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Perspectives on the Wilderness Therapy Process and Its Relation to Outcome

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Abstract

This study examined the wilderness therapy process in order to better understand how the intervention effects change in problem behavior of adolescent clients. A review of literature reveals multiple definitions of wilderness therapy, numerous studies evaluating treatment outcomes, and a need to focus research on how the process facilitates change. This study investigated four established wilderness therapy programs using a multisite case study approach and a variety of qualitative data collection methods to carefully examine the wilderness therapy experience of 12 clients in four wilderness therapy programs. Findings indicate that physical exercise and hiking, primitive wilderness living, peer feedback facilitated by group counseling sessions, and the therapeutic relationship established with wilderness guides and therapists were key change agents for adolescents. These factors helped adolescents come to terms with their behavior and facilitated a desire to want to change for the better.

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... At the interpersonal level, outcomes include the development of social skills (Stott & Hall, 2003), and feelings of cohesion and efficiency within the group (Hatch & McCarthy, 2005). Although several authors have called for a better understanding of the processes that give rise to these effects (Bettmann et al., 2013;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002), certain elements have been listed as predictors of positive outcomes (McKenzie, 2003;Panicucci, 2007). These include experimenting with challenge and success through risk-taking (McKenzie, 2003;Priest, 1999), adaptive dissonance (Nadler, 1993;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002), and the development of a supportive community (Deane & Harre´, 2014;Scheinfeld, Rochlen, & Buser, 2011). ...
... Although several authors have called for a better understanding of the processes that give rise to these effects (Bettmann et al., 2013;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002), certain elements have been listed as predictors of positive outcomes (McKenzie, 2003;Panicucci, 2007). These include experimenting with challenge and success through risk-taking (McKenzie, 2003;Priest, 1999), adaptive dissonance (Nadler, 1993;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002), and the development of a supportive community (Deane & Harre´, 2014;Scheinfeld, Rochlen, & Buser, 2011). ...
... forests, weather conditions, unfamiliar environments, unknown peer groups) and (b) challenging activities. Participants must call upon personal resources that are seldom used, resort to new adaptation strategies, and develop adjustment mechanisms (McKenzie, 2003;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002;. ...
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A number of studies have addressed outdoor and adventure programs over the past 50 years. Despite empirical evidence that demonstrates the personal benefits of group interventions, research investigating the mechanisms responsible for these effects is scarce. This is particularly so for groups in natural outdoor and adventure settings. There is therefore a need to improve our understanding of the processes involved. This research focused on personal and interpersonal processes that occurred during an outdoor group expedition. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 23 subjects aged between 17 and 21 who had participated in an 18-day expedition. The data are examined through a theoretical framework known as “helping factors” often used when studying benefits of a group intervention. Findings The results show that participation in the program promoted self-understanding, interpersonal learning, socializing techniques, and cohesion. Altruism, imitative behavior, universality, and imparting information were also important. As for existential factors, corrective recapitulation of the family, catharsis, and hope, these were rarely mentioned if not absent. Applications The results give a better understanding of the helping factors in such programs and of their potential role in the group process, as well as their application in social work practice.
... # 2013 British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy 2004; Greenway, 1995;Russell, Hendee, & Phillips-Miller, 1999). However, others suggest it is more a combination of many factors that include outdoor setting, activities, group processes and therapeutic relationship (Kyriakopoulos, 2011;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). ...
... Following an examination of existing literature (i.e. Davis-Berman & Berman, 1994;Newes & Bandoroff, 2004;Russell, 2004Russell, , 2006Russell & Farnum, 2004;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002), the first author identified 19 commonly reported features in 'outdoor therapy' programmes (e.g. use of solo, adventure activities, group work) forming the basis of two main questions in the survey. ...
... That this was contrary to some of the authors' relational allegiances supports its validity. However, this finding is supported by previous studies suggesting that the natural environment is a central component in facilitating change (Beringer & Martin, 2003;Davis-Berman & Berman, 2008;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). ...
Article
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Background: The term outdoor therapy can be used to refer to a wide range of outdoor programmes including adventure therapy and wilderness therapy. Much of the research in the outdoor therapy field has focused on outcomes of these programmes rather than exploring the actual processes that are inherent in these experiences. Aim: This study investigated participants’ perspectives of helpful aspects of outdoor therapy experiences. Method: By means of an international online survey, participants reported what was helpful about their experiences of outdoor therapy. A mixed method approach was used, with the qualitative data being analysed with the use of grounded theory methodology to conduct thematic analysis. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings: A total of 43 complete responses were received. Quantitative and qualitative analysis established that being in the outdoors was the most helpful factor. Of 19 given aspects ‘to be outdoors’ was ranked the highest and ‘being outdoors’ emerged as a main category in the thematic analysis (84%, (n�36)). ‘Group related aspects’ were all rated higher, on average, than ‘your relationship with therapist’. Such findings contradict previous research on how important the therapeutic relationship is in facilitating positive therapeutic encounters. Conclusion: Although very much a preliminary survey, findings suggest that further investigation into the meaning attached to being outdoors and how this might affect/impact upon the therapeutic relationship is needed.
... Bien que reposant sur une caractéristique centrale, qui est l'apprentissage expérientiel, l'INA se décline en différents programmes dont les plus répandus sont axés sur l'éducation ou Face à l'essor de l'utilisation de l'INA à différentes fins, le besoin s'est fait sentir de différencier les INA à visée éducative de celles à visée thérapeutique (Bandoroff & Newes, 2004 ;Itin, 2001), mais surtout de bien identifier les caractéristiques uniques des INA. Bien qu'aujourd'hui plusieurs définitions aient été développées et que les milieux de pratique soient davantage sensibilisés aux particularités de l'INA, une certaine confusion subsiste toujours (Bunce, 1998 ;Crisp, 1998 ;Gass et al., 2012 ;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). La transposition rapide des programmes éducatifs en interventions La même démarche a été réalisée pour la sélection des articles portant sur les programmes à visée thérapeutique (INA-T). ...
... Dans le cas des programmes à visée thérapeutique, les évaluations ont fait ressortir des effets positifs sur le concept de soi (Dobud, 2016;Larson, 2007), l'efficacité personnelle Török, Kökönyei, Károlyi, Ittzés, & Tomcsányi, 2006), l'estime de soi Michalski, Mishna, Worthington, & Cummings, 2003;Török et al., 2006), la résilience et le développement psychosocial (Norton, 2008;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). ...
... D'autres éléments ont été répertoriés comme des ingrédients potentiels de l'efficacité des programmes d'INA : 1) l'expérimentation du défi et du succès par l'entremise de la prise de risque (Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1999 ;McKenzie, 2000McKenzie, , 2003Miles & Priest, 1999), 2) la dissonance et l'adaptation (Cross, 2002 ;Martin & Leberman, 2005 ;McKenzie, 2003 ;Nadler, 1993 ;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002 ;Taniguchi et al., 2005), et 3) la création d'une communauté d'entraide (Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002 ;Scheinfeld, Rochlen, & Buser, 2011 ;Tucker et al., 2013). (Ewert, McComick, & Voight, 2001 ;Walsh & Golins, 1976). ...
Article
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Wilderness experience programs (WEPs) are increasingly used in intervention settings. This situation is mainly based on the fact that positive impacts are attached to it on the personal and interpersonal fronts. Yet the popularity of this intervention method is such that programs claiming to be part of the WEPs are proposed, without actually presenting characteristics on which its efficiency is based. This text seeks to clarify WEPs characteristics by differentiating the two most widespread forms: educational and therapeutic programs. They are described in terms of their goals, use, and impacts. These aspects are put into perspective to highlight the elements designed to ensure the efficiency of the WEPs.
... A csoportmunka, illetve a csoport bevonása is kulcsfontosságú aspektusa a AT módszertanának, különösen fiatalokat célzó alkalmazásokban (Davis- Berman & Berman, 1994;Fletcher & Hinkle, 2002;Kimball & Bacon, 1993, Gass, 1993Russell, 2001;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). Mint a legtöbb terápiás csoport, az AT csoportok is jellemzően 6-14 résztvevőből állnak, (Kimball & Bacon, 1993). ...
... "tudatosan megtervezett kihívásokkal való szembe kerülés; az ismeretlen környezetben való elmerülés; a tevékenységek, az átéltek megértésére és jelentésére összpontosító hangsúly; valamint egy olyan környezet megteremtésének hangsúlyozása, amely implicit módon támogatja a proszociális értékeket" (Kimball & Bacon, 1993, p 16). A WT önálló fogalomként 1994 után erősödött meg (Davis- Berman & Berman,1994a), később Russel (2001) és Russell and Phillips Miller (2002) részletesebben definiálták és meghatározták a terápiás komponenseket, az előzetes diagnosztika, majd utánkövetés fontosságát is. Véleményük szerint a vadon környezetben az egyén problémamegoldó képességének fejlődése és terápiás folyamatai (a) az egyéni és csoportterápiás foglalkozások (b) a természetes terápiás környezet és (c) a személyes fejlődés útján valósulnak meg, miközben a résztvevők megtapasztalják és elsajátítják az egyéni és a társadalmi felelősségvállalás képességét (Davis- Berman & Berman, 1994, Russel, 2001, 2005, Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002. ...
... A WT önálló fogalomként 1994 után erősödött meg (Davis- Berman & Berman,1994a), később Russel (2001) és Russell and Phillips Miller (2002) részletesebben definiálták és meghatározták a terápiás komponenseket, az előzetes diagnosztika, majd utánkövetés fontosságát is. Véleményük szerint a vadon környezetben az egyén problémamegoldó képességének fejlődése és terápiás folyamatai (a) az egyéni és csoportterápiás foglalkozások (b) a természetes terápiás környezet és (c) a személyes fejlődés útján valósulnak meg, miközben a résztvevők megtapasztalják és elsajátítják az egyéni és a társadalmi felelősségvállalás képességét (Davis- Berman & Berman, 1994, Russel, 2001, 2005, Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002. A vadonterápiához kapcsolódva, az intézményesülés következményeként, a ma leginkább elterjedt és használt gyüjtőfogalommá az "Outdoor Behavioural Healthcare" fogalma vált. ...
Article
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This article – the first time in a Hungarian professional paper - gives a short overview of the so-called Adventure Therapy (AT). It’s based on experiential learning, connected to nature, as a healing, educative environment and has been spread more and more all around the world. In the USA, numerous AT programs are financed by the health insurance system. AT gives the opportunity for the client to step out of the comfort zone, therefore it involves the participant not only on cognitive but also on the emotional and behavioral level as well. This holistic involvement of personality supplemented by a reflection process leads to memorable experiences, which results in changes in maladaptive patterns. Because of the kinaesthetic involvement, it’s more successful among children and adolescents than traditional verbal therapies, which is verified by the fact, that most of the ‘evidence-based’ programs have been developed for these age groups. We introduce the roots, the basic definitions, the specific features, and the different branches of AT. In our opinion, the process of urbanization, the digital revolution, leading to a ‘nature deficit’ among youth, followed by undesired consequences, makes this topic as current now as it has never been.
... The greenspace setting was a key contextual factor as it provided the right supportive environment but also acted as the resource (mechanism resource), otherwise understood as the programme strategy or programme component introduced in a context. Programmes that utilise greenspace, and allow participants to feel as if they are escaping from their day-to-day lives, are shown to be particularly effective for participants with experience of trauma, anxiety, depression, suppressed anger, and other emotions, conflicts in relationships, as well as for people who explicitly state that they need help (Bettmann et al., 2011;Russell and Phillips-Miller, 2002). As well as existing diagnoses, the greenspace setting was particularly effective for participants who had previous experience of more typical treatments such as counselling (context), as greenspace OR "green space" OR "green care" OR greencare OR "nature therap*" OR "wilderness therap*" OR "outdoors behavi*ral healthcare" OR "outdoors behavi*ral therap*" OR "forest bathing" OR "shinrin yoku" OR "shinrin-yoku" OR "horticultur* therap*" OR "therapeutic horticulture" OR "green exercise" OR ecotherap* OR "conservation therap*" OR "care farm*" AND "mental health" OR "mental ill health" OR "mental illness" OR "mental disorder" OR "mental fatigue" OR psychiatric OR "psychiatric illness" OR stress OR depression OR anxiety OR recovery OR "low mood" OR wellbeing they no longer felt as if they were confined within four walls Granerud and Eriksson, 2014;Sidenius et al., 2017;Woodford et al., 2017). ...
... Participants on a wilderness therapy programme spoke about the physical space allowing them to reflect in a prolonged and undisturbed way, both when sitting and walking. This, in turn, can increase their awareness of the need for change in their lives McIver et al., 2018;Russell and Phillips-Miller, 2002), and how to 'live a better life' (Fieldhouse, 2003, p.90). ...
... Learned skills can be practical tasks, for example, learning how to look after plants was very effective for those with stress-related illness (Adevi and Lieberg, 2012;Eriksson et al., 2011), and for those without a clinical diagnosis wanting to improve wellbeing in general (O'Brien et al., 2010). Learning practical skills on wilderness therapy programmes was shown to be a particularly positive experience for young people Warber et al., 2015), and for those who were in the wilderness alone for the first time (Russell and Phillips-Miller, 2002). However, learned skills can also be skills such as self-regulation of emotion (Adevi and Mårtensson, 2013), and coping strategies (Barley et al., 2012). ...
Article
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With growing strain on mental health services, greenspace interventions could be a promising addition to current health and social care provisions as they have the potential to be widely accessible for people within their own communities and used alongside a variety of treatment plans. Despite promising progress in greenspace research, the underlying mechanisms and processes of greenspace interventions are still unclear. Without knowing these it is impossible to understand why programmes work and how best to replicate them. To address this gap this review uses realist methodology to synthesise the international evidence for greenspace interventions for mental health in both clinical and non-clinical populations. Forty-nine full text articles are included in the review and the underlying contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes of the interventions identified and refined into an original overriding theory under three themes of Nature, Individual Self, and Social Self. The interaction of these three factors represents a new conceptual framework for greenspace interventions for mental health and shows what works, for whom, and in what circumstances. The findings of this review are not only theoretically novel but they also have practical relevance for those designing such interventions including the provision of recommendations on how to optimise, tailor and implement existing interventions.
... Of the seven included studies (see Table 1), four (Russell, 2000;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002;Russell, 2005;Davis-Berman & Berman, 2012) had a general focus in terms of investigating the wilderness therapy process as a whole rather than selected elements of the treatment. Two of these studies were longitudinal in nature interviewing a sample of clients two years (Russell, 2005) and two decades (Davis-Berman & Berman, 2012) post-treatment. ...
... The majority of the studies utilized purposive or convenience sampling, with the exception of two studies in which client cases were chosen based on randomly selected admittance dates (Russell, 2000;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). ...
... Information provided about the programs and participants varied from little information to detailed case descriptions and studies that included demographics, reasons for referral, and/or diagnoses. Most studies focused on a single wilderness therapy program, while two articles presented case studies from four different programs (Russell, 2000;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). There were multiple variations among the programs represented in the studies. ...
Article
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Despite considerable progress within wilderness and adventure therapy research over the last decade, researchers are still unable to precisely answer why, how, and for whom this treatment modality works. There is also a need for more knowledge regarding the circumstances under which the treatment does not appear to be effective. In this realist synthesis, we attempt to unpack this “black box” of wilderness therapy more specifically, defined as a specialized approach to mental health treatment for adolescents. Through a focused review of the primary qualitative wilderness therapy studies, empirical findings are used to test and refine a key program theory. The synthesis results in a proposed wilderness therapy clinical model and offers informed implications for future theory development, research, and practice.
... : conditions météorologiques), elles génèrent du stress et de l'inconfort chez les participants (Davis-Berman et Berman, 2002). Pour s'y adapter, ils doivent faire appel à leurs ressources personnelles et développer des mécanismes d'ajustement (Gass et collab., 2012;Russell et Phillips-Miller, 2002). ...
... Le milieu naturel et la durée d'intervention donnent l'occasion à l'intervenant d'observer les participants sous différentes facettes et d'intervenir à partir de situations concrètes (Bandoroff et Newes, 2004 ;Gass et collab., 2012). En outre, il doit s'adapter et faire face aux mêmes agents stressants que les membres du groupe, ce qui le contraint naturellement à se mettre en action (Russell et Phillips-Miller, 2002). Cela modifie également le rapport d'autorité et offre de multiples possibilités de modeling. ...
Article
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Les programmes d’intervention en contexte de nature et d’aventure (INA) font l’objet d’études depuis plus d’une cinquantaine d’années. Malgré la reconnaissance des effets qui leur sont attribués, peu de travaux portent sur les processus s’opérant dans ces interventions. L’objectif de cet article est d’identifier ces processus et de mieux comprendre leur influence sur l’expérience de groupe. Pour ce faire, le modèle des facteurs d’aide (FA) a été retenu. Des entrevues semi-dirigées ont été réalisées auprès de 23 sujets âgés de 17 à 21 ans ayant participé à une expédition de 18 jours. Les éléments-clés de l’INA sont les suivants : la multitude de défis, la déstabilisation, la relation entre les enseignants et les participants et le milieu naturel. Ensuite, leur relation avec les FA est mise en relief. Il est question de : l’altruisme, les comportements d’imitation, la cohésion, la connaissance de soi, le partage d’information, l’universalité et les techniques de socialisation. Les apprentissages interpersonnels, la catharsis, l’espoir, les facteurs existentiels et la récapitulation corrective de la famille sont absents. Ces résultats mettent en lumière l’interaction entre les éléments-clés de l’INA et les FA, et la pertinence de s’y intéresser en travail social de groupe.A number of studies have addressed outdoor and adventure programs over the past fifty years. Despite empirical evidence that demonstrates the personal benefits of these programs, research investigating the key features responsible for these effects is scarce. The purpose of this article is to identify them and understand their influence. In order to achieve this goal, the data were examined from the perspective of helping factors (HFs). Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 23 subjects aged between 17 and 21 who had participated in an 18 day expedition. The results show that participation in the program promoted key features: multiple challenges, the experience of destabilization, the relationship between the facilitators and group members and finally, the experience of being in wilderness. Then, relationships between key features and HFs are highlighted. Many of them are found: altruism, imitative behavior, cohesiveness, self-understanding, imparting information, development of socializing techniques, and universality. Interpersonal learning, catharsis, hope, existential factors, and corrective recapitulation of the primary family group are absent. These results give a better understanding of how key features interact with HFs in nature and adventure settings and its relevance in social work with groups.
... Although multiple program and staffing models exist among OBH programs, most programs utilize continuous flow or basecamp models, in which clients remain in the wilderness (referred to as the "field") throughout the duration of their stay while field guides, also referred to as field instructors or field staff, rotate in and out on a weekly basis (Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). Field guides work together with program clinicians to support a client's therapeutic progress. ...
... This diversity of roles in relation to clients makes the critical importance of a field guide's role in the clients' process quite unique. Previous studies have identified the relationship between clients and field guides as an essential component that facilitates positive growth for clients in the wilderness therapy process (Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). ...
Article
Rationale Social work has long supported activity-based group work for young people. One such approach includes outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH), also known as wilderness therapy, which often employs nonclinical field staff to lead outdoor activities as part of the overall treatment model. Although men and women both serve as field guides, the culture of OBH has historically been male-dominated, at times obscuring the voices and perspectives of female staff in the field. For this reason, a feminist social work lens was employed in order to engage in a qualitative gender analysis of women field guides’ experiences in OBH. Methods Focus groups were used in this study to better understand gender as experienced by individuals who identify as women working as field guides in OBH. Findings Results indicated that women experienced gender at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and program levels in ways that contributed to both empowerment and obstacles to leadership roles and longevity in the field. Identified needs included training for all staff on gender, women in leadership roles, and all women’s spaces. Practice Considerations Implications for social work practice are discussed, aimed at supporting women’s development and creating work environments most conducive to learning and growth for staff and clients alike.
... The target audience for this therapy is however much more specific than for green exercise. Wilderness therapy is used primarily to combat emotional, psychological and addiction problems of young adults (Hobbs and Shelton, 1972;Bandoroff, 1989;Russell, 1999;Russell and Phillips-Miller, 2002;Caulkins et al., 2006;Russell, 2006a;Bettmann, 2007). The motivation behind wilderness theory is to isolate the individual from the normal social space in which they have created routines that cause ill-health (Cumes, 1998). ...
... The motivation behind wilderness theory is to isolate the individual from the normal social space in which they have created routines that cause ill-health (Cumes, 1998). The wilderness not only creates the time for reflection, but also interpersonal development, as group work is a key theme in this therapy, and both aim to prevent the return to former harmful personal routines (Hans, 2000;Wilson and Lipsey, 2000;Russell and Phillips-Miller, 2002;Russell, 2006b). As such, wilderness therapy can be used to treat substance abuse (Bennett et al., 1998) and mental health problems (Crisp and O'Donnell, 1998;Beringer and Martin, 2003) in particular. ...
Article
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Thirty-one ethnographic interviews were conducted with health and well-being sector businesses to examine the dynamics of innovation in the UK (Cornwall) and across Finland. The Nordic countries are at the leading edge of these types of public health nature-based interventions, consequently, Finland was chosen as a comparator to the UK. We found that the construction of natural environment based services for health and well-being follows a five-step model: (1) Services are specifically designed for individuals’ needs; (2) These services are based around routine behaviours of that individual and their personal and social habits; (3) This creates a process of normalisation that relates to former states of health prior to being ill; (4) These routines generally function at a habitual level if they are to be of use on a daily basis (we are not conscious of all of our actions all the time); and (5) nature is used to embed these new routines because it allows access to the latent forms of thought, not ones that require direct conscious learning. We found this emergent process closely resembles Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of habitus. A number of health and well-being businesses have moved towards mixed models of service provision– combining profit-making activities in the tourism and leisure markets with care services to create a sustainable service model in response to increasing pressures on funding sources. However, more still needs to be done in terms of training for public health and well-being businesses if this service model is to become financially sustainable for all.
... : conditions météorologiques), elles génèrent du stress et de l'inconfort chez les participants (Davis-Berman et Berman, 2002). Pour s'y adapter, ils doivent faire appel à leurs ressources personnelles et développer des mécanismes d'ajustement (Gass et collab., 2012;Russell et Phillips-Miller, 2002). ...
... Le milieu naturel et la durée d'intervention donnent l'occasion à l'intervenant d'observer les participants sous différentes facettes et d'intervenir à partir de situations concrètes (Bandoroff et Newes, 2004 ;Gass et collab., 2012). En outre, il doit s'adapter et faire face aux mêmes agents stressants que les membres du groupe, ce qui le contraint naturellement à se mettre en action (Russell et Phillips-Miller, 2002). Cela modifie également le rapport d'autorité et offre de multiples possibilités de modeling. ...
Presentation
Au Québec, l’utilisation de l’intervention en contexte de nature et d’aventure est en plein essor. De plus en plus reconnue à travers divers champs de pratique, cette modalité d’intervention met en relief des effets sur la santé globale, notamment aux plans physique, sociale et psychologique. Par conséquent, depuis quelques années, les intervenants psychosociaux démontrent de l’intérêt pour l’intervention en contexte de nature et d’aventure. Mais que constituent les fondements de cette modalité d’intervention ? Comment opérer le risque au sein des expériences d’aventure ? Comment la nature contribue-elle aux effets ? Bref, comment opérationnaliser les interventions en contexte de nature et d’aventure afin de les rendre reproductibles, bénéfiques et sécuritaires ? Visant notamment les professionnels désirant intégrer la nature et l’aventure dans leur pratique, c’est dans le but de susciter la réflexion et de faciliter l’intégration des connaissances via différents exemples que ce webinaire est envisagé. Il se veut une introduction à ces questions, dans le but d’optimiser les pratiques et d’élargir le champ de compréhension des participants y prenant part. Lien verds la présentation sous-titrée en français : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IzZUk8D5HPU&ab_channel=VirginieGargano
... Another aspect characterizing some NBTs relates to the unique group dynamics occurring through living and traveling in the wilderness, which may involve tasks such as cooking, navigating, setting up camp, etc. The character of wilderness programs requires communication skills, group cohesion, and the processing of inevitable group conflicts that arise, which have been linked to the development of a strong sense of group identity and found to be important predictors of outcomes for WT program participants (Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). ...
... The significance of challenge rests on the premise that the more involved a person is in an experience the more chance for learning and change (Ewert et al., 2014). Therefore, therapeutic interventions are designed to engage the individual's senses, emotions, body, and cognition, so the client becomes a participant rather than a spectator, developing new pathways to adaptive change (Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). The findings of the present study support this notion, pointing to the centrality of challenge as a means by which limiting structures, ideas, and perceptions of self and the world are dissembled, so that new, more expansive and flexible ones are created. ...
Article
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The psychological benefits of human connection to nature have instigated the development of nature-based therapies (NBTs). This article focuses on the distinct therapeutic factors that characterize NBTs, from the perspective of practitioners from various NBTs, shedding light on the therapeutic value of psychotherapy conducted in the natural environment. To gain a general understanding of the distinct therapeutic factors, currently lacking in the broad field of NBTs, grounded theory methodology was applied. Data included in-depth interviews conducted with 26 nature-based practitioners from five countries, with various professional backgrounds, and six field observations of multiday nature-based group interventions. The findings of this study illuminate four distinct and common therapeutic factors enhanced by the natural environment and linked to the beneficial effect of NBTs: (a) the natural environment, delineated as a unique growth-oriented setting fostering health and wholeness; (b) challenge, described as a therapeutic means by which limiting perceptions of self may expand; (c) the role of nature, perceived as actively influencing the therapeutic process; and (d) expansiveness and interconnectedness experienced through nature eliciting a broad perspective on life and sense of belonging. New perspectives are revealed regarding the first two therapeutic factors that have been discussed previously in the literature, and two factors that are new to the broad field of NBTs are revealed providing us with new understandings regarding the therapeutic value of integrating nature in psychotherapy. All four factors are discussed in the context of examples of practice in the field and their practical implications for mental health professionals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Studies have shown adventure therapy develops self-efficacy, self-empowerment, locus of control, positive selfimage, and promotes healthy relationships in at-risk youth (Carpenter et al, 2008;Carroll et al, 2009;Heilbrun et al, 2005;Russell, 2006;Tarolla et al, 2002;Wilson & Lipsey, 2000). The role of the team leader is a significant part of adventure therapy (Autry, 2001;Brand & Smith, 1999;Duerden, Taniguchi, & Widmer, 2012;Russell & Farnum, 2004;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002;Schumann, Paisley, Sibthorp, & Gookin, 2009). Leadership is the act of expressing one's influence upon others (Priest & Gass, 2000). ...
Conference Paper
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Best education practices suggest educators to, “identify underserved student populations related to environmental literacy and sustainability” (Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2011). Environmental education professionals suggest educators pursue projects that include access to environmental education for communities that do not have access to environmental education programs or resources (Greenwood & Hougham, 2015; National Environmental Education Advisory Council, 2015). Underserved student populations may be lacking effective environmental education programs, but the ubiquity of mobile technology persists in most youth populations (Lenhart & Pew Research Center, 2015). Furthermore, youth maturing in the digital age are technologically advanced; educators need to adapt to the students’ changing learning styles (Prensky, 2001b). The shift in emphasis towards electronic usage is a key characteristic of the digital native youth generation who have been raised with ubiquitous mobile technology (Prensky, 2006). How do collaborators in environmental and sustainability education reach youth that are increasingly ‘plugged in’ to electronics, but who would benefit greatly by being ‘unplugged’ in nature? The call to invent new digital native methodologies across all subjects has been made over a decade ago (Prensky, 2001a). Educators are engaging youth to help invent these new methodologies. Research and evaluation is needed to hone the most effective practices in education in the digital age. To engage learners at a visceral level, educators first need to see the subject material from the student’s perspective and understand how students process information (Visser & VisserValfrey, 2008). Project EARPOD has met the needs of digital natives by providing an opportunity to engage with nature through the lens of new mobile technologies as well as placebased education while assisting digital immigrant educators navigate this new, digital landscape of today’s youth. The influence of technology on student attitudes is the focus in our research, studied through parallel lesson plans—one technology-based, implementing a Microsoft Surface Pro 3® tablet and applications, and the other with traditional education tools such as field guides and hand lenses.
... The degree to which the outdoor setting is identified as being an explicit part of the therapeutic process appears to depend on what aspects are identified as essential to the change process. For example, adventure therapy emphasises the therapeutic activities themselves as promoting change (Gillis & Ringer, 1999;Norton et al., 2014), whereas wilderness therapy proposes a combination of helpful factors, such as having the opportunity to experience 'unique' relationships with peers and therapist, solo time to reflect on life and overcoming challenges (Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). ...
Article
Walk and talk is a therapeutic activity that utilises the interactional effects of physical movement in outdoor settings. This study explored the experiences of therapists who participate in this activity with their clients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven therapists in the UK. Data were analysed utilising a descriptive phenomenological approach. Emergent themes included: (i) Making use of different therapeutic processes that arise through altered physicality in an outdoor environment; (ii) Realising the potential of the therapist; (iii) Promoting a collaborative stance that invites clients to express and act on their preferences and choices; and, (iv) Taking account of professional issues. The results suggest therapists develop ways of working that correspond with deeply held beliefs and values, and contributes to further understanding of the process of integrating movement and the outdoor environment into routine therapy practice.
... During this time, they are separated from familiar environments and other cultural stimuli (Kimball and Bacon 1993;Russell et al. 2008). Clients learn and apply primitive skills such as fire making, basic food preparation, shelter building and backcountry travel (Bettmann and Jasperson 2007;Russell and Phillips-Miller 2002). Clients are also taught and learn through natural consequences, while staff ensure client safety. ...
Article
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Wilderness therapy is becoming a more widely used intervention for adolescents, but there have not been any meta-analyses focused solely on its clinical effectiveness for private pay clients. This study’s objective was to conduct outcome-based meta-analyses of private-pay wilderness therapy programs, benchmark primary features of this approach, and educate the clinical community as to its effectiveness. The authors conducted a review of all available databases, as well as manual searches. Searches resulted in a meta-analysis based on 36 studies, totaling 2399 participants receiving wilderness therapy. Our meta-analyses found medium effect sizes for all six constructs assessed: self-esteem (g = 0.49), locus of control (g = 0.55), behavioral observations (g = 0.75), personal effectiveness (g = 0.46), clinical measures (g = 0.50) and interpersonal measures (g = 0.54). Subgroup analyses included age of participants, duration of program, open or closed model, presence of a mental health practitioner, and publication year.
... While the benefits of walking and hiking in extreme environments, such as wilderness, are well established (Russell and Phillips-Miller, 2002;Caulkins, et al, 2006), the multiple benefits of recreational walking are still being articulated. In their paper on walking as a remedy for modernity, for example, Robertson and Babic (2009) found that walkers in a park near Zagreb identified many of the same attributes of walking that are found in more extreme environments, including feeling fitter and more resourceful, experiencing a connection with nature and the outdoors; and enjoying the company of others. ...
Chapter
Walking is widely endorsed by health promotion strategists as a means to improve the health of the nation. However, little is known about the value of walking beyond the physiological and psychological benefits. This research seeks to contribute to our understanding of the manifold benefits provided by walking in the British countryside and implications for health promotion. This qualitative study utilises a novel approach to explore the whole person benefits of walking outdoors for recreation, by drawing insight from experiences of guests on a walking radio programme. Data was thematically analysed to identify and report on patterns emerging from the interviews, highlighting key discoveries. Male participants articulated how and why walking outdoors was meaningful to them, with three main themes emerging; appreciation of surroundings, awareness of self, and opportunities. These findings suggest that walking is a complex leisure activity and that it is meaningful as a result of individual experience rather than the just physical activity itself.
... Camping experiences are often extremely intense. Volunteer camp staff are presumably an important element of an effective camping program, but desirable and effective staff characteristics have not been empirically established (Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). Thus understanding volunteer PC and how to retain volunteers within the camp setting is an important aspect of effective volunteer management for organizations that use both episodic and traditional volunteers to facilitate the organization's outcomes. ...
Article
This study investigated the nature of the psychological contract (PC) developed by episodic and traditional volunteers in camp-based leisure organizations in Australia and the relationship between their PCs and intentions to continue volunteering. The nature of the volunteer experience means that volunteers will tend to develop a social exchange relationship with their “employer”. Due to the absence of financial payment for volunteers, the understanding of their PC may provide a powerful tool to help leisure organizations understand and manage the behaviour of volunteers, including enhancing their ability to retain their services. Volunteers will not have any expectations for financial compensation; however their PC may include expectations that their needs and motives for volunteering will be met. Contrary to the bulk of studies examining the motives for volunteering (Clary, E. G., Snyder, M., & Ridge, R. D. [1992]. Volunteers’ motivations: A Functional Strategy for the Recruitment, Placement, and Retention of Volunteers. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 2(4), 333–350), literature and research on the PC of volunteers is rare (Liao-Troth, M. A. [2005]. Are they here for the long haul? The effects of functional motives and personality factors on the psychological contracts of volunteers. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 34(4), 510–530) and as such this research extends our knowledge of volunteering in leisure organizations. A qualitative research design involving the use of 40 in-depth interviews was used to explain the differences in the nature of the PC that existed between episodic and traditional volunteers and their respective organizations and individuals’ intentions to continue volunteering. The study found that volunteers’ PCs are developed through the initial interview or exposure to a social cue or external message that attracts them to the organization to volunteer and that the culture of the organization had an influence on the PC of volunteers especially after they had completed a numbers of hours with their organization. The volunteers’ previous experience with volunteering did influence their PC with their current organization; they brought the expectations of their past experience with them and compared them to the current experience, making assumptions and comparisons about their current role. Episodic volunteers reported that their expectations around training and induction, communication and supervisor support were not often met compared to the experience of traditional volunteers. Intentions to continue volunteering were enhanced by (1) the development of feelings of importance and belonging to the group (campers or volunteers) and not particularly the organization, (2) enabling volunteers to achieve personal and professional growth, (3) ensuring equality amongst paid staff and volunteers. The paper concludes with a discussion of the theoretical implications for PC amongst volunteers in leisure focused organizations.
... AT builds upon traditional group therapy but focuses less on talking and more on doing. This holistic and kinesthetic engagement creates an environment that feels less like "therapy" than traditional individual or group work (Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). In AT the role of the group leader or clinician changes, in that the therapist is less of an expert but more a guide, sharing the experience with the group and its participants ( Gass et al., 2012). ...
Article
The purpose of this article is to explore the impact of one type of activity-based group work, adventure therapy (AT) group practice, on youth in a community-based mental health setting. Using data collected from Adventure Works, a nonprofit outdoor behavioral healthcare and adventure therapy counseling center, this article explores treatment outcomes to identify the effectiveness of adventure therapy group interventions. AT has been identified as an effective intervention within wilderness and residential settings, but little research exists focusing on adventure therapy in a community setting. Data collected shows positive outcomes for youth participating in adventure-based group therapy. Research and practice implications are discussed.
... Integral to the camp process are the camp counselors who facilitate the activities and learning experiences of campers (Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). The general demographics of camp counselors tend to be below the age of 30 years, single or in a relationship, White, and completing or have recently completed a college degree (Marchand, Russell, & Cross, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The intense nature of the camp experience and the unique role of camp counselors can be a rewarding experience for camp counselors and campers alike. However, to experience compassion satisfaction necessitates evaluation of a number of factors that may enhance or decrease compassion satisfaction. Purpose: To better understand the camp counselor experience of compassion satisfaction, this study examined the factors of self-compassion, self-care activities, stress, values progress, values obstruction, and burnout on compassion satisfaction. Methodology/Approach: Data from 27 female camp counselors (Mage = 20.33 years, 92.59% White/Caucasian, 85.18% undergraduate students) were collected 4 times over a 10-week period. A series of Bayesian linear regressions was conducted to examine the effect of these variables on compassion satisfaction. Findings/Conclusions: Compassion satisfaction was best explained by a combination of burnout (M = −0.67, 95% credible interval [CRI] = –[0.88, −0.48]), self-care activities (M = 0.38, 95% CRI = [0.10, 0.65]), and stress (M = 0.14, 95% CRI = [0.01, 0.26]). Implications: Factors such as burnout, self-care activities, and stress contribute both negatively and positively on camp counselor compassion satisfaction. Suggestions for how to address each are addressed in addition to the importance of training interventions to enhance camp counselor compassion satisfaction.
... The last feature of adventure therapy is the therapeutic relationship. Therapeutic relationship is one of the most important elements of adventure therapy (Russell and Phillips-Miller 2002). The fact that the most important factor in the change process is the quality of the therapeutic relationship (Lambert and Barley 2001) emphasizes the importance of the relationship between the therapist and the client in adventure therapy. ...
... Wilderness therapy stands out from adventure therapy in general by invariably taking place in nature. Enquiries into what wilderness therapy is and how it works are nothing new (Russell, 2001;Russell & Farnum, 2004;Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002). A recent qualitative review set out to synthesize these previous explorations into the black box of wilderness therapy (Fernee, Gabrielsen, Andersen, & Mesel, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Wilderness therapy has the potential to meet the specific needs of the current adolescent population by providing a rather unique outdoor group treatment. Wilderness therapy is not a new approach to mental health treatment, but its theoretical basis is not yet clearly delineated, in part because of the diversity found across programs and contexts. This article presents a critical realist exploration of a wilderness therapy program that was recently implemented as part of adolescent mental health services in Southern Norway. In this study, we combine fieldwork and interviews for an in-depth investigation of the treatment process, where the objective was to acquire a deeper understanding of the opportunities that arise in the wilderness therapy setting. The therapeutic mechanisms and influential contextual premises found across the ecological, physical, and psychosocial factors of this multidimensional approach to treatment are presented, and their underlying conditions are briefly discussed.
... These included a sense of timelessness, awareness of surroundings, awareness of self, awareness of others, and self-efficacy. Russell and Phillips-Miller (2002) interviewed 12 adolescent participants across four WT programs and found the following factors contributed meaningfully to their therapeutic progress: the physicality of outdoor living and travel, peer feedback from the intensive social milieu and group work, and the relationships they developed with the therapists. Gabrielsen et al. (2018) interviewed and observed youth clients in a Norwegian WT program to advance understanding of therapeutic mechanisms in the wilderness setting. ...
... Coupled to standard individual and group-based psychotherapy, "wilderness therapy, " otherwise known as "adventure therapy, " involves the organized engagement in outdoor environmental experiences or "adventures" partly in order to provoke positive emotions and encourage social and family engagement and effective problem solving (e.g., Russell and Phillips-Miller, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Across three studies, we provide a proof-of-concept evaluation of an integrative psychotherapeutic application of virtual reality (VR) technology. Study 1 (n = 36) evaluated an unguided “safe-place” imagery task, where participants were instructed “to create a safe space… [such as] a scene, item, design, or any visual representation that makes you feel safe” using either the Google Tilt Brush application (VR condition), the standard Microsoft Paint application (2-D condition), or via eyes-closed mental imagery alone (IMG condition). Study 2 (n = 48) evaluated a narrative episodic recall task, where participants viewed their childhood and adult homes and places of schooling either using either the Google Earth VR application (VR condition) or the standard Google Earth application (2-D condition) or recalled these places with their eyes closed via mental imagery alone (IMG condition). Finally, Study 3 (n = 48) evaluated a guided wilderness imagery task, during which different scripts were narrated, specifically, a trail walk in autumn, a spring meadow, and a hillside walk in snowy winter, while either these same scenes were visually presented using the Nature Treks VR application (VR condition), the scenes were presented using the same software but shown on standard computer monitor (2-D condition), or participants’ eyes were closed (IMG condition). Order of intervention format was randomized across participants. Across all three studies, quantitative survey ratings showed that the VR format of intervention delivery produced greater positive affect and satisfaction and perceived credibility ratings as an intervention for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and psychological well-being as rated by university students who varied in traumatic and stressful life event history and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, whereas qualitative findings revealed additional themes of experiential response including increased experience of presence and vividness in the VR condition. Future research directions and clinical applications are discussed.
... Despite emerging evidence of the potency of AT in general, and WT in particular, a clearer understanding of how change comes about has been requested (Hoag, Massey, & Robert, 2014;Magle-Haberek et al., 2012), with Bettmann, Russell, andParry (2013, p. 1048) proclaiming: "as it is now evident that wilderness therapy is an effective form of treatment, researchers should dig deeper to investigate why, how and for whom such treatment is effective". A few studies had previously investigated the relation of therapeutic process to outcomes (e.g., Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002;Harper et al., 2007), but the prevailing lack of insights into the therapeutic process was reiterated by Norton et al. (2014) noting that: "we are still not able to answer the question of why adventure therapy works or does not work; the answer remains in the black box" (p. 51). ...
Thesis
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This is a doctoral dissertation for the degree of PhD in Health Sciences at the University of Agder, Norway. It is an article-based thesis, which means that the main work of this PhD is three published scientific articles and a fourth article that has been submitted. The thesis provides the introduction, summary and overall discussion of these four substudies, which can also be found separately on my ResearchGate profile.
... Findings across a number of exploratory wilderness therapy studies entail reported benefits on the self-concept (e.g., Russell & Phillips-Miller, 2002;Caulkins, White & Russell, 2006;Norton, 2010;Norton, Wisner, Krugh & Penn, 2014). These primary studies have yet to be systematically investigated and synthesized. ...
Article
This paper is a twelve-month follow-up study that explores perceived outcomes from participation in a Norwegian wilderness therapy program. Through a critical realist approach, the authors performed an in-depth analysis of individual interviews with ten adolescent participants. Long-term outcomes included the transfer and adaptation of calming and nature-supported strategies to the participants' home environments, improvements in mood and emotional regulation, and increased social interaction. Overall, the adolescents seemed to exert greater independence and agency in their lives at twelve months post-treatment. This ability appeared to be facilitated by underlying processes that entailed insight, awareness, and acceptance of oneself and one's situation. The authors suggest that these emerging stories are fragile, yet conditioned by a fundamental (re)connection with the self and address this cautious proposition in the discussion. Finally, a more precise theoretical framework should be developed to support future in-depth explorations.
... A kalandterápia összefoglaló módszertanának egyik irányzata a "vadonterápia", még szűkebben értelmezendő. Ma igen sokféle néven és különböző definíciókkal találkozhatunk ezzel a módszertannal, ami arra utal, hogy egy igen progresszív, de kevésbé megfogható fejlődésen keresztül változik, illetve még nagy mértékű a korlátozottsága az empirikus vizsgálatok pontosságát illetően (Gillis és Thomsen, 1996, Russell és Phillips-Miller, 2002, Russell és Farnum, 2004. ...
Book
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A tapasztalati tanulás alapú természeti környezetben zajló módszerek megjelenése a magyar szociálismunkás-képzésben 2019 Rubeus Egyesület • Rubeus Association
Chapter
This chapter highlights the role of the family in the treatment of youth who attend Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare (OBH) programs. Family involvement can take many forms across the stages of wilderness treatment that are highlighted in this chapter. For example, when an adolescent is in the expedition phase of treatment-specific letter writing assignments may be used to encourage dialog between the parents/guardians and child. During the phase of the program where parents/guardians participate alongside their child there may be family therapy sessions, family adventure activities, family sculptures , and family group sessions. In addition to reviewing some ways families can be involved, the role of the family therapist at home is discussed in relation to the OBH clinician and how they can work together collaboratively. To highlight how family involvement may look within an OBH program, a case study is provided and suggestions concerning the role of family are presented.
Chapter
Adolescents with significant externalizing or internalizing behaviors that have been ineffectively treated in traditional clinical settings are increasingly finding support via the intentional family separation that occurs in wilderness therapy programs. Although often counterintuitive to family therapists, the space provided when adolescents are separated from their parents can facilitate a decrease in the chronic anxiety within a family system , thereby enabling each family member to increase his or her differentiation level through an intensive therapeutic process. Healthy levels of differentiation are evidenced through balancing intellectual and emotional functioning (on the individual continuum), and autonomy of self and connection with others (on the relational continuum). When one has a lower level of differentiation, one is prone to emotional dysregulation or suppression, as well as emotional fusion or cutoff in relationships. Though very difficult, one can increase one’s basic level of differentiation through sustained therapeutic engagement and decreased family system anxiety . This chapter explores Bowen’s concept of differentiation of self , in a wilderness therapy context, as it relates to intentional family separation for adolescents with clinically acute symptoms and families with entrenched and unhealthy dynamics.
Chapter
Families frequently seek wilderness therapy hoping for a miracle when other treatment interventions have proven ineffective, and these families and their adolescent children frequently do experience powerful shifts during wilderness therapy programs. However, these therapeutic gains are not yet internalized as change, and follow-up treatment is necessary. Navigating the aftercare planning process can be confusing, emotionally fraught, and paralyzing for parents when considering the potential risks associated with not maintaining those gains. This chapter describes why most adolescents transition to longer term residential therapeutic schools and programs post-wilderness, and how that environment can actually be the safest and least restrictive. Many considerations for crafting an aftercare plan are detailed in this chapter, as well as how to safely transition an adolescent to an aftercare program. Situations are discussed in which returning home upon discharge might be recommended. Suggestions are offered for wilderness therapists and home providers regarding how to support parents making difficult aftercare decisions. And lastly, the importance of the wilderness therapy intervention is explained, even in the face of subsequent longer term residential treatment.
Article
The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze demographic characteristics and job related difficulties experienced by field instructors in outdoor behavioral healthcare programs which utilized wilderness therapy as well as other treatment modalities. Three state-licensed outdoor behavioral healthcare programs in the United States provided a sample of 129 field instructors who completed the survey. Results confirmed a high turnover rate of instructors and high challenges experienced with non-work related issues, particularly in sustaining romantic personal relationships. Factor analysis identified three constructs related to difficulty levels experienced on the job: a) time and schedule constraint; b) emotional anxiety and stress-related issues; and, c) physical and mental challenges. Results of this study are of value to field instructors and outdoor behavioral healthcare program administrators to better understand the challenges faced by this group of professionals. Recommendations are presented that suggest ways that the physical and mental health of field instructors can be supported.
Article
Psychotherapy traditionally takes place within an indoor context and is characterized by intentional maintenance of physical and emotional boundaries. Increasing evidence points to the significant therapeutic potential of natural environments in improving client quality of life, elevating mood, enhancing executive function, and as context for interventions designed to address depression, loss and grief, and existential pain. As therapists adapt the therapeutic frame to make space for collaboration with natural environments in their work with clients, ethical considerations must be addressed to promote best practices and to protect client and therapist safety. First, therapists must give attention to issues of competence, seeking out training, supervision, and consultation for novel nature-based therapeutic modalities. Second, client privacy and confidentiality face unique challenges, which must be recognized and mitigated to a reasonable degree. Finally, therapists must remain committed to a dynamic and interactive informed consent process that honors the client's autonomy and agency in the therapeutic process.
Article
Nature-based interventions hold promise for vulnerable youth experiencing mental, emotional, developmental, behavioral, or social difficulties. This scoping review examined wilderness therapy, animal assisted therapy, care farming, and gardening and horticultural therapy programs to raise awareness and guide future development of research and treatment options. Studies included in this review were identified through a systematic search of the literature informed by a scoping review framework. Studies were examined by design, sample, intervention, and key findings. The majority of studies were quantitative using repeated measures designs and were conducted primarily in the United States. Sample sizes were generally small. Interventions were residential and community based with varying degrees of duration. Outcomes were largely positive across a wide range of psychosocial and behavioral measures and often maintained post-treatment. We emphasize the importance of robust empirical designs, comprehensive description of the interventions and surrounding therapies, and identification of target groups.
Chapter
Viele empirische Studien belegen, dass die Therapiemethoden, die beeinflusst von der Erlebnispädagogik meist Outdoor-Aktivitäten beinhalten, nachhaltige Wirkimpulse für Menschen mit psychischen Störungen und Abhängigkeitserkrankungen bereithalten. Es werden vor allem amerikanische Untersuchungsergebnisse zusammengefasst, die unerheblich der Methodenbezeichnung, z. B. als Erlebnis-, Wildnis- oder Abenteuertherapie, wichtige räumliche, zeitliche, persönliche und soziale Aspekte für den erfahrungstherapeutischen Ansatz deutlich machen. So führen Gruppenübungen und Herausforderungen in der Natur häufig zu einer Reduktion der klinischen Symptome, ermöglichen die Erfahrung von Selbstwirksamkeit, steigern das Selbstwertgefühl, die Selbstwahrnehmung, trainieren Basiskompetenzen und die Freude an körperlicher Bewegung. Metaphorische Bezüge zwischen Alltagsproblemen und gelösten nichtalltäglichen Aufgaben in der Therapie öffnen den Blick für eigene Stärken und neue Formen der Krisenbewältigung.
Book
Walking is an essentially human activity. From a basic means of transport and opportunity for leisure through to being a religious act, walking has served as a significant philosophical, literary and historical subject. Thoreau's 1851 lecture on Walking or the Romantic walks of the Wordsworths at Grasmere in the early 19th Century, for example, helped create a philosophical foundation for the importance of the act of walking as an act of engagement with nature. Similarly, and sometimes inseparable from secular appreciation, pilgrimage trails provide opportunities for finding self and others in the travails of the walk. More recently, walking has been embraced as a means of encouraging greater health and well-being, community improvement and more sustainable means of travel. Yet despite the significance of the subject of walking there is as yet no integrated treatment of the subject in the social science literature. This handbook therefore brings together a number of the main themes on the study of walking from different disciplines and literatures into a single volume that can be accessed from across the social sciences. It is divided into five main sections: culture, society and historical context; social practices, perceptions and behaviours; hiking trails and pilgrimage routes; health, well-being and psychology; and method, planning and design. Each of these highlights current approaches and major themes in research on walking in a range of different environments. This handbook carves out a unique niche in the study of walking. The international and cross-disciplinary nature of the contributions of the book are expected to be of interest to numerous academic fields in the social and health sciences, as well as to urban and regional planners and those in charge of the management of outdoor recreation and tourism globally.
Book
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Well-being is one of the main goals of people today. In fact, “Good health and well-being” is the goal number 3 of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN for 2030. In this context, tourist experiences are of particular importance for the promotion of well-being, and the services provided by the tourism sector should seek to promote significant positive experiences for tourists, which should not be limited to the space and time of these experiences, but that can last in the memories of those who experience them. In this thematic issue of JSOD, some contributions are presented that help to understand the importance of Positive Psychology variables for the well-being of tourists, namely creativity and social support. On the other hand, well-being also results from the experiences provided to tourists, for what we analyze the role of therapeutic landscapes and the recreation carrying capacity. Well-being also requires a sustainable approach to tourism, so this dimension is also present in this edition of JSOD.
Article
Background and objectives: Credible empirical support for the therapeutic potential and positive outcomes associated with outdoor adventure approaches for children, youth and families has grown in the past decade. Historically, child and youth care practice has included therapeutic camps, adventure sport and outdoor recreation although this reality is not reflected in the training and education of practitioners. The purposes of this scoping review were to identify and articulate the extant literature of outdoor adventure programs and approaches found in child and youth care literature between January 1997 and March 2017. Method: Periodical selection and subsequent publication selection were conducted within Ulrichsweb utilizing specific inclusion/exclusion criteria, search words and abstract reviews. As a scoping review, study type and quality were not used for inclusion criteria thereby opening the review up to peer-reviewed English language publications of research, conceptual development, and program evaluations and descriptions. Results: Out of a total of 9731 periodicals identified in the first selection phase, only 25 met the inclusion criteria and are presented herein as home to child and youth care literature. Of 291 publications found within the child and youth care literature in the first selection phase, only 63 empirical and conceptual publications met the final inclusion criteria for review. Three thematic areas of practice and research emerged from analysis of included publications: (1) wilderness and adventure therapy, (2) therapeutic camping, and (3) adventure education and physical activity. These three content areas are explored and discussed in consideration of child and youth care context and practice, providing the basis for a synopsis and recommendations for practice and future research. Conclusions: This review identifies a need to more clearly identify and articulate outdoor adventure practices as they relate to child and youth care practice. Considering child and youth care's historical linkages to therapeutic camps and outdoor adventure activity, findings of this review suggest these approaches are underrepresented in the field's literature outside of the United States, potentially underappreciated in practice, and as an area requiring specific training and research. While research outcomes in outdoor adventure approaches to child and youth care appear positively robust, ethical concerns in wilderness therapy practice are identified and deserve further attention.
Article
This study aimed to understand the process of change within Wilderness Therapy. It used grounded theory to explore development and change during the programme and relate this to theories of adolescence and engagement, particularly for adolescents in the care system. Data collected from interviews with 11 adolescents were analysed using constructionist grounded theory. The wilderness environment, the staff, and the activities were identified as interactive factors that facilitated personal development. The analysis demonstrated the influence of early engagement in overall change. Relational factors interacted with an appropriate level of support and encouragement during activities which led to the adolescents experiencing success and increases in self-worth, self-esteem and efficacy. Improvements in self-efficacy, social skills, and anger management, as well as increasingly more positive views about the world were demonstrated in all participants who completed the programme.
Article
Supervision of therapeutic practice is one of the central professional elements of mental health practitioners. Supervision provides growth for therapists in their respective professional fields, more effective therapy for clients, and some measure of ethical protection for the welfare of clients and the public at large. However, therapists who utilize adventure therapy are often at a loss for experiential supervision models that value the active approach they use with their clients. The ENHANCES supervision model was developed to provide experiential adventure therapists with a contemporary model of supervision that removes the limitations of more traditional supervisory practices. Two case presentations illustrating the ENHANCES model are included in this article.
Article
As the U.S. population ages, Extension's need for associated organizational readiness increases. We conducted a needs assessment with a sample of 1,028 Extension professionals in the Extension North Central Region (NCR) to identify the current scope of aging-related community needs. Health care, chronic disease prevention and management, housing, and transportation emerged from qualitative analysis as top aging-related needs. A rank-order analysis identified finances, healthy aging, and aging-friendly communities as chief community concerns. Additionally, the NCR Extension professionals indicated the importance of resources and programs and need for community capacity building related to aging issues, regardless of their programming area and/or responsibilities.
Article
Background: Outdoor Behavioral Health Care (OBH) programs rely on field staff (FS) for the daily management of program activities, client safety and security, assessment information, and therapeutic intervention. Purpose: Given research that indicates turnover rates among FS are high, the present study was designed to evaluate components of resilience and burnout among FS that may help OBH programs retain FS. Methodology/Approach: Confirmatory factor analysis was used to empirically examine the impact of McEwan’s Workplace Resilience Model factors on FS resilience. Findings/Conclusions: A well-fitting model was developed to explain relationships between burnout, coping skills, and purpose among FS. Important links between vocational purpose, coping, and burnout were found. Implications: This article concludes by discussing implications and recommendations for OBH programs, in support of FS retention and workplace satisfaction, including the importance of creating workplace social and physical health support systems and key characteristics of resilient FS.
Chapter
This chapter examines wilderness philosophy and the benefits of having sustained, immersive contact in and with nature. Both wilderness and adventure therapy are presented and discussed as nature immersion methods that can help people confront and work through troubled thoughts, difficult emotions, counterproductive behavior patterns, and strained relationships. The chapter also discusses some of the challenges and barriers that people commonly face when they may strive to disengage from modern society and immerse themselves in nature. Ideas are offered for how to negotiate around and through these challenges and barriers.
Article
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Purpose Due to the ethical concern around involuntary treatment, this study sought to investigate if youth participants in wilderness therapy who were transported to the program experienced different rates of change than those not transported. Methods Multilevel modeling techniques were used to investigate rates of change for youth between transported and nontransported youth over 5 points until 6 months postdischarge. In addition, repeated measures analyses of variance investigated parent reports of change over time across transport status, gender, and diagnosis. Results The findings showed no differences between transported and nontransported youth in changes over time. Overall, all youth improved significantly with changes maintained postdischarge regardless of transport status. Discussion This study shows that transporting youth to treatment does not appear to interfere with the treatment outcome; however, more research is needed to understand clients’ perception of the transport process.
Article
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The relation of the working alliance, as assessed by A. O. Horvath and L. Greenberg's (1986) Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), was examined with respect to (a) a set of client variables (hostility, quality of past and current relationships, level of adjustment, and type of presenting concern) and (b) premature termination status. Ratings on these variables were collected after the first session from 15 counselors rating 144 clients seen at a university counseling center, as well as from 98 of these clients. A canonical analysis of the WAI scales and the client variables revealed that both client and counselor assessments of the alliance were related to the quality of past and current relationships, and level of adjustment as rated by the counselor but not the client. The working alliance was not related to different client presenting concerns. Further, there was no relation between the working alliance and premature termination status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Implicit in many programs featuring a human-natural environment interaction has been the belief that group development is a desirable outcome. This study investigated the effectiveness of one natural environment-based program in facilitating the development of groups. In addition, the variables of gender, age, identification with the group, course type, and course length were also studied for their influence on group development. The results suggest that this particular type of program could be effective in enhancing group development. In addition, the variables of sex, type of course, and group identification had varying levels of impact on the development of individual groups.
Article
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Examined the association between the therapeutic bond—an element of the therapeutic alliance—and treatment effectiveness. 114 psychotherapy clients completed self-report questionnaires at intake and throughout open-ended, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy. Three bond scales, role investment (RI), empathic resonance (ER), and mutual affirmation (MA), were contrasted to session quality and the three phases of outcome (remoralization, remediation, and rehabilitation). Results indicated that different aspects of the bond predicted session quality and treatment outcome. Clients who felt motivated and invested in therapy (relatively high RI) and who reported that the therapeutic environment was friendly and affirmative (relatively high MA) were likely to rate the session as being helpful and productive. Clients who had a relatively high sense of understanding and of being understood (ER) experienced greater remoralization and remediation (but not rehabilitation). The results are placed within the context of recent research into the therapeutic alliance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The quality of the therapeutic alliance was compared in sessions of psychodynamic-interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral therapy, and the alliance's relationship to various session impacts was investigated. As part of the Sheffield Psychotherapy Project 2 (D. A. Shapiro, M. Barkham, A. Rees, G. E. Hardy, S. Reynolds, & M. Startup, 1994), 57 clients diagnosed with major depression received 16 sessions of either psychodynamic-interpersonal or cognitive-behavioral therapy. Coders used the Working Alliance Inventory to rate 1 high-impact and 1 low-impact session from each client. Results indicated significantly greater alliance scores for cognitive-behavioral therapy sessions on the whole. Also, for the samples as a whole, high-impact sessions were characterized by higher alliance scores than those for low-impact sessions, and alliance was positively related to therapists' ratings of session depth and smoothness and to clients' ratings of mood.
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This study examined the association between the therapeutic bond - an element of the therapeutic alliance - and treatment effectiveness. Psychotherapy clients (n = 114) completed self-report questionnaires at intake and throughout open-ended, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy. Three bond scales, role investment (RI), empathic resonance (ER), and mutual affirmation (MA), were contrasted to session quality and the three phases of outcome (remoralization, remediation, and rehabilitation). Results indicated that different aspects of the bond predicted session quality and treatment outcome. Clients who felt motivated and invested in therapy (relatively high RI) and who reported that the therapeutic environment was friendly and affirmative (relatively high MA) were likely to rate the session as being helpful and productive. Clients who had a relatively high sense of understanding and of being understood (ER) experienced greater remoralization and remediation (but not rehabilitation). The results are placed within the context of recent research into the therapeutic alliance.
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This article reviews available evidence regarding the effectiveness of prevention and treatment programs to reduce juvenile delinquency. A broad range of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs are considered. The conclusions reached from this review are that interventions must be broadly based, extend over long time periods of development, and be assessed with fuller characterization of operational regularities.
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The purpose of this meta-analysis is to examine the effects of adventure programs on a diverse array of outcomes such as self concept, locus of control, and leadership. The meta-analysis was based on 1,728 effect sizes drawn from 151 unique samples from 96 studies, and the average effect size at the end of the programs was .34. In a remarkable contrast to most educational research, these short-term or immediate gains were followed by substantial additional gains between the end of the program and follow-up assessments ( ES = .17). The effect sizes varied substantially according the particular program and outcome and improved as the length of the program and the ages of participants increased. Too little is known, however, about why adventure programs work most effectively. Download: http://www.wilderdom.com/pdf/HattieAdvEdMA1997.pdf
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1. The Classification of Rites2. The Territorial Passage3. Individuals and Groups4. Pregnancy and Childbirth5. Birth and Childhood6. Initiation Rites7. Betrothal and Marriage8. Funerals9. Other Types of Rites of PassageConclusions
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Describes the wilderness adventure experience for offenders at Santa Fe Mountain Center. The experience can reveal a composite picture of a client's global personality in the way s/he responds to tasks, demands, and stimuli. An example of a client evaluation is provided. (ERB)
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Those in the field of wilderness-adventure therapy (WAT) have come a long way in their attitude toward research, but their methodology has lagged behind their enthusiasm. This paper examines the literature in the field of wilderness adventure therapy for delinquent and pre-delinquent youth in order to evaluate the current state of research. The paper discusses the theoretical base of WAT to provide a conceptual framework for interpreting the literature. Also offered is an overview of the methodological problems encountered by studies in the field. The review itself includes 25 empirical studies presented according to the type of research design employed. Although the findings are inconsistent, a number of areas demonstrate relatively clear results. Evidence supports the claims that wilderness-adventure therapy leads to improved self-perceptions, increase of social adjustment, and reduced recidivism. The findings are less conclusive regarding locus of control, problem solving ability, behavior change, and duration of the effects. It is concluded that WAT appears to be a viable alternative for the treatment of delinquent youth. It is recommended that future research highlight the need for process evaluations to determine how and why the intervention works. (Contains 54 references.) (RJM)
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look at methodological features of qualitative data analysis (QDA) to consider how, and how much, and how well, it can be computerized / give an overview of general-purpose packages that can be used in QDA, and some types of special-purpose QDA packages / discuss how they can be used and how well they work / provide some pointers to future software developments / stimulate methodological debate on computational QDA [start] from the research processes involved in relating data and theory in QDA and the different ways [computer] software might support or distort them / describe and critique a series of types of software [multiple text management uses, building conceptual models, sorting categories, attaching key words and codes to text segments, isolating negative or deviant cases, and creating indices] in terms of purposes and design, examining the implications of the method supported by each (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined systematic change and stability in multiple dimensions of self-concept, tested hypothesized effects of participation in the Outward Bound Program on self-concept, and explored methodological issues in such studies. 361 16–31 yr olds in 27 groups participated in a 26-day residential program. Ss completed the Self-Description Questionnaire—III (SDQ-III) 1 mo before the start of the program (Time 1), on the 1st day of the program (Time 2), and on the last day of the program (Time 3). Participation in the program produced increases in the multiple dimensions of self-concept over the 26-day interval, demonstrating the program's effectiveness. Counter-explanations of the findings did not appear to be viable. The psychometric properties of responses to the SDQ—III (i.e., reliability, dimensionality, stability), coupled with the systematic relation between the size of shifts in SDQ—III scales and the scales' a priori relevance to program goals, support the validity of interpretations based on the SDQ—III and its use as a criterion measure in intervention studies. (38 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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outline the history of interviewing [and discuss its] academic uses / discuss the major types of interviewing—structured, group, and unstructured—as well as other ways to conduct interviews / address in detail the various elements of qualitative interviewing / discuss some problems of gender as it relates to interviewing, as well as issues of interpretation and reporting / broach some considerations related to ethical issues (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
361 Ss (aged 16–31 yrs) from a previous study by the authors (see record 1986-17987-001) were asked to complete a self-description questionnaire (SDQ III) again, 18 mo after completion of a residential program called Outward Bound that consisted of physically and mentally demanding outdoor activities. There was little systematic change in the multidimensional self-concepts during the long-term follow-up interval. Findings further support the Outward Bound program as an effective intervention for enhancing self-concept and the construct validity of responses to the SDQ III. Findings demonstrate that self-concept can be changed through effective intervention and that these effects can be maintained. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews and elaborates the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. It is argued that various modes of psychotherapy can be meaningfully differentiated in terms of the kinds of working alliances (WA) embedded in them. Moreover, the strength, rather than the kind of WA, will prove to be the major factor in change achieved through psychotherapy. Strength of alliance will be a function of the goodness of fit of the respective personalities of patient and therapist to the demands of the WA. The WA includes 3 features: agreement on goals, assignment of tasks, and the development of bonds. (36 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A summary of existing reviews addressing the effectiveness of psychotherapy with children and adolescents is provided, emphasizing three facets: 1) the effectiveness of psychotherapy in general with children and adolescents, 2) narrative reviews addressing the effectiveness of group psychotherapy with this population, and 3) meta-analyses of individual and group psychotherapy with children and adolescents. While narrative reviews point out methodological flaws and shortcomings in the literature making it difficult to arrive at effectiveness conclusion, meta-analyses indicate that group psychotherapy with children and adolescents is effective. The implications of these findings for managed mental health care and future research are considered.
Book
Most writing on sociological method has been concerned with how accurate facts can be obtained and how theory can thereby be more rigorously tested. In The Discovery of Grounded Theory, Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss address the equally Important enterprise of how the discovery of theory from data--systematically obtained and analyzed in social research--can be furthered. The discovery of theory from data--grounded theory--is a major task confronting sociology, for such a theory fits empirical situations, and is understandable to sociologists and laymen alike. Most important, it provides relevant predictions, explanations, interpretations, and applications. In Part I of the book, "Generation Theory by Comparative Analysis," the authors present a strategy whereby sociologists can facilitate the discovery of grounded theory, both substantive and formal. This strategy involves the systematic choice and study of several comparison groups. In Part II, The Flexible Use of Data," the generation of theory from qualitative, especially documentary, and quantitative data Is considered. In Part III, "Implications of Grounded Theory," Glaser and Strauss examine the credibility of grounded theory. The Discovery of Grounded Theory is directed toward improving social scientists' capacity for generating theory that will be relevant to their research. While aimed primarily at sociologists, it will be useful to anyone Interested In studying social phenomena--political, educational, economic, industrial-- especially If their studies are based on qualitative data.
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We studied the relationship of dispositional and process variables with outcome in 52 bereaved patients given time-limited dynamic psychotherapy. Outcomes were generally favorable in symptom relief and improvement in relationship and occupational functioning. Patients' symptoms improved more than did their social and work functioning. Pretreatment levels of impairment or distress were significantly related to outcome, but most demographic and dispositional variables did not predict outcome. Process variables examined in relation to outcome--therapeutic alliance and actions by the therapist--were not significantly related to either type of outcome. When we considered the same process variables in interaction with two dispositional variables, motivation for dynamic therapy and developmental level of the self-concept, we found significant predictions of outcome. The major findings suggest that more exploratory actions were more suitable for highly motivated and/or better-organized patients and less suitable for patients with lower levels of motivation or organization of self-concept. More supportive actions were more suitable for patients at lower dispositional levels and less therapeutic for patients at higher levels.
Observational techniques Handbook of qualitative research
  • P A Adler
  • P Adler
Adventure Therapy: Therapeutic applications of adventure programming
  • M Gass
Outward Bound in alcohol treatment in mental health. A compilation of literature
  • T A Howard