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Ontogenetic Approach to Assessment of Chufa Response to Culture Conditions by the Method of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Induction

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Abstract

Application of earlier proposed ontogenetic approach to assessment of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) response to artificial-light culture growing conditions differing in illuminance and type of mineral nutrition is described. It was shown that, on biological soil-like substrate, plant productivity did not increase as a result of PAR level rising, and life time of chufa leaves was reduced to 11 days as compared with 18 days on the neutral substrate. Changes in the parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence induction (F v/F m, Yield = (F m − F t)/F m, and ETR = 0.5 × 0.84 × Yield × PAR) analyzed on the basis of ontogenetic approach show that it can disclose nonoptimal culture conditions.

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... no poverty, zero hunger as well as good health and well-being. Added to this is the fact that tiger nut is currently an underutilised crop in Ghana since there is no significant commercial product from the nut (Tetteh and Ofori 1998;Shikhov et al. 2011;Adejuyitan 2011;Ukwuru and Ogbodo 2011). More so, research into the production, utilisation and marketing of tiger nut has been few and scanty (Shikhov et al. 2011) except the work of Sanful (2009) on the feasibility of producing healthy yoghurt from tiger nut milk prepared under strict laboratory regulations that will attract premium prices and is yet to be made readily available to consumers. ...
... Added to this is the fact that tiger nut is currently an underutilised crop in Ghana since there is no significant commercial product from the nut (Tetteh and Ofori 1998;Shikhov et al. 2011;Adejuyitan 2011;Ukwuru and Ogbodo 2011). More so, research into the production, utilisation and marketing of tiger nut has been few and scanty (Shikhov et al. 2011) except the work of Sanful (2009) on the feasibility of producing healthy yoghurt from tiger nut milk prepared under strict laboratory regulations that will attract premium prices and is yet to be made readily available to consumers. Hence, it is not surprising that no effort has been made to commercialise the crop as compared to countries such as Spain where specialised regulatory authorities have been set up to foresee quality compliance (Tetteh and Ofori 1998;Yeboah 2014). ...
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The study assessed consumers' perception and willingness to pay for tiger nut yoghurt developed by Sanful (Pak J Nutr 6:755-758, 2009) in Ghana. It used cross-sectional data collected from 315 yoghurt consumers from five (5) communities in the Kumasi metropolis. Descriptive statistics, 3-point Likert scale, perception index and the tobit regression model were the analytical tools employed. The results showed that while consumers considered nutritional benefits as the most important attribute, they considered appearance as the least. The overall mean perception index was 0.67, indicating that consumers had a positive perception for tiger nut yoghurt. Even though the price of 500 ml of 'normal' yoghurt was Gh¢2.50 (US$0.57), consumers were willing to pay Gh¢3.50 (US$0.79) for the same volume. Finally, the results revealed that, consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for tiger nut yoghurt was influenced by age, sex, educational level, household size, monthly income and price of the product. The study concludes that Sanful's tiger nut yoghurt has bright market prospects in the Kumasi metropolis and similar urban settings. Entrepreneurs, the unemployed and investors are therefore encouraged to consider a business in tiger nut yoghurt production even though there is also the need for a profitability analysis of tiger nut yoghurt production. In addition, there is the need to increase awareness and education on the nutritional and health benefits of tiger nut since education has a positive influence on consumers' willingness to pay for the product.
... Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) has been seen as an important tuber crop since ancient time and it is mostly consumed by certain tribes in Africa, although underutilized in agriculture [1]. It was introduced in Europe during the Middle Ages by the Arabs after their expansion across the north of Africa. ...
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Tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus) are tuber crops that are consumed as snack, for their medical and nutritional values. Thus, if exposed to microbial contamination, can impose public health treat. This present study was aimed at analysis of airborne bacteria in environmental exposed tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus) sold by street vendors in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Exactly, six (6) different yellow tiger nut distributed at 10gram each, six (6) different exposed air contaminated Petri dishes samples by passive sampling method were collected randomly from three different traffic points and assessed using standard microbiological techniques. The mean aerobic bacteria coliform counts (CFU) ranged from 1.1×103±0.30 to 3.4×104±0.10 at Abakpa junction, 1.5×103±0.10 to 3.8×104±0.16 at Afikpo road and 2.0×103±0.17 to 3.9×104±0.20 at Vanco junction. Six different bacteria species were detected, namely Staphylococcus aureus 11 (25.0%), Escherichia coli 10 (22.7%), Salmonella species 7 (15.9%), Shigella species 5 (11.4%), Enterobacter species 5 (11.4%) and Pseudomonas species 7 (15.9%). Some of the isolates were resistant to cephalosporin which is one of the major classes of antibiotics commonly available in pharmaceutical stores. Majority of the bacteria isolates were 100% susceptible to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem. Multidrug resistances were reported on 9 (20.5%) aerobic bacteria out of 44 isolates studied. The microbial count in this study is above acceptable threshold and presence of multidrug resistances bacteria in tiger nut is a serious public health concern. Regular monitoring of food items by environmental health officers is ideal to avoid outbreak of epidemic as a result of contaminated tiger nuts/food.
... However, in many countries, Cyperus esculentus is considered a weed [9]. Tiger-nut is not widely used in agriculture and therefore has been poorly investigated [15]. Thus the commercial potentials of tiger-nut which has not been exploited sparked a keen interest in its flour selection for production of cookies. ...
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The proximate, mineral and sensory properties of cookies made with Tiger-nut (Cyperus esculentus) flour were evaluated. The proximate analysis revealed that cookies made from tiger-nut flour enriched with tiger-nut milk and cookies made from tiger-nut flour and cow milk had crude protein, CHO, crude fiber, ash, fat, and moisture contents as follows: 7.51% and 7.37%, 67.52% and 69.22%, 0.61% 0.59%, 1.74% and 1.71, 14.87 and 15.87%, and 6.95% and 5.35% respectively while the minerals (mg/100g) were Phosphorus 226.87 and 238.66,Calcium 26.58 and 31.64, sodium 169.46 and 163.61, iron 1.62 and 1.49, zinc 0.79 and 0.85, and potassium 90.56 and 78.72. The sensory evaluation were also carried out for color, taste, aroma and mouth-feel and the results were 5.40 and 4.80, 4.07 and 3.87, 5.53and 5.20, 3.87 and 4.20, and 4.47 and 4.67 respectively.. The cookies made from tiger-nut flour enriched with tiger-nut milk had higher acceptability to that made from tiger-nut flour enriched with cow milk. The utilization of tiger-nut flour in baking industries will clearly reduce the over dependence on wheat flour as well as the cost of products made from wheat flour, thereby increasing the availability of healthy, gluten-free products in developing countries.
... The ontogeny-related changes in CFI of plant leaves grown under controlled [5][6][7][8]24] and natural [9] light conditions, together with experimental data on age-dependent changes in physiology of photosynthesis [24][25][26], suggest that the above CFI-based classification correlates with the leaf physiological age, because the distinguished groups of CFI curves corresponded to certain stages of leaf ontogeny. Based on the agerelated changes in fluorescence characteristics, we proposed and tested the developmental approach to the assessment of plant leaf states under optimum and stressful growth conditions [7,20,27]. ...
Article
Application of pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) fluorometers for measuring slow stages of chlorophyll fluorescence induction (CFI) is considered. With an example of Triticum aestuvum L. plants grown under continuous illumination at a photon flux density of 600 μmol/(m2 s) photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), the CFI curves were analyzed with leaves of various ages as a function of actinic light intensity. The fluorometer PAM-2100 was applied for measurements of CFI curves. The characteristic peaks of CFI curves in wheat leaves were most conspicuous and had the largest amplitudes at 600–800 μmol/(m2 s) PAR, which corresponds to the middle range of actinic light intensities employed in PAM-2100 fluorometers. In plants exposed to favorable and stressful conditions, the developmental stages may proceed at different rates; thus, the comparison of fluorescence parameters for leaves of equal calendar age but having different physiological states may provide ambiguous data. Therefore, the feasibility of recording CFI curves of different types is quite important for rapid diagnostics of the age and state of plant leaves, as well as for adequate physiological conclusions.
... Presently, the above fluorescence parameters are commonly used for determining plant resistance to stress factors [4,13,24,25] and for studying the leaf ontogeny [8-12, 14, 23]. ...
Article
Wheat (Triticum sativus L.) seedlings of various ages (2- to 16-day-old plants) were used to study age-dependent changes in the chlorophyll fluorescence induction (CFI) at various light intensities during flu- orescence measurements. Plants were raised in a growth chamber using hydroponics with expanded clay, controlled environmental conditions, and 690 µmol/(m2 s) photon flux density (PFD) of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Parameters of CFI were determined under actinic PFD of 380, 580, 820, and 1340 µmol/(m2 s) PAR. The fifth leaf from the stem base, exposed to uniform lighting, was sampled for measurements. This leaf emerged at the plant age of 16 days. Based on fluorescence data, we calculated the maximal photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (F v/F m), the effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Yield), parameters of photochemical (qP) and non-photochemical (qN and NPQ) quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, the F p/F t ratio, and the “vitality index” (fluorescence decrease ratio, R fd). At moderate actinic PFD, applied commonly in PAM fluorometers (about 380 µmol/(m2 s)), age-dependent changes in NPQ, F p/F t, and R fd were observed. Analysis of CFI parameters in wheat leaves of different ages at PFD increasing from 380 to 820 µmol/(m2 s) revealed that R fd, NPQ, and qN are the most sensitive markers of the leaf age among all parameters tested. These suitable indicators can be used for rapid assessment of the leaf age.
... The maximum quantum yield of PS 2, determined from the Fv/Fm parameter of pulse-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence, did not show any significant (ANOVA, P > 0.05) changes in the control plants and Treatment 2 plants at the end of the HS treatment ( Table 7), suggesting that no irreversible damage had been done to the photosynthetic apparatus (PSA) of chufa plants (Van Kooten and Snel, 1990;Shikhov et al., 2011). However, in the Treatment 1 plants, the HS treatment at 690 lmol m À2 s À1 PAR decreased this parameter by 32% compared to its initial value (Table 7). ...
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The use of mineralized human wastes as a basis for nutrient solutions will increase the degree of material closure of bio-technical human life support systems. As stress tolerance of plants is determined, among other factors, by the conditions under which they have been grown before exposure to a stressor, the purpose of the study is to investigate the level of tolerance of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) plant communities grown in solutions based on mineralized human wastes to a damaging air temperature, 45°C. Experiments were performed with 30-day-old chufa plant communities grown hydroponically, on expanded clay aggregate, under artificial light, at 690 μmol·m-2·s-1 PAR and at a temperature of 25 °C. Plants were grown in Knop’s solution and solutions based on human wastes mineralized according to Yu.A. Kudenko’s method, which contained nitrogen either as ammonium and urea or as nitrates. The heat shock treatment lasted 20 h at 690 and 1150 μmol·m-2·s-1 PAR. Chufa heat tolerance was evaluated based on parameters of CO2 gas exchange, the state of its photosynthetic apparatus (PSA), and intensity of peroxidation of leaf lipids. Chufa plants grown in the solutions based on mineralized human wastes that contained ammonium and urea had lower heat tolerance than plants grown in standard mineral solutions. Heat tolerance of the plants grown in the solutions based on mineralized human wastes that mainly contained nitrate nitrogen was insignificantly different from the heat tolerance of the plants grown in standard mineral solutions. A PAR intensity increase from 690 μmol·m-2·s-1 to 1150 μmol·m-2·s-1 enhanced heat tolerance of chufa plant communities, irrespective of the conditions of mineral nutrition under which they had been grown.
... However, in many countries, C. esculentus is considered a weed (De Vries 1991) and it is underutilized (Adejuyitan 2011; Ukwuru and Ogdobo 2011). Tiger nut is not widely used in agriculture and, therefore, has been poorly investigated (Shikhov and others 2011). ...
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Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) is a weed plant (yellow nut sedge) of tropical and Mediterranean regions. Its sweet almond‐like tubers are highly appreciated for their health benefits and nutritive value: high content of fiber, proteins, and sugars. They are rich in oleic acid and glucose, as well as in phosphorus, potassium, and vitamins C and E. In Spain, these tuberous “nuts” are mainly used to manufacture a milky beverage called “horchata de chufa.” Tiger nut has attracted very little scientific and technological interest, except for the production of “horchata de chufa” and some studies on its oil. Development of new products from the tubers could enhance more interest in this crop. In this respect, various opportunities are offered: source of dietary fiber, use of its oil in cooking or salad preparation, production of caramel to be used as a food additive. This review presents an overview of the tiger nut, its products, and the co‐products obtained during commercial processing.
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Climate change is already affecting East Africa. This includes the Banhine area, the driest region in Mozambique, but with a steadily increasing population. In favourable times people live from subsistence farming, which depends on rainfall. However, during prolonged dry periods when crops fail they depend on wild plant reserves such as Bolboschoenus glaucus tubers. Larger areas of surface-exposed tubers of this key plant species have been found in the Banhine area, probably dug up by burrowing animals. With the intention of imitating increasingly long periods of drought, we investigated the consequences when B. glaucus tubers are moved upwards from the substrate in an empirical greenhouse experiment. We observed that once brought up from the soil substrate, these storage organs rapidly lose mass and do not retain their vitality even for half a year. Our findings imply that these tubers are best kept in situ. The lack of resistance of these edible plants to disturbances in dry climate conditions can have serious consequences for emergency food supply of local populations and animals. Therefore, follow-up studies are warranted and awareness should be raised.
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The range of variations in parameter τ0.5 - half-time of fluorescence intensity decrease during the slow phase of chlorophyll fluorescence induction (CFI) - has been studied during ontogeny of leaves of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants in plant communities of different structures. Plants were grown hydroponically on expanded clay aggregate in growth chambers, under PPFD of 400 μmol(photon) m-2 s-1, under controlled conditions. Analysis of the literature data and results of experimental observations of τ0.5 behavior compared to other CFI parameters, nonphotochemical quenching coefficient, qN, in particular, leads to the conclusion that parameter τ0.5 can be effectively used for indirect estimation of variations in the activity of photosynthetic apparatus during ontogeny of plant leaves. Dramatic global climate change is a factor that increases the importance of stress tolerance of plants, on the one hand, and urges researchers to develop methods for monitoring the state of the plants, on the other. All stressors, whatever part of the plant they may affect, eventually, directly or indirectly, influence photosynthesis, which is primarily related to the activity of photosynthetic apparatus (PSA) at the leaf level. In recent years, the method of chlorophyll fluorescence induction (CFI) based on the Kautsky effect has become a widespread method for ecological monitoring of plant communities (Lichtenthaler et al. 2005, Lazár 2015, Kalaji et al. 2017). Sometimes, when plants are subjected to external stresses, it is essential to determine quickly the functional state of the leaf PSA and estimate reversibility (or extent) of changes in PSA activity. A common approach is to use a set of characteristics based on measurements of amplitude parameters of the plant leaf CFI curve (Roháček 2002).
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The study addresses the possibility of long-duration operation of a higher plant conveyor, using a soil-like substrate (SLS) as the root zone. Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were used as study material. A chufa community consisting of 4 age groups and radish and lettuce communities consisting of 2 age groups were irrigated with a nutrient solution, which contained mineral elements extracted from the SLS. After each harvest, inedible biomass of the harvested plants and inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort were added to the SLS. The amounts of the inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort to be added to the SLS were determined based on the nitrogen content of the edible mass of harvested plants. CO2 concentration in the growth chamber was maintained within the range of 1100–1700 ppm. The results of the study show that higher plants can be grown quite successfully using the proposed process of plant waste utilization in the SLS. The addition of chufa inedible biomass to the SLS resulted in species-specific inhibition of growth of both cultivated crops and microorganisms in the “higher plants – SLS” system. There were certain differences between the amounts of some mineral elements removed from the SLS with the harvested edible biomass and those added to it with the inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort.
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