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Considering the lack of studies of the leaves of Taraxacum officinale Weber (dandelion) justifying its use as food, the present study was done to emphasize the nutritional level. The chemical composition for 100 g of dry matter was: proteins 15.48 g; ash 14.55 g; and total dietary fiber 47.80 g. Ca determination yielded a value of 695 mg and P determination yielded a value of 700 mg. The 50.74% of the unsaturated fatty acids corresponds to linolenic acid. The sample was evaluated biologically to find out the protein quality of the leaves. The following results were obtained: net protein utilization (NPU) 23, true digestibility (tD) 53, biological value (BV) 43, average food intake (I) 57 g, weight gain (P) –10 g . Weight loss can be related to the demonstrated diuretic effect of Taraxacum officinale Weber and the light laxative effect which together with the presence of an important quantity of fiber could be responsible for the fecal volume increase. The antinutrients under study were not of health risk. An acceptable protein contribution together with important amounts of dietary fiber and potassium, as well as an adequate Ca/P ratio, 1:1, approximately, that matches the levels suggested by the Recommended Dietary Allowances are emphasized by the researchers. The essential fatty acid contribution was remarkable, specially in linolenic acid. The wellknown pharmacological effects, together with the low toxicity, suggested by other authors, make this underutilized plant a good candidate for use as food source. The results of this study indicate a nutritive potential for Taraxacum officinale leaves; therefore, use in fresh salad is encouraged along with the local promotion and production of underexploited autochthonous plants, as suggested by the FAO, with the purpose of improving the nutritional condition of areas of population with poor economic resources.
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Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 58: 1–10, 2003.
© 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
Taraxacum officinale as a food source
N.L. ESCUDERO, M.L. DE ARELLANO, S. FERNÁNDEZ, G.
ALBARRACÍN and S. MUCCIARELLI
Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia,
Chacabuco y Pedernera, (5700) San Luis, Argentina (author for correspondence; e-mail:
nlesc@unsl.edu.ar)
Received 2 March 2001; accepted in revised form 12 October 2001
Abstract. Considering the lack of studies of the leaves of Taraxacum officinale Weber (dan-
delion) justifying its use as food, the present study was done to emphasize the nutritional
level. The chemical composition for 100 g of dry matter was: proteins 15.48 g; ash 14.55 g;
and total dietary fiber 47.80 g. Ca determination yielded a value of 695 mg and P determination
yielded a value of 700 mg. The 50.74% of the unsaturated fatty acids corresponds to linolenic
acid. The sample was evaluated biologically to find out the protein quality of the leaves. The
following results were obtained: net protein utilization (NPU) 23, true digestibility (tD) 53,
biological value (BV) 43, average food intake (I) 57 g, weight gain (P) –10 g . Weight
loss can be related to the demonstrated diuretic effect of Taraxacum officinale Weber and
the light laxative effect which together with the presence of an important quantity of fiber
could be responsible for the fecal volume increase. The antinutrients under study were not
of health risk. An acceptable protein contribution together with important amounts of dietary
fiber and potassium, as well as an adequate Ca/P ratio, 1:1, approximately, that matches the
levels suggested by the Recommended Dietary Allowances are emphasized by theresearchers.
The essential fatty acid contribution was remarkable, specially in linolenic acid. The well-
known pharmacological effects, together with the low toxicity, suggested by other authors,
make this underutilized plant a good candidate for use as food source. The results of this study
indicate a nutritive potential for Taraxacum officinale leaves; therefore, use in fresh salad is
encouraged along with the local promotion and production of underexploited autochthonous
plants, as suggested by the FAO, with the purpose of improving the nutritional condition of
areas of population with poor economic resources.
Key words: Antinutrients, Chemical composition, Nutritive value, Plant leaves, Taraxacum
officinale
Introduction
The wild flora of the Province of San Luis (Argentina) is well-known as being
important sources of essential minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
The leaf of Taraxacum officinale Weber, known in the region as ‘dandelion’,
has been studied chemically and nutritionally.
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Taraxacum officinale is originally from western Europe and northern Asia;
it is widely distributed through Europe, Asia, and America. It blossoms al-
most the whole year. It start growing in the autumn and is found in fields,
gardens, wild lands and by the roadsides, at altitudes ranging from sea level
to two thousand meters. It has a pivotal root; leaves sprout from the highest
end of the root at ground level, and it has a short stem. The leaves are arranged
in a rose-like manner. They are of different kinds: with dental borders, with
almost complete borders, some of them have deep dental borders which end
in the central nervation. In general Taraxacum officinale leaves lack fuzz. The
yellow blossoms are at the end of a peduncle; they are 10 to 30 cm long and
sprout from the middle of the plant. The fruit is cotton-like with many seeds
[1].
The plant grows well in the semiarid regions of the San Luis Province
and in other areas of the country. Although Taraxacum officinale Weber is
traditionally known, there are few scientific studies that justify its use as
a food. Rozycki et al. [2] have investigated nutrients in wild vegetables in
Monte Chaqueño Argentino, among them Taraxacum officinale, with relevant
results that encourage further study from a nutritional point of view.
Materials and methods
Material
The aerial part of the plant, which was collected in February, before blossom-
ing, near the city of San Luis in the wild lands with natural watering was used.
Ten kilograms of material were collected in one day. Moisture content was
determined in the fresh material immediately after collection. The remaining
material was immediately dried in an air current oven (EHR/F/I Dalvo, Ar-
gentina) at 45 C for 48 h. The dried product was ground in an electric coffee
grinder (CG-8 Stylo, 220V-50 Hz 90 W, China) and sieved through a 200 µm
nylon sieve. The prepared flour was stored in 1500 mL polyethylene (HDPE)
containers with screw-top lids at –20 C (Kohinoor Freezer, Argentina).
Chemical methods
Moisture content, ether extract and ash were determined using the AOAC
methods [3]. Crude protein, N ×6.25, was determined using the Kjeldahl
method as modified by Winkler [4]. Phosphorous was determined by a color-
imetric method [5]. Calcium was colorimetrically assayed using the chloro-
anylic acid technique [6]. Potassium and magnesium were determined by
atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Instrumentation Laboratory AA/AE
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Spectrophotometer 751). Soluble and insoluble fiber contents were determ-
ined according to Prosky [7]. The Brubacher technique [8] was used to assess
βcarotene and vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Fatty acids were extracted accord-
ing to Stanbie [9] and determined as methyl esters by gas chromatography
using a Varian 3300, 3 m packed column chromatograph (injector: 270 C;
detector FID: 270 C; initial temperature: 180 C for 2 min; final temperature:
210 C for 12 min, T: 5 C/min; nitrogen flux: N2:20 mL/min). In the deriv-
ation process, diazomethane in methyl ether [10] was used as the methylating
agent. A residue was obtained by evaporating the solution containing the
derived products under a nitrogen stream with a N2current starting from the
solution containing the derived products. The residue was dissolved in 1–2
mL of acetone and injected into the chromatograph. A standard solution was
run in parallel to identify fatty acids. The relative percentages were calculated
from the peak areas.
Antinutrient evaluation
Nitrates were determined using the method of Cataldo [11]. Hemoagglutinat-
ing activity with previous saline extraction was done according to the method
of do Prado [12] with quantification following the method proposed by Das
Gupta [13]. Tripsin inhibitors were determined using the method of Kakade
[14].
Saponins were determined by measuring hemolytic activity [15] and foam
index [16]. Hemolytic activity was evaluated using goat blood cells which
were observed for a period ranging from 30 min to 12 h. A numerical score
was used: 0 (no hemolysis within 12 h), 1 (10% hemolysis within 12 h),
2 (20–40% hemolysis within 12 h), 3 (50–90% hemolysis within 12 h), 4
(100% hemolysis within 12 h), 5 (100% hemolysis within 30 min). Values
0–2 were considered to indicate low hemolytic activity and values 3–5 were
considered indicative of high activity. The foaming index was determined
by the following procedure: about 1 g of the plant material was reduced
to a coarse powder (sieve size No 1250), weighed and transferred to a 500
mL conical flask containing 100 mL of boiling water. Moderate boiling was
maintained for 30 minutes. The solution was cooled and filtered into a 100 mL
volumetric flask and sufficient water was added through the filter to dilute the
volume to 100 mL. The above decoction was placed into 10 stoppered test-
tubes (height 16 cm, diameter 16 mm) in a series of successive portions of 1,
2, 3, up to 10 mL and the volume of the liquid in each tube was adjusted with
water to 10 mL. The tubes were stoppered and shaken in a lengthwise motion
for 15 seconds, 2 times per second. The filtrate solution was allowed to stand
for 15 minutes and the height of the foam was measured. The foaming index
was calculated as 1000/a, where a was the volume in mL of filtrate used for
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Table 1. Composition of diets (%)
Ingredients (g) Control diet Protein free diet Experimental diet
Casein (76% protein) 13.16
Taraxacum officinale leaf
flour (15.48% protein) 64.60
Corn oil 14.50 14.50 14.50
Salt mixture 5.00 5.00 5.00
Hydrosoluble vitamins 0.25 0.25 0.25
Liposoluble vitamins 0.50 0.50 0.50
Choline 0.15 0.15 0.15
Dextrin 66.44 79.60 15.00
solutions in which the foam reached 1 cm. If the foam did not reach 1 cm, the
index was reported as <100.
Biological assay
Protein quality of the Taraxacum officinale flour was measured by three dif-
ferent indices: net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (tD) and biolo-
gical value (BV) as noted by Miller & Bender [17]. Four groups of 30-day-old
Wistar rats weighing 45–50 g (±0.5 g weight difference) were used (four an-
imals per group). One group received a protein free diet, the second received
a control diet (casein), and the remaining two groups received a diet with
protein contributed by the material under study. The animals were kept in
individual, suspended cages with screen bottoms. Temperature and relative
humidity were held at 25 ±2C and 50%, respectively. Lighting was con-
trolled by alternating 12 h periods of light and darkness. All animals received
potable water and food ad-libitum for 10 days. Ingestion was recorded on
days 3, 6 and 10; weight gain was recorded at the end of the experiment. All
diets (Table 1) were prepared according to the method of Sambucetti [18]
and contained 10% protein. In the protein- free diet, dextrin was used as
a substitute. Salts, hydrosoluble and liposoluble vitamins were added in all
diets as recommended by Harper [19].
Net Protein Utilization is defined as the portion of N intake that is retained.
The formula used was:
NPU =B(BKIK)
I×100
where B is the corporal nitrogen of the experimental group; BKis the corporal
nitrogen of the group on the protein free diet; IKis the nitrogen intake of the
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group on the protein free diet; and I is the nitrogen intake in the experimental
group. Corporal nitrogen (N) was calculated by using the following equation:
Y=2.92 +0.02.X (1)
where X is the age in days of rats, and Y is calculated as:
Y=N(in gr a ms)
H2O(in gr a ms)
×100 (2)
By equating equations (1) and (2), N is calculated as:
N(in grams) =HO(2.92 +0.2X)
100
True digestibility (tD) was determined together with NPU, and was con-
sidered as the absorbed nitrogen with respect to the N intake. Unabsorbed
nitrogen was calculated by quantification of the fecal nitrogen in the lot fed
the protein free diet. The formula used was:
tD =I(F FK)
I×100
where I is the ingested nitrogen; F is the fecal nitrogen in the group that
received the experimental diet; and FKis the fecal nitrogen of the group eating
the protein free diet.
The biological value (BV) was calculated as the NPU / tD quotient.
Statistical analysis was done by Student’s ttest. Significance was accepted
at p0.05.
Results and discussion
The chemical profile, exhibited in Table 2, shows that the Taraxacum offi-
cinale Weber protein value was slightly higher than the value reported by
Bergen [20], 14.7 g% but it is lower than Beta vulgaris var. Cicla (chard)
protein value, 22.16 g%, shown in a previous study [21] done by the research-
ers. It is important to emphasize the high total fiber content, 47.80 g/100g,
with a soluble/insoluble ratio of 61. The results show that this plant can be
used as a source of food and/or as medicine because of its laxative effect.
Table 3 information shows an acceptable Ca quantity and a good Ca/P ratio,
approximately 1:1, that matches the levels suggested in the Recommended
Dietary Allowances [22]. The consumption of raw Taraxacum officinale is
recommended because of its high quantity of vitamin C and provitamin A.
Unsaturated fatty acids (Table 4) represented 68.20% of the total, with the
most prevalent being linolenic acid (50.74%), an essential fatty acid necessary
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Table 2. Proximate chemical composition of flour from
Taraxacum officinale leaves
Determination (g/100 g)
Moisture (MF)a91.53 ±0.83
Residual moisture 8.23 ±0.15
Protein (N ×6.25) 15.48 ±0.47
Ash 14.55 ±0.64
Ether extract (petroleum ether) 3.39 ±0.04
Total carbohydrates b58.35 ±0.32
Soluble dietary fiber 6.69 ±0.36
Insoluble dietary fiber 41.11 ±0.85
Total dietary fiber 47.80 ±0.63
Mean ±standard deviation of triplicate determinations.
aFresh basis.
bCalculated as 100 – (% residual moisture +% protein +%
ether extract +% ash).
Table 3. Mineral and vitamin contents in flour
from Taraxacum officinale leaves
Determination (g/100 g)
Calcium 695.00 ±4.00
Total phosphorus 700.00 ±3.00
Potassium 2520.00 ±4.00
Magnesium 470.00 ±2.00
βcarotene (vitamin A) 13.80 ±0.20
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) 53.00 ±0.10
Mean ±standard deviation of triplicate determ-
inations.
Table 4. Fatty acid content of flour from Taraxacum offi-
cinale leaves
Carbon atoms Acid (common name) Percentage
16:0 Palmitic 27.58 ±0.87
18:0 Stearic 4.18 ±0.21
16:1 Palmitoleic 6.49 ±0.29
18:1 Oleic 8.62 ±0.25
18:2 Linoleic 18.48 ±0.43
18:3 Linolenic 34.61 ±0.89
Mean ±standard deviation of triplicate determinations.
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Table 5. Antinutrient factors in flour from Taraxacum officinale
leaves
Antinutrient factors
Nitrates (NO3) (mg/100 g) 207.69 ±3.37
Hemoagglutinant activity 1/16 ±0.00
Hemolytic activity (hemolysis degree) NDa
Foam index b<100
Antitrypsin activity (TIU/mg sample) c0.49 ±0.01
(TIU/mg protein) d6.36 ±0.11
Mean ±standard deviation of triplicate determinations.
aND: not detected.
b1000/a; a = mL of filtrate in the tube that reached 1 cm of
foam. Since no tube exhibited 1 cm of foam , foam index <100.
cTIU/mg flour = trypsin inhibited units per mg of flour.
dTIU/mg protein= trypsin inhibited units per mg of protein.
for health; the quantity of essential fatty acids recommended for a diet is 1 to
2% of the intake. An increase in unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio reduces
cardiovascular risk. A high quantity of linolenic present in a diet increases
the linolenic in blood platelets and reduces not only thromboxane synthesis
but also aggregation, in this way reducing the thrombosis possibility [23].
Table 5 information shows the values for the antinutrients. Nitrate and
antitriptic factors were not found to have levels that involve human health
risk. Hemoagglutinan activity (lectins) was acceptable. This antinutrient ef-
fect reduces absorption capacity as well as some nutrient bioavailabilities
such as carbohydrates [24]. Although digestive toxicity is not yet clarified, the
antitumor activity of these compounds present in some vegetables, as reported
by Abdullaev & González de Mejía [25], should be kept in mind.
The results in Table 6 show protein quality evaluations. If the values ob-
tained with the casein diet are used as a reference and a value of 100 is
assigned, one can conclude that NPU of the material under study was 32, tD
56 and BV 57% in relation to casein. Because of its quality, the protein does
not provide the amino acids needed for appropriate growth of experimental
animals.
Weight loss, verified through experiments with the experimental diet, was
probably caused by the demonstrated diuretic effect. An increase in the fecal
matter volume was most likely caused by the high value of insoluble dietary
fiber which may result in poor absorption. Poor absorption was likely caused
by the nitrogen in the protein together with the dietary fiber forming insoluble
non-digestible compounds [26].
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Table 6. Biological quality of flour from Taraxacum officinale
leaves
Casein T. officinale
Net protein utilization (NPU) 72 ±6.5 a23 ±2.5c
True digestibility (tD) 95 ±11.0 53 ±4.8c
Biological value (BV)b76 43 c
Average food intake in g, 85 ±11.0 57 ±6.3c
by rat in 10 days (I)
Weight gain in g, 30 ±4.0 –10.0c
by rat in 10 days (p)
aX±SD.
bBV = NPU/tD.
cp<0.001 versus control b Student’s ttest.
Taraxacum officinale Weber has been shown to have pharmacological ef-
fects such as diuretic, choleretic, and cholagogue. Infusions have been shown
to reduce urolithiasis risk factors [27]. Other studies have shown its antitumor
activity [28].
In this study researchers conclude that even though it is not a protein
source, Taraxacum officinale Weber can be suggested as a food source be-
cause of the high content of minerals, fiber, vitamins, essential fatty acids and
because of the low toxicity, noted by other authors [29]. The results of this
study indicate a nutritive potential for the Taraxacum officinale leaves, there-
fore, use in a fresh salad is encouraged along with the local promotion and
production of underexploited autochthonous plants, as suggested by the FAO,
with the purpose of improving the nutritional condition of areas of population
with poor economic resources.
Acknowledgments
This work was supported by Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Argentina.
We wish to thank Dr Orlando Villegas, Professor of Universidad Nacional de
San Luis, for minerals determination.
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9
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... Dandelion, also known as Taraxacum officinale, is a potent herbal and edible plant widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia, and America [5]. Although they are often regarded as weeds [6,7], in some Asian countries, their fresh leaves are consumed as salads or boiled vegetables sprinkled with spices. ...
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Background: The present study has been designed to document the wild edible plants used by the local populace of the Paddar Valley, district Kishtwar, Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Methods: A total of 50 informants between the age group of 18-74 years were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires, participatory observations, and interviews were conducted to extract information. The present study's objectives were clearly defined to the participants, and Prior Informed Consent (PIC) was taken from all the participants as per guidelines set forth by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Results: A total of 42 wild edible plant species (40 Angiosperms, 1 Pteridophyte, and 1 Gymnosperm) belonging to 38 genera and 26 families were consumed by the indigenous people of Paddar valley. The maximum wild edible plants consumed in the region belonged to the family Rosaceae (7 species), followed by Polygonaceae (4 species), Compositae (3 species), and Apiaceae (3 species). Fruits and leaves were the most commonly used plant parts. The highest numbers of wild species were used as a vegetable (19 species), followed by raw fruits (15 species), chutney (11 species), beverage (6 species), seeds (4 species), edible seed oil (3 species), spices (2 species), and so on. Wild vegetables were mostly consumed in cooked form, whereas wild fruits were exclusively eaten in raw form. The highest and lowest cultural importance index values were recorded for Taraxacum campylodes G.E. Haglund and Rubus niveus Thunb, while Vitis vinifera L., Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. and Viburnum grandiflorum Wall. ex DC. were the most preferred fruit species. Conclusions: The study revealed that the traditional consumption of wild plants as food is still viable in Paddar valley and plays a vital role in fulfilling the residents' nutritional requirements, especially during winters. The information revealed in this study can be considered as a baseline for conservation and sustainable utilization of the valley's wild edible plants, as well as contributing to the preservation of cultural and genetic diversity. Further studies are required to assess the nutritional, agricultural, and economic potential of the reported plant species for the upliftment of the socio-economic conditions of the people of this biodiversity-rich region.
... Based on the information provided by the European Medicines Agency contraindications for the use of T. officinale are hypersensitivity to the Asteraceae plant family or their active compounds, liver and biliary diseases, including bile duct obstruction, gallstones and cholangitis, or active peptic ulcer [20]. The plant is a significant source of potassium [32] and thus a warning is given because of the possible risk for hyperkalemia. The use in children under 12 years of age, or during pregnancy and lactation has not been established due to lack of adequate or sufficient data. ...
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... Several labs are working on various aspects of common dandelion biology. Examples include genome size and ploidy determinations for hundreds of accessions [1]; mapping of genes that control aspects of apomixis [2][3][4]; and determining the bioactivity of extracts and compounds in various medically relevant treatments and their possible benefits for human nutrition [5][6][7][8][9][10]. ...
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Background Taraxacum officinale , or the common dandelion, is a widespread perennial species recognized worldwide as a common lawn and garden weed. Common dandelion is also cultivated for use in teas, as edible greens, and for use in traditional medicine. It produces latex and is closely related to the Russian dandelion, T. kok-saghyz , which is being developed as a rubber crop. Additionally, the vast majority of extant common dandelions reproduce asexually through apomictically derived seeds- an important goal for many major crops in modern agriculture. As such, there is increasing interest in the molecular control of important pathways as well as basic molecular biology and reproduction of common dandelion. Results Here we present an improved Agrobacterium -based genetic transformation and regeneration protocol, a protocol for generation and transformation of protoplasts using free DNA, and a protocol for leaf Agrobacterium infiltration for transient gene expression. These protocols use easily obtainable leaf explants from soil-grown plants and reagents common to most molecular plant laboratories. We show that common markers used in many plant transformation systems function as expected in common dandelion including fluorescent proteins, GUS, and anthocyanin regulation, as well as resistance to kanamycin, Basta, and hygromycin. Conclusion Reproducible, stable and transient transformation methods are presented that will allow for needed molecular structure and function studies of genes and proteins in T. officinale .
... The young leaves of Taraxacum officinale are also used as a food in salads, drinks and vegetable dishes, due to its nutritional value. Research studies show that the Taraxacum officinale leaves contain high concentrations of fiber, minerals, vitamins and essential fatty acids (Escudero et al. 2003). ...
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Background Taraxacum officinale (G.H. Weber ex Wiggers), commonly known as dandelion, is a herbaceous plant native to North America, Europe and Asia. This plant has been used for health purposes since ancient times. The phytochemicals present in different parts of the plant are responsible for its medicinal properties. In this review, we describe the main health properties of Taraxacum officinale . Main body of the abstract We searched for the main medicinal properties of Taraxacum officinale in the scientific literature, using the PubMed database. We selected 54 studies and we described twelve therapeutic properties, which are reported in previous studies. These properties are diuretic, hepatoprotective, anticolitis, immunoprotective, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, antiarthritic, antidiabetic, antiobesity, antioxidant and anticancer effects. We also found that the most frequently reported therapeutic effects include hepatoprotective, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Short conclusion In this review, we describe the medicinal properties of Taraxacum officinale reported in previous studies. Antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects are mostly found in the scientific literature.
... C. procera reported to possess strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and flowers are shows anthelmintic activity against nematodes of sheep 53 . Roots of T. officinale is used as a diuretic by the local people in the study area, which is again supported by data which indicated the local use of boiled leaves as pre-and post-pregnancy food for ladies to overcome weakness and regarded as a rich source of minerals, vitamins, high protein, fibre and linoleic acid 54 . The most common locally available climber is T. sinensis which according to local inhabitants is used as antidiabetic, hair tonic, and brain tonic. ...
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Chapter
Phytomedicine has always been a source of cure and prevention of human and animal diseases. Since antiquity man has been exploiting wild plant species as food and to sustain health. While few of these species have gradually been domesticated, many continue to remain wild while playing pivotal role in tribal food, feed and folklore medicine. India being among the most flora rich countries of the world is host to hundreds of wild plant species with established health benefits well known to the indigenous tribes and locals but remain largely untapped. However, growing awareness about bioactive phyto-compounds and their role in prevention and cure of modern human diseases and disorders is steadily bringing such underutilized plant species to a significant place in modern pharmaceutical and medical research. Considering such a scenario, the aim of writing this chapter is to highlight indigenous species of Indian North-Western Himalayan states and territories with respect to their health promoting attributes and potential application in the practice of alternative as well as mainstream medicine.
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In the course of the project COST 91 *, on the Effects of Thermal Processing and Distribution on the Quality and Nutritive Value of Food, it became clear that approved methods were needed for vitamin determination in food. An expert group on vitamins met in March 1981 to set the requirements which these methods must meet. On the basis of these requirements, methods were selected for vitamin A, ~-carotene, vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin C and vitamin E. Unfortunately, for vitamins B2 (riboflavin), B6 and D only tentative methods could be chosen, since the methods available only partially fulfilled the require­ ments set by the expert group. For niacin and folic acid some references only could be given because none of the existing methods satisfied these requirements, and for vitamin B , vitamin K, pantothenic acid and 12 biotin it was not considered possible to give even references. All methods were carefully described in detail so that every laboratory worker could use them without being an expert in vitamin assay. In October 1983 an enlarged expert group on vitamins approved the compilation of methods and approached a publishing house with a view to publication. The editors wish to thank Dr Peter Zeuthen, the leader of the project COST 91, for his interest in their work, and Mr G.
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Traducción de: Present knowledge in nutrition Incluye bibliografía e índice
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Incluye bibliografía v. 1. The elements, N. H. Furman, editor -- v. 2. Industrial and natural products and noninstrumental methods, F. J. Welcher, editor -- v. 3. instrumental methods, F. J. Welcher, editor
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