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Fruiting bodies of some wild and cultivatable mushrooms contain medicinal compounds which are being used in traditional medicines and cosmetics. There are numerous potential medicinal products from mushrooms that could be used in cosmeceuticals (products applied topically, such as creams, lotions, and ointments) or nutricosmetics (products that are ingested orally). This paper provides a review of the fungi presently used in cosmeceuticals and nutricosmetics with some examples of cosmetic types and products. Species presently used, or patented to be used, in cosmeceuticals and nutricosmetics include Agaricus subrufescens (= A. blazei, A. brasiliensis) Choiromyces maeandriformis Cordyceps sinensis, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Hypsizygus ulmarium, Inonotus obliquus, Lentinula edodes, Polyporus spp., Trametes versicolor, Tremella fuciformis, Tuber spp., Schizophyllum commune and many other lesser used taxa. Cosmetics incorporating fungi include those for skin care such as anti-aging, anti-oxidants, skin revitalizing, skin whitening and hair products. The mushrooms presently used are traditionally known to produce medicinal compounds and thus were the first to be incorporated in cosmetic applications. There are, however, numerous other mushroom species that are untested, undescribed or not yet cultivatable and that have huge potential for use in the cosmetic industry. Some fungi are also used in biotransformation and the products such as lactic acid and ceramides could potentially be used in cosmetics. KeywordsAnti-aging-Anti-oxidants-Cosmeceuticals-Medicinal fungi-Nutricosmetics-Skin whitening
Fungian unusual source for cosmetics
K. D. Hyde &A. H. Bahkali &M. A. Moslem
Received: 17 May 2010 /Accepted: 31 May 2010 /Published online: 16 June 2010
#Kevin D. Hyde 2010
Abstract Fruiting bodies of some wild and cultivatable
mushrooms contain medicinal compounds which are being
used in traditional medicines and cosmetics. There are
numerous potential medicinal products from mushrooms
that could be used in cosmeceuticals (products applied
topically, such as creams, lotions, and ointments) or
nutricosmetics (products that are ingested orally). This
paper provides a review of the fungi presently used in
cosmeceuticals and nutricosmetics with some examples of
cosmetic types and products. Species presently used, or
patented to be used, in cosmeceuticals and nutricosmetics
include Agaricus subrufescens (= A. blazei,A. brasiliensis)
Choiromyces maeandriformis Cordyceps sinensis,Gano-
derma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Hypsizygus ulmarium,
Inonotus obliquus, Lentinula edodes,Polyporus spp.,
Trametes versicolor, Tremella fuciformis, Tuber spp.,
Schizophyllum commune and many other lesser used taxa.
Cosmetics incorporating fungi include those for skin care
such as anti-aging, anti-oxidants, skin revitalizing, skin
whitening and hair products. The mushrooms presently
used are traditionally known to produce medicinal com-
pounds and thus were the first to be incorporated in
cosmetic applications. There are, however, numerous other
mushroom species that are untested, undescribed or not yet
cultivatable and that have huge potential for use in the
cosmetic industry. Some fungi are also used in biotransfor-
mation and the products such as lactic acid and ceramides
could potentially be used in cosmetics.
Keywords Anti-aging .Anti-oxidants .Cosmeceuticals .
Medicinal fungi .Nutricosmetics .Skin whitening
The worlds cosmetic industry is worth tens of billions of
US dollars, and the industry is constantly seeking new,
especially natural products. This has resulted in numerous
natural cosmetic products incorporating extracts of coconut,
jasmine, lemon grass, longan, and many other plants being
commonplace on the shelves of the worlds cosmetic shops.
In Asia, mushrooms have been used and acclaimed as
health products for thousands of years. In China and Japan,
their goodness was appreciated so much that they were
reserved for royal families. Fungi, especially mushrooms
and their products are now finding their way into cosmetics
and purported as highly active ingredients in these products
(Lemann 2007).
Several mushrooms are known to have medicinal proper-
ties especially in the production of β-glucans but also in
many other areas (Kalač2009). Schizophyllan is derived
from Schizophyllum commune (Kumari et al. 2008) and
contains β-1,6-branched-β-1,3-glucan, which decreases
inflammation, irritation and other damage due to UV and
toxic environment exposure of the skin (www.macrocare.
Moisturizing.asp). There has been considerable research on
the medicinal properties of Agaricus subrufescens (as A.
blazei) and the protective affects of β-glucans (Firenzuoli et
al. 2008; Angeli et al. 2009). This fungus has also been
K. D. Hyde (*)
School of Science Mae Fah Luang University,
333 M. 1. T. Tasud Muang District,
Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand
K. D. Hyde :A. H. Bahkali :M. A. Moslem
Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science,
King Saud University,
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Fungal Diversity (2010) 43:19
DOI 10.1007/s13225-010-0043-3
reported to have anti-mutagenic (Menoli et al. 2001;
Machado et al. 2005, anti-clastogenic (Luiz et al. 2003;
Matuo et al. 2007), anti-genotoxic and anti-tumor affects
(Mizuno et al. 1990,1999). Other examples include
eritadenine, a medicinal compound which occurs in Lentinula
edodes (shiitake, Enman et al. 2008). This compound lowers
cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent manner; the more
eritadenine given, the more cholesterol levels drop (Shimada
et al. 2002). Ganoderic acids produced by Ganoderma
lucidum, are secondary metabolites that possess anti-tumor
properties (Dubost et al. 2006,2007; Keypour et al. 2010)
and ergothioneine an anti-oxidant, aids the human body in
eradication of free radicals (Ey et al. 2007). Both are credited
with fighting cancer and cardiovascular disease and are anti-
aging products (Sanodiya et al. 2009). White button mush-
rooms (Agaricus bisporus) have 12 times more ergothioneine
than wheat germ and they are a possible source of
ergothioneine to be added to bread (Corey et al. 2009).
Needs of cosmetic products
There are many types of cosmetics, and they fall into two
categories. Cosmeceuticals applies only to products applied
topically, such as creams, lotions, and ointments, while
products with similar perceived benefits but that are
ingested orally are known as nutricosmetics. There are
many requirements for cosmetics products, but most
importantly they should be safe to use, with no side affects,
and have positive affects on the skin. There is a trend
towards using natural products in cosmetics (e.g. Murad
products). Below we discuss some of the properties
presently used in cosmetics. To keep the review brief we
concentrate mostly on cosmeceuticals. The message is that
there are numerous products from fungi that are being
exploited in cosmeceuticals or nutricosmetics and that
many potential products are yet to be used.
Skin cosmetics
Most skin cosmetics are for make-up, however others are
for revitalizing the skin, anti-aging and anti-wrinkle, and
there are also skin whiteners.
Revitalizing skin and anti-aging
Revitalizing skin is important in order to provide healthy
toned skin without wrinkles and goes hand in hand with
anti-aging. There are numerous products on the market, and
many of them incorporate mushrooms, mushroom products
or products that can be fermented using fungi. Lactic acid is
an alpha hydroxy acid used in cosmetic preparations in
dermatology to hydrate and smooth dry, flaking skin (e.g.
Kinara Lactic Acid Hydrating Serum,B Kamins Lactic 8).
It may occasionally be used in higher concentrations (above
12% medical grade) as a chemical peel (e.g. Skin Ceuticals
Gel Peel GL Glycolic/Lactic Acid Peel), which removes the
outer layer of skin. Recent studies have shown that lactic
acid can be produced by Rhizopus strains (Zhang et al.
2007). Ceramides are also used in cosmetics as epidermal
hydrating agents but they are expensive due to scarcity
(Elizabeth Arden Ceramide Purifying Toner,Bliss The
Youth As We Know It and Zirh Rejuvenate Anti-Aging Face
Cream). Ceramides have been found in several fungi (e.g.
Phellinus pini, Lourenço et al. 1996,Tuber indicum, Gao et
al. 2004) and these may be potential sources for use in
cosmetics. It may also be possible to biotransform mould
lipases for the synthesis of ceramides (Margolin and
Klibanov 1987).
Chitin-glucan is a copolymer found in the cell wall of
several fungi including Aspergillus niger (Gautier et al.
2008). Chitin-glucan has good moisturizing properties and
can help fight against some of the signs of skin aging and
has potential for use in skin moisturizing and anti-aging
formulations. KitoZymes chitin-glucan ingredient is
extracted from the mycelium of Aspergillus niger, which
grows in the by-products of the production of pharmaceu-
tical and food-grade citric acid (Gautier et al. 2008). The
ingredient is presently used in KiOsmetine-CG. Several
mushroom species have also been shown to produce chitin-
glucan (Synytsya et al. 2009; Vysotskaya et al. 2009) and
thus have potential use in cosmetic formulations.
Superoxide dismutase is used in cosmetic products to
reduce free radical damage to skin, for example to reduce
fibrosis following radiation for breast cancer and it is
produced by mushrooms (Park and Hwang 1999, Campana
et al. 2004). Superoxide dismutase is known to reverse
fibrosis, perhaps through reversion of myofibroblasts back
to fibroblasts (Vozenin-Brotons et al. 2001). Superoxide
dismutase is presently used in numerous skin and hair
cosmetic products (e.g. Pevonia BotanicaOxygenating
Combination,Dermalogica Intensive Moisture Balance).
Polysaccharides, especially β-(1-3)-D-glucan, which
have anti-cancer properties have been found in numerous
fungi and are used in cosmetics (e.g. in Pleurotus species,
Synytsya et al. 2009). In Japan, beta-glucans-like lentinan
and krestin (polysaccharide-K), isolated from certain
medicinal mushrooms have been adjuncts to chemotherapy
to treat cancers. A water-soluble protein-polysaccharide
complex β-(1-6)-D-glucan, isolated from the fruiting
bodies of Agaricus subrufescens (as A. blazei), showed
immune-modulation activity (Angeli et al. 2009). Lentinula
edodes contains an active compound called lentinan.
Lentinan is claimed to stimulate the immune system,
strengthening its ability to fight infection and disease.
2 Fungal Diversity (2010) 43:19
Lentinula edodes contains lentinan and is used in Aveeno
Positively Ageless Night Cream. Schizophyllan is also a
fungal derived β-(1-3)-D-glucan with pharmaceutical prop-
erties. Schizophyllan can be found in Murads Sleep Reform
Serum (Fig. 11).
A powerful anti-oxidant, L-ergothioneine, has been
discovered in high concentrations in mushrooms (Dubost
et al. 2006,2007). L-ergothioneine is an amino acid and is a
thiourea derivative of histidine. Portabellas and Criminis
(brown Agaricus bisporus) have the most L-ergothioneine,
followed by white buttons (A. bisporus, Dubost et al.
2006). Ergothioneine protects the skin from oxidative and
DNA damage, protecting the mitochondrial membrane
against oxidation. Fatty acids are transferred into the
mitochondria helping to use oxygen efficiently and
producing more energy (
ergothioneine___l_ergothioneine/65.php). Skin products
containing ergothioneine include Cellex-C Advanced-C Neck
Firming Cream,Kinerase Pro Therapy Ultra Rich Night and
Osmotics RenovageCellular Longevity Serum.
Omega-3 (e.g. eicosapentaenoic acid), omega-6 (e.g.
linoleic acid) and omega-9 fatty acids (e,g. oleic acid) are
used in cosmetics skin care applications. Fatty acids are
natural components of skin and are components of a
complex that makes up the outermost layer that protects
the body against oxidative damage (Passi et al. 2002; Pons
et al. 2002). Omega-3 fatty acids are used in the synthesis
of the PGE3 prostaglandins which regulate the inflamma-
tory response and they are believed to help reduce several
inflammatory related disorders from which the body
suffers, including skin rashes and redness. The body uses
omega-6 fatty acids to help treat dry or damaged skin
conditions such as eczema. Omega-9 fatty acids are found
in cell membranes, especially in skin tissue, where
flexibility is important. Oleic acid in particular is abundant
in skin cells and is a very good medium for transferring
nutrients across the skin barrier. Oils rich in oleic acid are
generally very absorbent and as a result are in wide use in
the skin care industry (Cheng et al. 1999).
Fatty acids can help supplement the skins intercellular
matrix. They have also been shown to inhibit collagen
breakdown and improve cell function (Kim et al. 2006;
Zulfakar et al. 2007). Fatty acids are used in cosmetics as
emollients, anti-oxidants, and cell regulators. Sundari Omega
3 And Amalaki Night Cream and La Mer The Body Cream
incorporate omega-3 fatty acids. γ-linolenic acid is consid-
ered to promote healthy skin growth and is an anti-
inflammatory agent. Bobbi Brown Brightening Intensive
Cream and True Cosmetics Youth Revealing Complex contain
linoliec acid, Perricone MD Advanced Eye Area Therapy
contains eicosapentaenoic acid, Peter Thomas Roth Un-
Wrinkle Peel Pads contain linolenic acid and This Works
Super Moisture contains linoleic and linolenic acids.
Fatty acids used in cosmetics can be produced by fungi
(Ward and Singh 2005). Production of eicosapentaenoic acid
from filamentous fungi such as Pythium and Mortiella
species utilize lactose as a primary carbon source (Obrien
et al. 1993) and can be made from biodiesel-derived crude
glycerol, brewersspent grain and other industrial waste
(Athalye et al. 2009;Wangetal.2007). Linoleic acid has
been isolated and determined to be the main substance with
anti-mutagenic activity in Agaricus subrufescens (as A.
blazei) (Ferreira Da Eira et al. 2005), and occurs in Astraeus
spp. (Kakumyan and Matsui 2009), Cordyceps (Yang et al.
2009)andPleurotus sajor-cajú (Nieto and Carolina Chegwin
2008), and is also produced during lignin degradation by
Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (Gutiérrez et al. 2002), while
γ-linolenic acid can be produced by Mortierella and
Rhizopus species (Krištofíková et al. 1991
Carotenoids, which are organic pigments found in some
fungi (Jin et al. 2010), are split into two classes, xantho-
phylls (which contain oxygen) and carotenes. Carotenoids
are widely used in cosmetics, especially in sun lotions (e.g.
Methode Jeanne Piaubert -Anti -Ageing Facial Sun,Kiehls
Since 1851 Multi-Purpose Facial Formula). Lycopene a
potent anti-oxidant found in tomatoes, is also produced by
Blakeslea trispora (Mantzouridou and Tsimidou 2008) and
has also been found in wild mushrooms (Barros et al.
2007a,b). Presently tomato lycopene is used in cosmetics
(e.g. Tomato Lycopene Face Cream).
Resveratrol (a polyphenolic antioxidant) naturally occurs
in the skin of grapes and is the component of red wine
which is believed to be beneficial for health. Resveratrol is
a phytoalexin that is synthesized by plants in response to
attacks by fungi and bacteria (Sadruddin and Arora 2009).
Resveratrol is a key factor in weight loss, energy boost, toxin
reduction, relieving constipation, anti-aging, and higher
metabolism. It has also been claimed to fight bloating and
wrinkles while at the same time combating circulatory
disease, diabetes, and arthritis. Resveratrol is used in
cosmetics as it supports and protects collagen, which is able
to moisturize and hydrate by holding many times its own
weight in water and has many other claims. LifeTime
Resveratrol Life Tonic and Natures Way Resveratrol are
examples of nutricosmetics while Serious Skin Care Resver-
atrol Drench Facial Cream is a cosmeceutical. Biotransfor-
mation of piceid in Polygonum cuspidatum to resveratrol by
Aspergillus oryzae was successfully performed (Wang et al.
2007;Tianetal.2008). Glucoside piceids are more
commonly available in plants than resveratrol so they may
provide a cheaper and readily available source.
Trehalose, also known as mycose or tremalose, is a natural
alpha-linked disaccharide formed by an α,α-1,1-glucoside
bond between two α-glucose units. Trehalose can be
synthesised by fungi. It is implicated in anhydrobiosisthe
ability of plants and animals to withstand prolonged periods of
Fungal Diversity (2010) 43:19 3
desiccation. These high water retention capabilities make it
useful as a moisturizer in cosmetics, e.g. in Origins Make A
Difference. Trehalose is also an anti-oxidant. Trehalose is
prevalent in mushrooms such as shiitake (Lentinula
edodes), maitake (Grifola fondosa), nameko (Pholiota
nameko), and ear fungus (Auricularia auricula-judae)(Ng
Other medicinal compounds found in fungi are flavi-
noids and tannins, and many of these are used, or have the
potential to be used, in skin cosmetics.
Skin whitening
Uneven pigmentation of the skin may lead to blotches,
patches of brown to grey discoloration or freckling that may
require cosmetic treatment. Skin pigmentation problems
occur because too much or too little melanin is produced.
Melanocyte cells produce melanin and are triggered by
tyrosinase, which creates the colour of skin, eyes, and hair.
Most skin-whitening treatments reduce melanin production
by inhibiting tyrosinase, followed by exfoliants such as
chemical peels.
Ellagic acid is a polyphenol anti-oxidant and is recom-
mended for use in whitening the skin as well as having anti-
cancer properties. Gallic acid is known to have anti-oxidant,
anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and radical scavenging
activities (Fang et al. 2008). Both can be produced from
plant tannins via fermentation using Aspergillus niger
(Ventura et al. 2008). Lactic and glycolic acids are also
used as skin whiteners and recent studies have shown that
species of Rhizopus could offer a valuable alternative
source for lactic acid production (Zhang et al. 2007). Skin
whiteners also include azelaic acid, generally used to treat
acne, which is derived from a yeast that grows naturally
on skin and is often found in different preparations
combining alpha hydroxy acids among others. Ellagic
acid is found in Shu Uemura White Recovery EX+
Brightening and lactic acid in Cellex-C Advanced Skin
Hydration Complex.
Kojic acid has long been used as a skin whitener and is a
byproduct in the fermentation process of malting rice, for
use in the manufacturing of sake (Yabuta 1924). Kojic acid
also has antibacterial and antifungal properties. Because
kojic acid is unstable and turns brown in light kojic
dipalmitate is often preferred; this compound also has
anti-oxidant properties. PharmaClinic produce a lightening
cream called Ligthenex which contains kojic dipalmitate
derived from Japanese mushrooms and is claimed to
work on darker skins. Dermáge Brightening Cream and
Suisse+Lab Whitening Cream also contain kojic dipalmi-
tate from mushrooms.
Tyrosinase inhibitors are effective components of skin-
lightening compounds and other cosmetics; currently many
of the facial mask cosmetics in the market contain
Ganoderma extracts. The inhibitory effects on tyrosinase
activity by extracts of several mushrooms were evaluated
(Chien et al. 2008). Among the tested mushrooms,
Ganoderma lucidum exhibited significant inhibition of
tyrosinase activity (IC50 value 0.32 mg/ml), compared to
those prepared from other basidiomycetes. The finding that
mushroom extracts contain tyrosinase activity inhibition
will contribute to a better understanding of their healing
properties in various Chinese traditional herbal skin care
products (Chien et al. 2008).
Various extracts from mushroom are also thought to
have skin whitening properties. This concept is based on
the simplistic thinkingthat fungi can bleach wood and
degrade melanin (Mohorcic et al. 2007). Screens of wild
fungal isolates for melanolytic activity found that Sporo-
trichum pruinosum was the most promising of the very
limited number of fungi that decolourised synthetic mela-
nin. A submerged aerobic process was used to produce a
skin depigmentation enzyme by this strain. A partially
purified enzyme was prepared and tested for depigmenta-
tion of human skin corneocytes and whole epidermis of
phototypes III and V. This study demonstrates the effective
enzymatic degradation of the skin melanin rather than
inhibition of its synthesis. This opens the possibility of
using melanolytic enzymes in cosmetic skin lightening
(Mohorčičet al. 2007).
Several products are used as dietary supplements and,
although they are not strictly cosmetics, they are briefly
mentioned here. Perricone MDs Maitake Mushroom Ex-
tract contain extracts of Grifola frondosa fruit body powder
(Fig. 15). This contains active glycoprotein and is claimed
to reduce abdominal weight and support cardiovascular
health. Mushroom Wisdom Inc. also produce many dietary
supplements (e.g. Grifron Maitake Caplet, Fig. 13) from
the same fungus. The same company produce Super
Tremella Tablets for healthy bone and skin as well as other
(Fig. 17).
Mushroom cosmetic products
Many well known brands add mushroom extracts to their
products (e.g. Origins Plantidote Mega-Mushroom Treat-
ment (Fig. 2), Actifirm Actizyme Renovation Mushroom,
Alqvinia Eternal Youth Cream (Fig. 4), Menard Embellir
line.Estee Laudar origins and Avena are good examples
that use Hypsizygus ulmarium (Table 1). To date several
mushroom products or mushrooms have been used as
4 Fungal Diversity (2010) 43:19
additions to cosmetic products. Aveeno Positively Ageless
products by Johnson and Johnson is one example (Fig. 6).
They use a mushroom extract that contains a combination
of Lentinula edodes and Ganoderma lucidum. They claim
that the cream has been shown to help accelerate your
skins natural renewal process to replenish surface cells. It
reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Nano
Works Pureology line produce skin and hair products
containing a blend of Ganoderma lucidum,Lentinula
edodes and Mucor miehei (Table 1) and claims to have
anti-aging properties, nourish hair and contain anti-
oxidants. An example is the new line Mega-Mushroom
products, which includes a cocktail of three different
mushroom extracts: Hypsizygus ulmarium,Cordyceps and
Ganoderma lucidum (Lemann 2007). Hypsizygus ulmarium
is well known for its multiple benefits. Its consumption can
reduce cholesterol levels and it has anti-cancer properties,
high nutritional value and high levels of vitamins, proteins,
β-glucans and non-saturated fatty acids. In Chinese medi-
cine it is considered to rejuvenate and strengthen the skin,
boosting resistance against signs of ageing. The same claims
are made for other mushrooms present in the formula, such
as Cordyceps, known for its energizing properties, and the
Japanese mushroom Reishi(Ganoderma lucidum) known
as a booster of longevity (;
Lemann 2007).
The company Med Myco Ltd(Israel) exploits the
medicinal and commercial potential of bioactive substances
within edible mushrooms. Med Myco extract glucuronox-
ylomannan is an acid heteropolysaccharide from pure
cultures of Tremella.Tremella glucuronoxylomannan is
free of pH dependence and forms a film when attached to
hair or skin. Used in cleansing and massage creams, all
preparations are claimed to have anti-inflammatory and
anti-allergic properties, accelerate wound healing and
prevent senile degeneration (Lemann 2007).
Examples of cosmetics containing mushrooms
or their products
There are several products on the cosmetic market, which
contain mushroom extracts (Table 1). Some are summarized
1. The worlds first mushroom cosmetic line was developed
in the Koltsovo Scientific Centre, Russia. Mushrooms
contained a full spectrum of biologically active substan-
ces that skin needs including proteins, carbohydrates,
lipids, minerals, organic acids, and a rich collection of
vitamins, biotin and folic acid. The company developed a
line of creams with fly-agaric extract (Amanita muscaria)
called the Mushroom Collection (
2. Johnson and Johnson under the brand Aveeno/Active
Naturals recently launched a new line of skin care products
Table 1 Some products containing mushrooms
Products name Product function Fungus/extract present Web page
Surkran Grape Seed Lift Eye
Improves skin around
Tremella polysaccharide,Fig. 5
BeautyDiy Aqua Circulation
Hydrating Gel
Moisturizing gel Tremella polysaccharide,Fig. 7
Sulwhasoo Hydroaid Hydrating cream promoting
clear, radiant skin
Schizophyllum commune
extract, Fig. 9
Alqvimia Eternal Youth Cream
Facial Máxima Regeneración
Anti-aging and lifting Schizophyllum commune, Fig. 4
Tan Ryuk Sang Firming Cream Makes skin tight and
Ganoderma lucidum,
Pleurotus ostreatus
Aveeno Positively Ageless Lifting and firming Lentinula edodes, Fig. 6
Yves Saint Laurent Temps
Majeur Elixir De Nuit
Anti-aging Ganoderma lucidum
Kose Sekkisei Cream Moisturizer and suppresses
melanin production
Cordyceps sinensis
La Prairie Advanced Marine
Biology Night Solution
Moisturizer which nourishes,
revitalizes and hydrates skin
Tremella fuciformis, Fig. 8
Vitamega Facial Moisturizing
Renews and revitalizes skin Agaricus subrufescens
(as A. brasiliensis)
Menard Embellir Refresh
Skin anti-aging Ganoderma lucidum
Nano Works Shineluxe Anti-age and anti-fade Ganoderma lucidum,
Lentinula edodes, Mucor
Fungal Diversity (2010) 43:19 5
named Positively Ageless(Fig. 6). The product con-
tains active ingredients from Ganoderma lucidum and
Lentinula edodes with declared anti-aging products.
Ganoderma lucidum is consumed in China and Japan
for its immunostimulatory properties (Lemann 2007).
3. Another range utilizing mushrooms is Vitamega Cos-
metics which incorporates Agaricus subrufescens (as A.
brasilienses). The shampoo line (Fig. 3) claims to allow
hair to remain moisturized longer, bringing more shine,
softness and movement to hair, while the moisturizing
cream renews and revitalizes the skin (www.vitamega
4. A mushroom extract from Tremella fuciformis spor-
ocarps holds up to 500 times its own weight of water. It
Figs. 112 Cosmetics containing mushrooms or their extracts. 1.
Aquamella Cream contains extracts of Tremella fuciformis.2Origins
Plantidote Mega-Mushroom Treatment.3.Vitamega shampoo incor-
porates Agaricus subrufescens.4.Alqvimia Eternal Youth contains
Schizophyllum commune.5.Surkran Grape Seed Lift Eye Mask
contains Tremella polysaccharide. 6. Aveeno Positively Ageless uses
Ganoderma lucidum and Lentinula edodes.7.BeautyDiy Aqua
Circulation Hydrating Gel contains Tremella polysaccharide. 8. La
Prairie Advanced Marine Biology Night Solution contains Tremella
fuciformis.9.Sulwhasoo Hydroaid contains Schizophyllum commune
extract. 10. Yves Saint Laurent Temps Majeur Elixir De Nui contains
Ganoderma lucidum.11.Murads Sleep Reform Serum contains
schizophyllan. 12. Kose Sekkisei Cream contains Cordyceps sinensis
6 Fungal Diversity (2010) 43:19
is very popular in China and Japan as a replacement for
sodium hyaluronic acid. It is used in P&Gs SK-II Skin
Care Product, and in brands by Kanebo and Fancl.
5. Bel-mélo has a cosmetic line containing β-glucans from
several mushroom species as well as dietary supple-
ments. It claims Both will rejuvenate the inside and
then, indulge the skin care with equally potent Mycelium
Glaze factor (MG factor(http://www.superbetaglucan.
com/about-corporate.php). They claim to use sources
from Agaricus subrufescens (as A. blazei), Agrocybe
aegerita,Armillaria mellea,Antrodia camphorata,Cor-
dyceps sinensis,Trametes versicolor,Flammulina velu-
tipes,Ganoderma lucidum,Grifola frondosa,Hericium
erinaceus,Lentinula edodes,Pleurotus nebrodensis,
Schizophyllum commune,Phellinus linteus,Sparassis
crispa and other medicinally active species.
6. Mushroom Wisdom Inc. produce several mushroom
products (Figs. 14,16,17 and 18). Most are dietary
supplements with some mentioned above, but Aqua-
mella Cream (Fig. 1) contains extracts of Tremella
fuciformis and is for skin care.
7. Earthherbs® L.L.C. produce cosmeceuticals and nutri-
cosmetics from the Siberian chaga mushroom (Inonotus
obliquus). The product Earthherbs Anti-Oxidant Treat-
ment contains chaga mushroom cream and claims to
rejuvenate the skin.
8. Murads products incorporating mushrooms include
Murads Cleansing Shave, a rich cleanser and shave
cream (Fig. 11). This product uses mushroom enzymes
which claim to promote gentle exfoliation in preparation
for shaving. Murads Age Diffusing Serum (Fig. 11), is
an anti-aging serum targeting the signs and symptoms
of hormonal aging and contains Lentinula edodes.
Several other cosmetic products using mushrooms are
listed in Table 1and illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18.
Mushroom cosmetics patents
Several patents for using mushrooms in the cosmetics
industry have been issued and two examples are given here.
13 14 15
16 17 18
Figs. 1318 Various nutricos-
metics containing mushroom
products. 13.Grifron Maitake
contains Grifola frondosa.14.
Mushroom Wisdom Super
Turkey Tail contains Coriolus
versicolor.15. Perricone MD
Maitake Mushroom Extract
SX-Fraction.16. Mushroom
Wisdom Super Lions Mane
contains Hericium erinaceus.
17. Mushroom Wisdom Super
Tremella contains Tremella fuci-
fomis and Grifola frondosa.18.
Mushroom Wisdom Super Royal
Agaricus contains Agaricus
Fungal Diversity (2010) 43:19 7
1. US Patent 6843995 uses the common truffles (Ascomy-
cota, Tuberales), Choiromyces maeandriformis, Tuber
uncinatum, T. melanosporm, T. magnatum,T. aestivum
and T. brumale and mixtures thereof in cosmetics
formulations. Truffle extracts provide a non-specific
stimulation of the immune system and improve the
bodys anti-viral defense mechanisms. Extractscon-
tain essential amino acids, vitamins B1, B2 and B3,
and polysaccharides such as lentinan and eritadenin.
Excellent regenerative effect occurs when applied to
the skin; the extracts are also effective against hair
loss (Golz-berner and Zastrow 2005).
2. US Patent 6,645,502 B2: Revlon Consumer Products
Corp. is for an anhydrous cosmetic composition,
comprising a water-insoluble Polyporus extract. When
this is applied to the skin it reduces the shiny appearance
and/or skin imperfections (Sandewicz et al. 2003).
Potential for mushrooms cosmetics in Asia
Nearly all mushrooms presently grown in Asia are imported
strains from other countries or local strains that have been
cultivated for long periods. There is a need to investigate
the use of new strains in commercial production. Agaricus
subrufescens (= A. blazei) has been shown to have
medicinal properties and can be grown at warmer temper-
atures. Ruilin Zhao, a former student at the Mushroom
Research Centre in Pa Pae, Chiang Mai carried out a
taxonomic study of the genus Agaricus in northern Thai-
land and found more than 30 species, including Agaricus
subrufescens as well as many new to science. These species
have the potential to be cultivated and used in mushroom
cosmetics. There are also many other species or strains of
mushrooms that can be investigated for use in mushroom
Acknowledgements This study was financially supported by the
project value added products from Basidiomycetes: Putting Thai-
lands biodiversity to use(BRN049/2553).
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... Antimicrobial fungal-derived compounds have gained significant attention in various fields, including cosmetics, due to their potential benefits in preventing and treating microbial infections. These compounds offer several applications within cosmetic formulations, particularly in skin care and hair care products (Figure 3) [10][11][12]138,139]. ...
... Its principal application resides in antiaging preparations. In the realm of cosmetology, ergothioneine extracted from A. bisporus, G. frondosa, and L. edodes stands as a widely employed resource [10]. ...
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The phenomenon of drug resistance in micro-organisms necessitates the search for new compounds capable of combating them. Fungi emerge as a promising source of such compounds as they produce a wide range of secondary metabolites with bacteriostatic or fungistatic activity. These compounds can serve as alternatives for commonly used antibiotics. Furthermore, fungi also accumulate compounds with antiviral activity. This review focuses on filamentous fungi and macrofungi as sources of antimicrobial compounds. The article describes both individual isolated compounds and extracts that exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity. These compounds are produced by the fruiting bodies and mycelium, as well as the biomass of mycelial cultures. Additionally, this review characterizes the chemical compounds extracted from mushrooms used in the realm of cosmetology; specifically, their antimicrobial activity.
... Fungi synthesize natural active biomolecules that can be applied to develop cosmetic products due to their important biological functions and applications such as antiaging, antioxidants, skin revitalization, skin whitening, and hair products (Hyde et al. 2010;Wu et al. 2016;Badalyan et al. 2022). Numerous bioactive metabolites such as polysaccharides and glycoproteins, as well as other metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and several lipid components, have been explored due to their functions in skin health (Usman et al. 2021). ...
... Lentinan extracted from L. edodes has the potential to protect the skin against environmental pollutants (Zi et al. 2020). Agaricus subrufescens residues were also used as cosmeceutical ingredients (Hyde et al. 2010;Wisitrassameewong et al. 2012). Other macrofungal species utilized in skin care preparations include Taiwanofungus camphoratus, Grifola frondosa, Inonotus obliquus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, and Schizophyllum commune (Wu et al. 2016). ...
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... Mushroom and their products have a substantial demand in the global market. Mushroom based skin and hair care products, though in their infancy, have already marked their place in the market with a number of commercial products being launched by global cosmetic brands such as Bio Botanica Inc. (U.S.), Bristol Botanicals Limited (U.K.), Qirines Brand (Korea), Menard Brand (Japan) etc. Table 1 lists various commercial mushroom based cosmetic products 1,45,54 . ...
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... Cosmeceuticals contain bioingredients that confer different effects, such as antiaging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and photoprotective [58]. Wild mushrooms are resources of bioactive molecules, some of those acting as enzyme-inhibitory compounds [60,61]. In this study, we assessed the effect of the hydroethanolic extracts from wild mushrooms on two skin-related enzymes, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase. ...
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Wild and cultivated edible and medicinal mushrooms have long been known by humans as a source of valuable food and medicines in Asian and European countries. Currently, only a small fraction of estimated fungal biodiversity has been investigated for their bioactivities and medicinal properties, while mushrooms possess a potential in pharmacy, medicine, cosmetics and food industry. In the kingdom of fungi, mushrooms taxonomically belong to phyla Basidiomycota (class Agaricomycetes) and Ascomycota (class Pezizomycetes) of the subkingdom Dikarya.Mushrooms, such as truffles (Tuber), morels (Morchella), Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus species), are considered gourmet healthy food. Mushrooms (Ganoderma and Trametes species, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes, etc.) are also perspective sources for myco- pharmacological research as source of bioactive molecules (alkaloids, lipids, phenolics, polysaccharides, proteins, steroids, terpenoids, etc.) with more than 130 medicinal effects (anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, hypocholesterolaemic, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, etc.). There is scientific evidence of using mushroom-derived biotech products as dietary food, pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals and other products available in the market.The current review discusses recent advances in research on the biotechnological potential of mushrooms to develop novel biotech products and perspectives for their applications in human welfare.KeywordsBiotech productsCosmeceuticalsMedicinalMushroomsNutriceuticalsPharmaceuticals
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Summary In the present work, the production of two potent antioxidants, gallic and ellagic acids, has been studied using solid-state fermentation (SSF) of tannin-rich aqueous plant extracts impregnated in polyurethane foam. Extracts from creosote and tar bush were ino- culated with Aspergillus niger PSH spores and impregnated in the polyurethane support. The kinetics of the fermentation was monitored every 24 h. The maximum biodegradation of hydrolysable and condensed tannins was, respectively, 16 and 42 % in creosote bush, and 40 and 83 % in tar bush. The maximal productions of gallic and ellagic acid (152 and 177 %, respectively) were reached with aqueous extracts of creosote bush. Tar bush ex- tracts inoculated with A. niger PSH spores produced only gallic acid (92 %), while ellagic acid was not recovered after the fermentation process. Results demonstrated the potential use of these plants as a source for the production of antioxidants.
Polysaccharides extracted from Himematsutake, the fruiting body of Agaricus blazei Murill with hot water were fractionated and purified by ethanol precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, gel-filtration, affinity chromatography, etc. A total of 17 polysaccharide samples thus obtained were given an antitumor activity test (Sarcoma 180/mice i.p. p.o. method) and traces of their activities through the fractionation and purification processes were found. FI0-a-β, FA-1-a-α, FA-1-a-β, and FA-2-b-β, were obtained as water soluble polysaccharides fractions having great antitumor activities. Analyses of physico-chemical properties and IR- and NMR-spectra of these active fractions showed that their main components were: FI0-a-β, (1→6)-; (1→3)-β-D-glucan; FA-1-a-α, acidic (1→6)-; (1→4)-α-D-glucan; FA-1-a-β, acidic (1→6)-; (1→3)-α-D-glucan; and FA-2-b-β, acidic RNA-protein complex. © 1990, Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry. All rights reserved.
After extraction of a hot-water-soluble polysaccharide (FI) from the fruiting bodies of Himematsutake (Agaricus blazei Murili), water-insoluble polysaccharides were obtained by successive extraction with 1% ammonium oxalate solution (FII), 5% sodium hydroxide solution (Fill and FIV), 20% sodium hydroxide solution (FV), and 5% lithium chloride-dimethylacetamide solution (FVI) in that order. These water-insoluble fractions were further fractionated by ethanol precipitation, gel-filtration, etc. Polysaccharides, polysaccharide-protein complexes, and chitin substances thus obtained were assayed for their antitumor activities using the Sarcoma 180Jmice i.p., p.o. method. The heteroglycan-protein complexes, FII-а, -b and -c, obtained from FII had weak antitomor activities. A remarkable antitumor activity was found in a glycoprotein, FIII-2-b, fractionated and purified from Fill. The polysaccharide portion of this polysaccharide-protein complex (polysaccharide, 50.2% and protein, 43.3% each on a weight basis) consisted of (l→6)-B-D-glucan, and its protein portion was rich in Asx, Glx, Ala, Leu, and Pro. A high antitumor activity was found in a xyloglucan-protein complex, FIV-2-b, fractionated and purified from FIV. Antitumor activity was found also in a glucoxylan, FV-2-a, obtained from FV. No significant antitumor activity was found in a chitin substance, FVI. © 1990 by the Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was purified to homogeneity from fruiting bodies of edible mushroom, Lentinus edodes, by ammonium sulfate precipitation, diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sepharose FF ion-exchange chromatography, Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography, and preparative PAGE. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be approximately 54 Kda by gel filtration chromatography, and the enzyme was shown to be consisted of two identical subunits of molecular weight 27 Kda by SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 4.9 as determined by isoelectric focusing. The enzyme had optimal pH and temperature of pH 8.0 and 20°C, respectively. The activity of the enzyme was inhibited by hydrogen peroxide, but inhibited less by cyanide and azide. The native enzyme was found to contain 0.89 g-atom of iron, 0.75 g-atom of zinc, and 0.46 g-atom of copper per mol of enzyme. Analysis of amino acids composition revealed that the SOD from L. edodes contained a relatively large amount of glutamic acid/glutamine, proline, cysteine, isoleucine, and leucine, but only a small amount of aspartic acid/asparagine, tyrosine, and tryptophan when compared to the other iron-containing SODs.
After extraction of a hot-water-soluble polysaccharide (FI) from the fruiting bodies of Himematsutake (Agaricus blazei Murill), water-insoluble polysaccharides were obtained by successive extraction with 1% ammonium oxalate solution (FII), 5% sodium hydroxide solution (Fill and FIV), 20% sodium hydroxide solution (FV), and 5% lithium chloride-dimethylacetamide solution (FVI) in that order. These water-insoluble fractions were further fractionated by ethanol precipitation, gel-filtration, etc. Polysaccharides, polysaccharide-protein complexes, and chitin substances thus obtained were assayed for their antitumor activities using the Sarcoma 180/mice i.p., p.o. method. The heteroglycan-protein complexes, FH-a, -b and -c, obtained from FII had weak antitomor activities. A remarkable antitumor activity was found in a glycoprotein, FIII-2-b, fractionated and purified from Fill. The polysaccharide portion of this polysaccharide-protein complex (polysaccharide, 50.2% and protein, 43.3% each on a weight basis) consisted of (1-*6)-β-D-glucan, and its protein portion was rich in Asx, Glx, Ala, Leu, and Pro. A high antitumor activity was found in a xyloglucan-protein complex, FIV-2-b, fractionated and purified from FIV. Antitumor activity was found also in a glucoxylan, FV-2-a, obtained from FV. No significant antitumor activity was found in a chitin substance, FVI.
L-ergothioneine is a naturally occurring antioxidant that is available from dietary sources. There is a lack of an adequate assay applicable to identify and quantify this antioxidant in plant material. Thus, the objective was to identify and quantify the ergothioneine content of mushrooms including Agaricus bisporus (white and brown strains), Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and Grifola frondosa by an analytical method utilizing a high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Freeze dried mushroom powder was analyzed with two C18 columns in tandem utilizing an isocratic mobile phase consisting of an aqueous sodium phosphate buffer with 3% acetonitrile and 0.1% triethylamine. Ergothioneine was identified by matching the retention time and mass spectra of the authentic compound with the mushroom samples, while quantification was completed via absorbance at 254 nm. The ergothioneine content of the mushrooms ranged from 0.4-2.0 mg/g (dry wt). The white Agaricus bisporus contained the least ergothioneine and portabellas (brown) contained the highest within the varieties of A. bisporus. The specialty mushrooms tested (Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, Grifola frondosa) all contained a statistically significant greater amount of ergothioneine compared to the A. bisporus; however, no significant difference was found between these specialty mushrooms.
Two new ceramides were identified among the chemical constituents of the fungus Phellinus pini. The structures of these compounds, N-(2'-hydroxynonacosanoyl)-D-erythro-1,3,4-trihydroxy-2-amino-octadecane and N-(2'-hydroxytriacontanoyl)-D-erythro-1,3,4-trihydroxy-2-amino-octadecane, were established by spectroscopic and chemical means. In addition, the lignan (+)-pinoresinol and the steroids episterol and ergosterol peroxide have been isolated from the same source. Copyright (C) 1996 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd