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Abstract

Reviews findings on the relationships between locus of control and anxiety and examines these relationships for three types of anxiety measures; general trait anxiety, situation specific trait anxiety, and state anxiety. In general, findings support the existence of meaningful relationships between greater externality and higher levels of both general trait anxiety and test anxiety. It was suggested that the relation between locus of control and state anxiety is a function of the situational context in which state anxiety is measured.
... Furthermore, a number of studies have established a link between locus of control and negative mental health such as depression (Benassi et al., 1988;Presson & Benassi, 1996), anxiety (Archer, 1979;Carden et al., 2004;Watson, 1967) stress (Krause & Stryker, 1984;Pruessner et al., 2005;Siu et al., 2002) and suicidal ideation (Lester, 1989;Lester et al., 1991;Pearce & Martin, 1993). ...
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A major underlying assumption of positive psychology is that we can influence our well-being through our own behavior. It remains an open question as to whether the general public shares this perception, and how this is related to their actual level of well-being. Do they feel a sense of control over their well-being or do they see it more as subject to external influences? There is currently no defined scientific construct to describe this phenomenon. Therefore, the aim of the present research was to define a concept of a locus of control specific to well-being (WB-LOC) and develop a multidimensional scale with which to measure it (WB-LOC12). To examine the psychometric properties of the WB-LOC scale, we conducted three studies with the following analyses: an exploratory analysis in Study 1 (n = 349), a confirmatory analysis with validity and reliability evaluations in Study 2 (n = 341), and a third study (n = 586), in which we translated the scale from French into English and evaluated the factorial structure and internal consistency in diverse cultural samples. Results indicated a solid reliability and validity. Moreover, exploratory and confirmatory analyses supported the three-factor structure in both the French and English versions. In conclusion, the WB-LOC12 scale shows robust psychometric properties and can be used in further research.
... The interrelationship between locus of control and psychopathology has been investigated extensively, and the overall impression is that an individual's perception of the locus of control of life situations, affects the degree of resilience in the face of adversity. The most consistent finding is that those with a predominant disposition towards external locus of control of life events tend to demonstrate increased levels of psychopathology, especially anxiety, either as a general trait or in the face of adversity (Archer, 1979;Biaggio, 1985). A recent systematic review of 29 studies published between 1997 and 2013, with a combined sample size of 7204, has also demonstrated that greater deficit in perceived personal control is associated with higher levels of trait anxiety (Gallagher et al., 2014). ...
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Locus of control (LOC) is a modifiable mediator of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among traumatized individuals and a potential target of intervention. Compared with studies involving adults, the potential mediation effect of LOC on PTSD symptoms among trauma-exposed children and adolescents is relatively under-explored. This study, therefore, assessed the mediation effects of LOC on the association between lifetime cumulative trauma and PTSD symptoms among a large cohort of adolescents from different cultural background. Cross-sectional study. LOC was determined using the Multi-Dimension Locus of Control Scale; Posttraumatic stress symptoms using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index; and other significant negative life events using the Life Events Checklist. Among 3826 adolescents who completed the study, external LOC explained 24% of variance (R2 = .24; F2,3823 = 619.01; p < .01) in PTSD symptoms and had significant indirect effect on the relationship between self-reported cumulative traumatic event exposure and PTSD symptoms (ß = .14; 95% BC CI [.10, .20]). Moderated mediation results showed significant potentiation of the moderation effects among older adolescents; boys; and those from more affluent families. The study further strengthened the hitherto limited evidence that external LOC partially mediate the relationship between cumulative trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms among adolescents.
... do r = .40 (Archer, 1979). ...
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The study focuses on the role of perfectionism, locus of control and mindfulness in understanding trait anxiety and on their interrelationship. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the dimensions of perfectionism (adaptive and maladaptive), locus of control and mindfulness, and the dimensions of trait anxiety (social evaluation, physical danger, ambiguous situations and everyday situations), and also the contribution of the former to explaining the variance of the latter. The research was conducted online and data were collected on 368 participants (273 women and 95 men) aged between 20 to 65 years, who completed the following questionnaires: Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R), Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (RI-E), Mindful Attention Awarennes Scale (MAAS) and Endler Multidimensional Anxiety Scale-Trait (EMAS-T). The results showed that more external and less mindful people attained higher scores on all dimensions of trait anxiety. Furthermore, people higher on maladaptive perfectionism attained higher scores on all dimensions of trait anxiety except physical danger, with which a correlation was not confirmed. People higher on adaptive perfectionism attained higher scores on the dimension of ambiguous situations, while no correlation was confirmed with other dimensions. Both adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism were confirmed as positive predictors of trait anxiety dimensions (with which a correlation was confirmed). Mindfulness was confirmed as a negative predictor of all trait anxiety dimensions except ambiguous situations. Furthermore, external locus of control was a positive predictor of the dimensions of physical danger and ambiguous situations, while its relationship with social evaluation and everyday situations was mediated by maladaptive perfectionism. The findings have theoretical and practical implications, and provide guidelines for future research.
... This sudden onset is against, for instance, the theory of locus of control, which is closely linked to the risk of poor psychopathological states. 16 Likewise, we included only those with idiopathic epilepsy as they are unique in the sense that, by definition, the underlying cause of their epilepsy is not known, 6 which goes against the theory of causal inference. For example, the fear elements were related to the difficulty in understanding the nature of epilepsy and why do seizures start and stop ( Table 2). ...
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Introduction: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate fear related to epilepsy and its treatment among those with idiopathic epilepsy. Our secondary objective was to estimate the psychometric properties of a brief Bhalla-Gharagozli Fear in epilepsy Questionnaire (BG-FEQ). Methods: We conducted patient-finding exercise in our study areas through various means to obtain subjects with idiopathic epilepsy. We carefully examined each patient through a detailed case-history examination. Following that, we evaluated fear related to epilepsy by using Bhalla-Gharagozli Fear in Epilepsy Questionnaire (BG-FEQ) across two broad domains: epilepsy and pharmacotherapy. Results: The study obtained 52 subjects (39.0 years; 45.0% males, 70.0% married, 35.0% unqualified, 85.0% active epilepsy, 80.0% generalized seizures) with idiopathic epilepsy. The alpha coefficient was 92.8, with no item-specific coefficient of ≤0.91. The alpha coefficient was 0.90 and 0.93 for reporting a "yes" and "no" to the items, respectively. We obtained a two-factor structure of BG-FEQ that provided a cumulative variance of 83.6%. The majority (65.0%) reported at least one fear. The per-patient mean number of the fear element was 2.1 (95% CI 1.1-3.3), which differed significantly for males and females (1.1, 95% CI 0.4-2.6 and 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-4.6, respectively, p=0.03). The most frequent fear was that of addiction and the bad effects of anti-seizure medications (both 45.0%). Upon bootstrap regression after constraining gender, the fear elements were associated with illiteracy, difficulty in understanding epilepsy and sleeping in a prone position. The sample power was 99.0%. Conclusion: There was a significant representation of fear among those with idiopathic epilepsy, especially among the females, particularly the fear of brain tumour, premature death and more frequent/severe seizures over time. At least 65.0% of idiopathic subjects are likely to be affected by at least one fear. The essential mitigating approach should be the education of practitioners towards better identification and therapeutic handling of comorbid constructs, and also for the education of patients and their caregivers towards better awareness and prevention. There is also a need for formal Epilepsy Educators towards better awareness, therapeutic support and prevention of epilepsy.
... Eating behaviors refer to a complex interplay amongst physiological, psychological, social and genetic factors that influence food preferences and quantity of food intake [47], and show strong associations with obesity and eating disorders [43]. In fact, the relationship between external LOC and worst mental health has been proved in previous literature, in other health conditions such as prenatal depression [48], infertility [49], anxiety [50] or in general population [51]. Some limitations of the study should be considered. ...
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Introduction The Multidimensional Weight Locus of Control Scale (MWLCS) measures a person’s beliefs regarding the locus of control or lack of locus of control over his/her body weight. Purpose We aim to evaluate the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the MWLCS with Spanish normal weight, overweight and obese samples. Methods The research was carried out in two different studies. The first included a sample of 140 normal weight participants, selected out of a 274 sample recruited with an online survey. Study 2 was carried out in a sample of 633 participants recruited from the PREDIMED-Plus study. Out of them, 558 participants fulfilled the weight criteria and were categorized into: overweight (BMI 25 − < 29.99; N = 170), obese class I (BMI 30 − < 34.99; N = 266), and obese class II (BMI 35 − < 39.99; N = 122). Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure of the MWLCS, and reliabilities and Spearman’s correlations were estimated. Invariance measurement was tested across the three subgroups of weight in Study 2. Results A three-factor structure indicating weight locus of control factors (internal, chance, and powerful others) was supported, both via EFA in the normal weight sample and CFA in the overweight and obese samples. In the normal weight sample, the powerful others dimension was positively related to BMI and the dimensions of the Dutch Eating Behaviors Questionnaire. Additionally, the scale showed evidence of scalar invariance across the groups with different weight conditions. Conclusions This scale seems to be a psychometrically appropriate instrument and its use is highly recommended when designing interventions for overweight or obese individuals. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.
... As individuals with a more external LOC experience lower control over their fate they typically experience more stress. An external LOC is a risk factor for the onset of anxiety and depressive disorders (Barlow, 2000;Beekman et al., 1998;Chorpita and Barlow, 1998;Wiersma et al., 2011), their unfavorable course (Hovens et al., 2016), and a higher severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms (Abdolmanafi et al., 2011;Archer, 1979;Benassi et al., 1988;Chorpita and Barlow, 1998;Hoehn-Saric and McLeod, 1985). This relationship between LOC and anxiety and depression was also found in longitudinal studies although follow-up times up till 12 months can be considered as limited (Hooke and Page, 2002;Struijs et al., 2013). ...
Chapter
With the increased globalization of psychology and related fields, family and culture are central issues. This chapter centers on designing, testing, and interpreting culturally based accounts of family relationships and their impact on individual and social interactions. In particular in collectivistic cultures, the strength of this assertion is advanced when over 80% of the Mexicans agree with the statement that “one should always be loyal to one’s family.” This statement is only one of the 123 historic-socio-cultural premises of the Mexican family. A description of research conducted in Mexico about family, its structure and composition, and its dynamics and effects is presented. Additionally, family functioning is a process that involves the individual, the family, and culture. In order to assess the overall perception of family functioning, a scale was developed in two stages. A study based on open questions was conducted in order to learn how Mexicans perceive their family relationships. Based on the exploratory stage, an objective questionnaire was developed. Psychometric evaluation of the measure yields 45 items grouped in 4 factors: positive family environment, hostility/avoidance of conflict, control/problems in the expression of feelings, and cohesion/rules. Data on the effects of socialization practices on family functioning, the mediation role of this functioning on individual and group well-being, as well as the relationship of family variables with other psychological phenomena are presented for the Mexican culture.
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Incentive contracts are among the most prescribed means for alleviating agency problems. Accordingly, understanding when and why certain types of incentive contracts are effective is of crucial importance to organizations. Prior research documents that while employees generally prefer to work under contracts that include bonuses, employees exert more effort under economically equivalent penalty contracts. One reason for this is that penalties cause employees to experience greater expected disappointment than do bonuses. This study extends prior research in this area by documenting that external locus of control (ELOC), an individual characteristic, helps explain why employees respond to incentive contracts. We predict and find that, compared to individuals with higher ELOC, individuals with lower ELOC are less susceptible to contract frame-induced differences in expected disappointment and are thus not as motivated by penalty contracts compared to bonus contracts. This finding extends theory on contract framing and has important implications for how organizations implement incentive contracts in practice.
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102 randomly selected university women were administered measures of opinion leadership in fashion, field dependence, locus of control, and anxiety. Product-moment correlation was used to test the association between variables. Opinion leadership in fashion was positively related to debilitating anxiety and negatively related to facilitating anxiety. External locus of control was positively related to debilitating anxiety and negatively related to facilitating anxiety. No significant correlation was found between opinion leadership in fashion and field dependence or locus of control or between field dependence and locus of control or anxiety.
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Measures of external control, n Ach, debilitating anxiety, facilitating anxiety, social desirability, intolerance of ambiguity, extraversion-introversion, neuroticism, nonverbal ability, verbal ability, and field-independence were intercorrelated for a group of 84 male and female undergraduates (Group A). Measures of external control, n Ach, and test anxiety were intercorrelated for an older group of 199 male and female undergraduates (Group B). Results indicated a tendency for external control subjects to be relatively high in anxiety and neuroticism. Females in Group A were relatively high in external control. Sex differences were obtained in relationships between variables, particularly those involving social desirability.
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Research involving perceived internal vs external control of reinforcement as a personality variable has been expanding at a rapid rate. It seems clear that for some investigators there are problems associated with understanding the conceptualization of this construct as well as understanding the nature and limitations of methods of measurement. This article discusses in detail (a) the place of this construct within the framework of social learning theory, (b) misconceptions and problems of a theoretical nature, and (c) misuses and limitations associated with measurement. Problems of generality-specificity and unidimensionality-multidimensionality are discussed as well as the logic of predictions from test scores. (35 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated job proficiency, personal quality, employability, need for achievement, fear of failure, and 16 other personality attributes of 140 vocational rehabilitation clients in relation to their locus of control. Correlates of the locus of control were the S's compliance with rules, observance of safety practices, care of equipment, ability to work with others, work tolerance, manners in the shop, training satisfaction, and 16 PF factors B and G. Internals and externals showed significant mean differences on their ability to work with others, cooperation, self-reliance, courtesy, reliability, work tolerance, work knowledge, care of equipment, safety practices, compliance with shop rules, training satisfaction, need for achievement, and 16 PF factors B, G, Q1, and Q4. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)