Abstract and Figures

In the 1980s, Professor Akira Miyawaki introduced a new and innovative reforestation approach in Japan with the challenge to restore indigenous ecosystems, and maintaining global environments, including disaster prevention and carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation. Here, natural vegetation successional stages (from bare soil to mature forest) are practically forced and reproduced, accelerating natural successional times. The Miyawaki method has been applied in the Far East, Malaysia, and South America; results have been very impressive, allowing quick environmental restorations of strongly degraded areas. However, these applications have always been made on sites characterized by high precipitation. The same method has never been used in a Mediterranean context distinguished by summer aridity and risk of desertification. A first test was carried out by the University of Tuscia, Department of Forest and Environment (DAF), 11years ago in Sardinia (Italy) on an area where traditional reforestation methods had failed. For an appropriate Miyawaki application on this site, the original method was modified while maintaining its theoretical principles. Results obtained 2 and 11years after planting are positive: having compared the traditional reforestation techniques, plant biodiversity using the Miyawaki method appears very high, and the new coenosis (plant community) was able to evolve without further operative support after planting. Therefore, the implementation of supplementary technique along with cost reduction might provide a new and innovative tool to foresters and ecological engineering experts for Mediterranean environmental reforestation program. KeywordsEcological restoration–Potential natural vegetation–Ecotechnology–Reforestation practices comparison–Mediterranean environment
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ORIGINAL PAPER
Effectiveness of the Miyawaki method in Mediterranean forest
restoration programs
Bartolomeo Schirone
Antonello Salis
Federico Vessella
Received: 26 January 2010 / Revised: 18 May 2010 / Accepted: 18 May 2010 / Published online: 17 June 2010
Ó International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer 2010
Abstract In the 1980s, Professor Akira Miyawaki intro-
duced a new and innovative reforestation approach in
Japan with the challenge to restore indigenous ecosystems,
and maintaining global environments, including disaster
prevention and carbon dioxide (CO
2
) mitigation. Here,
natural vegetation successional stages (from bare soil to
mature forest) are practically forced and reproduced,
accelerating natural successional times. The Miyawaki
method has been applied in the Far East, Malaysia, and
South America; results have been very impressive, allow-
ing quick environmental restorations of strongly degraded
areas. However, these applications have always been made
on sites characterized by high precipitation. The same
method has never been used in a Mediterranean context
distinguished by summer aridity and risk of desertification.
A first test was carried out by the University of Tuscia,
Department of Forest and Environment (DAF), 11 years
ago in Sardinia (Italy) on an area where traditional refor-
estation methods had failed. For an appropriate Miyawaki
application on this site, the original method was modified
while maintaining its theoretical principles. Results
obtained 2 and 11 years after planting are positive: having
compared the traditional reforestation techniques, plant
biodiversity using the Miyawaki method appears very high,
and the new coenosis (plant community) was able to evolve
without further operative support after planting. Therefore,
the implementation of supplementary technique along with
cost reduction might provide a new and innovative tool to
foresters and ecological engineering experts for Mediter-
ranean environmental reforestation program.
Keywords Ecological restoration
Potential natural vegetation Ecotechnology
Reforestation practices comparison
Mediterranean environment
Introduction
Global climatic changes, together with recent rapid
urbanization and industrialization, have been the main
anthropogenic effects worldwide in destroying natural
environments and increasing risk of desertification. They
suggest the need for performing more environmental con-
servation activity, as well as using innovative environ-
mental recovery activities. In the last two decades,
scientists have developed new insights both in theoretical
and in practical actions for restoration and reconstruction
of natural ecosystems (Clewell and Aronson 2007; Falk
et al. 2006; Jordan et al. 1987; Perrow and Davy 2002a, b;
Soule
´
1980; Miyawaki 1975, 1981). Natural restoration is
strictly related to increased sustainability and includes
rehabilitation of ecosystem functions, enlargement of spe-
cific ecosystems, and enhancement of biodiversity resto-
ration (Stanturf John and Madsen 2004). At the ecological
level, restoration is also defined as ‘an intentional activity
that initiates or accelerates recovery of an ecosystem with
respect to its health, integrity and sustainability’ (Aronson
et al. 2002).
Degraded plant communities are generally quite difficult
or sometimes impossible to restore (Van Diggelen and
Marrs 2003). More than 200 years of reforestation practice
has demonstrated that forest recovery takes a very long
B. Schirone A. Salis F. Vessella (&)
Dipartimento di Tecnologie, Ingegneria e Scienze dell’Ambiente
e delle Foreste (D.A.F.), Universita
`
degli Studi della Tuscia,
via S. Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
e-mail: vessella@unitus.it
123
Landscape Ecol Eng (2011) 7:81–92
DOI 10.1007/s11355-010-0117-0
time, frequently with unsatisfying results. Nowadays, it is
possible to plant plantations of several species, but the
transition from the simple plantation to a forest community
able to evolve and sustain itself, according to the natural
successional pattern, is still a rare event (for Italy, cf.
Bellarosa et al. 1996). On the other hand, the mere
superficial appearance of vegetation restoration should be
avoided. It is essential to restore the natural vegetation
using a combination of native species that conform to the
potential trend of the habitat and to try to restore the whole
specific ecosystem of a region (Miyawaki 1992).
In a natural forest cycle, as Clements (1916) described,
annual plants on barren land are succeeded by perennial
grass, sun-tolerant shrubs, light-demanding, fast-growing
trees, and finally natural forests; each step may require
decades, and the climax vegetation could be formed after
two centuries or more (Connell and Slatyer 1977) (Fig. 1a).
Currently, most forest reforestation programs adopt a
scheme of planting one or more early successional species;
after successful establishment, they are gradually replaced
by intermediate species (either naturally or by planting),
until late successional species arise. This pattern tries to
simulate natural processes of ecological succession, from
pioneer species to climax vegetation. However, it requires
several silvicutural practices and normally takes a long
time (Fig. 1b).
Taking several hundred years to complete the process of
forest restoration is too long for us; because we live in a
world where industry and urbanization are developing very
rapidly, improvement of an alternative reforestation tech-
nique that reduces these times could be a useful tool
(Miyawaki 1999). One reliable forest restoration method is
the ‘native forests by native trees,’ based on the vegeta-
tion–ecological theories (Miyawaki 1993a, b, 1996, 1998b;
Miyawaki and Golley 1993; Miyawaki et al. 1993; Padilla
and Pugnaire 2006) proposed by Prof. Akira Miyawaki and
applied first in Japan. According to this method, restoring
native green environments, multilayer forests, and natural
biocoenosis is possible, and well-developed ecosystems
can be quickly established because of the simultaneous use
of intermediate and late successional species in plantations
(Fig. 1c). The Miyawaki method involves surveying the
potential natural vegetation (sensu Tu
¨
xen 1956) of the area
to be reforested and recovering topsoil to a depth of 20–
30 cm by mixing the soil and a compost from organic
materials, such as fallen leaves, mowed grass, etc. In this
way, the time of the natural process of soil evolution,
established by the vegetational succession itself, is
reduced.
The potential natural vegetation indicates the potential
capacity of the land, theoretically considered, as to which
vegetation it can sustain (Miyawaki 1992). Tree species
must be chosen from the forest communities of the region
in order to restore multilayer natural or quasinatural forests.
For a correct choice, based on reconstructing the potential
natural vegetation, several analyses (e.g., phytosociological
investigation) are required. Detection of the soil profile,
topography, and land utilization can improve our grasp of
the potential natural vegetation. After these field surveys,
all intermediate and late successional species are mixed
and densely planted, with as many companion species as
possible (Kelty 2006; Miyawaki 1998a), and soil between
them is mulched. Mulching is needed to prevent soil dry-
ness, erosion on steep slopes even with heavy rainfall,
weed growth, protect seedlings against cold, and as manure
as materials decompose (Miyawaki 2004). In fact, bio-
coenotic relationships involve autoregulations between
species, favoring a dynamic equilibrium and avoiding any
further silvicultural practice and need no insecticides or
herbicides (with some exceptions). Indeed, in the
Miyawaki method, the principles of self-organized criti-
cality and cooperation theories have been essentially
applied (Bak et al. 1988; Callaway
1997; Camazine et al.
2003; Padilla and Pugnaire 2006; Sachs et al. 2004). It has
Fig. 1 Successional stages as
would follow in natural
conditions (a), adopting
traditional reforestation
methods (b) and the Miyawaki
method (c)
82 Landscape Ecol Eng (2011) 7:81–92
123
been demonstrated that multilayer quasinatural forests can
be built in 15–20 years in Japan and 40–50 years in
Southeast Asia by ecological reforestation based on the
system of natural forests. Results obtained by application
of the Miyawaki method in about 550 locations in Japan, as
well as in Malaysia, Southeast Asia, Brazil, Chile, and in
some areas of China, were found to be successful, allowing
quick environmental restorations of strongly degraded
areas (Miyawaki 1989, Miyawaki 1999).
Until now, the Miyawaki method has been applied in
countries characterized by cold-temperate and tropical
climatic regimes, which do not experience summer aridity
stress and potential risk of desertification (increased by
global change). Thus, the Mediterranean context could be
considered an interesting test to assure the effectiveness of
such a method in other important biomes, even with high
biodiversity hotspots. This paper represents the first test of
reforestation practices in the Mediterranean Basin using the
Miyawaki method. It also offers a comparison between
traditional methods and the proposed one, because the test
has been carried out on target sites where traditional
reforestation approaches are widely used but have mostly
failed.
Materials and methods
Experiment locations and descriptions
On May 1997, we planted two experimental plots at the
Municipality of Pattada (North Sardinia) on sites 2 km
from each other in a straight line (Fig. 2 shows approxi-
mate location of the fields using a Digital Elevation Model
with ESRI ArcMap 9.1 GIS software). In this area, refor-
estation programs have been periodically conducted with
traditional methods since 1905, mainly using Pinus pin-
aster Aiton (maritime pine), Pinus halepensis Miller
(Aleppo pine), Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Carrie
`
re (Atlas
cedar), Quercus suber L. (cork oak), Quercus pubescens
Willd. (downy oak), and Castanea sativa Miller (sweet
chestnut). Techniques involved planting along countour
lines after forming gradoni or terraces by subsoiling, or
along the maximum slope with subsoiling and holes.
To test the Miyawaki method, an experimental plot
(named site A) of 4,500 m
2
was established at Sos Vanzos
close to an artificial lake at 760 m a.s.l. Plot preparation
consisted of brush clearing and tillage in order to shape 13
strips 3.5 m wide (Fig. 3a shows the planting scheme with
Fig. 2 Location of the study
areas. Black solid circle and
square indicate, respectively,
site A and site B; white solid
circles show reforested areas
with traditional methods used as
comparison
Landscape Ecol Eng (2011) 7:81–92 83
123
different mulching operations). Potted tree seedlings were
planted at a density of approximately 8,600 plants/hectare.
A second plot (site B) of 1,000 m
2
is near Uca de s’abba
lughida at 885 m a.s.l. (Fig. 3b shows mulched strips and
plant density used). The preparation was similar to site A
but covered the entire plot. Here seedlings were planted at
a density of approximately 21,000 plants/hectare ca.
A description of the natural environment was carried out
before implantation in order to check the potential natural
vegetation and to proceed with species selection. Table 1
shows the main site characteristics as results of the field
survey, and Fig. 4 compares the Mediterranean climate
pattern with others where the Miyawaki method was suc-
cessful. The data refers to 21 years of records, and the
Walter and Lieth 1960 diagrams were obtained using the
climatol statistical package implemented in R 2.7.1 for
Linux (Guijarro 2009). Phytosociological analysis was
carried out and a check-list of spontaneous species, with
percentage of presence, is reported in Table 2. From this
investigation, it was assumed that a mixed forest with
Quercus ilex L. (holm oak), Quercus suber L., Quercus
pubescens Willd., and Ilex aquifolium L. (common holly)
represented the natural potential vegetation for the area. On
both plots, seeds were collected from nearby natural forest
stands and germinated in four greenhouses owned by the
Regional Forest Directorate of Sardinia. After two or three
leaves had sprouted, seedlings were cultivated in plastic
bags for 1 year. Table 3 shows the species used on site A
and site B, selected according to the natural phytocoenoses.
After planting, mulching with straw, green material
(Navarro-Cerrillo et al. 2009)asTrifolium subterraneum L.
(in site A), and sawdust (in sites A and B) were applied.
Several changes from the original Miyawaki method
were introduced on sites A and B in order to better test its
effectiveness to local environmental conditions. The first
20–30 cm of native soil was labored, and no new soil was
Fig. 3 Planting schemes of
experimental fields. Different
mulching operations in site A
strips (a), mulched strips in site
B with plant distribution (b)
Table 1 Site description
(topographic, surrounding land
cover and natural vegetation
characteristics)
Site A Site B
Locality Sos Vanzos Uca de s’abba lughida
Coordinates 40°37
0
N; 9°11
0
E40°36
0
N; 9°10
0
E
Altitude (m a.s.l.) 760 885
Surface (m
2
) 4,500 1,000
Slope (degrees) 4 0
Aspect NE Flat
Geology Granite Granite
Soil Lithic and Dystric Xerorthents Lithic and Dystric Xerorthents
Land cover (%)
Rocks 1 5
Bare layer 1 2
Litter layer 0 0
Herbaceous layer 60 93
Shrub layer 95 0
Arboreal layer 0 0
Mean height (cm)
Herbaceous layer 10–25 30–40
Shrub layer 100–120 0
Arboreal layer 0 0
84 Landscape Ecol Eng (2011) 7:81–92
123
added; some autochthonous early-successional species (e.g.
Pinus pinaster L. and shrubs) were planted together with
late-successional ones to improve plant community resil-
ience (Castro et al. 2002, 2004;Go
´
mez-Aparicio et al.
2004; Lortie et al. 2004); mulching was provided using
different types of material, as mentioned above, instead of
using only straw.
Data collection and analysis
To estimate the efficiency of this adapted Miyawaki
method to Mediterranean environments, as well as the
relationships in terms of interspecific competition, three
surveys were performed in both experimental plots: in
September 1998, April 1999 and, 10 years later, March
2009. GPS plant position, height (h) and DBH (diameter at
breast height) [3 cm were collected for each individual.
Moreover, mortality percentage trend and relative fre-
quency (defined as number of individuals from each spe-
cies by total number of plants) were computed.
Comparisons were done with two nearby coeval sites
where traditional reforestation techniques were applied to
better understand the differences in plants growth, forest
composition, and vegetation cover in percentage. The first
one (conventionally named R15, 452 m
2
) is a 15-year-old
stand north of site A in a flat area, with Pinus pinaster L.
and Quercus ilex L. planted in holes, with a spontaneous
shrub layer of Arbutus unedo L., Phyllirea latifolia L., and
Erica arborea L.; a conventional 12-m-radius sampling
area was selected for recording height and diameter of all
plants. The other plot (named G15, 400 m
2
) with the same
age of R15, approximately east of site B, belongs to a
gradoni reforested site with Pinus pinaster L., Quercus ilex
L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., and the natural presence of
Arbutus unedo L., Phyllirea latifolia L. and Erica arborea
L. In this case, due to the position of the site, i.e., along the
mountainside with slope greater than 30%, a 4 9 100-m
transect was set up following the contour line.
Results
Comparison between experimental plots
After planting on May 1997, plots were monitored and
percent mortality was calculated for each species. On site
A, 1,450 of 1,723 plants survived 1 year after planting;
after 2 years, this number was reduced to 1,327, and after
Fig. 4 Climate diagrams
according to Walter and Lieth
1960. Diga di Monte Lerno in
Sardinia (closed to Pattada)
shows typical Mediterranean
climate pattern (a); Bintulu
(Malaysia), Nara (Japan), and
Bele
´
m (Brazil) climate patterns,
where the Miyawaki method has
been successfully applied (bd).
T and P indicate temperature
curve and precipitation time
series. Grey rectangles on x-axis
show probable frost months
(when monthly values are
B0°C)
Landscape Ecol Eng (2011) 7:81–92 85
123
Table 2 Major spontaneous species composition outside experimental fields according to Braun-Blanquet (1928)
Species Site A Site B
ABC ABC
Allium roseum L. ?
Anagallis arvensis L. ?
Anthemis arvensis L. ?
Anthoxanthum odoratum L. ?
Aphanes bonifaciensis (Buser) Holub ?
Arbutus unedo L. 2 ?
Artemisia sp. ?
Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. et Viv. 1 ?
Avena barbata L. 3
Briza maxima L. 22
Briza minor L. 1
Bromus hordaceus L. 3
Bromus sp. ?
Cerastium sp. ?
Cistus incanus L. ??
Cistus monspeliensis L. 2 ?
Cistus salvifolius L. 3 ?
Crepis sp. ?
Cynosurus cristatus L. ? 1
Cytisus villosus Pourret ??
Daphne gnidium L. 1 ?
Delphinium halteratum S. et S. ?
Echium vulgare L. ?
Erica arborea L. 3 ?
Erica scoparia L. 4 ?
Erodium botryus (Cav.) Bertol. 1
Genista corsica (Loisel.) DC. 3 ?
Geranium columbinum L. ?
Geranium molle L. 1
Halimium halmifolium (L.) Willk. 2 ?
Helianthemun sp. ?
Hypericum perforatum
L. subsp veronense (Schrank) Fro
¨
hlich ?
Lathyrus angulatus L. ?
Lavandula stoechas L. 1 ?
Linum bienne Miller ?
Lotus subbiflorus Lag. ? 1
Lupinus micranthus Guss. ?
Ornithopus compressus L. ?
Pancratium illyricum L. ?
Phyllirea angustifolia L. 2 ?
Plantago lanceolata L. ??
Polygala vulgaris L. ?
Ranunculus flabellatus Desf. ? 2
Rumex acetostella L. ?
Sanguisorba minor Scop. 3
Sedum caeruleum L. ?
Sedum stellatum L. ?
86 Landscape Ecol Eng (2011) 7:81–92
123
12 years, 672 individuals were still alive (mortality rates
equal to 15.84%, 22.98%, and 61%, respectively). Site B
showed higher rates of mortality except from the first
survey: in 1998, the number of plants that had survived was
1,920; the next year we counted 1,385, and in 2009 there
were 336, with mortality percentages of 10.24%, 35.25%,
and 84.29%, respectively. Note that in site A, 20 species
survived but Salvia officinalis L., a shrub species of sec-
ondary importance, did not. On site B, a significant loss of
subordinate species has occurred since 1999, and a con-
sequent decrease of plant diversity (nine species of 23) was
observed. The main forest species survived, i.e., maritime
pine and the oak group, thus maintaining the possibility of
achieving intermediate and terminal vegetation stages.
Moreover, the presence of Prunus spinosa L. was observed
as an autochthonous species. It has to be kept in mind that
on the same site, other reforestation programs with tradi-
tional methods still failed, mainly due to a relevant water
stagnation. Compared with site A, the success obtained on
site B was less evident, as confirmed by Fig. 5, where
histograms of mortality percentages are reported.
Further comparisons regard the role played by each
species in the plant community as a result of interspecific
competition and natural evolution of vegetation (Padilla
and Pugnaire 2006). By monitoring the number and height
of individuals per species, it was possible to analyze their
position in terms of relevance within the experimental
plots. A K index defined as h 9 m shows a quali-quantita-
tive picture of vegetation dynamism, pointing out which
species constitute both the upper layer and the understory.
Comparisons were possible between sites A and B, as
illustrated in Fig. 6 and Table 4. Diameter was not
considered as a parameter for comparison because most
species, except for maritime pine, showed mean DBH
values \3 cm.
On both plots, the role of Pinus pinaster L. is
undoubtedly the dominant representative of the early-suc-
cessional species. Mean height was 433.24 cm on site A,
around 2.5 times greater than cork oak (the second species
in order of significance), whereas a mean of 325.5 cm was
registered on site B where it towers above the remaining
species. Also, the K index values for Pinus pinaster are
much higher than the other species, emphasizing the
importance of this species on both plots. In fact, K refers to
an overstory layer distinguished only by this species, as
abundant and relevant in terms of number of individuals
and growth performance. Because of its ability to establish
in such ecological contexts, maritime pine is also found in
other traditional reforestation programs all over Sardinia.
Some differences in biodiversity richness of the experi-
mental plots were recorded within the forest understory: on
site A, the oak group is present with holm, pubescent, and
cork oak, along with their secondary early successional
species, such as Spartium junceum L., Arbutus unedo L.,
and Rosmarinus officinalis L., whreas on site B, interme-
diate species are represented only by cork oak and holm
oak in a simpler plant community.
Comparison of the Miyawaki method with traditional
reforestation techniques
Estimating the effectiveness of the Miyawaki method needs
a comparison with other reforestation practices traditionally
applied on the same ecological context, mainly focused on
Table 2 continued
Species Site A Site B
ABC ABC
Senecio vulgaris L. ?
Serapias lingua L. ?
Sheradia arvensis L. ?
Silene gallica L. ?
Silene sp. 1
Stachys glutinosa L. ?
Trifolium strictum L. ?
Trifolium subterraneum L. 1
Tuberaria guttata (L.) Fourr. ??
Vicia sp. ?
Vicia tenuissima (Bieb) Sch. et Th. ?
Viola corsica Nyman subsp limbarae Merxm. et Lippert 2
Vulpia muralis (Kunth) Nees ? 4
A Arboreal, B shrub, C herbaceous layers. Abundance of each species is represented by six class coverage [\1% (?); 1–20% (1); 20–40% (2);
40–60% (3); 60–80% (4); 80–100% (5)]
Landscape Ecol Eng (2011) 7:81–92 87
123
growth performance of selected species. Table 5 describes
the species composition of two selected plots with traditional
reforestation techniques as result of test areas performed, in
comparison with the Miyawaki ones. It is important to note
that the majority of reforested sites in the area have been
planned using traditional techniques; thus, the plots we have
selected for comparison should be considered as a significant
sample of a wider scenario.
Both R15 and G15 show an abundant presence of
spontaneous shrub species, including Arbutus unedo, Erica
arborea, and Phyllirea latifolia, whereas maritime pine
forms the overstory layer with a density of 242 plants/ha in
R15 and 175 plants/ha in G15 instead of 1,040 and
800 plants/ha recorded on sites A and B. The vegetation
structure is simple in both cases, and associated planted
species are represented only by holm oak (354 and 200
plants/ha, respectively) and other secondary species, such
as Rosmarinus officinalis and Cedrus atlantica (a nonau-
tochthonous species used on G15). Except for Pinus pin-
aster, the growth performance of secondary species,
measured by plant density and mean height (including
holm oak), is severely influenced by the massive presence
of spontaneous shrub species that apply a strong competi-
tion. Shared investigated species reveal different vegetative
condition and growth performance depending on local
constraints. Mean and theoretical annual increase of height
(Fig. 7) indicate a good affirmation of maritime pine on
site A, site B, and G15, whereas on R15, it suffers com-
petition by Arbutus unedo, partially balanced by difference
in density species (44 plants/ha of Arbutus unedo against
242 plants/ha of Pinus pinaster). Although mean height of
species common to all study areas does not differ signifi-
cantly, plant density on site A is around four times higher
than on R15 and five times on G15, whereas on site B,
maritime pine densities are 3 and 4.5 times higher than on
traditional reforested plots were observed.
Discussion and conclusions
A large debate concerning naturalistic silviculture, natu-
ralization of degraded forests, and landscape restoration
Fig. 5 Mortality rates in experimental fields. Percentage measured during three surveys for each species on site A (a); result on site B (b). X-axis
labels refer to the acronyms in Table 3
Table 3 List of selected species planted in Miyawaki experimental
fields (total number of individuals per plot and relative percentage)
Species Acronym Site A Site B
n % n %
Acer monspessulanum L. AM 21 1.22 30 1.40
Arbutus unedo L. AU 50 2.90 11 0.51
Castanea sativa Mill. CS 42 2.44
Celtis australis L. CA 22 1.28 37 1.73
Fraxinus ornus L. FO 8 0.46 9 0.42
Ilex aquifolium L. IA 112 6.50 125 5.84
Juniperus oxicedrus L. JO 45 2.10
Laurus nobilis L. LN 22 1.28 19 0.89
Ligustrum vulgare L. LV 126 7.31 13 0.61
Malus domestica Borkh. MD 21 1.22 19 0.89
Myrtus communis L. MC 19 1.10 95 4.44
Phyllirea angustifolia L. PA 1 0.06
Phyllirea latifolia L. PL 203 9.49
Pinus pinaster L. PP 273 15.84 155 7.25
Pyrus communis L. PC 19 1.10 22 1.03
Quercus ilex L. QI 300 17.41 394 18.42
Quercus pubescens Willd. QP 268 15.55 93 4.35
Quercus suber L. QS 11 0.64 621 29.03
Rosmarinus officinalis L. RO 23 1.33 23 1.08
Salvia officinalis L. SO 5 0.29 4 0.19
Sorbus torminalis (L.)
Crantz
ST 18 1.04 24 1.12
Spartium junceum L. SJ 53 3.08 21 0.98
Taxus baccata L. TB 251 14.57 126 5.89
Thymus vulgaris L. TV 24 1.12
Viburnum tinus L. VT 58 3.37 26 1.22
Total 1723 100.00 2139 100.00
88 Landscape Ecol Eng (2011) 7:81–92
123
has recently arisen (de Dios et al. 2007; Falk et al. 2006;
Jordan et al. 1987; Perrow and Davy 2002a; Romano 1986;
Van Andel and Aronson 2006; Walker and del Moral
2003), that provides interesting theoretical principles that
can be tested through practical actions (Clewell and
Aronson 2007; Padilla and Pugnaire 2006; Perrow and
Table 4 Total number of individuals per plot (n), mean height (h) and standard deviation (SD) in cm, relative frequency in percentage (m %), and
K index of each species within both experimental fields 12 years after planting
Species Site A Site B
nh± (SD) m (%) Knh± (SD) m (%) K
Acer monspessulanum L. 2 40.00 ± (14.14) 0.30 0.12 0 0 0 0
Arbutus unedo L. 41 32.68 ± (4.15) 6.10 1.99 0 0 0 0
Castanea sativa Mill. 1 10 0.15 0.015
Celtis australis L. 3 26.67 ± (28.86) 0.45 0.12 0 0 0 0
Fraxinus ornus L. 1 250 0.15 0.375 0 0 0 0
Ilex aquifolium L. 23 45.22 ± (30.57) 3.42 1.54 0 0 0 0
Juniperus oxicedrus L. 30 36.15 ± (18.5) 8.93 3.23
Laurus nobilis L. 3 30.00 ± (17.32) 0.45 0.135 0 0 0 0
Ligustrum vulgare L. 29 32.76 ± (52.64) 4.32 1.41 4 30 ± (8.16) 1.19 0.36
Malus domestica Borkh. 7 100 ± (45.46) 1.04 1.04 0 0 0 0
Myrtus communis L. 1 10 0.15 0.015 4 10 ± (1.41) 1.19 0.12
Phyllirea angustifolia L. 1 70 0.15 0.10
Phyllirea latifolia L. –– 00 0 0
Pinus pinaster L. 208 433.24 ± (143.6) 30.95 134.09 80 325.5 ± (38.59) 23.81 77.5
Pyrus communis L. 10 71 ± (65.06) 1.49 1.06 10 60 ± (61.23) 2.98 1.79
Quercus ilex L. 159 34.15 ± (32.11) 23.66 8.08 96 40.83 ± (36.22) 28.57 11.66
Quercus pubescens Willd. 116 23.62 ± (27.55) 17.26 4.08 8 10 ± (5.34) 2.38 0.24
Quercus suber L. 7 174.29 ± (49.61) 1.04 1.81 96 77.5 ± (51.94) 28.57 22.14
Rosmarinus officinalis L. 15 89.33 ±
(33.9) 2.23 1.99 0 0 0 0
Salvia officinalis L. 00 0 0 00 0 0
Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz 4 35 ± (50) 0.60 0.21 8 40 ± (12.9) 2.38 0.95
Spartium junceum L. 29 110.69 ± (62.16) 4.32 4.78 0 0 0 0
Taxus baccata L. 9 33.33 ± (38.08) 1.34 0.45 0 0 0 0
Thymus vulgaris L. –– 00 0 0
Viburnum tinus L. 3 10 ± 0 0.45 0.045 0 0 0 0
Dashes indicate species not planted, and zero values refer to planted species that did not survive in 2009
Fig. 6 K index recorded during field surveys in site A (histogram a)
and site B (histogram b) as key index of interspecific competition and
species relevance within coenosis. Values for maritime pine are
shown up to the black bar to better represent the other values using an
appropriate y-axis scale. X-axis labels refer to the acronyms in
Table 3
Landscape Ecol Eng (2011) 7:81–92 89
123
Davy 2002b; Vallauri and Chauvin 1997). In the Medi-
terranean Basin, the environment has been modified and
exploited by humans over the course of thousands of years.
In particular, forests have experienced many processes that
have led to degradation and consequent soil loss as
reported since the fourth century B.C. by Plato in Critias.
Also, because of these age-old anthropogenic impacts, in
the last two centuries, all reforestation methods adopted in
Mediterranean countries demonstrated that a long time is
need to get a complete environmental restoration.
The Miyawaki method could offer a quicker and more
effective reforestation approach in the Mediterranean
environment, adopting naturalistic theoretical principles
not previously tested in Mediterranean Europe, which has
the additional challenge of a seasonal climate characterized
by summer aridity compounded in several cases by winter
cold, and also by thin soils. Here we provide a comparison
between the Miyawaki method and two other reforestation
methods (gradoni and holes) traditionally applied in Med-
iterranean countries. The results showed a more rapid
development of trees on the Miyawaki plots, in particular,
early-successional species. The benefits over previous
methods are remarkable and comparable with those
obtained by Miyawaki in Asia and South America. At the
same time, some of the changes made in this study to better
fit the method to the Mediterranean environment seem to
be particularly useful. First, we used tillage to improve soil
water storage over the winter and reduce water stress
during the summer. Summer aridity implies the soil would
be able to stock winter rainfalls in order to allow the plants
avoiding water stress of the next season. This outcome has
been achieved using tillage; such action is necessary and
should be enough, even if it would be possible to get a
better performance by adding compost or local soil.
Mulching with green material does not seem effective
(Navarro-Cerrillo et al. 2009), whereas mulching with dry
material has been useful. Moreover, avoiding clearing all
brush is opportune for the Mediterranean environment, in
contrast with some studies (cf. Bernetti 1995; Goor and
Barney 1968; Metro et al. 1978; Molina et al. 1989; Weber
1977), as well as adopting the plantation in worked strips.
Nowadays, benefits of this method are acknowledged by
several authors (cf. Schirone et al. 2004).
In the Mediterranean scenario, adding some early suc-
cessional species to the intermediate- and late-successional
ones was very useful. This solution was already tested by
Miyawaki and Abe in Brazil (2004), even if no benefits
were recorded. Considering the results of our work, early-
successional species might have been used in an excessive
number, thus applying negative competition on the inter-
mediate- and late-successional stages. Therefore, the
number of plants should be reduced in future works, and
the optimal plant density will have to be tested. In any case,
Table 5 Description of species on the traditional reforestation plots and comparison with the Miyawaki ones
Name of species Number/plot Relative frequency [m (%)] Height ± standard deviation (SD) Number of
individuals/ha
R15 G15 A B R15 G15 A B R15 G15 A B R15 G15 A B
Arbutus unedo L. 280 41 0 2.38 30.3 6.1 0 500 ± (35.75)
G15; A
110 ± (20.6)
R15; A
32.68 ± (4.15)
G15; R15
0 44 2000 205 0
Cedrus atlantica Endl. 6 2.27 162 ± (54.64) 150
Erica arborea L. 45 65 53.56 24.62 115 ± (12.78)
G15
130 ± (18.6)
R15
995 1625
Pinus pinaster L. 11 7 208 80 13.08 2.65 30.95 23.81 376.36 ± (72.97)
B
425.71 ± (25.07)
B
433.24 ± (143.6)
B
325.5 ± (38.59)
R15; G15;A
242 175 1040 800
Phyllirea latifolia L. 10 95 0 11.9 35.98 0 100 ± (15.5)
G15
140 ± (20.34)
R15
0 221 2375 0
Quercus ilex L. 11 7 159 96 19.08 3.03 23.66 28.57 69.37 ± (23.26)
G15;A;B
146.25 ± (38.15)
R15;A;B
34.15 ± (32.11)
R15;G15
40.83 ± (36.22)
R15;G15
242 175 795 960
Rosmarinus officinalis L. 3 15 0 1.14 2.23 0 80 ± (14.92) 89.33 ± (33.9) 0 75 75 0
Bolded numerals in Number/plot column (number of plants/plot) show the values of unplanted species, superscript symbols in each row indicate significant pairwise tests at 0.05 alpha probability level
90 Landscape Ecol Eng (2011) 7:81–92
123
results support the effectiveness of alternative applicable
approaches in the Mediterranean area. In fact, low plant
density has been traditionally retained as appropriate in
arid and semiarid environments in order to avoid compe-
tition for water resources between plants (Caramalli 1973;
Bernetti 1995), but it is now evident that cooperative
processes, e.g., mutual shading, prevail over competitive
processes (Callaway 1997). High plant density also reduces
the impact of acorn predators, thus encouraging oak
regeneration, i.e., the main late-successional forest species
in Mediterranean environments (Go
´
mez et al. 2003). In
addition, excellent plant stock remains fundamental for
planting success in harsh environments (Palacios et al.
2009).
Finally, these results could offer a chance to introduce a
new method into the Mediterranean context that is able to
reduce the time for a complete environmental restoration.
An economic analysis might be performed to estimate the
costs of postplanting silvicultural practices with traditional
reforestation methods and compare them with the Miy-
awaki method. Indeed, labor need is high, and planting
costs are quite expensive because of the high plant density
required. On the other hand, no human care, such as
weeding or thinning, is needed after planting, and under-
growth with late-successional species are immediately on
site (Miyawaki 1998a, Miyawaki 1999). If this new
approach turns out to be more expensive, then it will be
important to take measures to make it economically
advantageous. In any case, if the high costs of the
Miyawaki method were still not competitive with the
traditional techniques on a large scale, the forest quality
achieved would make it a noteworthy tool for protected
areas and natural parks (Reque 2008), where traditional
plantings are not easily accepted because of their aesthetic
and ecological impacts.
Acknowledgments We are indebted to Regional Forest Directorate
of Sardinia for conceding the logistic support. Special thanks to Dr.
Carmine Sau and Dr. Francesco Mazzocchi for their valuable help and
committement on the field work performed in Pattada Municipality.
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The development of oil resources in tropical countries is a significant driver of deforestation and its associated loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, empirical research on realizing sustainable forest management amidst the implementation of oil development policies in tropical countries of Sub-Saharan Africa is minimal. This dissertation is organized into three independent chapters. Together, these chapters analyze the policy options for enabling the co-existence of sustainable forest management amidst ongoing oil development activities within oil-rich countries of sub-Saharan Africa collectively. The study adopts a case study methodology of Hoima District in Uganda with an overall theoretical framework of the Forest Transition Theory (FTT). ☐ Chapter 2 of this study applies a Driver Pressure State Impact Response (DPSIR) framework within a single case study methodology to investigate the spatial and temporal deforestation outcomes following the implementation of Uganda’s commercial oil development policy in 2006 within Hoima District. We conclude that the implementation of Uganda’s oil development policy has resulted in significant and observable increases in annual rates of deforestation in Hoima District. Annual deforestation in Hoima District was declining at a rate of -1.9% per year in the period before commercial oil development started (2001-2006). However, this increased to 34% annual forest cover loss after the commencement of oil development (2007-219). We estimated that 202,813 forest hectares were lost between 2007 and 2019, potentially resulting in the loss of 18 tree species from Hoima District. Our study found that high population growth, the expansion, and intensification of subsistence agriculture because of commercial oil development maybe some of the significant deforestation drivers leading to accelerated forest cover loss in Hoima district. In Chapter 3 of this study, we apply the Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) framework to synthesize 14 years of forest policy discourses in Uganda’s national print media (The Daily Monitor) during oil development in Hoima District. Our results in this Chapter seem to indicate that the top three drivers featured in Uganda’s print media discourse were forest policy failures (57%), infrastructure expansion (14%), agricultural development (8%), and co-joined drivers (8%). Our study also found that peripheral actors had a more robust media standing (52%) than center actors (48%) among the 18 distinct policy actors we identified. Specifically, the most predominant policy actors in shaping print-media discourses on deforestation and oil development were journalists (24%), National Forest Authority (NFA, 24%), and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs, 10%). Overall, our results seem to indicate that Uganda’s policy transition from a traditional paradigm of forest management based on cultural values to a modern paradigm based mainly on scientific forest management has not been beneficial to the sustainable forest management outcomes within the country. There is a clear need for a new forest policy paradigm that could complement modern paradigms of forest elements with beneficial values and other traditional paradigm elements. In Chapter 4, we undertook a comparative assessment of deforestation in three oil-rich countries of Sub-Saharan Africa of Uganda, Ghana, and Nigeria. This Chapter applies a Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) framework through a multi-case study methodology. Our results show that agricultural expansion, increased wood extraction, and population growth drive most deforestation in oil-rich nations. However, the role of infrastructure expansion and forest policy failures were contested drivers of deforestation. Our study finds that the original FTT theory currently applied in most forest policy studies was inadequate as a research tool in assessing the totality of deforestation effects from oil development activities. This preceding observation was mostly so when we considered the long-term and cumulative impacts of deforestation, which are associated with the loss of intangible natural and cultural ecosystem services. Therefore, we proposed the Novel Forest Ecosystem Transition Theory (NFETT) theory, which integrates the loss of natural and cultural ecosystem services alongside forest cover loss within the various forest transitions. Addressing deforestation through the NFETT brings to light various policy options for ensuring the co-existence of oil development activities alongside sustainable forest management. To this end, we recommend that oil-rich countries should, among others; i) internalize costs of deforestation through Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) policies; ii) improve policy coordination to manage multicausal deforestation drivers; iii) population growth management policies; iv) policies for sustainable agriculture and woodfuel solutions; v) strengthen Sustainable Forest Management considerations in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) permitting processes and vi) improving environmental governance through the EITI process. These measures used in combination can go a long way in ensuring the successful co-existence of sustainable forest management during oil development in oil-rich countries of Sub-Saharan Africa.
... Developed in Japan in the Science 1990s, Professor Miyawaki's method was applied especially in Asia and South America, now gaining in popularity in Europe regarding the creation of urban and peri-urban micro-forests and adopted by many associations and non-governmental organizations (see Urban Forests, MiniBigForest, Semeurs des Forêts, etc.). Although no research is currently available that assesses the success of these recent plantations, the method's effectiveness compared to traditional reforestation practices was demonstrated by an Italian study published in 2011 (Schirone, Salis, & Vessella, 2011). After adjusting the original mulching techniques to cope with Mediterranean summer drought, the authors stated that the "benefits over previous methods are remarkable and comparable" with those in other climates. ...
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Increasing the number of trees and green spaces within cities are often-cited solutions to issues regarding urban space and global crises. Approaches referred to as Urban Forestry were found to represent promising practices in this matter. However, the disparity among understandings of this topic and the lack of a tangible, applicable concept hinder their comprehensive implementation. The present research was conducted to facilitate the promotion and application of Urban Forestry into local practice by creating an overview of relevant actions and conditions. For this purpose, definitions of concepts related to Urban Forestry were combined to propose one coherent terminology. The further compiling of related initiatives from cities in Europe, North America, and Australia enabled the identification of 93 tasks guiding practitioners towards successful practice. Findings from scientific literature provided indications on complementary requirements as well as possible constraints and solutions. Finally, the results of this good practice review were used to investigate the ongoing Urban Forestry initiative in the city Niort in France. The consultation of concerned practitioners and related documents led to the exposure of current barriers and needs, as well as given potential which may condition their further advancement. The research revealed that the lack of a reliable long-term strategy, inefficient working structures, and missing communication can be significant obstacles for the conversion of Urban Forestry actions into actual practice. If conceived as innovative approach, a guideline may help to overcome these barriers and harness the given local potential. For this purpose, possibilities must be discovered to establish efficient connections, ensure coherence, and foster dynamic learning. The final goal should rather be the creation of a framework which enables the reorganization of current structures and practices than the introduction of a supplementary document.
... In a modified method, the initial planting includes both canopy trees and woody and herbaceous subcanopy species (Ottburg et al., 2017). The original method has been applied in urban and rural contexts in temperate, tropical, and Mediterranean climates (Miyawaki, 2004;Schirone et al., 2011) but not, it appears, to the design of UAF systems. Though the mechanisms responsible for the reported success of the method are underexplored, at close spacings tree seedlings may compete with one another but also act as nurse plants facilitating the growth of their neighbors through environmental modification, an effect that may be more important to target plant survival and performance in challenging environments (Padilla & Pugnaire, 2006). ...
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Urban landscapes combining trees and crops—urban agroforestry (UAF) systems—may offer greater ecological and cultural benefits than annual cropping systems. Interest in UAF is growing, as evidenced by an increasing number of built projects and articles in the popular press and the academic literature on the subject. However, the practice of UAF appears to far outpace research on its scientific underpinnings or its design. Developing sustainable, resilient UAF sites can be challenging because of biophysical and sociocultural conditions unique to the city; however, cities offer opportunities not found in rural environments including the potential to close open nutrient loops between consumers and sites of food production. We argue that these biophysical and sociocultural challenges and opportunities can be best addressed through an evidence‐based approach to the design of UAF systems and a complex ecological aesthetic design language integrating theory, principles, and practices from urban agroecology and allied fields, environmental psychology, and landscape architecture. The resulting multifunctional UAF systems would be socially sustainable and equitable and promote the circular metabolism of the city. Drawing on a purposive review of literature from these disciplines, we propose a preliminary framework consisting of 14 guidelines and complementary principles and strategies for the design of multifunctional, culturally preferred UAF and offer recommendations for future research. The practice of urban agroforestry (UAF) outpaces research on system science and design. A system‐specific complex ecological aesthetic design language could enhance multifunctionality. Evidence‐based design guidelines, principles, and strategies can inform UAF practice. Additional research is needed to bridge the gap between practice and theory.
... Certain species are predicted to shift their natural ranges in the face of climate change, and facilitate ecosystem transition by adopting climate adaptation strategies, such as preferred assisted migration in certain ecosystems [188]. The effective implementation of these strategies, following a holistic approach to land management, such as the Miyawaki method, is important to enhance landscape-scale diversity and climate resilience [189]. UAVsSS is a promising technological innovation, with its maximum potential yet to be discovered. ...
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Replanting trees helps with avoiding desertification, reducing the chances of soil erosion and flooding, minimizing the risks of zoonotic disease outbreaks, and providing ecosystem services and livelihood to the indigenous people, in addition to sequestering carbon dioxide for mitigating climate change. Consequently, it is important to explore new methods and technologies that are aiming to upscale and fast-track afforestation and reforestation (A/R) endeavors, given that many of the current tree planting strategies are not cost effective over large landscapes, and suffer from constraints associated with time, energy, manpower, and nursery-based seedling production. UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle)-supported seed sowing (UAVsSS) can promote rapid A/R in a safe, cost-effective, fast and environmentally friendly manner, if performed correctly, even in otherwise unsafe and/or inaccessible terrains, supplementing the overall manual planting efforts globally. In this study, we reviewed the recent literature on UAVsSS, to analyze the current status of the technology. Primary UAVsSS applications were found to be in areas of post-wildfire reforestation, mangrove restoration, forest restoration after degradation, weed eradication, and desert greening. Nonetheless , low survival rates of the seeds, future forest diversity, weather limitations, financial constraints , and seed-firing accuracy concerns were determined as major challenges to operationaliza-tion. Based on our literature survey and qualitative analysis, twelve recommendations-ranging Citation: Mohan, M.; Richardson, G.; Gopan, G.; Aghai, M.M.; Bajaj, S.; Galgamuwa, G.A.P.; Vastaranta, M.; Arachchige, P.S.P.; Amorós, L.; Corte, A.P.D.; et al. UAV-Supported
... Their annual sequestration potentials are reported as 5.9 tCO 2 /ha/a in Mexico (Velasco et al. 2014), 8.1 tCO 2 /ha/a in China (Chen 2015), and 10.3 tCO 2 /ha/a in the U.S.A. (Nowak et al. 2013). Furthermore, the alternative forestry method of Japanese botanist Akira Miyawaki (1998) offers a concept for planting micro-sized, very dense, highly biodiverse and fastgrowing forests that have been widely tested in urban and rural areas across the world (Schirone, Salis, and Vesella 2011;Ottburg et al. 2018). In one Belgian report (Manuel 2020), the carbon storage potential of the Miyawaki micro forests and their soils is estimated to exceed 598 tCO 2 /ha with the sequestration potential reaching 5.1 tCO 2 /ha/a; however, there do not seem to be adequately peer-reviewed studies on the climate aspects of the Miyawaki method. ...
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In order to reach carbon neutrality, GHG emissions from all sectors of society need to be strongly reduced. This especially applies to the construction sector. For those emissions that remain hard to reduce, removals or compensations are required. Such approaches can also be found within the built environment, but have not yet been systematically utilized. This paper presents a review of possible carbon storage technologies based on literature and professional experience. The existing technologies for storing carbon can be divided into 13 approaches. Some are already in use, many possess the potential to be scaled up, while some presently seem to only be theoretical. We propose typologies for different approaches, estimate their net carbon storage impact and maturity, and suggest a ranking based on their applicability, impact, and maturity. Our findings suggest that there is an underutilized potential for systematically accumulating atmospheric carbon in the built environment.
... 15 For example, the Miyawaki method has been shown to accelerate forest restoration by planting a dense mixture of mid-late successional species. 26 One of the largest active-restoration projects in the world is China's Grain-for-Green Program (GGP), which has substantially increased C storage on marginal farmlands (e.g., steep slopes) over the past few decades. 27 A review of 63 GGP sites on the Loess Plateau found that rates of soil organic C sequestration on restored grasslands, shrublands, or forests were 92%-215% higher than those under natural recovery. ...
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Degraded farmlands have been abandoned worldwide, especially in high- and middle-income countries. These lands help combat climate change as they undergo natural recovery of vegetation and soil carbon and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. However, recovery can be slow, requiring decades to centuries to approach pre-cultivation or natural states, and in some cases, soils remain degraded without active restoration. In this perspective, we present an overview of how carbon capture and storage on abandoned farmland can be accelerated and maximized via managing plant diversity as both a means and an end of restoration, creating and applying biochar to soil, and co-developing with renewable energy as techno-ecological synergies. These strategies can jointly tackle climate change and land degradation while contributing to and reinforcing multiple other Sustainable Development Goals. Although challenges exist, adoption of these strategies could be facilitated by increasing governmental and corporate initiatives at global and regional levels, especially developing carbon-offset markets for agriculture.
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La restauration écologique des espaces forestiers dégradés est une entreprise difficile, demandant une vision globale et à long terme de la structure, de la diversité, du fonctionnement et de la dynamique de l’écosystème objectif. Dans ce but, un schéma des processus écologiques permettant la réussite de la restauration est présenté. Il détaille les deux principales phases de la restauration (réhabilitation et accompagnement des écosystèmes réhabilités) et les divers stades de l’écosystème forestier (stade dégradé, réhabilité, objectif). Les auteurs insistent ensuite sur les moyens d’action mis en avant par l’écologie de la restauration et le vaste champ d’applications de cette discipline en matière forestière.
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The paper describes the method and some applications of accelerating the succession from barren land to tropical forest ecosystems following the “Miyawaki method”. It has been proven that restoration of native forest is possible by collecting seeds and seedlings of climax species in the forest, raising them in a nursery and after adaptation planting the young plants on sites adequately prepared. The species to be planted were selected from a phytosociological study of comparable sites still covered by natural vegetation. The paper presents the success of older projects of greenification in Japan and the first steps of an experimental project in Bintulu at the campus of the University of Agriculture of Malaysia. After the success in the earlier steps of the restoration of a tropical forest ecosystem we shall concentrate in the future on rehabilitating and monitoring the development of the field stratum and the soil animal associations of this ecosystem.
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Ecological devastation is becoming a serious problem locally to globally, inproportion as people seek affluent living circumstances. Environmental devastation originated mainly from nature exploitation and construction of cities and industrial institutions with non-biological materials. Humans have ignored the rules of nature, biodiversity and coexistence.One of the best measures we can take anywhere, in order to restore ecosystems indigenous to each region and to maintain global environments, including disaster prevention and CO2 absorption, is to restore native, multi-stratal forests following an ecological method.I would like to refer to the experimental reforestation projects based on ecological studies and their results at about 550 locations throughout Japan and in Southeast Asia, South America, and China. We have proved that it is possible to restore quasi-natural multi-stratal forest ecosystems in 20 to 30 years if we take the ecological method.
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