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Abstract

Arthropod assemblages were examined in Lama forest reserve, a protected area situated in the Dahomey gap, southern Benin, composed of plantations, degraded forest and remnants of natural forest. The objectives were to compare assemblages in relation to forest type and use, to elucidate the value of forest plantations for biodiversity conservation and to identify indicator species for specific forest habitats. Arthropods were collected over an 11-month period, using standardized sets of traps (pitfall, emergence, Malaise and flight intercept traps). Nine different habitats were studied, including natural and degraded forest, forest plantations (Tectona grandis and Senna siamea) of different age, and isolated forest fragments. Our analysis focused on detritivorous and xylophagous arthropods but also included ground beetles and heteropterans, totalling 393 species. We found no differences in species richness among natural and degraded forest habitats in the centre of the reserve (Noyau central). Outside of the Noyau central, species richness was highest in old teak plantations and isolated forest fragments and lowest in young teak and fuelwood plantations. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) separated three main groups: (1) natural forest, (2) degraded forest and young plantations, and (3) old plantations and isolated forest fragments. Multiple regression of DCA scores of the first two axes on environmental variables identified one natural and three disturbance-related predictors of arthropod assemblages in Lama forest: soil type (texture), canopy height, naturalness (proportion of Guineo-Congolian plant species) and understorey vegetation cover. We identified 15 indicator species for six different forest habitats. The highest numbers were found in abandoned settlements and old teak plantations. β-diversity was similar among the three DCA ordination groups (degraded forest excluded). Values for β-diversity were relatively high, suggesting that all major forest habitats contribute significantly to regional species pools and should therefore be protected. To enhance arthropod diversity, we propose that management practices in Lama forest should aim to encourage the development of species-rich understorey vegetation of the Guineo-Congolian phytogeographical region.
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... These soils, which are predominant in the region, present medium to very clayey texture and good depth, drainage, permeability and brittleness. According to Petillon et al. (2006) andLachat et al. (2006), soil type and vegetation cover, as well as the temporal and regional scales, are important factors to determine the composition and richness of collected arthropods. ...
... In general, in most of the orders found in the functional groups in areas with parica, those with chewing mouthparts should be highlighted. We also highlight the populations of Carabidae beetles that can increase with soil fertilization, because they depend seasonally on landscape -to breed in the spring, and survive the winter (Varchola and Dunn, 1999;Hunter, 2002). Hunter (2002) reports that field areas can act as reserves of predators, especially carabids. ...
... We also highlight the populations of Carabidae beetles that can increase with soil fertilization, because they depend seasonally on landscape -to breed in the spring, and survive the winter (Varchola and Dunn, 1999;Hunter, 2002). Hunter (2002) reports that field areas can act as reserves of predators, especially carabids. ...
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Currently, little is known about the edaphic insect fauna associated with forest ecosystems with parica (Schizolobium parahyba var. Amazonicum) (Fabaceae) in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. The species presents great economic value to the timber market; however, insects with potential damage to this crop have been identifi ed in periodic surveys. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in commercial plantations of different ages in the dry and rainy seasons, the abundance and dominance of major functional groups of insects in forest ecosystems with parica. Collection was carried out using pitfall traps exposed for 24 h. Insect identifi cation contemplated order and family. The results showed that the number of insects was directly related to the precipitation regime, because the total density of the insect fauna in the rainy season was 61% higher than in the dry season. During the study period, 17,595 insects belonging to 11 orders and 37 families were captured. The order Hymenoptera was the most abundant in the dry season, representing 92.20% of the individuals captured. The highest number of families (15) was found in the order Coleoptera. In the rainy season, the two and three year-old plantings showed greater richness of orders (9), but fewer families (22 and 21), respectively. Five-year-old plantings were the richest regarding families (26), mainly for being more stable environments. The most important functional groups were herbivores, predators, and social insects. / RESUMO: Atualmente, pouco se sabe sobre a entomofauna edáfi ca associada aos ecossistemas florestais com paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum) (Fabaceae), na Amazônia brasileira. A espécie possui grande valor econômico para o mercado madeireiro; no entanto, há insetos com potenciais de danos a esta cultura e que podem ser identifi cados a partir de levantamentos periódicos. Objetivou-se avaliar, em plantios comerciais com diferentes idades, nos períodos seco e chuvoso, a abundância e a dominância dos grupos funcionais dos principais insetos presentes em ecossistemas fl orestais com paricá. A coleta foi com armadilhas do tipo pitfall, expostas durante 24 horas. A identifi cação contemplou ordem e família. Os resultados demonstraram que o número de insetos teve relação direta com o regime hídrico, pois a densidade total da entomofauna na época chuvosa foi 61% superior à do período seco. Foram capturados 17.595 insetos, pertencentes a 11 ordens e 37 famílias. A ordem Hymenoptera foi a mais abundante no período seco, representando 92,20% dos indivíduos capturados. O maior número de famílias (15) foi na ordem Coleoptera. No período chuvoso, os plantios de dois e três anos apresentaram maior riqueza de ordens, em número de nove; entretanto, houve menor número de famílias, 22 e 21, respectivamente. Os plantios de cinco anos, por serem ambientes mais estáveis, foram os mais ricos, com 26 famílias. Os grupos funcionais de maior importância foram os herbívoros, os predadores e os insetos sociais.
... The threshold level implies that frequency of occurrence in either natural forest or shifting cultivation habitat must be ≥50 % and its relative abundance must be ≥50 % of total abundance of all sites of natural forest and shifting cultivation habitats (Dufrene and Legendre 1997 ). The criteria for the selection of an indicator beetle species may comprise both species either confined to a particular habitat or those more commonly distributed nevertheless primarily abundant in a particular type of habitat (Lachat et al. 2006). Analysis of indicator beetle species was performed with PC-ORD 4.27 (McCune and Mefford 1999). ...
... This is the first study to examine beetle diversity between natural forests and shifting cultivation land use systems in Mizoram, an Indo-Burma hotspot region of eastern Himalayas. Insects' community response to the degradation of tropical forests by anthropogenic disturbance has been investigated extensively in different habitats and shown that species composition, richness, and assemblages vary in relation to disturbance gradient, spatial and temporal dimensions of the habitat, and occurrence of local species (Gormley et al. 2007; Lachat et al. 2006; Rainio and Niemelä 2006). Beetles are extremely linked with microhabitats, and certain herbivore beetles depend on particular plant genera for food (Barton et al. 2009). ...
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... Similarly, for Hymenoptera, only 221 of the species richness of 404 reported by Kolo and Hormenyo (2009) are listed. Recent studies (Davis and Philips, 2005; Lachat et al., 2006; Norris et al., 2010; Kolo et al., 2011) have indicated that human land-use has negatively affected non-lepidopteran arthropods in West Africa. Larsen (2005) , however, acknowledges that the population of savanna and adventive species has increased significantly within the forest zone, and Belshaw and Bolton (1993) believe that the change may not be significant. ...
... A hipótese é que, quanto mais longa e mais complexa essa teia, mais estável é o ecossistema. Entende-se que a preservação do ecossistema e integridade dessa teia possa ter impacto positivo na conservação da biodiversidade e igualmente na perspectiva do manejo de pragas (Lachat et al., 2006). Os organismos da macrofauna respondem às diversas intervenções antrópicas realizadas no meio ambiente (Lavelle & Spain, 2001). ...
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