ECHNIQUES
#OMPAREDTOCONVENTIONALFARMSnTIMESMOREINDIVIDUALBIRDSGREATERNUMBERS
of earthworms and biomass; more individuals species of spiders; more non-pest
species of butterflies were found on organic farms (Braae et al. 1988; Whalen et al.
1998&EBERETAL1997, 1998; Krebs et al. 1999#HAMBERLAINETAL1999). Mander
et al. (1999) showed that organic agriculture had a large positive impact on biological
and landscape diversity. The diversity (population or species or individuals) of
vascular plants, different invertebrate groups and birds was 0.5–20 times higher on
ORGANICTHANONCONVENTIONALFARMS#OBBETAL1999) captured significantly more
butterflies and spiders, in terms of both individuals and species, from the organic
than the conventional fields. It was also found that in contrast to the conventional
management system, the populations of endangered species in organic fields were
considerably higher (Albrecht and Mattheis 1998). Through crop rotations in
organic farming encourages diversity at the landscape scale. Such retention of a
diversity of habitats renders obvious benefits on local wildlife populations (Edwards
AND (OWELLS 2001). On the other hand, sometimes conversion shows only small
benefits to species diversity because of a long history of mechanical weeding and
the use of herbicides before conversion (Albrecht and Mattheis 1998). Kleijn et al.
(2001) found no positive effects on plant and bird species diversity infields where
farmers were paid to delay mowing or grazing, and to reduce the amount of fertil-
izer they used. The four most common wader species were observed even less fre-
quently on those fields. By contrast, hoverflies and bees showed modest increases in
species richness. Birds actually seemed to prefer intensively farmed fields possibly
because reduction in fertilizer use led to smaller invertebrate populations and so less
FOODFOR BIRDS &URTHERMORE IT IS ALSO OFTEN OVERLOOKEDTHAT SOME CONVENTIONAL
MIXED FARMING CAN MAINTAIN SPECIES DIVERSITY &OR EXAMPLE CONVENTIONAL MIXED
farming in smaller plots (providing more field margins) or farming based on the
traditionally system (for example under sowing wheat with legumes) maintains con-
ventional yields and low costs. The benefits for wildlife equal those provided by
ORGANICFARMINGBUTATAFARLOWERCOSTTOTHECONSUMER(,3#%#1999(OWEVER
it can be argued that agriculture has, to a certain extent, responsibility for all species
and communities which co-evolved with farming over 10,000 years irrespective
their utility (Wood and Lenné 1999).
14 Linkage to Rural Economy
More recently, researchers have focused their attention to evaluate the efficacy of
organic farming in the rural economy and specifically, the potential for organic
farming to contribute to rural development (Darnhofer 2005; Marsden et al. 2002;
0UGLIESE 2001). In this context it is frequently argued that organic farming can
promote much employment in rural areas and thus contribute to rural development
by reducing the wide gap between rich and poor (Morison et al. 2005; Smith and
Marsden 2004; Midmore and Dirks 2003(IRD1997). Despite these claims, it has
been also argued that research on the wider “social impacts of organic farming is
314 K.K. Behera et al.
very limited” (Morris et al. 2001). Significantly, Smith and Marsden (2004) have
argued that considering organic farming as a panacea for the problems of “rural
economic development has to be seriously qualified by examining particular types
of overall supply chain dynamics which are operating in particular types of organic
sectors indifferent local, regional and national settings”. In parallel with the growth
of, and interest in, the organic sector, ‘local food’ has also taken on increased eco-
nomic, environmental and symbolic importance. Much of this is concerned with
reducing environmental costs, particularly food miles, but also a desire to increase
local economic multipliers and contribute to the reconnection linkage of farmers
ANDCONSUMERS#RANBROOK2006; Ilbery and Maye 20050RETTYETAL2005). It has
also been suggested that patterns of increased local food purchases, rather than
revealing a strong turn to quality and locally produced organic food, actually points
to a politics of “defensive localism” (Winter 2003). Although organic produce is not
necessarily ‘local’ (even locally supplied organic boxes may not contain exclusively
locally produced food), and local produce does not equate with organic, there is
never the less a perceived close alliance between local food and organic food move-
MENTS&ORINSTANCEALTHOUGHTHEMAJORITYOFORGANICSALESVIASUPERMARKETSSALES
through direct routes, such as local box schemes, rose by 53% between 2005 and
2006 (Soil Association 2007 #OMBINING A GREATER DEGREE OF LOCALNESS IN FOOD
sourcing with increased organic production would lead to considerable savings
ASSOCIATED WITH THE REDUCTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXTERNALITIES 0RETTY ET AL 2005).
Where as the economic and social benefits of reducing negative externalities and
increasing positive externalities have long been recognized, the renewed research
focus on the ‘local economy’ and interactions, clusters and networks within it may
point to a role for organic farming and local food in developing and sustaining local
economies(Winter and Rushbrook 2003#ERTAINLYWRITERSSUCHAS 6ANDER0LOEG
and Renting (2000) have suggested that the operators of farm businesses have par-
ticular advantages to bring to the process of rural development, while Renting et al.
(2003a; b) have demonstrated aggregate benefits in terms of additional net value
added stemming from a number of “short food supply chains” (including organics
and direct sales) and Smithers et al. (2008) pointed to the benefits of retaining a
greater proportion of farming and food expenditure within the local economy.
Similarly, in discussing the multiple rationales associated with the promotion of
locally sourced organically produced food. Seyfang (2006) argues that such food
supply chains can, amongst other things, favour new socially embedded economies
of place and make a significant contribution to rural development by giving farmers
greater control of their market and retaining a greater proportion of food spend in
the local economy. The assumed localized nature of organic food and associated
SOCIALANDECONOMICBENElTSARENOTUNCONTESTED&ORINSTANCE#LARKEETAL2008)
have recently commented on the “supposedly localized nature of organic food” and
called for more critical and reflexive accounts of what it is organic food networks
can do for us. Against the background of claims concerning the rural development
potential of farmers generally and organic farming in particular, Building on a meth-
ODOLOGY DEVELOPED BY (ARRISON 1993 AND MODIlED BY %RRINGTON AND #OURTNEY
(2000) emphasized the socio-economic linkages associated with different types of
farming and also evidence of social embedded ness of the principal farmer.
315
/RGANIC&AR MING(ISTORYAND4ECHNIQUES
14.1 Rural Economies Versus Organic Farming
&ORMOST PURPOSESTHETERM@RURAL ECONOMY IS A SHORTHAND WAYOFCONSIDERINGA
range of ‘economies’ rather than discussing a discrete, unified and homogenous
economy (Winter and Rushbrook 2003). These various economies may share similar
characteristics but may also be quite different in terms of economic linkages with
the wider economy and reliance on different sectors, for instance. The shift in rural
policy towards more of a territorial focus and the growing policy emphasis on
regional and local sustainable economic development is associated with the devel-
OPMENTOFRESEARCHADDRESSINGINTERACTIONSWITHIN@LOCALECONOMIES&OREXAMPLE
WRITERSSUCHAS#OURTNEYETAL2007#OURTNEYAND%RRINGTON2000) have consid-
ered economic linkages between businesses and localities. Analysis of purchase and
sales links provides a method of exploring the extent to which farms (or indeed, any
business) of different types are connected to local economies. There are a number
of ways of approaching the concept of economic connectivity. Earlier studies of
economic linkages (focused on the proportions of sales and purchases by businesses
WITHIN CERTAIN LOCALITIES #URRAN AND "LACKBURN 1994 WHEREAS (ARRISON 1993)
extended the approach to include the monetary values of sales and purchases.
#LEARLY THE LOCAL ECONOMIC IMPACT OF A FARMWHETHER IT IS ORGANIC OR NOT GOES
beyond the employment issues (Bateman et al. 1993).
15 Challenges of Sustainable Agriculture
There are several challenges that must be overcome to achieve sustainable agricul-
TURE IN !SIA &IRST !SIAN COUNTRIES MUST IMPOSE RESTRICTIONS ON ENVIRONMENTALLY
damaging activities, review the ways they go about development, and create ways to
SUPPORTTHE DEVELOPMENTAND DEPLOYMENTOFECOFRIENDLYTECHNOLOGIES &OREXAM-
ple, pesticide damage must be addressed by quickly teaching farmers how to prop-
erly use the chemicals, by carrying out comprehensive registration and management,
and by banning or regulating hazardous pesticides. To address the problem of
unsuitable irrigation schemes, it is imperative that small-scale environmentally
compatible projects be implemented in place of standardized large-scale projects
THATIGNORELOCALENVIRONMENTALCONDITIONS0ROMOTINGTHEDEVELOPMENTOF)0-AND
other agro ecological technologies is also essential (Marsden et al. 20000OTTERAND
Burney 2002)0REREQUISITESFORTHESEINITIATIVESARESUPPORTFORTHETRANSITIONTOECO
friendly farming, and the reevaluation of public research agencies, which should
take the lead in developing basic technologies because these are not considered
IMPORTANTINCOMMERCIALDEVELOPMENTBYBUSINESSES5.$02003(OLZSCHUHETAL
2007). Second is enhanced monitoring of agribusiness, which is the primary entity
behind the internationalization of agro-food issues, and international growth man-
agement for agriculture- and food-related trade and investment of export-oriented
agriculture, and the internationalization of trade and investment have expanded rap-
idly, but the flip side is trans border environmental damage. As in the conventions
316 K.K. Behera et al.
on prior informed consent and persistent organic pollutants and the resource
management project for shrimp farming (Wood et al. 2006(OLEETAL2005). There
is a growing necessity to create an Asian system—with the same level of regulatory
measures as those in other parts of the world, that can formulate business codes of
conduct and environmental conventions in order to internationally control the cha-
otic development of agribusiness, and that can use capital investment returns to
benefit local environmental conservation. An international framework like this and
action based on it would make it possible to steer the growth of trade and investment
in a sustainable direction. Asian governments must also reevaluate their agricultural
policy in connection with food imports. Some countries have become dependent on
imports for basic foods because of their policy emphasis on industrialization or
production for export, but since the Asian economic crisis some Southeast Asian
countries have a renewed awareness about the importance of food security. Under
the WTO system, domestic policies cannot be adequately implemented due to limi-
tations imposed from above on protecting domestic agriculture, but the sustainable
development of agriculture and food production is indispensable to attain food
SOVEREIGNTY0RETTYETAL20050UGLIESE2001). Third is bringing together the actors
WHOWILL ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTUREAND FOOD PRODUCTION &IXING THECURRENT
agro-food system, which is the cause of environmental damage and food uncer-
tainty, requires that governments switch to eco-friendly policies that protect agricul-
ture, receive the support of international agencies, and regulate and monitor
agribusiness. But such policies will become reality only through collaboration
AMONG.'/SFARMERSORGANIZATIONSLABORUNIONSCOOPERATIVESANDOTHERENTITIES
as they raise questions and exercise their influence toward creating that policy.
#ONSUMERSHAVETORETHINKTHEIRLIFESTYLESANDHOWEXCESSIVEFOODCONSUMPTIONAND
IMPORTS AFFECT THE ENVIRONMENT 0RODUCERS MUST TAKE ADVANTAGE OF BOTH MODERN
environmental science and traditional local knowledge while working toward eco-
friendly farming and local resource management. It would be the first step toward
achieving the development of sustainable agriculture in which both farmers and
consumers take the initiative in cooperating globally and locally (Allan and Kovach
2000#OURTNEYETAL2006; Lamine and Bellon 2009).
15.1 Advantages of Organic Farming
1. The economics of organic farming is characterized by increasing profits via
reduced water use, nutrient-contamination by pesticides, reduced soil erosion
and carbon emissions and increased biodiversity.
2. Organic farming produces the same crop variants as those produced via conven-
tional farming methods, but incurs 50% lower expenditure on fertilizer and
energy, and retains 40% more topsoil.
3. This type of farming effectively addresses soil management. Even damaged soil,
subject to erosion and salinity, are able to feed on micro-nutrients via crop rota-
tion, inter-cropping techniques and the extensive use of green manure.
317
/RGANIC&AR MING(ISTORYAND4ECHNIQUES
 &ARMINGTHEORGANICWAYENABLESFARMERSTOGETRIDOFIRKSOMEWEEDSWITHOUTTHE
USEOFANYMECHANICALANDCHEMICALAPPLICATIONS0RACTICESSUCHASHANDWEEDING
and soil enhancement with mulch, corn gluten meal, garlic and clove oil, table
salt and borax not only get rid of weeds and insects, but also guarantee crop
quality.
5. The use of green pesticides such as neem, compost tea and spinosad is environ-
mentally friendly and non-toxic. These pesticides help in identifying and
removing diseased and dying plants in time and subsequently, increasing crop
defense systems.
15.2 Disadvantages of Organic Farming
1. In 1998, increased risk of E. coli infection via consumption of organic food
RATHER THAN NONORGANIC FOOD WAS PUBLICIZED BY $ENNIS !VERY OF THE (UDSON
Institute.
 !  SURVEY AND STUDY CONDUCTED BY THE 5. %NVIRONMENTAL0ROGRAM CON-
cluded that organic methods of farming result in small yields even in developing
areas, compared to conventional farming techniques.
 4HE&ATHEROFTHE-ODERN'REEN2EVOLUTION.ORMAN"ORLAUGARGUESTHATWHILE
organic farming practices are capable of catering to the demands of a very small
consumer fraction, the expanding cropland is dramatically destroying world
ecosystems.
 2ESEARCH CONDUCTEDBYTHE$ANISH %NVIRONMENTAL0ROTECTION!GENCYREVEALED
that organic farms producing potatoes, seed grass and sugar beet are barely able
to produce half of the total output churned out from conventional farming
practices.
5. Organic agriculture is hardly able to address or combat global climate change.
Though regenerative organic farming practices are recognized as effective strate-
GIESFORREDUCING#/EMISSIONSTOANEXTENTTHEIMPACTISNOTDRAMATIC
16 Conclusion
This chapter has focused on agricultural sustainability, and its relationship to vari-
ous alternative agricultural approaches. It has, quite deliberately, not offered any
new definitions of sustainability or sustainable agriculture. Sustainable practices
will vary both temporally and spatially and can only truly be identified in retrospect.
It is not simply a question of tools and inputs, but the context in which they are used.
&ARMINGMEANT MANYDIFFERENTTHINGS TOMANYDIFFERENTPEOPLE hITSLACKOFSPECIlC
definition allowed many of us to associate it with certain important characteristics of
scale, locality, control, knowledge, nutrition, social justice, participation, grower/eater
318 K.K. Behera et al.
relationships and the connections with schools and communities”. Duesing goes on
TOCONTRASTTHISWITHTHECURRENTSITUATION(EARGUESTHATTHESEDESIRABLEFOODSYSTEM
characteristics seem threatened as the definition of organic farming and food is nar-
rowed to a set of standards which deal with growing and processing methods. The
exclusively organic standards become established in an increasing number of coun-
tries, and these standards become more co-ordinate and integrated, the degree to
which the organic producer and organic consumer may be geographically separated
GROWS&URTHERMORETHETRADEINORGANICFARMINPUTSMAYALSOGROWWITHORGANIC
producers having the option of buying in mulch or organic fertilizers from distant
sources. There may be doubts regarding the sustainability of the systems which
have generated these purchased inputs. In addition, organic producers may be skep-
tical of such developments because they farm in this way to escape from many
aspects of the global trade in food stuffs, and aim to produce for local markets
because of concern regarding the energy deficiency implications of such a trade in
ORGANICPRODUCTS0RODUCERSTRADERSANDCONSUMERS OFORGANICFOODREGULARLYUSE
the concept of the natural naturalness to characterize organic agriculture and or
ORGANICFOODIN CONTRAST TO THEUNNATURALNESS OF CONVENTIONALAGRICULTURE #RITICS
sometimes argue that such use lacks any rational of scientific basis and only refers
to sentiment. The organic agriculture movement had its roots in a philosophy of life
and not in the agricultural science (Kirchmann, 1994). A common belief within the
organic movement is that natural products are good, whereas man-made chemicals
are bad or at least not as good as natural ones. This idea may also be used to explain
why organic farming avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides etc. In any
case, one fundamental reason for increasing interests in organic agriculture is due to
the requirements and attention of health, environmental protection, and food safety.
This paper shows that organic agriculture has obvious environmental benefits. The
basic standards of organic farming provide suitable tools to minimize environmen-
TALPOLLUTIONANDNUTRIENTLOSSESONTHEFARMLEVEL(OWEVERTHEREISAHIGHVARIABILITY
within organic farms in relation to their efforts and their nutrient efficiency.
#ONCERNINGSOIL FERTILITY AND NUTRIENT MANAGEMENTCOMPARATIVESTUDIES SHOWTHAT
organic farming is suited to improve soil fertility and nutrient management mark-
edly on the farm level. With reference to biodiversity, organic agriculture is commit-
ted to conservation of biodiversity within agricultural systems. Research projects
have accumulated evidence that organic systems are beneficial to biodiversity. In
relation to product quality, there is no sufficient evidence for a system-related effect
ON PRODUCT QUALITY DUE TO THE PRODUCTION METHOD 0RODUCT QUALITY IS PRIMARILY A
function of farm management, showing a high variability in both organic and con-
ventional production. Organic farming emphasizes integrated strategies, rather than
individual control methods, both in crop protection and animal husbandry. Biological
CONTROL METHODS MAY BE COMPONENTS OF SUCH STRATEGIES #ONSERVATION BIOLOGICAL
CONTROLANDTHEUSEOFPREDATORSANDPARASITESAREFAVOUREDMETHODS(OWEVERON
native predators and parasites should only be used if this causes no threat to the
native fauna. The use of microbial control agents is also possible, but is not favoured
by the major regulations and standards. In the authors’ personal view, the use of
microbial control agents can be preferable to the use of plant or mineral derived
319
/RGANIC&AR MING(ISTORYAND4ECHNIQUES
pesticides, incases in which this causes less side-effects on the environment.
In contrast, the use of genetically modified biological control agents is not allowed.
Strategies for organic crop protection are available for a few crops, but are still lacking
for many others. Strategies for control of diseases and parasites in organic animal
husbandry are even scarcer. In conclusion, there is a need for research in organic
crop protection and animal husbandry practices including, but not limited to,
biological control methods. So, from the different aspect of the present reviewed
paper, it is clear that organic farming is practical proposition for sustainable agriculture
if adequate attention is paid to this issue. There is urgent need to involve more and
more scientists to identify the thrust area of research for the development of
eco-friendly production technology.
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#OURTNEY0(ILL'2OBERTS$4HEROLEOFNATURALHERITAGEINRURALDEVELOPMENTANANALYSIS
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... Many basic (green) technologies have their origins in the late 19th century. Examples are the emergence of RET, EVs and organic food (Behera et al., 2012;Belz, 2004;Høyer, 2008;Bouamane, 2011, 2012;Ma and Sauerborn, 2006;Neukirch, 2009). 3 Early deployment took place in niche markets characterized by very specific consumer preferences or governmental procurement programs. ...
... Prices, political support and regulation were key drivers of a new surge of entrepreneurial and innovative activities in RET andEV technology (Geels et al., 2011, 2016;Høyer, 2008;Bouamane, 2011, 2012;Popp, 2019;Popp et al., 2010). Parallels can be found in the history of organic farming but the dynamics were to a larger extent driven by changing consumer preferences reflected in a higher willingness to pay and incrementally in regulations, support policies, labels and standardization (Behera et al., 2012;Belz, 2004;Lockeretz, 2007;Ma and Sauerborn, 2006;Reganold and Wachter, 2016). ...
Thesis
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Climate change is an existential threat but mitigation action is slow. This thesis searches an economic explanation for the sluggishness of technological change and searches for strategies how the transition to low-carbon technologies can be facilitated. Based on a theory of technological capabilities and learning, the thesis begins with an analysis of diffusion barriers. Using the agent-based macroeconomic model Eurace@unibi-eco, it is shown that the accumulation of technology specific knowledge can be a source of path dependence. Technological uncertainty can be macroeconomically costly if learning and R&D resources are wasted for a technology type that is obsolete in the long run. I demonstrate that the effectiveness of diffusion policies is dependent on the type and strength of diffusion barriers. In the next part, it is analyzed how the transferability of technological knowledge across technology types affects adoption decisions of individual firms. I introduce the microfoundations of a model of technological learning. In a simulation experiment, it is shown that the transferability may have ambiguous effects. A high transferability accelerates the diffusion in the beginning but it comes with the cost of technological uncertainty and retarded specialization in the long run. Finally, these theoretical concepts are embedded in a general characterization of competing technologies. This characterization reflects the properties of technology in given socio-technical, external circumstances and the relative maturity of an emergent entrant technology. I show how the characteristics of competing technologies can explain the shape of emerging transition pathways and discuss empirical examples. Policy may change the external conditions of the technology race. In an experiment, it is shown that the performance of different policy instruments depends on the properties of competing technologies.
... In most cases, green revolution approaches like increased use of artificial agrochemicals such as fertilizers and insecticides, implementation of mineral-responsive, productive crop genotypes, and improved exploitation of irrigation potentials have increased production output. Changes in soil responses, growth of mineral imbalances/shortage, harm to soil vegetation and animals, reduction in the activity of earthworm, decrease in soil humus/ organic matter, and altering atmosphere, reduction in soil productivity ventilation, and water holding capacity are all consequences of the improper way out and incessant use of these intense energy inputs [8]. The research found that over-use of chemical fertilizers and their continuous application is very concerned about the health and environmental risks, and farmers are urged to turn their prevailing farms into organic farming in developed countries. ...
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The most pressing concern in the world since independence has been producing enough food to feed an expanding population. The mix of high-yielding production techniques has helped the globe to generate a food surplus while also raising wor-ries about soil health and environmental pollution. Though, scientists and policy makers are rethinking agricultural systems that rely heavily on biological inputs. Organic farming can provide high-quality food without compromising the health of the land or the environment; nevertheless, it is unclear if large-scale organic farming would be able to feed world’s vast population. Adoption of this emerging approach “organic vegetable farming” plays a vital role in development of agricul-tural sustainability through avoiding indiscriminate use of synthetic chemicals. There are numerous organic sources for organic vegetable farming but various type of composts (especially vermi-compost) and biochar are most famous among all other organic sources as they improved soil healthy and vegetables productions through improving soil physico-chemical and biological attributes. In addition, demand and prices of organically produced vegetables are much higher in market and evidence showed that organically grown vegetables are enriched with nutrients and safe for consumption because of their less exposure with residues of in-organic pesticides. Keywords: organic farming, sustainable agriculture, organic vegetables,
... At this stage , stage three), we witnessed the first system of organic food certification being developed, the emergence of the organic sector and growth of demand for organic food in the 1960s and 1970s, the foundation of international organic organizations such as IFOAM in 1972 and Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) in 1973 and the development of organic standards and a legal basis for organic production by the world's countries. As a result, the global organic food market began to form (1990-today, stage four) due to the implementation of a legal basis for the production and trade of organic food in the USA, EU countries, Australia, Japan, etc.; the development of state programs for organic production support; a dynamic increase in the number of organic farms, importers and exporters of organic produce; the appearance of organic assortments in traditional channels of distribution and the foundation of trade chains' own organic trademarks; the appearance of organic agrarian cooperatives, associations and clusters; the intensification of the international organic food trade (over 180 countries); the increase in the number of organic standards (over 80 types); the widening and diversification of organic food assortments (appearance of new segments); the dynamic growth of the global organic food market ($97 billion); international trade based on equivalent agreements; the activation of mergers and takeovers in the organic sector; the digitalization of organic businesses (transparency creation); the appearance of organic services (delivery systems, agribusiness); and the introduction of organic production courses in educational institutions [33][34][35]. ...
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Considering the insufficient usage of natural resources, ecological crisis, rising population and limitations of the traditional food system in the 21st century, it is extremely important to search for methods to achieve sustainable development. In this context, the search for alternative methods of farming and the transformation of typical food consumption is relevant; the organic market and its features are of particular interest. Based on the above, this article is dedicated to understanding what the development opportunities for the production and export of Ukrainian organic products within the global market are. To achieve this objective, it became necessary to study the specificities of the dynamic growth of the global organic food market, which includes identifying the dominant factors of its development, peculiarities of its regulation, evaluation of the current state, main trends and prospects. The study provides the characteristics of the top competitors in the global market, consumer segmentation and experience of the implementation of global and national organic sector development and support programs. As a result of the study, it was found that Ukraine has unrealized export potential that can be realized using a combination of practices used abroad (the active use of marketing tools, state support for the organic sector and increasing organic production by uniting producers into clusters and creating cooperatives).
... Within the European Union, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a major driving force that influences practice in the agricultural sector (Europe Commission 2018). Grain legumes are supported under CAP within ecological focus areas, agrienvironmental schemes and greening requirements, and also promoted within organic farming (Behera et al. 2012). Despite being encouraged by these policies, Zander et al. (2016) argue that legume system development is limited by other stronger market and policy incentives, such as the policies that boost oilseed rape designated to biofuel production (European Parliament 2009). ...
Article
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Purpose There is an imperative to accurately assess the environmental sustainability of crop system interventions in the context of food security and climate change. Previous studies have indicated that the incorporation of legumes into cereal rotations could reduce overall environmental burdens from cropping systems. However, most life cycle assessment (LCA) studies focus on individual crops and miss environmental consequences of inter-annual crop sequence and nutrient cycling effects. This review investigates state-of-the-art representation of inter-crop rotation effects within legume LCA studies. Methods A literature review was undertaken, starting with a search for all peer-reviewed articles with combinations of ‘LCA’, ‘legumes’ and ‘rotations’ or synonyms thereof. In total, 3180 articles were obtained. Articles were screened for compliance with all of the following requirements: (i) reporting results based on LCA or life cycle inventory methodology; (ii) inclusion of (a) legume(s); (iii) the legume(s) is/are analysed within the context of a wider cropping system (i.e. rotation or intercropping). Seventy articles satisfying these requirements were analysed. Results and discussion We identified three broad approaches to legume LCA. Most studies involved simple attributional LCA disregarding important interactions across years and crops in rotations. N-fertilizer reduction through legume residue N carryover is either disregarded or the benefit is attributed to the following crop in such studies, whilst N leaching burdens from residues are usually attributed to the legume crop. Some studies applied robust allocation approaches and/or complex functional units to enable analysis of entire rotation sequences, accounting for nutrient cycling and break crop effects. Finally, a few studies applied consequential LCA to identify downstream substitution effects, though these studies did not simultaneously account for agronomic effects of rotational sequence changes. Conclusions We recommend that LCA studies for legume cropping systems should (i) evaluate entire rotations; (ii) represent nitrogen and ideally carbon cycling; (iii) for attributional studies, define at least two functional units, where one should encompass the multifunctional outputs of an entire rotation and the other should enable product footprints to be calculated; (iv) for CLCA studies, account for both agronomic changes in rotations and markets effects; (v) include impact categories that reflect hotspots for agricultural production.
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The present investigation was aimed to assess the best organic pest management practices in soybean and Indian rape cultivation systems in the mid‐Himalayas. Based on the preliminary laboratory assays, promising treatments were selected for field assays for three years. It was observed that Parthenium leaf extract 5% provided significantly higher pest reduction in field condition with 76.8% at 7 DAT (days after treatment) against sucking bug, Chauliops choprai infesting soybean. In case of mustard aphids (Lipaphis erysimi) infesting Indian rape, Nimbicidine 5 ml L‐1 was found superior with 61.5% pest reduction, followed by 5% seed extract of Melia azedarach at 7 DAT in field condition. Contrary to pest reduction, the pooled yield data analysis showed that among organic treatments, spraying of Nimbicidine @ 5 ml L‐1 recorded significantly superior yield over control with yield advantage of 29%, followed by M. azedarach seed extract 5% and 10%, both recording 21% yield advantage in case of soybean. Nimbicidine was also superior for Indian rape crop with yield advantage of 51%, followed by Beauveria bassiana @ 3 g L‐1 with 44% and 5% seed extract of M. azedarach with 33% yield advantage compared to control. Hence, Parthenium leaf extract 5% and Nimbicidine are recommended for effective control of C. choprai and L. erysimi infesting soybean and Indian rape, respectively. But to achieve higher yield, Nimbicidine is the best among organic management of those pests for both crops. These results suggest good organic pest management options in organic farming system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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This book is a compilation of articles produced by the participants who joined the Virtual Innovation Competition 2020 (VIC 2021). The event has been virtually contested from June to September 2021 and is organized by Association of Information Scientists (AIS), Digital Information Interest Group (DIGIT), Research, Industry & Alumni Division, Universiti Teknologi MARA Kelantan, MALAYSIA, and Society of Information System Management (SISMA). This collection consists of 74 chapters from the science and technology field. It is hope that the innovations compiled can be inspiration to all readers.
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In India approximately there are 705 registered sugar factories with annual production capacity of 180 lakh metric tonnes. India is the second largest producer of world’s sugar after Brazil and largest consumer of the world, when Indian sugar industry has produced 100 lakh tonnes of press mud and 333 lakh tonnes of bagasses with 16-76 m3 of waste water. Environmental issues in sugar manufacturing industries primarily, molasses, astewater, solid waste and its by-products. About 0.30 ton of bagasse waste is obtained from one ton of sugarcane and in press mud, 3% is obtained for the total quantity of cane crushed. The waste materials can be recycled through composting and vermicomposting process by the utilization of spent wash from the molasses and it is rich in all nutrients including micronutrients.
Chapter
Organic agriculture is a production system based on the principles of complete sustainability, which guarantees health-safe food products. The chapter's primary goal is to pinpoint all potentials and limitations that affect the development of organic farming in Serbia. To this end, the authors analyze the development of nationally available production capacities, normative framework, and organizational scheme of institutions responsible for the functioning of organic agriculture, available sources of funding, market situation, and product placement. The results of the comprehensive analysis show that despite the minor participation in the world production and trade of organic products, extremely modest share of active farms in organic production, e.g., about 1% of the total number of farms in Serbia, and the negligible percentage of organic areas in the utilized agricultural area (UAA) (0.63%), Serbia could be, according to the growth rate of the mentioned agricultural sector, referred to as one of the regional leaders. Further development of organic production in Serbia is of considerable importance from the following aspects: preservation of the health of the nation, environmental protection and natural resources, employment of young people and women in rural areas, positive impact on slowing down migration to urban areas, and strengthening of the competitiveness of national agriculture and economy, which rely on it, such as rural tourism.
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Soil-water availability is the major yield determinant of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The objective of this investigation was to study the effects of organic manures vs. inorganic fertilizers on phenological, physiological and yield parameters under drought imposed at various reproductive stages of hybrid rice cv. NDRH-2. The vulnerability of various reproductive stages to drought was ranked as: gametogenesis>anthesis>grain-filling>dough formation>post-dough formation>whole grain. Drought-caused spikelet sterility was related more to injury to palea than to lemma, though the grain growth continued even after the death of palea and/or lemma. Organic manures enhanced the survival of flag leaf (55%) and second leaf (40%) against 31% in plants inorganically fertilized; and increased the number of filled grains by reducing spikelet sterility. Drought at 10 days before anthesis up to 5 days after it proved most harmful in the inorganically fertilized soil (IFS, i.e., control) than in the organically fertilized soil (OFS, i.e., green manure, compost). The net assimilation rate (NAR) varied from 925 (green manure) to 900 mg m⁻² day⁻¹(compost) against 888 mg m⁻² day⁻¹ in the control. The relative growth rate (RGR) was 4.6 for green manure and 4.4 mg g⁻¹ day⁻¹ for compost, which were higher than the RGR for the control (4.1 mg g⁻¹ day⁻¹). Grain yields [15.9 g (green manure) to 15.4 g (compost) hill⁻¹ in OFS] were higher than the IFS grain yield (13.5 g hill⁻¹), with the harvest indices in OFS [34.4% (green manure) to 34% (compost)] being higher than that in IFS (32.2%) at 10 days before heading. Thus, the use of organic manures enhanced drought tolerance, which minimized the reduction in NAR, RGR, and spikelet sterility, thereby stabilized grain yield under drought.
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Earlier studies showed that mycorrhizal fungi selectively proliferate in soils cropped in monoculture to corn (Zea mays L.) or soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. This study evaluated whether the dominant mycorrhizal fungi, based on spore numbers present in soil, affected growth and nutrient uptake of the following crop. Plots at two locations in Minnesota with a continuous corn or continuous soybean history were planted to both corn and soybean. The relationship between spore numbers of proliferating species of mycorrhizal fungi and crop yield and nutrient concentrations were assessed using simple correlation analysis. Spore populations of mycorrhizal fungi which proliferated in corn were generally negatively correlated with the yield and tissue mineral concentrations of corn, but were positively correlated with the yield and tissue mineral concentrations of soybean. Spore populations of soybean proliferators exhibited the reciprocal relationship, although less clearly. We suggest that, compared to other fungi, proliferating VAM fungal species may be less beneficial (or perhaps detrimental) to the crop in which they proliferate. We propose a mechanism to explain how vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi could cause yield depressions associated with monoculture, and outline research needed to test this hypothesis. Contribution of the Minnesota Agric. Exp. Stn. Journal no. 19,078. Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left. Copyright © . .
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Thoroughly updated and now in full color, the 15th edition of this market leading text brings the exciting field of soils to life. Explore this new edition to find: A comprehensive approach to soils with a focus on six major ecological roles of soil including growth of plants, climate change, recycling function, biodiversity, water, and soil properties and behavior. New full-color illustrations and the use of color throughout the text highlights the new and refined figures and illustrations to help make the study of soils more efficient, engaging, and relevant. Updated with the latest advances, concepts, and applications including hundreds of key references. New coverage of cutting edge soil science. Examples include coverage of the pedosphere concept, new insights into humus and soil carbon accumulation, subaqueous soils, soil effects on human health, principles and practice of organic farming, urban and human engineered soils, new understandings of the nitrogen cycle, water-saving irrigation techniques, hydraulic redistribution, soil food-web ecology, disease suppressive soils, soil microbial genomics, soil interactions with global climate change, digital soil maps, and many others Applications boxes and case study vignettes bring important soils topics to life. Examples include “Subaqueous Soils—Underwater Pedogenesis,” “Practical Applications of Unsaturated Water Flow in Contrasting Layers,” “Soil Microbiology in the Molecular Age,” and "Where have All the Humics Gone?” Calculations and practical numerical problems boxes help students explore and understand detailed calculations and practical numerical problems. Examples include “Calculating Lime Needs Based on pH Buffering,” “Leaching Requirement for Saline Soils,” "Toward a Global Soil Information System,” “Calculation of Nitrogen Mineralization,” and “Calculation of Percent Pore Space in Soils.”
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An evaluation of wind, small mammals and grasshoppers as dispersal agents of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi (Endogonaceae) was conducted in a shrub-steppe community disturbed by strip-mining in southwestern Wyoming. Wind-dispersed VAM spores were collected on the study site with spore traps arranged in transects and in snow drifts across the site. Small mammals and grasshoppers were captured using traps and nets, respectively, and examined for the presence of VAM spores. To determine the source of the spores blown onto the study site, deposition patterns of spore mimics released from two potential source areas were assessed. Wind accounted for the movement of large numbers of spores onto the site from distances up to 2 km. Small mammals also appeared to move spores but at a lower magnitude. The importance of these vectors to the establishment of the VAM symbiosis remains to be elucidated.
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The effects of different fertilization practices on the glucose, fructose, sucrose, taste and texture of carrot cv. Nantes Duke Notabene 370 Sv were studied in field experiments carried out in southern Finland in 1985 and 1986. The effects of unirrigated and irrigated placement and broadcast fertilization, NPK fertirrigations without basic fertilization, NPK fertirrigations with NPK basic fertilization, and PK placement with N fertirrigations were compared. Further, the effects of single application were compared with those of split applications. Sugar analyses were made by high performance liquid chromatography, and sensory evaluations were performed for taste and texture. The results were analysed by contrast analysis. In 1985, fertilization and fertilization practices had no effects on sugar contents. In 1986, the unfertilized treatments had a tendency to yield higher glucose and fructose, and thus also total sugar contents than did the fertilized treatments on the average. Placement fertilization had a tendency to increase the glucose content as compared to NPK fertirrigations. No significant differences or tendencies were found in sucrose content. The glucose and fructose contents were higher in 1985 than in 1986. The sucrose content was mainly opposite, being higher in 1986.Weather conditions were more favourable for photosynthesis in 1986 than in 1985. The mean total sugar content in fresh weight was 7.8 % in 1985 and 6.7 % in 1986. Indicative results of taste and texture are presented. The sugar content in organically cultivated carrots did not differ from that of conventionally grown carrots, but the taste was worse.
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The effects of different fertilization practices on the carotene content of carrot cv. Nantes Duke Notabene 370 Sv were studied in field experiments in southern Finland. Unirrigated and irrigated placement and broadcast fertilization, NPK fertirrigations without basic fertilization, NPK fertirrigations with NPK basic fertilization, and PK placement with N fertirrigations were compared. Further, single application was compared to split applications. Carotene determinations were done at harvest in 1985 and 66, 88 and 121 (at harvest) days from sowing in 1986. The results were studied by contrast analysis. Weather conditions had a strong effect on the carotene content and in both years the carotene content increased with the length of the growing season. At harvest in 1985, PK placement with N fertirrigations had a tendency to yield a higher carotene content than did broadcast fertilization, irrigated single application, and NPK fertirrigations. The carotene content was higher when P and K were placement fertilized as compared to treatments where P and K were broadcast fertilized or fertirrigated (p = 0.1). At the first sampling date in 1986, fertilization increased the carotene content (p = 0.1). PK placement with N fertirrigations had a tendency to increase the carotene content as compared to placement fertilization, single application and irrigated single application. At the second sampling date and at harvest in 1986 no statistically significant differences could be found. The results indicate that the placement of PK-fertilizer or NPK-fertilizer was favourable to carotene production. Besides the fertilization experiment, samples from two organically cultivated fields were collected to obtain data concerning organically cultivated carrots.
Article
In a long-term crop rotation experiment set up in 1961 studies were made on the effect of 7 crop sequences and 5 fertilization treatments on the yield and yield stability of maize. The soil of the experimental area was a humous loam (type: chernozem with forest residues) slightly acidic in the ploughed layer, with poor supplies of phosphorus and good supplies of potassium. The yields were evaluated with two-factor combined variance analysis, while stability was analysed using the variance and regression methods. In a monoculture the yield of maize was lower in every case than in crop rotation. The yield-increasing effect of crop rotation was inversely proportional to the proportion of maize in the crop rotation. Averaged over the fertilizer treatments, the yield-increasing effect was greatest in the Norfolk rotation (0.929 t ha-1), followed by the alfalfa-maize-wheat triculture (0.664 t ha-1), the wheat-maize diculture (0.324 t ha-1) and the alfalfa-maize diculture (0.26 t ha-1). The effect of year and crop rotation on the fertilization treatments was significant. It can be concluded from the experimental data that the application of stable manure and crop residues (maize stalks, wheat straw), supplemented by NPK, is an efficient method of fertilizing maize. Stable manure also improves yield stability. Both the variance and regression methods of stability analysis contributed to the characterisation of the stability of the experimental treatments in different environments.