Content uploaded by Mikdat DOĞANLAR
All content in this area was uploaded by Mikdat DOĞANLAR on Jan 24, 2014
Content may be subject to copyright.
ENTOMOLOGY M. Doˇganlar and Z. Mendel (2007) Phytoparasitica 35(4):333-335
NOTE:First Record of the Eucalyptus Gall Wasp Ophelimus
maskelli and Its Parasitoid, Closterocerus chamaeleon, in
M. Doˇganlar1and Z. Mendel∗,2
The Eucalyptus gall wasp Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eu-
lophidae: Ophelimini) and its introduced parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleon (Hymenoptera:
Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae: Entedoninae) are recorded for the ﬁrst time in the Mediterranean
and Aegean Regions of Turkey. Some morphological characters of adult and larva of O.
maskelli and larva of C. chamaeleon are described and illustrated. Distributions of the two
wasps collected in Turkey are given. Results indicate that the biological control agent, C.
chamaeleon, has spread over 1,300 km in the 16 months since its initial release.
KEY WORDS: Biological control; Closterocerus chamaeleon; eucalyptus; Ophelimus maskelli.
The gall wasp Ophelimus maskelli (Ash-
mead) is a pest of eucalypts which has recently
invaded the Mediterranean Basin, where it was
originally reported under the name O. euca-
lypti (Gahan) by several groups of researchers
(1,3,5,8-10). However, at the present stage of
the research, it was shown by Protasov, Blum-
berg, Brand, La Salle and Mendel (submitted for
publication) that the correct name forthis species
in Israel is O. maskelli (Ashmead), based on
the taxonomic history, diagnostic characteristics,
biology and impact on host plants.
An integrated control program on gall-
inducing pests was initiated by M. Doˇganlar
and colleagues in 2005, after the discovery of
Leptocybe invasa Fisher and LaSalle (6) in Hatay
province, Turkey, by Doˇganlar (4), and in other
parts of the Mediterranean region by Aytar (2).
Projects were undertaken to discover natural en-
emies of L. invasa through collecting and cul-
turing samples under laboratory conditions, and
to determine resistant/tolerant varieties of Eu-
calyptus camaldulensis and E. grandis through
collecting seedlings from nature and testing their
tolerance to attack by L. invasa. Up to now
no natural enemies have been found, but some
resistant and tolerant Eucalyptus varieties have
been found. These studies are being continued.
In the second half of December 2006
and in January 2007 many specimens of E.
camaldulensis and E. nigra leaves galled by
O. maskelli were collected from the towns
of Kırıkhan, Kumlu, Antakya and Iskenderun
(Hatay province), Adana city center, the villages
of G¨unyurdu Arıklı and Yenice-Tarsus, the city
center of Tarsus (Mersin province); in Alanya-
Antalya and Muˇgla in July – August 2006; and
from Urla, Gaziemir, C¸ iˇgli, and Izmir city center
in February 2007. Pre-hatched adults of O.
maskelli were removed from the galls, and iden-
tiﬁed using the diagnostic characters provided by
Protasov et al. (7). In particular, the forewing
has only a single submarginal seta, the prestig-
mal, marginal and stigmal veins are distinctly
broadened and darkened, and the postmarginal
vein is longer than the marginal vein (Fig. 1A);
there are two funicular segments, both having
distinct linear sensila; the ﬁrst one being about
Received Feb. 28, 2007; accepted May 8, 2007; http://www.phytoparasitica.org posting July 29, 2007.
1Dept. of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Antakya, Hatay, Turkey
2Dept. of Entomology, ARO, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel. *Corresponding author [e-mail:
Phytoparasitica 35:4, 2007 333
half the length of the second, but clearly larger
than the three anellar segments (Fig. 1B). Other
characteristics are as described by Protasov et al.
(7). Many of the galls harbor overwintering lar-
vae of O. maskelli which have plant material in
their mid-guts. They are very different from
the parasitoid larvae in having very long coni-
cal papillae and a wide opening of the stigma
(Fig. 1C), whereas the larvae of Closterocerus
chamaeleon have much smaller papillae and a
narrower opening of the stigma (Fig. 1D).
Several hundred females of C. chamaeleon
were reared from the galls of O. maskelli col-
lected from Kırıkhan and from Tarsus city cen-
ter since mid-December 2006; no males were
found. Dissection of the galls revealed that
the parasitoids overwinter as last-instar larvae
or pupae. However, they were able to develop
into adults when they were kept under laboratory
conditions at 20–25◦C and 70–80% r.h. The
population of C. chamaeleon in Hatay province
originated from individuals that were released in
several locations in Israel from September 2005
to March 2006 and dispersed northward. The
parasitoids released in Israel were collected from
E. camaldulensis trees growing on the banks
of the Murrumbidgee River in Wagga Wagga,
NSW, Australia, in 2005. In January 2007,
C. chamaeleon was found in galled E. camal-
dulensis leaves collected in the city of Izmir,
approximately 1,300 km from the release sites in
the central coastal plain of Israel (at Bet Dagan).
This provides evidence that the parasitoid has
already spread some 1,300 km from the release
sites in Israel in only 16 months. Such an
impressive spread for an introduced parasitoid
indicates that it may be capable of providing
substantial biological control in the region.
The work on life history and relationships of
the galler and the parasitoid, and the survey of
their distributions in Turkey, are continuing.
Fig. 1. Ophelimus maskelli female collected in Hatay, Turkey: female (A), fore wing (B), antenna,
cephalic substructure and spiracles of the larvae (C); and cephalic substructure and spiracles of the
larvae of Closterocerus chamaeleon (D).
334 M. Doˇganlar and Z. Mendel
We thank the staff of the Forestry Department of Hatay for their help in collecting the specimens in their
Eucalyptus-growing areas; and Dr. John La Salle for his help in identifying the species of Closterocerus
chamaeleon, and for his valuable comments on the manuscript.
1. Arzone, A. and Alma, A. (2000) A gall eulophid of Eucalyptus in Italy. Inf. Fitopatol. 50:43-46.
2. Aytar, F. (2003) Natural biology, distribution and control method of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle
(Hym., Eulophidae), eucalyptus gall wasp in Turkey. DOA Dergisi (J. DOA) 9:47-66.
3. Bella, S. and Lo Verde, G. (2002) Presenza nell’Italia continentale e in Sicilia di Ophelimus prope eucalypti
(Gahan) e Aprostocetus sp., galligeni degli Eucalipti (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Nat. Sicil. 26:191-197.
4. Doˇganlar, O. (2005) Occurrence of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle, 2004 (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea:
Eulophidae) on Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Turkey, with description of the male sex. Zool. Middle East
5. Laudonia, S. and Viggiani, G. (2003) Descrizione degli stadi preimmaginali dell’Imenottero galligeno
Ophelimus eucalypti (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). [Description of the preimaginal stages of the
gall-inducing wasp Ophelimus eucalypti (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).] Boll. Lab. Entomol. Agrar.
Filippo Silvestri 59:93-98.
6. Mendel, Z., Protasov, A., Fisher, N. and La Salle, J. (2004) The taxonomy and natural history of Leptocybe
invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) gen. & sp. nov., an invasive gall inducer on Eucalyptus. Aust. J. Entomol.
7. Protasov, A., La Salle, J., Blumberg, D., Brand, D., Saphir, N., Assael, F. et al. (2007) Biology, revised
taxonomy and impact on host plants of Ophelimus maskelli, an invasive gall inducer on Eucalyptus spp. in
the Mediterranean area. Phytoparasitica 35:50-76.
8. Pujade-Villar, J. and Riba-Flinch, J. M. (2004) Dos especies australianas de euloﬁdos, muy daninas para
Eucalyptus spp., introducidas en el nordeste Iberico (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). [Two Australian eulophids
very harmful to Eucalyptus spp., introduced into the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula.] Boll. Soc. Entomol.
9. Viggiani, G., Laudonia, S. and Bernardo, U. (2002) The increase of insect pests in Eucalyptus.Inf. Agrar.
10. Viggiani, G. and Nicotina, M. (2001) The eulophid leaf gall-making of eucalypts Ophelimus eucalypti
(Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Campania. Boll. Zool. Agrar. Bachic. 33:79-82.
Phytoparasitica 35:4, 2007 335