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Vulnerability to Social Stress: Coping as a Mediator or Moderator of Sociotropy and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression

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Abstract

Although stressful events clearly play an important role in the development of symptoms of depression and anxiety, individuals are not equally sensitive to stress. Attempts to explain differences in adjustment have focused both on the coping strategies employed in response to stress, and on personality-related vulnerabilities to specific stressors. However, little is known about the interplay between coping and personality traits such as sociotropy, which is associated with increased sensitivity to negative social events. Measures of sociotropy and symptoms of depression and anxiety were obtained in a sample of undergraduates, along with reports of coping with interpersonal stress. Regressions controlling for recent stressful events indicated that coping does not directly mediate the relationship between sociotropy and distress, but does moderate the relationship. Both primary and secondary control engagement coping buffer the link between sociotropy and anxiety/depression, whereas disengagement coping augments the relationship. Implications for social cognitive models of vulnerability to stress are highlighted.

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... Some researchers have also purported that coping strategies may help to buffer or increase levels of psychological distress related to personality traits. As such, interactions between personality and coping may increase or reduce the risk of depression and anxiety (Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002;van Berkel, 2009). ...
... Adaptive coping strategies have been noted to weaken the impact of pessimistic personalities, while maladaptive coping strategies have strengthened it (Carver & Connor-Smith, 2010;Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002;van Berkel, 2009). While there is limited research on this interactive relationship, examining how coping strategies may help to decrease the risk of psychological distress is useful for the adequate implementation of mitigating strategies. ...
... On one hand, we are aware that neuroticism has been positively associated with negative coping/disengagement methods while extraversion and conscientiousness are positively related with more adaptive coping such as problem solving and positive reframing (Afshar et al., 2015) However, on the other hand, some researchers have highlighted an interaction between personality and coping wherein coping strategies may buffer or intensify distress. (Carver & Connor-Smith, 2010;Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002;van Berkel, 2009). For example, Connor- Smith and Compas (2002) found that primary and secondary control coping (engagement coping) weakened the relationship between sociotropy and stress, while disengagement strengthened the relationship. ...
Thesis
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First year medical students encounter challenges transitioning into medical school and report high levels of psychological distress. However, previous studies have not observed psychological distress among Jamaican medical students. Personality, gender, coping strategies, and the academic environment may impact students' development of psychological distress. This study examined 1) levels of psychological distress (depression, anxiety), personality traits, and levels of coping among first year medical students; 2) if gender and personality were related to psychological distress; and 3) if coping influenced the relationship between personality and psychological distress. Convenient sampling was used to attain data from 73 first year medical students at the UWI, Mona. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the depression and anxiety subscales of the DASS-21, the neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness subscales of the Big Five Inventory, and the Coping Strategy Indicator. There was a high prevalence of depression, anxiety, neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and avoidance in this study. While there was no relationship between gender and psychological distress, extraversion was inversely related to depression, and neuroticism significantly predicted distress. Significant interaction effects were noted for neuroticism and avoidance and problem solving and extraversion. Use of avoidance by students with neurotic traits further PERSONALITY TRAITS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS iii increases their risk, while engaging in problem solving may help students with extraversion traits reduce their anxiety. Despite the relationship between personality and psychological distress, coping strategies may affect the level of psychological distress first year medical students experience. These findings may assist in tailoring interventions for students to cope with the distress they experience in medical school.
... Although researchers are yet to reach an agreement on the categories of coping styles, 16 some suggest classifying coping based on the purpose and intentions of different coping behaviours. 17 In light of the purpose of different behaviours, PWH's coping can be divided into two types: approach coping and avoidant coping. 17 Approach coping that aims to directly address the stressors includes behaviours such as emotional support, problem-solving and cognitive restructuring. ...
... 17 In light of the purpose of different behaviours, PWH's coping can be divided into two types: approach coping and avoidant coping. 17 Approach coping that aims to directly address the stressors includes behaviours such as emotional support, problem-solving and cognitive restructuring. On the other hand, avoidant coping means behaviours that aim to avoid stressful situations including blaming, social withdrawal, denial, and disengagement. ...
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Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most commonly reported mental health consequence following traumatic events. However, little is known about how people with HIV cope with the PTSD burden in Lira city, northern Uganda. Materials and methods: This study was carried out in Lira District Health Centre IVs from February 10, 2022, to March 10, 2022. A facility-based cross-sectional study was employed among 390 people with HIV attending Lira Health Centre IVs. A consecutive sampling technique was used to select the sample size. Questionnaires were used to collect data. A binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with independent variables, and AOR was employed to estimate the strength of association between independent and dependent variables. Results: Results show that the estimated prevalence of PTSD was 254 (65.1%) and was higher among the females 191 (75.2%), those with no formal education 143 (56.3%), aged 40 years and above 121 (47.6%), and married 127 (50.0%). Results indicate that male respondents had a 51% reduced odds of developing PTSD burden compared to female respondents (AOR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.30-0.81; P = 0.005). Individuals who did not use planning activities as a coping strategy had more than 2-fold increased odds of experiencing PTSD compared to those who planned activities (AOR: 2.43; 1.26-4.70; P = 0.008). Participants who did not have emotional support had close to 3-fold increased chances of developing PTSD compared to those who had emotional support (AOR: 2.94; 1.74-4.98; P ≤ 0.001). Participants who indicated they were not taking recourse to spirituality had more than 4-fold increased odds of experiencing PTSD compared to those who had spirituality (AOR: 4.40; 1.83-10.46; P = 0.001). Conclusion: A considerable burden of PTSD among HIV clients attending health centre IVs in Lira District was notably higher and was associated with gender, planning activities, emotional support and spirituality. Early screening of PTSD among HIV clients is needed to alleviate the burden. There is also a need to include PTSD treatment services in the treatment programme of HIV care services in health centre IVs in Lira District.
... In particular, stress has been specifically linked with anhedonia in a body of research spanning human and animal studies, suggesting the utility of focusing on this symptom dimension when aiming to interrogate stress-reactive mood (reviews in Pizzagalli, 2014;Stanton et al., 2019). In support of behavioral theories of depression, empirical studies have found that depressed individuals engage in activities less frequently than their peers (Hopko & Mulane, 2008) and are more likely to use avoidance coping strategies in response to stressors (Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002). Furthermore, longitudinal studies have found that avoidance behavior contributes to the maintenance of depression (Holahan et al., 2005). ...
... The present results showing a stress-withdrawal-anhedonia pathway are supported by, and converge with, previous research in depression. Prior research has previously shown that stress can lead to withdrawal (Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002), stress can lead to depression (Hammen, 2005), and withdrawal can lead to depression (Holahan et al., 2005). In complement, the results indicating a stress-impulsivity-mania pathway are supported by and build upon previous work tying stress to impulsivity (Fox et al., 2010;Moon et al., 2014) and impulsivity to mania (Giovanelli et al., 2013). ...
Article
Background Stress is a risk factor for unipolar and bipolar mood disorders, but the mechanisms linking stress to specific symptoms remain elusive. Behavioral responses to stress, such as impulsivity and social withdrawal, may mediate the associations between stress and particular mood symptoms. Methods This study evaluated behavioral mediators of the relationship between self-reported intensity of daily stress and mood symptoms over up to eight weeks of daily diary surveys. The sample included individuals with unipolar or bipolar disorders, or with no psychiatric history (n = 113, ages 15-25). Results Results showed that higher daily stress was related to higher severity of mania, and this pathway was mediated by impulsive behaviors. Higher stress also predicted higher severity of anhedonic depression, and social withdrawal mediated this relationship. A k-means clustering analysis revealed six subgroups with divergent profiles of stress-behavior-symptom pathways. Limitations Given the observational study design, analyses cannot determine causal relationships amongst these variables. Further work is needed to determine how relationships between these variables may vary based on stressor type, at different timescales, and within different populations. Conclusions Findings support a theoretical model in which impulsivity and social withdrawal act as behavioral mediators of the relationship between stress and mood symptoms. Additionally, distinct patterns of reactivity distinguished subgroups of people vulnerable to particular types of mood symptoms. These results provide novel information about how stress-reactive behaviors relate to specific mood symptoms, which may have clinical relevance as targets of intervention.
... The relationship between these personality dimensions and depressive symptoms has been documented [3,4], although the results are more consistent for sociotropy than for autonomy [5][6][7][8][9]. ...
... For example, Spasojević and Alloy [25] observed that rumination mediated the relationship between self-criticism and the subsequent development of depression, but this result could not be replicated with dependence (self-criticism and dependence are theoretically and operationally similar constructs to autonomy and sociotropy, respectively). The results of another study showed that avoidant coping does not directly mediate the relationship between sociotropy and symptoms of depression and anxiety [6]. Both studies involved non-clinical samples and analyzed rumination as a single construct. ...
Article
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The relationships between dimensions of personality (sociotropy and autonomy), coping strategies (rumination: brooding and reflection subtypes, and immature defenses) and symptoms of depression and anxiety were explored in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). A total of 279 patients completed questionnaires including measures of personality dimensions, rumination, immature defenses, depression and anxiety. Our findings suggested that sociotropy and autonomy may be associated with both depressive and anxious symptoms in patients with MDD and with GAD. Multiple mediation analyses indicated that brooding always acted as a mediating link between personality vulnerabilities (sociotropy and autonomy) and depressive and anxiety symptoms, independently of the patient group. In addition, in patients with MDD and those with GAD, brooding and immature defenses functioned together by linking sociotropy and autonomy, respectively, with depressive symptoms. Our results also showed that, in patients with GAD, both types of rumination explained the relationship between sociotropy and autonomy and anxiety symptoms. Overall, our findings provided evidence of the transdiagnostic role of the brooding, linking the vulnerability of personality dimensions and emotional symptoms. They also indicated that reflection and immature defenses can operate in conjunction with brooding, depending on the type of vulnerability and emotional context.
... These coping strategies are considered related to job stress (Kageyama et al., 2004). In the literature, it emerged that stress has a fundamental role in the development of symptoms of depression and anxiety (Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002). Individuals are not equally sensitive to stress and this could explain the differences in adjustment focused on the coping strategies employed in response to such stress (Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002). ...
... In the literature, it emerged that stress has a fundamental role in the development of symptoms of depression and anxiety (Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002). Individuals are not equally sensitive to stress and this could explain the differences in adjustment focused on the coping strategies employed in response to such stress (Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002). ...
... It is estimated that 10-20% of young people experience mental health problems worldwide [1], with 75% of youth being diagnosed with a mental health disorder before the age of 24 [2]. Despite the widely documented reduced well-being levels in youth, there is a lack of research on mental health issues experienced in the general youth population, with most of the literature being focused on youth mental health in clinical groups diagnosed with mood, anxiety, or associated mental health problems [3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. ...
... Given that reduced well-being levels in nonclinical youth have been associated with maladaptive coping behaviors [3][4][5][6][7][8][9], the use of adaptive coping strategies can play a catalytic role in helping young people manage their stress levels and in reducing the risk of their developing mental health problems in later years [14,15]. Research shows that problem-focused coping strategies (ie, involving directing one's efforts toward the stressor) can be helpful as they have been associated with positive health outcomes [16]. ...
Article
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Background: Adaptive coping behaviours can improve wellbeing for young people experiencing life stressors while maladaptive coping can increase vulnerability to mental health problems in youth and into adulthood. Young people could potentially benefit from the use of digital technology tools if the latter could help enhance their coping skills and overcome barriers in help-seeking behaviours. However, little is known about the desired digital technology use for self-management of wellbeing among young people in the general population. Objective: This was a small, qualitative study aimed at looking into what young people desire from digital technology tools for the self-management of their wellbeing. Methods: Young people aged 12 to 18 were recruited from the general community to take part in semi-structured interviews. Recorded data from the interviews were transcribed and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Results: Fourteen participants were recruited and completed the study, with a mean age of 14.6 (3/14 female). None of the participants reported using any digital tools specifically designed to manage wellbeing. However, as indicated through the emerged themes, young people used digital technology to reduce their stress levels and manage their mood, mainly through games, music and videos. Overall, identified themes denoted that young people were keen on using such tools and desired certain facets and features of an ideal tool for the self-management of wellbeing. Themes relative to the facets indicated what young people felt a tool should do to improve wellbeing, including being immersed into a stress-free environment, being uplifting and such a tool would direct them to resources based on their needs. The feature-based themes suggested that young people wanted the tool to be flexible and to enable engagement with others whilst also being sensitive to privacy. Conclusions: The young people interviewed in this study did not report engaging with digital technology specialised to improve wellbeing but instead used media already accessed in their daily lives in order to self-manage their psychological states. As a result, the variety of coping strategies reported and digital tools used was limited to the resources that were already being used for recreational and social purposes. The present findings contribute to the scarce research into young people’s preferred use of digital technology tools for the self-management of their wellbeing. However, this was a small-scale study and the current participant sample is not representative of the general youth population therefore the results are only tentative and warrant further investigation.
... El empleo del afrontamiento dirigido a solucionar el problema es saludable y adaptativo en niños y adolescentes (Connor-Smith et al., 2002), la actitud positiva por su naturaleza ha sido considerada relevante dentro del afrontamiento productivo, presentando cercanía a denominaciones como centrarse en lo positivo y pensamiento positivo (Frydenberg y Lewis, (1993 Finalmente, respecto a la comparación entre los grupos estudiados, se evidencia que sólo existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0,05) en la estrategia actitud positiva del estilo Afrontamiento Centrado en el Problema, en la cual el grupo control obtuvo una mayor puntuación; resultados que indican que los niños neurotípicos evidencian con mayor frecuencia una actitud positiva ante los problemas, y en efecto, un fortalecimiento de su autoestima, la cual influencia sus competencias sociales y les puede generar mayor resistencia al estrés en diferentes contextos. Según lo menciona Santrock (2002), "las habilidades sociales le permiten a la persona abrirse hacia las demás y ser más asertivos en las relaciones interpersonales, lo cual, a la vez, les genera mayores recursos para afrontar situaciones estresantes", es decir, fortalecen la capacidad para resolver problemas, venciendo el fracaso o las dificultades. ...
Article
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Objetivo, describir y comparar las estrategias de afrontamiento de niños con diagnóstico de trastorno del aprendizaje entre 8 y 12 años y un grupo control de Instituciones Educativas del municipio de Garzón – Huila, para lo cual se utilizó un método de investigación cuantitativa con alcance descriptivo comparativo, no experimental. La muestra estuvo conformada por 40 niños escolares con edades entre 8 y 12 años, distribuidos en dos grupos: casos y controles. Como instrumentos de recolección de información se utilizó una Ficha sociodemográfica y la Escala de Afrontamiento para Niños – EAN (1) Resultados: en los puntajes totales, la puntuación más alta en el estilo de Afrontamiento Centrado en el Problema fue para el grupo de controles con un 34,9%; mientras que en el estilo Afrontamiento Improductivo fue para el grupo de casos, con un 35,4%. La comparación entre grupos mostró sólo una diferencia significativa en la estrategia actitud positiva, en donde el grupo control obtuvo un puntaje de 10,3% y el grupo caso el 9,3%. Conclusiones: Los niños que presentan trastornos del aprendizaje, utilizan con mayor frecuencia estrategias de afrontamiento improductivo, posiblemente por las dificultades que evidencian en el procesamiento de la información, la atención, planificación y organización; que les impide la comprensión de habilidades necesarias en el funcionamiento social o académico. El grupo neurotípico, usa con frecuencia estrategias de afrontamiento centradas en el problema, en este sentido, se podría inferir que su funcionamiento cerebral no presenta dificultades, por lo que logran una comprensión funcional de sus habilidades. La comparación entre grupos mostró sólo una diferencia significativa en la estrategia actitud positiva.
... Whereas positive social relationships can strengthen mental and physical well-being, negative social relationships have the propensity to induce highly stressful and harmful environments. During social stress, different individuals rely on various coping styles or strategies that may prove either adaptive or maladaptive in the long term (Billings and Moos, 1984;Connor-Smith and Compas, 2002;Wood and Bhatnagar, 2015). ...
Thesis
Evaluating and coping with stressful social events as they unfold is a critical strategy in overcoming them without long-lasting detrimental effects. Individuals display a wide range of responses to stress, which can manifest in a variety of outcomes for the brain as well as subsequent behavior. Importantly, how an individual responds during the initial stress exposure has the potential to shape future behaviors and susceptibility to stress-related disorders. Chronic Social Defeat Stress (CSDS) in mice has been widely used to model individual variation following a social stressor. Following a course of repeated intermittent psychological and physical stress, mice diverge into separate populations of social reactivity: Resilient (socially interactive) and Susceptible (socially avoidant) animals. A rich body of work reveals distinct neurobiological and behavioral consequences of this experience that map onto the resilient and susceptible phenotypes. By contrast, we have less insight as to when and how the individual differences in social stress reactivity arise. In this thesis, we therefore sought to answer two questions: 1) when and how do individual differences to reactivity to social stress arise and 2) are there distinct patterns of neural network activation during the initial stress exposure that predict resilient and susceptible outcomes? To address these questions, we focused on behaviorally characterizing resilient and susceptible mice before, during, and following CSDS. We found that behavioral coping strategies used by the mice early on during their initial social stress encounter can distinguish animals that will eventually be classified as resilient or susceptible. In particular, mice that will emerge as susceptible display greater escape behavior on Day 1 of social defeat than those that will emerge as resilient, indicating early differences in coping mechanisms used between the two groups. We further show that the final social avoidance phenotype in susceptible mice is specific to the aggressor strain and does not generalize to conspecifics or other strains, indicating that threat discrimination is heightened in susceptible mice. The dilemma in the field has been that the resilience/susceptible classification requires several days to emerge and defining neural circuit activity on Day 1 that was predictive of future classification was a major challenge. We used novel mouse technology (termed FosTRAP) to capture brain-wide neural activation patterns elicited during the initial stress exposure, and to examine whether they predict the social outcome. We were able to identify selective brain areas and networks that showed a distinctive social defeat signature, as well as brain regions that were predictive of coping behavior during the first encounter, and subsequently, the propensity to develop susceptibility. Our findings point to the initial experience with a social stressor as a major variable that impacts both brain and behavior to set the stage for the final social phenotype. The findings outlined in this thesis provide an important framework for characterizing temporal behavioral and neural dynamics of the stress response that elicit individual differences in the development of adaptive or maladaptive social behaviors.
... The participants completed the Life Stress Questionnaire (LSQ) [37]. The version used in this study assesses the occurrence of 12 common stressors since the beginning of the pandemic, including financial problems at home, academic problems, health problems (different from , changes at home responsibilities, death of a close relative (not from COVID-19), parents' divorce/separation, Further, recent evidence suggests that DM could be more beneficial for boys than for girls [32]. ...
Article
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This study examined the association between contact with COVID-19 and internalizing symptoms in Spanish adolescents, and the moderation and mediation roles of dispositional mindfulness. Adolescents (N = 383; 58% female; Mage = 15.62, SD = 1.32) completed measures of dispositional mindfulness (MAAS-A) and internalizing symptoms (DASS-21), other stressors different from COVID-19, and contact with COVID-19 twice, in October 2019 and 2020. Three profiles emerged according to their contact with COVID-19: (1) little/no contact, (2) knowing someone close (outside home) who was infected, hospitalized, or died, and (3) being or someone at home being infected and/or hospitalized. Compared to little/no contact, both contact profiles predicted dispositional mindfulness and anxiety; and profile 2 predicted stress. Dispositional mindfulness mediated the association between both contact profiles and depression and stress. This study suggests that contact with COVID-19 predicts increased internalizing symptoms in adolescents, which could be partially explained by the decrease in mindfulness levels.
... Whereas positive social relationships can strengthen mental and physical well-being, negative social relationships have the propensity to induce highly stressful and harmful environments. During social stress, different individuals rely on various coping styles or strategies that may prove either adaptive or maladaptive in the long term (Billings and Moos, 1984;Connor-Smith and Compas, 2002;Wood and Bhatnagar, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluating and coping with stressful social events as they unfold is a critical strategy in overcoming them without long-lasting detrimental effects. Individuals display a wide range of responses to stress, which can manifest in a variety of outcomes for the brain as well as subsequent behavior. Chronic Social Defeat Stress (CSDS) in mice has been widely used to model individual variation following a social stressor. Following a course of repeated intermittent psychological and physical stress, mice diverge into separate populations of social reactivity: resilient (socially interactive) and susceptible (socially avoidant) animals. A rich body of work reveals distinct neurobiological and behavioral consequences of this experience that map onto the resilient and susceptible groups. However, the range of factors that emerge over the course of defeat have not been fully described. Therefore, in the current study, we focused on characterizing behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine profiles of mice in three separate phases: before, during, and following CSDS. We found that following CSDS, traditional read-outs of anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors do not map on to the resilient and susceptible groups. By contrast, behavioral coping strategies used during the initial social stress encounter better predict which mice will eventually become resilient or susceptible. In particular, mice that will emerge as susceptible display greater escape behavior on Day 1 of social defeat than those that will emerge as resilient, indicating early differences in coping mechanisms used between the two groups. We further show that the social avoidance phenotype in susceptible mice is specific to the aggressor strain and does not generalize to conspecifics or other strains, indicating that there may be features of threat discrimination that are specific to the susceptible mice. Our findings suggest that there are costs and benefits to both the resilient and susceptible outcomes, reflected in their ability to cope and adapt to the social stressor.
... Whereas positive social relationships can strengthen mental and physical well-being, negative social relationships have the propensity to induce highly stressful and harmful environments. During social stress, different individuals rely on various coping styles or strategies that may prove either adaptive or maladaptive in the long term (Billings and Moos, 1984;Connor-Smith and Compas, 2002;Wood and Bhatnagar, 2015). ...
Preprint
Evaluating and coping with stressful social events as they unfold is a critical strategy in overcoming them without long-lasting detrimental effects. Individuals display a wide range of responses to stress, which can manifest in a variety of outcomes for the brain as well as subsequent behavior. Chronic Social Defeat Stress (CSDS) in mice has been widely used to model individual variation following a social stressor. Following a course of repeated intermittent psychological and physical stress, mice diverge into separate populations of social reactivity: resilient (socially interactive) and susceptible (socially avoidant) animals. A rich body of work reveals distinct neurobiological and behavioral consequences of this experience that map onto the resilient and susceptible groups. However, the range of factors that emerge over the course of defeat have not been fully described. Therefore, in the current study, we focused on characterizing behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine profiles of mice in three separate phases: before, during, and following CSDS. We found that following CSDS, traditional read-outs of anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors do not map on to the resilient and susceptible groups. By contrast, behavioral coping strategies used during the initial social stress encounter better predict which mice will eventually become resilient or susceptible. In particular, mice that will emerge as susceptible display greater escape behavior on Day 1 of social defeat than those that will emerge as resilient, indicating early differences in coping mechanisms used between the two groups. We further show that the social avoidance phenotype in susceptible mice is specific to the aggressor strain and does not generalize to conspecifics or other strains, indicating that there may be features of threat discrimination that are specific to the susceptible mice. Our findings suggest that there are costs and benefits to both the resilient and susceptible outcomes, reflected in their ability to cope and adapt to the social stressor.
... Mental health in university students in recent years has become a critical issue across Canada and the United States, with alarming suicide rates and evidence of mental illness symptoms developing in college and university students with no previous history (Kennedy 2013;Lunau 2012;Wong 2017). Although some stress can be motivationally beneficial in university settings (LePine et al. 2004), problematic levels of anxiety and depression are often experienced when college students are faced with compounded stressful events without adequate support (Connor-Smith and Compas 2002). First-year students in particular are vulnerable to psychological challenges due to the transition to university exacerbating existing causes of stress (Denovan and Macaskill 2013), with high levels of stress paired with maladaptive coping strategies linked to depression in first-year students (Dyson and Renk 2006). ...
Article
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The present paper reviews empirical literature on stress and social support relative to first-year post-secondary students, published between 1996 and 2020. Empirical studies included in the literature search focused on stress, coping, and social support specifically among first-year undergraduate students while studying in countries adopting North American higher education models comparable to the United States and Canada. This review examines contextual and psychological antecedents and correlates of stress, as well as associated demographic and achievement variables. Furthermore, this review extends to studies on social support categorized by source (peers, family, faculty, institution, and multiple sources of support). A synthesis and critique of the literature explores the themes in the empirical research presented, as well as considerations for future research.
... Because the study adopted a between-subject design (4 events with 4 possible outcomes each), 1 A variable can be both a mediator and a moderator of a relationship (James & Brett, 1984;Judd, Kenny & McClelland, 2001;Karazsia & Berlin, 2018). Such relationships have been tested in previous studies (e.g., Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002;Wei, Mallinckrodt, Russell & Abraham, 2004;Zhou, Wang, Chen & Shi, 2012) we approximated a total sample size of 46 * 4 * 4 = 736. In consultation with the original author and the editor, we removed the stimuli and results relating to Events C and D. We therefore updated this analysis posthoc to indicate a total required sample size of 368. ...
Article
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Hindsight bias refers to the tendency to perceive an event outcome as more probable after being informed of that outcome. We conducted very close replications of two classic experiments of hindsight bias and a conceptual replication testing hindsight bias regarding the perceived replicability of hindsight bias. In Study 1 (N = 890), we replicated Experiment 2 in Fischhoff (1975), and found support for hindsight bias in retrospective judgments (dmean = 0.60). In Study 2 (N = 608), we replicated Experiment 1 in Slovic and Fischhoff (1977), and found support for hindsight bias in prospective judgments (dmean = 0.40). In Study 3 (N = 520) we found strong support for hindsight bias regarding perceived likelihood of our replication of hindsight bias (d = 0.43–1.03). We also included extensions examining surprise, confidence, and task difficulty, yet found mixed evidence with weak to no effects. We concluded support for hindsight bias in both retrospective and prospective judgments, and in evaluations of replication findings, and therefore call for establishing measures to address hindsight bias in valuations of replication work and interpreting research outcomes. All materials, data, and code, were shared on: https://osf.io/nrwpv/.
... Chronic interpersonal stress was assessed through the stressor items from the Responses to Stress Questionnaire-Interpersonal Stress version (RSQ; Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002). The initial 9 items list potential stressors (i.e., "Having conflict with a good friend," "Frequent arguments with a partner/spouse"), which participants rated on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 4 (very) for how stressful each experience was in the prior 6 months. ...
Article
Affective neuroscience research using electrocortical event-related potentials has provided valuable insights on alterations in emotion processing in internalizing disorders. However, internalizing disorders are accompanied by additional impairments in social cognition and functioning, and most extant research examines neural responses to broad categories of emotional scenes or faces presented irrespective of context. Examining neural reactivity specifically to interpersonal emotional scenes may more precisely capture and disentangle processes involved in depression and social anxiety, two highly comorbid forms of psychopathology. The current study validated a novel set of positive and threatening interpersonal emotional stimuli in a sample of emerging adults (N = 114) who completed a modified emotional interrupt paradigm while electroencephalogram and behavioral data were recorded. Participant ratings of valence and arousal supported the validity of the emotional images. Consistent with prior research, sustained neurophysiological processing indexed by the late positive potential (LPP) was observed for interpersonal emotional images, especially positive, compared with neutral images. Elevated LPP reactivity to both positive and threatening interpersonal images moderated the effects of chronic interpersonal stress on social anxiety symptoms, such that enhanced LPP reactivity in conjunction with higher levels of chronic interpersonal stress was associated with elevated social anxiety symptoms. These results were unique to social anxiety symptoms and not symptoms of depression, suggesting sustained neural processing of interpersonal stimuli may differentiate social anxiety from depression. Future research on emotional reactivity specifically within the interpersonal domain is needed to inform our understanding of developmental pathways to internalizing psychopathology.
... However, this present study showed that both approach and avoidant coping strategies did not moderate the relationships between resilience and well-being. While previous literature showed the moderating role of some coping strategies on the relationship between resilience, stress, burnout, and well-being or quality of life (Dardas & Ahmad, 2015;Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002;Malkoc & Yalcin, 2015;Konaszewski et al., 2021), there were also some studies that support the result of this study. For example, Kirsch (2014) found that neither adaptive nor maladaptive coping styles moderated the significant predictive relationship between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes when adjusting for disordered eating attitudes and BMI. ...
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PHilippine Social Science Journal Volume 4 Number 2 April-June 2021 Issue
... Individuals are not equally sensitive to stress (Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002). Given that some individuals with disabilities might be at a higher risk of infection or severe COVID-19 illness due to their underlying conditions (CDC, 2020e), individuals with disabilities and chronic health conditions may experience higher levels of stress during this most uncertain time. ...
Article
Social distancing currently in place to reduce community spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has also resulted in negative structural, social, psychological, and financial consequences. Loneliness is linked to adverse mental health and health outcomes, and facing COVID-19 can increase feelings of stress and loneliness. In this study, we aimed to gain a better understanding of how COVID-19 affects mental health in vulnerable populations. Data from 269 individuals with disabilities and chronic conditions (mean age 39.37; 56.1% male; 84.0% white) were collected to understand whether loneliness mediates the relationship between perceived COVID-19 stress and maladaptive COVID-19 coping strategies among people with disabilities and chronic health conditions. The findings suggest that loneliness serves as a partial mediator between perceived COVID-19 stress and maladaptive COVID-19 coping. Implications of the findings for public health and rehabilitation intervention for individuals with disabilities are discussed.
... Üstbilişler ve psikolojik dayanıklılık arasındaki bağlantı (Matthews ve ark., 2019) da dikkate alınarak bu olası farkın üstbilişsel süreçler üzerinden gerçekleşiyor olması ve başa çıkma yollarının bu ilişkide bir etki göstermesi beklenebilir. Özellikle stres ve kişilik özellikleri arasındaki ilişkide, başa çıkma yollarının düzenleyici bir rolünün olabileceği vurgulanmaktadır (Connor-Smith ve Compas, 2002). Buna göre psikolojik dayanıklılık ile kaygı arasındaki ilişkide kişilerin hangi mekanizma üzerinden kaygılarını düzenleyebildiklerine cevap bulunması önemli görünmektedir. ...
Article
One of the purposes of this study was to examine the relationships between anxiety, psychological resilience, ways of coping, and pathological metacognition. The second purpose was to evaluate the moderated mediating role of pathological metacognition and ways of coping in the relationship between psychological resilience and anxiety. Within the scope of the study, data was collected from 445 individuals of whom 292 (65.6%) were females and 153 (34.4%) were males. The participants completed Demographic Information Form, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Resilience Scale for Adults, the Ways of Coping Inventory and the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30. Correlation analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationships between anxiety, psychological resilience, ways of coping, and pathological metacognitions; hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to see the predictive power of the variables on anxiety and moderated mediation analyses were conducted to evaluate the moderated mediator roles of pathological metacognitions and ways of coping. According to the correlation analyses, there was no statistically significant relationship between pathological metacognitions and ways of coping. Correlation coefficients related to other relationships ranged between .10 and .61. According to the regression results psychological resilience, pathological metacognitions, and ways of coping explained 58% of the variance of anxiety. Finally, the findings indicated that pathological metacognitions had a mediating role in the relationship between psychological resilience and anxiety, and that emotional coping moderated this mediation. Taking all the findings of the current study together, it can be argued that psychological resilience, pathological metacognitions, and ways of coping are important factors in explaining anxiety and that working on these variables especially in a therapeutical context can be beneficial.
... Because the study adopted a between-subject design (4 events with 4 possible outcomes each), 1 A variable can be both a mediator and a moderator of a relationship (James & Brett, 1984;Judd, Kenny & McClelland, 2001;Karazsia & Berlin, 2018). Such relationships have been tested in previous studies (e.g., Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002;Wei, Mallinckrodt, Russell & Abraham, 2004;Zhou, Wang, Chen & Shi, 2012) we approximated a total sample size of 46 * 4 * 4 = 736. In consultation with the original author and the editor, we removed the stimuli and results relating to Events C and D. We therefore updated this analysis posthoc to indicate a total required sample size of 368. ...
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Hindsight bias refers to the tendency to perceive an event outcome as more probable after being ‎informed of that outcome. We conducted very close replications of two classic experiments of ‎hindsight bias and a conceptual replication testing hindsight bias regarding the perceived ‎replicability of hindsight bias. In Study 1 (N = 890), we replicated Experiment 2 in Fischhoff ‎‎(1975), and found support for hindsight bias in retrospective judgments (dmean = 0.60). In Study ‎‎2 (N = 608), we replicated Experiment 1 in Slovic and Fischhoff (1977), and found support for ‎hindsight bias in prospective judgments (dmean = 0.40). In Study 3 (N = 520) we found strong ‎support for hindsight bias regarding perceived likelihood of our replication of hindsight bias (d ‎‎= 0.43 ~ 1.03). We also included extensions examining surprise, confidence, and task difficulty, ‎yet found mixed evidence with weak to no effects. We concluded support for hindsight bias in ‎both retrospective and prospective judgments, and in evaluations of replication findings, and ‎therefore call for establishing measures to address hindsight bias in valuations of replication ‎work and interpreting research outcomes. All materials, data, and code, were shared on: ‎https://osf.io/nrwpv/.
... There is a substantial body of research evidence to suggest, for example, that stress, stress appraisals, and stress-related coping behaviors depend on, among other things, age, gender, socioeconomic status, personality, and attachment styles (Chen, Peng, Xu, & O'Brien, 2018;Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002;Finkelstein, Kubzansky, Capitman, & Goodman, 2007;Howard & Medway, 2004;Matud, 2004). Thus, a critical aspect of stress is that our appraisals of it Developmental Trauma Disorder 11 become automatic and reflexive "knee-jerk" reactions that are inextricably linked to automatic physiological processes (fight or flight response), especially if our automatic assumptions are not challenged. ...
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Over the last several decades, researchers have increasingly recognized that children affected by trauma experience more extensive and profound changes than adults who conceivably have developed more adaptations to stress. Children lack the cognitive and behavioral capacities to understand and respond to traumatic circumstances effectively, and as such, these experiences have lasting, and often devastating, consequences. This chapter aims to define and describe stress and trauma, with a specific emphasis on the effects of early childhood stress that increase the risk for developmental trauma.
... Because the study adopted a between-subject design (4 events with 4 possible outcomes each), 1 A variable can be both a mediator and a moderator of a relationship (James & Brett, 1984;Judd, Kenny & McClelland, 2001;Karazsia & Berlin, 2018). Such relationships have been tested in previous studies (e.g., Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002;Wei, Mallinckrodt, Russell & Abraham, 2004;Zhou, Wang, Chen & Shi, 2012) we approximated a total sample size of 46 * 4 * 4 = 736. In consultation with the original author and the editor, we removed the stimuli and results relating to Events C and D. We therefore updated this analysis posthoc to indicate a total required sample size of 368. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hindsight bias refers to the tendency to perceive an event outcome as more probable after being ‎informed of that outcome. We conducted very close replications of two classic experiments ‎testing the hindsight bias and conceptual replication to test hindsight bias regarding the ‎replicability of hindsight bias. In Study 1 (N = 890), we replicated Experiment 2 in Fischhoff ‎‎(1975), and found support for hindsight bias in retrospective judgments (dmean = 0.60). In Study ‎‎2 (N = 608), we replicated Experiment 1 in Slovic and Fischhoff (1977), and found support for ‎hindsight bias in prospective judgments (dmean = 0.40). In Study 3 (N = 520) we found strong ‎support for hindsight bias regarding perceived likelihood of our replication of hindsight bias (d ‎‎= 0.43 ~ 1.03). We also included extensions examining surprise, confidence, and task difficulty, ‎yet found mixed evidence with weak to no effects. We concluded support for hindsight bias in ‎both retrospective and prospective judgments, and in evaluations of replication findings, and ‎therefore call for establishing measures to address hindsight bias in valuations of replication ‎work and interpreting research outcomes.‎
... W porównaniu z dziećmi młodzież dysponuje szerszym repertuarem strategii, co szczególnie dotyczy poznawczych możliwości opracowania stresora (Pilecka, Fryt, 2011). Poza tym wzrasta zdolność do poszukiwania strategii dostosowanych do rodzaju działającego stresora (Connor-Smith, Compas, 2002). Wyniki badań prowadzonych wśród osób w wieku 12-84 lat w populacji europejskiej i amerykańskiej wskazują na tendencję do rozwoju wraz z wiekiem bardziej adaptacyjnych i mniej nieprzystosowawczych strategii radzenia sobie (Diehl, Chui, Hay, lumley, grühn, labouvie-Vief, 2014). ...
... This may be because the nature of the relationship between emotional regulation and anxiety problems is not strictly direct [6]. Following this line, some authors have suggested that cognitive coping strategies can act as mediators in the association between stress and psychological well-being [15,16]. For example, Huh, Kim, Lee, and Chae [17] found an association between childhood trauma and the development of depression and anxiety in adulthood, mediated by emotion regulation strategies. ...
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Childhood anxiety problems have a great impact on the daily functioning of children and their families. The first objective of this study was to compare whether the use of cognitive-emotional regulation strategies differs in children with and without anxious symptomatology. A second objective was to analyze the possible mediating role of regulation strategies in the relationship between the presence of anxious symptomatology and its subsequent interference in children’s lives. In total, 315 children (53.7% boys) between 8 and 12 years old participated. Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon U-test was used to analyze differences in the use of cognitive-emotional regulation strategies between children with and without anxious symptomatology. In order to identify the cognitive-emotional regulation strategies which mediate the relation between anxiety and the consequent interference in children's lives, mediation analyses were carried out. As expected, children with anxious symptomatology used more maladaptive regulatory strategies than those without such symptomatology. Multiple mediation models in parallel showed that catastrophizing, rumination, and other-blame mediated the relationship between anxiety problems and their consequent interference. The identification of functional or dysfunctional patterns of cognitive-emotion regulation may favor the inclusion of new components in the evidence-based interventions currently available, in an attempt to increase rates of remission of anxiety.
... Interpersonal Stress. A 25-item interpersonal stress inventory was created for this study, building on the foundation of the Social Stress Questionnaire (SSQ) [38]. In addition to the 10 items on the original SSQ, items address typical stressors of a contemporary college lifestyle (e.g., roommates; drinking/partying; technologically-mediated communication). ...
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Introduction: The college years are characterized by psychosocial and biological phenomena that may impact mental health, such as heightened sensitivity to social stressors and compromises in sleep quantity and quality. The current study uses a biopsychosocial approach to examine the associations among interpersonal stress, Fear of Missing Out (FoMO), insomnia, and mental health. Methods: Survey data were collected from 283 undergraduate students (90% female) with a mean age of 21.4 years. A path analysis was utilized to test a mediational model linking interpersonal stress and FoMO with mental health through a mediator of insomnia. We hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal stress and FoMO would be associated with higher levels of insomnia symptoms, which would in turn be associated with poorer mental health. Results: As predicted, insomnia partially mediated significant associations of interpersonal stress and FoMO with mental health. The association of interpersonal stress with insomnia and mental health was more robust than the association of FoMO with these variables. Conclusions: The pathway from interpersonal stress and/or FoMO, through insomnia, to compromises in mental health may be modifiable through behavioral interventions focusing on coping skills, sleep hygiene, and even technology-related habit changes. Recommendations to help disrupt this pathway, particularly among college students, are discussed.
... This approach theorizes maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms are associated for individuals who fail to use adaptive coping techniques or who rely on maladaptive or ineffective coping techniques; conversely, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescents' symptoms is attenuated for youth who use more adaptive forms of coping. For example, research has shown that coping moderates the association between sociotropy and distress in young adults (Connor-Smith and Compas 2002) and between economic strain and depression in adults (Wadsworth et al. 2005). However, no studies have examined coping and automatic responses to stress as moderators of the association between maternal depressive symptoms and youth's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. ...
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Youth’s responses to stress are a central feature of risk and resilience across development. The current study examined whether youth coping and stress reactivity moderate the association of current maternal depressive symptoms with youth’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Mothers (Mage = 41.58, SD = 6.18) with a wide range of depressive symptoms and their children ages 9–15 (Mage = 12.25, SD = 1.89, 45.3% girls) completed measures of youth symptoms and coping and automatic responses to stress. Mothers also completed a self-report measure of depressive symptoms. Youth’s primary and secondary control coping, stress reactivity, and involuntary disengagement moderated the association between current maternal depressive symptoms and youth symptoms. Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with youth’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms when youth used low as opposed to high levels of primary and secondary control coping. Conversely, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with youth symptoms for youth with high levels of stress reactivity and involuntary disengagement. The findings suggest interventions focused on improving the use of primary and secondary control coping skills and reducing reactivity and involuntary disengagement to stress may benefit youth with mothers who are experiencing high levels of depressive symptoms.
... It is estimated that 10-20% of young people experience mental health problems worldwide [1], with 75% of youth being diagnosed with a mental health disorder before the age of 24 [2]. Despite the widely documented reduced wellbeing levels in youth, there is a dearth of research on mental health issues experienced in the general youth population, with most of the literature being focused on youth mental health in clinical groups diagnosed with mood, anxiety or associated mental health problems [3][4][5][6][7][8][9] There is considerable evidence to suggest that young people's reduced wellbeing levels are largely attributed to an inability to cope effectively with stressors stemming from social, physical and emotionally challenging situations [10,11]. Psychosocial stress, in particular, has been deemed a key factor contributing to high levels of distress in youth, especially during the transitional period from pre-adolescent to adolescent phases when there is increasing accumulation of stressful life experiences, e.g. ...
Article
Background Adaptive coping behaviors can improve well-being for young people experiencing life stressors, while maladaptive coping can increase vulnerability to mental health problems in youth and into adulthood. Young people could potentially benefit from the use of digital technology tools to enhance their coping skills and overcome barriers in help-seeking behaviors. However, little is known about the desired digital technology use for self-management of well-being among young people in the general population. Objective This is a small, qualitative study aimed at exploring what young people desire from digital technology tools for the self-management of their well-being. Methods Young people aged 12-18 years were recruited from the general community to take part in semistructured interviews. Recorded data from the interviews were transcribed and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results In total, 14 participants were recruited and completed the study, with a mean age of 14.6 years (female n=3). None of the participants reported using any digital tools specifically designed to manage well-being. However, as indicated through the emerged themes, young people used digital technology to reduce their stress levels and manage their mood, mainly through games, music, and videos. Overall, identified themes showed that young people were keen on using such tools and desired certain facets and features of an ideal tool for self-management of well-being. Themes related to these facets indicated what young people felt a tool should do to improve well-being, including being immersed in a stress-free environment, being uplifting, and that such a tool would direct them to resources based on their needs. The feature-based themes suggested that young people wanted the tool to be flexible and enable engagement with others while also being sensitive to privacy. Conclusions The young people interviewed in this study did not report engaging with digital technology specialized to improving well-being but instead used media already accessed in their daily lives in order to self-manage their psychological states. As a result, the variety of coping strategies reported and digital tools used was limited to the resources that were already being used for recreational and social purposes. These findings contribute to the scarce research into young people’s preferred use of digital technology tools for the self-management of their well-being. However, this was a small-scale study and the current participant sample is not representative of the general youth population. Therefore, the results are only tentative and warrant further investigation.
... Recent research indicates that people with subclinical levels of social anxiety self-report heightened reactivity to social stress (Crişan et al., 2016). The increased susceptibility to stress in socially anxious individuals has been implicated as a risk factor for vulnerability to psychological disorders (Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002). Thus, a greater understanding of how social anxiety in the general population is associated with cortisol reactivity to friendly social interactions could illuminate the impact of social anxiety disorder on functioning in relationships. ...
Article
Socially anxious people report less closeness to others, but very little research has examined how social anxiety is related to closeness in real-time social interactions. The present study investigated social anxiety, closeness, and cortisol reactivity in zero-acquaintance interactions between 84 same-sex dyads (168 participants). Dyads engaged in either a high or low self-disclosure discussion task and completed self-report measures of closeness and desired closeness post-task. Salivary cortisol was collected before, during, and after the self-disclosure task. Multilevel models indicated that in the high self-disclosure condition, individuals higher in social anxiety displayed flatter declines in cortisol than those lower in social anxiety; cortisol declines were not significantly related to social anxiety in the low self-disclosure condition. Further, across both conditions, individual’s social anxiety was associated with decreased levels of closeness and desired closeness, particularly when individuals were paired with partners higher in social anxiety. These findings are discussed in relation to previous work on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal function, social anxiety, and interpersonal closeness.
... Se espera que el afrontamiento modere y medie las asociaciones entre el estrés y los problemas de salud mental (Compas, Connor-Smith, Saltzman, Thomsen y Wadsworth, 2001). Connor-Smith y Compas (2002) encontraron que varias estrategias de afrontamiento (por ejemplo, el compromiso de control primario, el compromiso de control secundario y el afrontamiento de la separación) moderaron las relaciones entre la reactividad al estrés involuntaria, el estado de salud y los problemas de internalización. Las reacciones efectivas / ajustadas fueron aquellas reacciones, que proporcionaron un efecto de amortiguación, mientras que las reacciones de afrontamiento ineficaces / inadaptadas ponen al niño en riesgo de desarrollar problemas mentales. ...
Article
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Introducción: La evaluación de las estrategias de afrontamiento empleadas por los estudiantes universitarios se considera fundamental ya que tiene implicaciones relevantes desde el punto de vista educativo y clínico ya que el empleo de estrategias funcionales o productivas guarda relación con mayor bienestar, calidad de vida, adaptación o ajuste en el ámbito universitario. Ello permitirá generar toma de conciencia sobre las estrategias empleadas por el estudiantado para que por parte del profesorado se desarrollen programas para el entrenamiento de aquellas consideradas más productivas ante los continuos retos y desafíos que se vienen planteando desde la Educación Superior. Objetivos: Examinar las estrategias de afrontamiento empleadas por una muestra de estudiantes universitarios españoles. Método: Los participantes fueron 169 estudiantes de grado pertenecientes a la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación. Para evaluar las estrategias de afrontamiento se aplicó la forma general de una escala validada en población española. Resultados: Este estudio presenta algunos de los datos preliminares obtenidos en esta investigación, analizados y discutidos según la literatura científica revisada, en la que se pone de manifiesto las estrategias de afrontamiento más empleadas por esta muestra de estudiantes universitarios, entre las que se encuentra tanto el empleo de estrategias de afrontamiento centradas en la solución del problema, así como aquellas otras centradas en la emoción. Conclusiones: Los datos obtenidos son relevantes para generar toma de conciencia de las estrategias de afrontamiento empleadas en el ámbito universitario para el diseño de un futuro programa o intervención psicoeducativa que permita entrenar aquellas estrategias de afrontamiento que resulten más eficaces para el afrontamiento de situaciones académicas generadoras de estrés.
... Exposure to stress is widely recognized as a common precipitant of depression [1,2], and poor sleepers are twice as likely to become depressed during chronic stress than good PLOS sleepers [3]. More so than the exposure itself, the manner in which individuals react to stressful events dictates the emotional and somnological fallout [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. Cognitive arousal and intrusions in response to stressors precludes adaptive emotion regulation, thereby giving rise to and prolonging negative affect states [5, 10,[12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. ...
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Nearly half of US adults endorse insomnia symptoms. Sleep problems increase risk for depression during stress, but the mechanisms are unclear. During high stress, individuals having difficulty falling or staying asleep may be vulnerable to cognitive intrusions after stressful events, given that the inability to sleep creates a period of unstructured and socially isolated time in bed. We investigated the unique and combined effects of insomnia symptoms and stress-induced cognitive intrusions on risk for incident depression. 1126 non-depressed US adults with no history of DSM-5 insomnia disorder completed 3 annual web-based surveys on sleep, stress, and depression. We examined whether nocturnal insomnia symptoms and stress-induced cognitive intrusions predicted depression 1y and 2y later. Finally, we compared depression-risk across four groups: non-perseverators with good sleep, non-perseverators with insomnia symptoms, perseverators with good sleep, and perseverators with insomnia symptoms. Insomnia symptoms (β = .10–.13, p < .001) and cognitive intrusions (β = .19–.20, p < .001) predicted depression severity 1y and 2y later. Depression incidence across 2 years was 6.2%. Perseverators with insomnia had the highest rates of depression (13.0%), whereas good sleeping non-perseverators had the lowest rates (3.3%, Relative Risk = 3.94). Perseverators with sleep latency >30 m reported greater depression than good sleeping perseverators (t = 2.09, p < .04). Cognitive intrusions following stress creates a depressogenic mindset, and nocturnal wakefulness may augment the effects of cognitive arousal on depression development. Poor sleepers may be especially vulnerable to cognitive intrusions when having difficulty initiating sleep. As treatable behaviors, nighttime wakefulness and cognitive arousal may be targeted to reduce risk for depression in poor sleepers.
... Se han realizado estudios similares en otros contextos y poblaciones (e.g. Connor-Smith & Compas, 2002). ...
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Los rasgos de personalidad constituyen predisponentes del bienestar emocional. Específicamente, aún no se conoce de forma exhaustiva mediante qué procesos la personalidad ejerce su influencia sobre el bienestar. Investigaciones recientes en adultos han comenzado a mostrar que uno de estos procesos podría ser la regulación emocional. Sin embargo, escasos estudios han explorado esta posibilidad en población infantil. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar si las estrategias de regulación emocional reevaluación cognitiva (RC) y supresión de la expresión emocional (SEE) poseen un rol mediador en la relación de la personalidad con el bienestar en niños de 9 a 12 años de edad. Para esto, se evaluaron 230 niños en las variables mencionadas y se realizó un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales. Los resultados indican que la RC posee un efecto mediador en la relación de la Extraversión y el bienestar, en tanto la SEE no presentó dicho efecto. El Neuroticismo presentó un efecto directo sobre el bienestar. Los resultados constituyen un aporte relevante en el tema con capacidad de transferencia para el diseño y aplicación de programas de la salud mental infantil.
... Se puede afirmar que el afrontamiento es un mediador de respuestas disfuncionales en el caso de la búsqueda de apoyo profesional (afrontamiento sociotrópico) para los sujetos con síntomas ansiosos, y la disminución en solución de problemas (afrontamiento autonómico) en los sujetos con síntomas depresivos. Las estrategias de afrontamiento se presentan como mediadores (no moderadores) entre la vulnerabilidad cognitiva (sociotrópica y/o autonómica) y los síntomas de ansiedad y depresión tal como reportaron Connor-Smith y Compas (2002); sin embargo, es importante establecer con claridad los mecanismos transdiagnósticos en los grupos de síntomas, así como los tipos de afrontamiento diferencial en estos dos trastornos de elevada prevalencia en la actualidad. ...
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The aim was to identify the differences between autonomic and sociotropic coping strategies in people with anxiety or depressive symptoms. According to Clark, Beck and Alford (1999) differential coping hypothesis states that there are differential maladaptive coping strategies between sociotropy and autonomy (congruence personality-symptom-coping) in anxiety or depression. The sample was composed of 590 participants aged 18 to 50, of all socioeconomic levels, marital status and educational levels. The results obtained by descriptive-correlational analysis and comparisons revealed significant differences (p = .01) in anxiety for coping sociotropic (search for professional support), coping and depression for autonomic strategies (problems solving). These coping strategies support the evidence of its mediating role in each symptomatic group and cognitive vulnerability hypothesis. In turn, the results obtained by this research support the tripartite model (negative-positive affect) as continuous between anxiety and depression.
... [21] Sociotropy was associated with higher levels of avoidance coping, and that high avoidance coping intensified the association between sociotropy and depressive and anxious symptoms in a university student sample. [22] Additionally, we have found that sociotropic characteristics may also be associated with general psychopathology, social anxiety and avoidance levels in SAD. There are no articles in the literature directly addressing these associations or correlations in SAD. ...
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Aim. To investigate sociotropic-autonomic personality characteristics and their clinical implications in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Methods. The study included 68 consecutive patients who were either being followed up on an outpatient basis or presented for the first time to the psychiatric clinics of Bakirkoy Research and Training Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery or Trakya University School of Medicine between May 2012 and May 2013, and were diagnosed primarily with generalised SAD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale (SAS), Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and a sociodemographic data collection form designed by the authors were used as primary assessment instruments. Results. The mean age (standard deviation (SD)) of the sample group was 23.73 (8.85) years; 37 (54.4%) were female and 31 (45.6%) were male. LSAS mean (SD) total fear score was 63.51 (13.74), mean total avoidance score was 61.24 (14.26), BDI mean score was 16.99 (9.58), SAS mean sociotropy score was 71.06 (16.79), and mean autonomy score was 63.22 (16.04). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between SAS sociotropy scores and LSAS fear and avoidance total scores, BDI scores and all subscales of SCL-90-R (p0.05). Conclusion. Sociotropic personality characteristics in patients with SAD have been found to positively correlate with depression and social anxiety levels. Addressing this finding during treatment sessions and helping the patient increase flexibility in appraisal of social life events may have a positive impact on treatment outcome.
Chapter
Frustration is a universal human experience. Although it is not desired, it cannot be avoided. However, individuals vary greatly in the manner they respond to the inevitable roadblocks of life.
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Resumen Los seres humanos se encuentran expuestos a estímulos que tienen consecuencias conductuales y psicológicas. La percepción de emociones es un ejemplo de lo anterior. A su vez, el cómo actúen los organismos ante la percepción de las emociones dependerá en primera instancia de la connotación que reciban estas. Es decir, si son consideradas positivas o negativas. Posteriormente, sobre las respuestas que generan las emociones tendrán injerencia la historia de aprendizaje y las características socioantropológicas y biológicas del organismo. Un tema de interés es conocer ¿cuál es el papel de las emociones en la alimentación? Debido a que ambos fenómenos guardan una estrecha relación con la salud. Así pues, el presente artículo presenta una respuesta a dicho cuestionamiento, describe desde la perspectiva del comportamiento alimentario cómo influyen las emociones y la motivación en los procesos de la alimentación, además de señalar cuáles son las implicaciones que se observan sobre la salud. Palabras clave: Emociones, motivación, comportamiento, alimentación y salud. Abstract Human beings are exposed to stimuli that have behavioral and psychological consequences. Emotion perception is an example of the above. In turn, the way organisms act before the perception of emotions will depend in the first instance on the connotation that they receive. That is, if they are considered positive or negative. Subsequently, on the responses generated by emotions, the learning history and the socio-anthropological and biological characteristics of the organism will interfere. An interesting topic is knowing what is the role of emotions in food? Because both phenomena have a close relationship with health. Thus, this article presents an answer to this question, describes from the perspective of eating behavior how emotions and motivation influence eating processes, in addition to pointing out what are the implications observed for health.
Article
Objectives This study examined the preliminary reliability and predictive and incremental validity of a novel system of coding observational assessments of children's coping behavior during a laboratory stress task using the Responses to Stress theoretical framework. Specifically, this study tested whether observations of child coping predicted child adjustment (i.e., internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and coping efficacy) overtime in middle childhood. Methods Child coping was observed in a community, pilot sample of children (N = 65, M age = 9.06) during a difficult star-tracing task. At baseline and six-month follow-up, children reported on their responses to stress and coping efficacy and parents reported on children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Results The Coping Coding System was highly reliable and predicted unique variance in child adjustment over time. Longer duration of engagement coping predicted greater coping efficacy and internalizing problems over time. The direction of association between disengagement coping and internalizing and externalizing problems depended on whether the disengaged behavior involved verbalizations. Conclusions Coping observations in the context of a challenge task contributed to individual differences in children's psychological adjustment, above and beyond child self-report of coping.
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Present paper describes that adaptation of a questionnaire on the sociotropy or own assumptions and goals. Paper presents the results of the psychometric validity of the Russian adaptation of the Questionnaire for middle and older adults. Participants were adults aged 35-75 (N=358; M= 49,27; SD = 11,08; 75,5 % — females). Our adaptation was based on a New Zealand version of the “Socitropy/ Autonomy scale” by A. Beck. To check the criterial validity we used “Differential questionnaire of loneliness experiences”, “Social and emotional loneliness scales for middle and older adults”, “Psychological well-being scale by C. Ryff”. The results of the exploratory and confirmatory analysis identified four subscales: “Social non-confidence”, “Dependence on other’s opinion”, “Affiliation” and “Independence”. Psychometric tests proved that all identified scales had internal consistency, and form a general factor. Final confirmatory analysis showed that four scales are comparatively independent. Analysis of the results in age and sex groups showed that the questionnaire maintained its consistency in age groups (middle adulthood, later adulthood, aging) as well as for males and females. Thus, our results revealed that our adaptation could be used on adults and older adults in Russia.
Article
Background Autistic adults experience high levels of stress, which may negatively affect their mental health. However, research into coping with stress in this population is limited, with no coping measures specifically validated for use in the autistic population. Method Utilising data from two Australian longitudinal adult studies, exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the factor structure that best represented the use of coping strategies in a sample of autistic adults (N = 255) using the Brief COPE. Mental health and well-being measures were used to provide information on psychometric properties. To explore potential intricacies in factor structure that may be unique to autistic adults, a preliminary subjective comparison with a non-autistic adult sample (N = 165) was also conducted. Results A six-factor solution, with high internal reliabilities, best represented the use of coping strategies in the autistic adult sample. Good convergent and divergent validities for the conceptually relevant coping factors were also reported. Subjective comparisons raise the possibility of some similarities (e.g., support-seeking coping strategies) and differences (e.g., the use of self-distraction coping strategies) in factor structures between the autistic and non-autistic samples. Conclusions This study provides an initial validation of the Brief COPE in autistic adults and supports its usefulness in assessing coping strategies in response to stress in this population. Findings also have potential implications for informing intervention services for autistic individuals, given the known relationships between the coping of stress and broader outcomes, such as mental health.
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This study examined age and gender differences and similarities in stress responses to September 11th. Adolescents, young adults, and adults reported using a variety of strategies to cope with the terrorist attacks including acceptance, positive thinking, and emotional expression. In addition, involuntary stress responses such as physiological arousal, rumination, and emotional numbing were common. A number of age trends emerged, showing increases across the three groups in emotion-based coping strategies and decreases in some forms of disengagement coping. In addition, rumi-nation decreased with age, whereas intrusive thoughts were more prevalent in the older groups. Females in both the adolescent and young adult samples reported using emotion-based strategies more than males, and these strategies were related to better functioning for females only. In addition, males reported higher levels of disengagement responses; and these responses were related to worse functioning, but only for females. The utility of using the Responses to Stress Questionnaire (Connor-Smith, Compas, Wadsworth, Thomsen, & Saltzman, 2000) to examine coping and involuntary stress responses in reference to terrorism and across a wide age range was examined. Implications for coping theory and empirical research are explored.
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The present dissertation initially aimed to investigate ABM characteristics in depression and anxiety. A second objective was to examine the relationships of EMSs, avoidance, and rumination with each other and also with depression and anxiety. Another goal was to assess the effects of EMSs, avoidance, and rumination on ABM. Lastly, this research had an explorative interest for the activation of EMSs using schema vignettes, and effects of schema activation on ABM characteristics. To satisfy these aims, three studies were conducted. In Study I, schema vignettes were developed, and their manipulation abilities were tested. In Study II, data was collected from a large university student sample (N = 918) to investigate associations between EMSs and tendencies for rumination, and avoidance. Besides, Study II served a screening function for depression and anxiety. Accordingly, four groups were created (i.e., non-clinically depressed, non-clinically anxious, non-clinically comorbid, and controls) and participants of these groups were invited to Study III. In Study III, 118 participants were individually tested in laboratory setting. A cue-word type ABM test was administered in two halves with words in random order. In between two parts of the test, manipulation for schema activation was performed. The differences and similarities of the groups in the nature, content, and the perspective features of ABM; and the effects of schema activation were explored. Results yielded significant differences in the characteristics of ABMs between groups and pointed out interesting alterations in comorbidity. Schema vignettes were proved to be successful tools for activation of dominant schemas, however, schema activation had no effect on ABM. Moreover, findings revealed significant associations between certain schemas and memory features; and suggested a role for EMSs to understand individuals’ tendencies for rumination and avoidance.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The traditional methodology for assessing moderator variables (hierarchical multiple regression analysis) is examined. Possible drawbacks of this technique for corroborating psychological theories (cf. Busemeyer & Jones, 1983), are illustrated empirically on the basis of an analysis of 400,000 subjects. This article tested a well-known (and currently popular) substantive hypothesis: A synergistic relation exists between mathematical ability and spatial visualization in the prediction and development of sophisticated levels of advanced mathematics. Using the traditional methodology, this hypothesis was confirmed; however, on further analysis, using a more systematic approach, it was demonstrated that this finding was spurious. Suggestions are offered for modifying the traditional methodology used for assessing moderator effects (for both applied and theoretical purposes). These amount to ways for minimizing Type I and Type II errors.
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The purposes of this study were: (a) to investigate the relations between the Personal Style Inventory (PSI) measures of sociotropy and autonomy and symptoms of psychopathology in depressed patients (n = 103), and (b) to compare the relative utility of categorical and dimensional approaches to differentiating depressed patients on the basis of sociotropy and autonomy. Sociotropy was related to interpersonal sensitivity, guilt and self-blame, and symptoms suggesting anxious depression or high negative affectivity. Autonomy was related to interpersonal distance and hostility, hopelessness/suicidality, feelings of failure, and anhedonia, suggesting low positive affectivity. These results provide support for the relevance of sociotropy and autonomy to depression and for the construct validity of the PSI. Cluster analysis did not identify clear categorical groups of participants, and differences between the most interpretable groups on symptoms could be predicted from the dimensional sociotropy and autonomy scores, suggesting no incremental utility of a categorical approach to these personality variables over a dimensional one.
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We conducted five studies with depressed patients, demographically matched controls, and college students to develop and psychometrically evaluate new measures of concerns about interpersonal relationships (sociotropy) and autonomous achievement (autonomy), constructs that have been proposed to confer vulnerability to depression. The final version of the Personal Style Inventory (PSI) Sociotropy and Autonomy scales showed a good factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest stability, a low correlation with each other, and weak or no gender differences. Convergent and discriminant validity were examined with respect to depressive symptom levels, the Dependency and Self-Criticism scales of the Revised Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, and a social desirability scale and were generally acceptable. Further evaluations of the construct validity of the PSI are indicated.
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Depressive symptoms have been linked to deficits in social problem solving. We extended earlier work by evaluating the specificity of problem-solving deficits to depressive (vs. anxiety) symptoms and by incorporating another correlate of depression, interpersonal dependency. Specifically, we addressed (a) a prediction that problem-solving skill and dependency would correlate inversely and (b) the question of whether problem-solving skill is associated with depressive symptom severity, controlling for dependency. In an unselected sample (N=115), results varied for different aspects of social problem solving. Problem-solving skills (e.g., generating multiple alternatives, evaluating pros and cons before deciding) were unrelated to depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, or dependency. Problem orientation (a constructive attitude toward problems involving seeing them as manageable challenges) was inversely related to dependency and to both depressive and anxiety symptom severity. The relation between problem orientation and depressive symptoms was reduced but not eliminated by controlling statistically for dependency.
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Interpersonal but not achievement scales of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), and Sociotropy/Autonomy Scale (SAS) were substantially correlated. Factor analysis of items from all instruments yielded two stable factors: Dependency f and Performance Evaluation f.All interpersonal scales except that of the DAS showed interactions with frequency of interpersonal but not achievement life events in predicting depression symptoms. Strongest support for the predicted interaction was obtained using Dependency f.The Achievement vulnerability scales yielded no significant interactions with life event frequencies.
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Raw scores (frequency of efforts) versus relative scores (percentage of efforts) were compared on the five scales of the revised Ways of Coping Checklist. It was hypothesized that, conditional on the source of and appraisal of a stressor, problem-focused coping should be inversely related and Wishful Thinking should be positively related to depression when relative scores were used but that raw problem-focused scores would be less clearly related to depression in such a way. It was further hypothesized that these relationships would hold for very diverse samples: psychiatric outpatients (n = 145), spouses of patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 66), and medical students (n = 185). Given the maladaptive status of the psychiatric outpatients, it was hypothesized that they would report more emotion-focused strategies and less problem-focused coping than the nonclinical samples and that these differences would be better observed using relative rather than raw scores. The hypotheses were generally supported.
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This study located the specific cognitive-personality vulnerability measures proposed by S. J. Blatt (1974; Levels of object representation in anaclitic and introjective depression. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 29, 107–157), i.e. dependency and self-criticism, and by A. T. Beck (1983; Cognitive therapy of depression: New perspectives. In P. J. Clayton and J. E. Barrett (Eds.), Treatment of depression: Old controversies and new approaches, pp. 265–290. New York: Raven), i.e. sociotropy and autonomy, within a comprehensive measure of personality, the NEO-PI-R developed by P. T. Costa Jr. & R. R. McCrae (1992, The NEO Personality Inventory manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). University students (102 men, 131 women) completed the NEO-PI-R, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, the Revised Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale, and CES-D depression. Results indicated that: (1) the 30 NEO-PI-R facets illuminate the similarities and differences between dependency, sociotropy, self-criticism, and autonomy; (2) the different forms of interpersonal content reflected by the specific vulnerability constructs descriptively distinguish them from the neuroticism domain and its facets; and (3) the main effects of dependency, sociotropy, self-criticism, and autonomy in predicting depression are explained by shared variance with neuroticism.
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Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of life stress in the past 2 decades raise several questions concerning traditional diathesis-stress theories of psychopathology. First, comprehensive measures of life stress force investigators to become more precise about the particular stressful circumstances hypothesized to interact with diatheses. Second, the influence of the diathesis on a person's life is typically ignored, which results in several types of possible bias in the assessment of life stress. Finally, information is available on diatheses and stress for specific disorders to provide a foundation for more empirically based hypotheses about diathesis-stress interactions. This possibility is outlined for depression. Such an approach provides the basis for developing broader, yet more specific, frameworks for investigating diathesis-stress theories of psychopathology in general and of depression in particular.
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This article presents a framework for studying personality in the stress process. The framework specifies that personality may affect both exposure and reactivity to stressful events and that both processes may explain how personality affects health and psychological outcomes. The framework also specifies that personality differences in reactivity may be due to differential choice of coping efforts and differential effectiveness of those efforts. In a 14-day daily study of 94 students, this framework was used to analyze the links among neuroticism, daily interpersonal conflicts, coping with conflicts, and distress. Results showed that high-neuroticism participants had greater exposure and reactivity to conflicts. Furthermore, high- and low-neuroticism participants differed both in their choice of coping efforts and in the effectiveness of those efforts, a possibility not considered in previous models of personality in the stress process.
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One in every 6 couples is infertile, and the literature suggests that a number of individuals experience psychological distress associated with infertility. The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men (n = 86) and women (n = 120) reported greater psychological distress than normative data from the general population. Separate hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that self-blame and avoidance coping was the best predictor of psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and not already having biological children added to the prediction among men but not among women. The limitations and implications of the findings are presented.
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In a longitudinal study of 253 bereaved adults, people with poorer social support, more concurrent stressors, and higher levels of postloss depression reported more rumination than people with better social support, fewer stressors, and lower initial depression levels. Women reported more rumination than men. People with a ruminative style at 1 month were more likely to have a pessimistic outlook at 1 month, which was associated with higher depression levels at 6 months. People with a more ruminative style were more depressed at 6 months, even after controlling for initial depression levels, social support, concurrent stressors, gender, and pessimism. Additional stressors and high depression scores at 1 month were also associated with higher levels of depression at 6 months.
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The study investigated the differential effects of social support on the psychological well-being of sociotropic and autonomous individuals. Using a two-wave prospective design, we had 75 college students respond to the Chinese sociotropy-autonomy scale (SAS), index of well-being, the Chinese general health questionnaire, the Chinese state anxiety inventory, and the Inventory of socially supportive behaviors at the beginning and the end of a 14-week semester. Data were analyzed by means of multiple regression analysis controlling for psychological outcome variables at Time 1. Moderating effects of sociotropy-autonomy were investigated by examining the significance of the interactions of SAS and social support. The results show that whereas perceived availability of social support contributes to the prediction of psychological well-being of the sociotropic individuals, the availability is not significant or even inimical to those autonomous individuals. The effect holds regardless of the nature of social support, i.e., whether they are emotion-focused or problem-focused. The findings further suggest the importance of the sociotropy-autonomy personality dimensions. Implications for social support intervention were discussed.
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The process of psychological adjustment to breast cancer was examined at diagnosis and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups in a sample of 80 women with Stage I–Stage IV breast cancer. At diagnosis, symptoms of anxiety/depression were predicted by low dispositional optimism, and this path was partially mediated by use of emotion-focused disengagement coping. Younger age also was predictive of anxiety/depression symptoms at time of diagnosis and this relationship was fully mediated by magnitude of intrusive thoughts. At 3 months, changes in anxiety/depression symptoms were predicted only by intrusive thoughts. At 6 months, low dispositional optimism reemerged as a significant predictor of changes in anxiety/depression and again was partially mediated by the use of emotion-focused disengagement coping. Independent effects for problem-focused engagement and disengagement and emotion-focused engagement coping were also found at 6 months. Implications of these data for psychosocial interventions with breast cancer patients are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A theory of ironic processes of mental control is proposed to account for the intentional and counterintentional effects that result from efforts at self-control of mental states. The theory holds that an attempt to control the mind introduces 2 processes: (a) an operating process that promotes the intended change by searching for mental contents consistent with the intended state and (b) a monitoring process that tests whether the operating process is needed by searching for mental contents inconsistent with the intended state. The operating process requires greater cognitive capacity and normally has more pronounced cognitive effects than the monitoring process, and the 2 working together thus promote whatever degree of mental control is enjoyed. Under conditions that reduce capacity, however, the monitoring process may supersede the operating process and thus enhance the person's sensitivity to mental contents that are the ironic opposite of those that are intended.
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Moderated regression analysis is commonly used to test for multiplicative influences of independent variables in regression models. D. Lubinski and L. G. Humphreys (1990) have shown that significant moderator effects can exist even when stronger quadratic effects are present. They recommend comparing effect sizes associated with both effect types and selecting the model that yields the strongest effect. The authors show that this procedure of comparing effect sizes is biased in favor of the moderated model when multicollinearity is high because of the differential reliability of the quadratic and multiplicative terms in the regression models. Fortunately, levels of multicollinearity under which this bias is most problematic may be outside the range encountered in many empirical studies. The authors discuss causes and implications of this phenomenon as well as alternative procedures for evaluating structural relationships among variables.
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The study investigated the differential effects of coping styles on anxiety, well-being, and psychological distress of sociotropic and autonomous individuals. One hundred and seventy five college students responded to the Chinese sociotropy-autonomy scale (SAS), state-anxiety inventory, index of well-being, the Chinese general health questionnaire (C-GHQ), and the Adolescent coping orientation for problem experiences in a two-wave prospective design. Moderating effects of sociotropy-autonomy were investigated by examining the significance of the interactions of SAS and coping styles in hierarchical regression analyses. The results show that the self-reliant problem solving and seeking family support predict lowered anxiety for highly autonomous individuals, but heightened anxiety for highly sociotropic ones. Effects of coping styles on well-being and GHQ, however, were not moderated by sociotropy and autonomy.
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Coping, perceived control, and symptoms ofanxiety/depression were assessed in 70 women with breastcancer near their diagnosis and at 3- and 6-monthfollow-ups. Multiple regression equations wereconstructed to investigate the effects of coping, perceivedcontrol, and their interaction on anxiety/depressionsymptoms. Problemfocused engagement coping was relatedto lower anxiety/depression symptoms neardiagnosis;emotion-focused disengagementcopingwas related tomoreanxiety/depression symptoms at 6 months, controllingfor initial anxiety/depression; and problemfocusedengagement was marginally related to loweranxiety/depression symptoms at 6 months controlling for initialanxiety/depression. There were no main effects forperceived control. The interaction of problem-focusedengagement coping and perceived control was asignificant predictor of lower anxiety/depression symptomsonly near the time of diagnosis. Thus, thegoodness-of-fit effect, in which problemfocused copinginteracts with perceived control to predict lower levels of anxiety/depression, was replicatedcross-sectionally, but not prospectively.
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The theory of ironic processes of mental control holds that both the most and the least desired effects of attempts to control one's own mental states accrue from two processes: an intentional operating process (a conscious, effortful search for mental contents that will produce a desired state of mind) and an ironic monitoring process (an unconscious, automatic search for mental contents that signal a failure to produce the desired state of mind). Although the monitoring process usually functions just to activate the operating process, during stress, distraction, time urgency, or other mental load, the monitor's effects on mind can supersede those of the operator, producing the very state of mind that is least desired. An individual's attempts to gain mental control may thus precipitate the unwanted mental states they were intended to remedy.
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For the past decade, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that when individuals write about emotional experiences, significant physical and mental health improvements follow. The basic paradigm and findings are summarized along with some boundary conditions. Although a reduction in inhibition may contribute to the disclosure phenomenon, changes in basic cognitive and linguistic processes during writing predict better health. Implications for theory and treatment are discussed.
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
concentrate on elaborating the motivations for—and consequences of—the monitoring end of the coping spectrum / propose three main possible mechanisms that may underlie and motivate this type of coping, that are not mutually exclusive, and consider evidence for and against each of these alternatives these include: (1) monitoring in order to execute controlling actions; (2) monitoring to modulate negative affect; and (3) monitoring to reduce uncertainty / consider circumstances under which monitoring may become inappropriately excessive and maladaptive / evaluate the role of both intrusive ideation and of avoidant ideation in sustaining uncontrolled vigilance for threat (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Previous cognitive vulnerability studies have identified sociotropy/dependency as a personality characteristic related to depression. We evaluated sociotropy in differential prediction of depression vs. anxiety. Participants (70 females, 42 males) were tested on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) at two points in time (T1 and T2), separated by an interval of 4 weeks. The Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale (SAS) was administered at T1. Sociotropy was related moderately to the BDI at T1 and T2, but also to the BAI. Autonomy was related to neither. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses found sociotropy to predict anxiety at T2, but not depression. The issue of cognitive vulnerability marker specificity is discussed. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol, 2003.
Article
ABSTRACT We review prior evidence—and present data of our own—linking measures of adaptational style to the traits comprising the five-factor model of personality. Neuroticism has been studied most extensively and is consistently associated with passive and ineffective coping mechanisms. Conscientiousness has emerged as an equally powerful predictor of coping; however, it is related to active, problem-focused response strategies. Extraversion is less broadly related to coping but tends to be correlated with social support seeking, positive reappraisal, and problem-focused coping. Openness is largely unrelated to many traditional coping inventories, but appears to reflect a more flexible, imaginative, and intellectually curious approach to problem solving. Finally, Agreeableness is only modestly related to coping. These results demonstrate the value of using well-articulated taxonomic schemes as a framework for trait-based research.
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This study tested the association of cognitive vulnerability based on sociotropy—autonomy and congruent negative life events, with onset and severity of symptoms in bipolar patients over a longitudinal course. Forty-nine remitted bipolar patients were followed for an average of 18 months. Onset of symptoms was not associated with a preponderance of stressors that matched the individual's sociotropic—autonomous type. However, symptom severity was significantly associated with sociotropy, interpersonal events, and the interaction of the two—but no such associations were found with autonomy or autonomy/achievement events. Results were discussed in terms of differences between unipolar and bipolar patients' mechanisms for symptom onset, and the role of sociotropy and interpersonal events in symptom experience and expression.