ArticlePDF Available

Scavenging on human corpses as a source for stories about man-eating piranhas

Authors:

Abstract

Piranhas have a reputation for man-eating, notwithstanding the absence of authenticated records of persons attacked and killed by these fishes. Three cases of piranhas scavenging on human corpses were recorded in Mato Grosso, western Brazil. One corpse, found four days after drowning, was almost reduced to a skeleton. Another corpse was recovered in a few hours, also after drowning, without the soft parts of the head. The third corpse, recovered 20 h after the victim fell into the water due to a myocardial infarction, had flesh only on the trunk. Pygocentrus nattereri and, to a minor extent, Serrasalmus spilopleura were probably the necrophagous piranhas. Some of the human deaths attributed to piranhas most probably are cases of scavenging on drowned or otherwise already dead persons, by these opportunistic schooling carnivores.
Environmental Kology of Fishes Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 75-77,1987
0 Dr W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht.
Scavenging on human corpses as a source for stories about man-eating
piranhas
Ivan Sazimar & Sergio de Andrade Guimaraes2
Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13081 Campinas, Stio Paulo, Bras2
2 Hospital Geral de Pocont, 78740 Pocone’, Mato Grosso, Brasil
Keywords: Feeding habits, Necrophagy, Characiformes,
Pygocentrus nattereri, Serrasalmus spilopleura
Synopsis
Piranhas have a reputation for man-eating, notwithstanding the absence of authenticated records of persons
attacked and killed by these fishes. Three cases of piranhas scavenging on human corpses were recorded in
Mato Grosso, western Brazil. One corpse, found four days after drowning, was almost reduced to a skeleton.
Another corpse was recovered in a few hours, also after drowning, without the soft parts of the head. The
third corpse, recovered 20 h after the victim fell into the water due to a myocardial infarction, had flesh only
on the trunk:.
Pygocentrus nattereri
and, to a minor extent,
Serrasalmus spilopleura
were probably the
necrophag0u.s piranhas. Some of the human deaths attributed to piranhas most probably are cases of
scavenging on drowned or otherwise already dead persons, by these opportunistic schooling carnivores.
Introduction
Sharks and piranhas share the reputation of being
man-eating fishes (Coppleson 1950, Schultz 1964,
Myers 1972, Baldridge 1975). However, whereas
there are many well-documented shark attacks
which resulted in human deaths (e.g. Coppleson
1950, Gilbert 1963, Baldridge 1975), no comparable
evidence can be presented for the alleged attacks
by piranhas (e.g. Schultz 1964, Mark1 1972, Gould-
ing 1980). This latter situation may be due to the
remoteness of the places, and absence of eyewit-
nesses, where deaths caused by piranhas might
occur (Myers 1972). On the other hand, under
some circumstances a death may erroneously be
attributed to piranhas. Here we report on piranhas
scavenging on human corpses, in western Brazil,
and suggest that this feeding habit is one plausible
basis for the man-eating reputation of these fishes.
Methods
During the years 1985-1986 we were able to trace
three cases of piranhas scavenging on human cor-
pses. Two instances occurred in the Rio Sao
Lourenco basin (- 17” 02 S, 56” 25 W), and the
third near the town of Pocone, (- 16”19’S,
56” 40 W), both sites in the Pantanal region, Mato
Grosso, western Brazil. The cases were reported to
the police station in Pocone, where a post-mortem
was carried out and the condition of the corpses
recorded. Besides this, eyewitnesses were inter-
viewed in the three cases. Photographs of one of
the corpses were withdrawn by the victim’s family
in order to avoid press sensationalism. For similar
reasons, photography was not allowed in the other
two cases.
76
Results
In one case, a woman - 25 years old drowned after
falling overboard from a boat in the main channel
of the river. According to eyewitnesses, her corpse
was found downstream four days later; it was
caught underwater by a branch near the riverbank,
and was noticed because of the commotion caused
in the water by the aggregation of feeding piranhas.
The corpse was almost entirely reduced to a skel-
eton, with some flesh left only on the left thigh.
In another case, a man - 50 years old drowned
while crossing a river on horseback. His corpse was
recovered a few hours later, without the right ear
and cheek, part of the tongue, and.most of the right
side of the neck. According to eyewitnesses, the
corpse was resting on the bottom on his left side,
which may explain flesh loss on the right side of the
head only. As the corpse remained underwater for
a relatively short time, and the victim wore the
tough, leather clothing used by the local herdsmen,
no other body parts were eaten away.
In the third case, a man - 70 years old fell into
the water after a cardiac death (myocardial infarc-
tion). His corpse was recovered about 20 h after the
death, with flesh left only on the trunk, including
the shoulders. His clothing was stripped off, with
the exception of some remains on the trunk. The
head, neck, both arms and legs, were reduced to
bare bone. The terminal and middle phalanges
were missing, with the exception of both toe
thumbs. According to eyewitnesses, the corpse was
found in calm water, about 50-70cm deep.
The three corpses described here showed charac-
teristic marks left by piranha bites, on the soft
tissue that remained. Some of the marks were
larger and wider than others, suggesting that at
least two piranha species, of different size, were
scavenging on the corpses. However, many bites
were unrecognizable, especially those on the first
corpse described.
Discussion
The piranhas, neotropical freshwater fishes of the
order Characiformes, are widespread in all major
South American river basins (Myers 1972, Gould-
ing 1980). Their feeding habits vary with the species
and range from fruit and leaf-eaters to scale, fin,
and flesh-eating predators (Goulding 1980, Sazima
1986). Many species are omnivorous, and those
with predominantly carnivorous habits rely mainly
on fishes as prey (Braga 1975, Goulding 1980).
Species of the genus Pygocenfrus (cf. Machado
1984) bear the man-eating reputation, especially
P.
naftereri
(Myers 1972, Braga 1975), notwithstand-
ing the notable absence of reliable accounts and, to
the best of our knowledge, of any authenticated
record of a person being severely maimed, killed,
and devoured by piranhas.
The scavenging habits of both
Pygocentrus nat-
tereri
and
Serrasalmus spilopleura,
the two com-
monest piranha species in the Pantanal region,
have already been observed by us. Both species
may feed on dead fishes, birds, and mammals,
sometimes already decayed, although their staple
diet consists of live fishes, eaten whole or by clip-
ping off pieces of fins, muscle, or scales (Sazima
1986, I. Sazima & F.A. Machado unpublished). In
the instance of the human corpses reported here,
the evidence suggests that
P. nattereri
was the main
scavenger. This species collects in larger schools
than
S. spilopleuru,
attains a larger body size and
has stronger jaws and teeth capable of cutting
through the tough skin and firm flesh of large mam-
mal corpses. Once this is done, the smaller S.
spilopleura
can share the softer and smaller parts of
the corpse; other necrophagous fishes may do so as
well. Moreover, some of the recognizable bite
marks found on the corpses can be attributed with
some confidence to the wide-jawed, blunt-headed
P. nattereri.
In the cases described here, had the fleshless and
mutilated victims been found without knowing that
they died before their bodies were eaten away,
three more instances might have been added to the
numerous grisly stories about piranhas killing and
devouring people (e.g. Roosevelt 1914, Barros
1947, Myers 1972, Braga 1975). We do not deny the
possibility that a school of
Pygocentrus nattereri
may kill and devour a human being under special
circumstances, as already pointed out by some au-
thors (Schultz 1964, Mark1 1972, Goulding 1WO):
77
However, we suggest here that at least some of the
deaths attributed to piranhas most probably are
instances of scavenging on drowned or otherwise
already dead persons, by these schooling and op-
portunistically feeding carnivorous fishes.
Acknowledgements
We thank C. Nunes da Cunha and F.A. Machado
for their assistance, and T.M. Lewinsohn and G.
Shepherd for their comments on the manuscript.
Partly supported by CNPq grant 300992/79 to I.
Sazima.
References cited
Baldridge, H.D. 1975. Shark attacks. Berkley, New York, 263
PP.
Barros, F., Jr. 1947. Hunting and fishing throughout Brazil -
Mato Gross.0 e Goias. Cia. Melhoramentos, SPo Paulo. 408
pp. (In Portuguese).
Braga, R.A. 1975. Ecology and ethology of piranhas in north-
eastern Brazil (Pisces - Serrasalmus La&p&de, 1803). Banco
do Nordeste do Brazil, Fortaleza, Ceara, 268 pp. (In Por-
tuguese) .
Coppleson, V.M. 1950. A review of shark attacks in Australian
waters since 1919. Med. J. Australia 2: 680-687.
Gilbert, P.W. (ed.) 1963. Sharks and survival. D.C. Heath,
Boston. 578 pp.
Goulding, M. 1980. The fishes and the forest. University of
California, Berkeley. 280 pp.
Machado, A. 1984. Studies on the systematics of the subfamily
Serrasalminae (Teleostei, Characidae), Part 3, On the status
and phylogenetic relationships of the genera Pygocenbus,
Pristobrycon
and
Serrasalmus.
Acta Biol. Venezolana 12:
l-70. (In Spanish).
Markl, H. 1972. Aggression und Beuteverhalten bei Piranhas
(Serrasalminae, Characidae). Z. Tierpsychol. 30: 190-216.
Myers, G.S. (ed.) 1972. The piranha book. T.F.H. Publications,
Neptune City. 128 pp.
Roosevelt, T. 1914. Through the Brazilian wilderness. C. Scrib-
ners Sons, New York. 410 pp.
Sazima, I. 1986. Similarities in feeding behaviour between some
marine and freshwater fishes in two tropical communities. J.
Fish Biol. 29: 53-65.
Schultz, H. 1964. Piranhas: fact and fiction. T.F.H. Publica-
tions, Neptune City. 82 pp.
Received 3X.1986 Accepted 1.12.1986
... Particularly when such lesions resemble incised wounds there is a high degree of suspicion towards criminal activity. Post-mortem predation by large animal scavengers [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] frequently results in such artifactual injuries [3,5,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. The terrestrial scavengers that have been reported range from domesticated animals [5][6][7][8] to wild canines [9], rodents [10,11] and avians [12] while sharks, crustaceans and fish are common aquatic predators [13][14][15]. ...
... Particularly when such lesions resemble incised wounds there is a high degree of suspicion towards criminal activity. Post-mortem predation by large animal scavengers [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] frequently results in such artifactual injuries [3,5,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. The terrestrial scavengers that have been reported range from domesticated animals [5][6][7][8] to wild canines [9], rodents [10,11] and avians [12] while sharks, crustaceans and fish are common aquatic predators [13][14][15]. ...
... Post-mortem predation by large animal scavengers [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] frequently results in such artifactual injuries [3,5,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. The terrestrial scavengers that have been reported range from domesticated animals [5][6][7][8] to wild canines [9], rodents [10,11] and avians [12] while sharks, crustaceans and fish are common aquatic predators [13][14][15]. The monitor lizard gets a rare mention as a post-mortem predator of forensic significance [2] and very little information is available on its scavenging activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Monitor lizards are large reptilian animals mostly seen around water based habitats. Sri Lanka has an endemic water monitor lizard called the kabaragoya (Varanus salvator salvator) which is perhaps the most common large animal scavenger in the country. Scavenging by the kabaragoya can result in postmortem incised injuries which are caused by their sharp pointed claws as they grip or crawl over a dead body. The author presents four cases where these claw marks raised significant medicolegal issues. In one case of a young female they mimicked defense injuries that might be seen in a person that was killed with heavy sharp weapon trauma to the head. In another case, claw marks on the face raised homicidal allegations in an immersion death following intoxication. In a case of suicidal drowning these injuries simulated self-inflicted cuts. The fourth case shows how claw marks complicated the investigation of a dismembered upper limb. Kabaragoya claw marks are mostly seen in decomposed and macerated bodies recovered from water. Injuries are mostly superficial and limited to skin and soft tissues. Bony injuries are not seen. Awareness of the creature’s scavenging habits and careful analysis of the appearance and distribution of the injuries is essential to differentiate claw marks from sharp weapon trauma.
... Piranhas are predaceous, characid freshwater fishes widespread in South American rivers and lakes. 1 About 30 species are currently recognized in the genera Pygocentrus and Serrasalmus, both of which contain species potentially dangerous to humans. [1][2][3][4] Piranhas are carnivores that feed mostly on fish and small terrestrial vertebrates and occasionally attack their prey in schools. 1,2 Despite the folklore about these fishes, there are few, if any, reliable records of attacks by piranha schools on large animals, including humans. ...
... [1][2][3][4] Piranhas are carnivores that feed mostly on fish and small terrestrial vertebrates and occasionally attack their prey in schools. 1,2 Despite the folklore about these fishes, there are few, if any, reliable records of attacks by piranha schools on large animals, including humans. Additionally, there is a misunderstanding about actual attacks on live humans and scavenging by piranhas on humans already dead due to other causes such as heart failure and drowning. ...
... Additionally, there is a misunderstanding about actual attacks on live humans and scavenging by piranhas on humans already dead due to other causes such as heart failure and drowning. 2 The most common profile of a piranha injury on humans is caused by a single fish biting only once. The typical bite consists of a single, circular, craterlike wound with laceration of tissues. ...
Article
Full-text available
There are many tales describing ferocious schools of piranha attacking humans, but there are few scientific data supporting such behavior. The very few documented instances of humans attacked and eaten by piranha schools include 3 that occurred after death by other causes (eg, heart failure and drowning). These predaceous fishes, however, do occasionally injure bathers and swimmers in lakes and rivers. The characteristic profile of most injuries is a single bite per victim, generally related to the fish defending its brood. This paper describes an outbreak of piranha bites in a dammed river portion in southeast Brazil. The outbreak was caused by the speckled piranha, Serrasalmus spilopleura, a widespread species which benefits from the growing tendency of damming rivers all over Brazil. This article focuses on the epidemiological and clinical aspects of the injuries, as well as on piranha biology, to gain a better understanding of the natural history of bite outbreaks.
... After the box office success of the film "Shark" in 1975, Hollywood film studies produced the film "Piranha" in 1978, which was inspired by Roosevelt's report of the piranha's attack. This movie and several other film productions contributed even more to the false legend of "man-eating piranhas" [7]. Therefore, piranhas have attained this fearsome reputation, despite the absence of reliable reports of people who have been attacked and killed by these fish [7,8]. ...
... This movie and several other film productions contributed even more to the false legend of "man-eating piranhas" [7]. Therefore, piranhas have attained this fearsome reputation, despite the absence of reliable reports of people who have been attacked and killed by these fish [7,8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Drowned bodies rescued from the rivers of the Amazon basin exhibit several artefacts caused by the actions of the cadaveric ichthyofauna, namely, the “candiru”. This study aims to review and discuss the fish species responsible for the largest number of attacks on bodies in the Madeira River (Porto Velho - Rondônia, Brazil), to describe the feeding strategies and types of lesions caused by each species, and to demystify the myth of the “man-eating piranhas”. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first that aims to provide a systematic analysis of cadaveric ichthyofauna and forensic findings in this region.
... Rather strong fear elicited by a South American fish, the piranha, is also noteworthy, as co-evolution with humans is unlikely and it does not easily cause fatal injuries to humans (although tissue loss and extensive bleeding occur [74]). Despite the folklore and movies, piranhas rarely attack large animals including humans (whether individually or in piranha schools [75]). Piranhas are also rather small compared to, for example, highly scoring sharks, and, although they have sharp teeth, these are not visible while swimming. ...
Article
Full-text available
Animals have always played an important role in our everyday life. They are given more attention than inanimate objects, which have been adaptive during the evolution of mankind, with some animal species still presenting a real threat to us. In this study, we focused on the species usually evaluated as the scariest and most disgusting in the animal kingdom. We analyzed which characteristics (e.g., weight, potential threat for humans) influence their evaluation in a nonclinical Central European WEIRD population (Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic). The tested animals were divided into two separated sets containing 34 standardized photos evoking predominantly one negative emotion, fear or disgust. The pictures were ranked according to their emotional intensity by 160 adult respondents with high inter-rater agreement. The most fear-eliciting species are mostly large vertebrates (e.g., carnivorans, ungulates, sharks, crocodiles), whereas smaller fear-evoking vertebrates are represented by snakes and invertebrates are represented by arachnids. The most disgust-evoking animals are human endo- and ectoparasites or animals visually resembling them. Humans emotionally react to fear-evoking animals that represent a real threat; however, identifying truly dangerous disgust-evoking animals might be harder. The results also support a somewhat special position of snakes and spiders.
... Furthermore, it preys upon sick and injured fishes and scavenges on cadavers of fishes and other vertebrates (Pauly 1994). The popular man-eating reputation of piranhas is likely due to the necrophagous habits of these fish (Sazima and de Andrade Guimarães 1987), as only rarely have 'feeding frenzy' attacks on large live prey have been observed. In the wild, red piranha exhibit social behavior and swim in schools, usually of 20 to 30 fish that feed together (Bellamy 1968;Sazima and Machado 1990). ...
Article
The piranha enjoys notoriety due to its infamous predatory behavior but much is still not understood about its evolutionary origins and the underlying molecular mechanisms for its unusual feeding biology. We sequenced and assembled the red-bellied piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri) genome to aid future phenotypic and genetic investigations. The assembled draft genome is similar to other related fishes in repeat composition and gene count. Our evaluation of genes under positive selection suggests candidates for adaptations of piranhas' feeding behavior in neural functions, behavior and regulation of energy metabolism. In the fasted brain, we find genes differentially expressed that are involved in lipid metabolism and appetite regulation as well as genes that may control the aggression/boldness behavior of hungry piranhas. Our first analysis of the piranha genome offers new insight and resources for the study of piranha biology and for feeding motivation and starvation in other organisms.
... Furthermore, it preys upon sick and injured fishes and scavenges on cadavers of fishes and other vertebrates (Pauly 1994). The popular man-eating reputation of piranhas is likely due to the necrophagous habits of these fish (Sazima and de Andrade Guimarães 1987), as only rarely have 'feeding frenzy' attacks on large live prey have been observed. In the wild, red piranha exhibit social behavior and swim in schools, usually of 20 to 30 fish that feed together (Bellamy 1968;Sazima and Machado 1990). ...
Article
Full-text available
The piranha enjoys notoriety due to its infamous predatory behavior but much is still not understood about its evolutionary origins and the underlying molecular mechanisms for its unusual feeding biology. We sequenced and assembled the red-bellied piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri) genome to aid future phenotypic and genetic investigations. The assembled draft genome is similar to other related fishes in repeat composition and gene count. Our evaluation of genes under positive selection suggests candidates for adaptations of piranhas' feeding behavior in neural functions, behavior and regulation of energy metabolism. In the fasted brain, we find genes differentially expressed that are involved in lipid metabolism and appetite regulation as well as genes that may control the aggression/boldness behavior of hungry piranhas. Our first analysis of the piranha genome offers new insight and resources for the study of piranha biology and for feeding motivation and starvation in other organisms.
... The most commonly known members of this group are piranhas [1]. Sazima et al. presented three cases of postmortem piranha feeding [93]. The first case belonged to a 25-year-old woman who had been found 4 days in a nearly skeletonized state after she had drowned. ...
Article
The Amazon and neighboring South American river basins harbor the world's most diverse assemblages of freshwater fishes. One of the most prominent South American fish families is the Serrasalmidae (pacus and piranhas), found in nearly every continental basin. Serrasalmids are keystone ecological taxa, being some of the top riverine predators as well as the primary seed dispersers in the flooded forest. Despite their widespread occurrence and notable ecologies, serrasalmid evolutionary history and systematics are controversial. For example, the sister taxon to serrasalmids is contentious, the relationships of major clades within the family are inconsistent across different methodologies, and half of the extant serrasalmid genera are suggested to be non-monophyletic. We analyzed exon capture to reexamine the evolutionary relationships among 63 (of 99) species across all 16 serrasalmid genera and their nearest outgroups, including multiple individuals per species to account for cryptic lineages. To reconstruct the timeline of serrasalmid diversification, we time-calibrated this phylogeny using two different fossil-calibration schemes to account for uncertainty in taxonomy with respect to fossil teeth. Finally, we analyzed diet evolution across the family and comment on associated changes in dentition, highlighting the ecomorphological diversity within serrasalmids. We document widespread non-monophyly of genera within Myleinae, as well as between Serrasalmus and Pristobrycon, and propose that reliance on traits like teeth to distinguish among genera is confounded by ecological homoplasy, especially among herbivorous and omnivorous taxa. We clarify the relationships among all serrasalmid genera, propose new subfamily affiliations, and support hemiodontids as the sister taxon to Serrasalmidae.
Article
Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1858 and S. maculatus Kner, 1858 are described from Guaporé Basin. Most authors have always considered S. maculatus as a synonym of S. spilopleura, a well-known species from Paraná-Paraguay and Amazon basins. The examination of the type-series in Vienna shows that S. maculatus and S. spilopleura are in fact two different species. In S. spilopleura the infraorbital series bones are narrower and the naked cheek zone is broader than in S. maculatus. Two thirds at the base of caudal fin are dark and the last third hyaline in S. spilopleura whereas S. maculatus shows a final or subterminal black bar in the caudal fin, depending on the size of the specimens and the sampling area. S. spilopleura specimens identified by recent authors have to be placed under S. maculatus. The specimens from Guaporé basin show a morphotype very close to that of S. spilopleura but they differ from this species by a grey to black terminal band on the caudal fin.
Article
Full-text available
Resumo. Neste trabalho avaliamos um cadáver humano do sexo masculino atacado por piranhas no Pantanal Mato Grossense. Palavras-Chave: Morte por afogamento; Estado do Mato Grosso; Ataques mortais; Piranhas de família Characidae. Abstract. In this study we evaluated an attacked-by-piranha human male cadaver in Mato Grosso's Pantanal.
Article
The feeding behaviour and diets of fishes in two tropical habitats, a marine reef and a freshwater pond, were studied comparatively in Brazil. Similarities were found in the tactics employed to obtain food, the social patterns during foraging, and the general diet, notwithstanding lower-level taxonomic differences between the food items. The feeding behaviours of about one-third of the fish fauna from each community were approximately equivalent. The feeding categories of these fishes are briefly described. The similarities in the feeding modes probably reflect structural and functional properties shared by the two communities. Additional behavioural similarities of fishes in both habitats are presented and the lack of some particular foraging modes in each community is noted. The picture emerged that different, unrelated fish assemblages have the ability to evolve towards a similar behavioural and structural organization in response to comparable situations and constraints. The value of underwater observations and naturalistic studies on tropical freshwater fish assemblages is indicated.
Ecology and ethology of piranhas in north-eastern Brazil (Pisces -Serrasalmus La&p&de, 1803) Banco do Nordeste do Brazil
  • R A Braga
Braga, R.A. 1975. Ecology and ethology of piranhas in north-eastern Brazil (Pisces -Serrasalmus La&p&de, 1803). Banco do Nordeste do Brazil, Fortaleza, Ceara, 268 pp. (In Por-tuguese).
Through the Brazilian wilderness. C. Scrib-ners Sons, New York. 410 pp. Sazima, I. 1986. Similarities in feeding behaviour between some marine and freshwater fishes in two tropical communities
  • T Roosevelt
Roosevelt, T. 1914. Through the Brazilian wilderness. C. Scrib-ners Sons, New York. 410 pp. Sazima, I. 1986. Similarities in feeding behaviour between some marine and freshwater fishes in two tropical communities. J. Fish Biol. 29: 53-65.
Piranhas: fact and fiction. T.F.H. Publica-tions, Neptune City. 82 pp. Received 3X
  • H Schultz
Schultz, H. 1964. Piranhas: fact and fiction. T.F.H. Publica-tions, Neptune City. 82 pp. Received 3X.1986 Accepted 1.12.1986
Studies on the systematics of the subfamily Serrasalminae (Teleostei, Characidae), Part 3, On the status and phylogenetic relationships of the genera Pygocenbus, Pristobrycon and Serrasalmus
  • A Machado
Machado, A. 1984. Studies on the systematics of the subfamily Serrasalminae (Teleostei, Characidae), Part 3, On the status and phylogenetic relationships of the genera Pygocenbus, Pristobrycon and Serrasalmus. Acta Biol. Venezolana 12: l-70. (In Spanish).
Hunting and fishing throughout Brazil - Mato Grosso e Goiás. Cia. Melhoramentos, São Paulo
  • F Barros
  • Jr
  • F. Barros Jr
Barros, F., Jr. 1947. Hunting and fishing throughout Brazil -Mato Gross.0 e Goias. Cia. Melhoramentos, SPo Paulo. 408 pp. (In Portuguese).