Article

Social Anxiety's Impact on Affect, Curiosity, and Social Self-Efficacy During a High Self-Focus Social Threat Situation

Authors:
If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

Upon being exposed to a high self-focus, potentially socially threatening situation, excessively socially anxious (SA) individuals were posited to experience amplified negative emotional states, as well as diminished positive emotional, cognitive, and intimacy-related outcomes. Ninety-one college students engaged in a reciprocal self-disclosure task with a trained confederate. Participants and confederates took turns answering (while a camera was directed at them) and asking questions that gradually increased in personal content. The results indicated that high SA individuals experienced more intense negative affect, less intense positive affect, and poorer social self-efficacy compared to low SA individuals in both conditions. However, differences between high and low SA individuals were larger in the social threat/self-focus condition, and self-focused attention partially accounted for these effects. In terms of specificity, nearly all findings remained after statistically controlling for depressive symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety effects were generally absent on measures of observed behavior and intimacy outcomes. These findings implicate the role of social threat and self-focused attention in contributing to affective and cognitive disturbances among SA individuals.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Research has demonstrated that individuals who believed that their interaction partner did not like them disclosed less personal information than those who believed that their interaction partner liked them (Curtis & Miller, 1986). There are some opposite findings with regard to self-disclosure in social anxiety (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;Papsdorf & Alden, 1998). Yet, there is more support for the notion that socially anxious individuals disclose less personal information. ...
... Interestingly, the same seems to hold for selfdisclosure. The prior studies that used more structured social contexts did not find differences in self-disclosure between high and low social anxiety groups (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;Papsdorf & Alden, 1998). In contrast, the studies in which less structured tasks were used (Alden & Wallace, 1995;Voncken & Dijk, 2013), or the participants did not have another person to demonstrate what was expected (Pontari & Glenn, 2012), socially anxious individuals did show marked reductions in selfdisclosure. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives This study aimed to unravel the relationship between socially anxious individuals’ expectation of being (dis)liked and actual likeability by looking at the mediation role of both strategic and automatic social behavior: Self-disclosure as well as mimicry were examined. Method Female participants (N = 91) with various levels of social anxiety participated in a social task with a confederate. Before the task, participants indicated their expectation of being liked by the confederate. Afterwards, objective video-observers rated the likeability of the participants before and after the social task as well as their level of self-disclosure and mimicry. Results Social anxiety correlated negatively with the expectation to be liked but was not related to observer ratings of likeability, self-disclosure or mimicry. However, degree of social anxiety moderated the relation between expectations and self-disclosure. As expected, participants with low levels of social anxiety disclosed more if they expected to be liked. A reversed pattern was found for the high socially anxious participants: Here, higher expectations of being liked were related to less self-disclosure. Limitations The study used an analogue female sample. Our social interaction task was highly structured and does not reflect informal day-to-day conversations. Conclusion Socially anxious individuals function rather well in highly structured social tasks. No support was found for declined likeability or disrupted mimicry. Nevertheless, high socially anxious individuals did have a cognitive bias and show a self-protective strategy: when expecting a neutral judgment they reduce their level of self-disclosure. This pattern probably adds to their feelings of social disconnectedness.
... Bu durumda ele alınan çalışma ile benzer sonuçlara ulaşıldığı görülmüştür.Bunun yanında sosyal görünüş kaygısının beden algısı, sosyal kaygıyı ele alan ve değişkenleri yordayan (Hart diğ., 2008;Levinson ve Rodebauggh, 2011) bir biçimde görülmesi nedeniyle bu araştırmaları destekleyen araştırmalara bakılmıştır. Başka araştırmalara bakıldığında Kashdan ve Roberts (2004) ele aldığı incelemede sosyal kaygı seviyesi etkili olan bireylerin olumsuz hislerinin daha fazla etki gösterdiği tespit edilmiştir. Böylece sosyal görünüş kaygısı ile negatif yönlü bir ilişkinin ortaya çıkması yapılan araştırmalar ile elde ettiğimiz bulguları destekleyici nitelikte olduğu söylenebilmektedir. ...
... Bu durumda yapılan araştırmada elde ettiğimiz bulgularla desteklemektedir. Bir başka araştırmada Kashdan ve Roberts (2004) sosyal kaygı, sosyal yetkinlik beklentisi, bireylerin pozitif ve negatif hisleriarasındaki ilişkiyi ele ele aldıkları araştırmada sosyal kaygıları yüksek olan bireylerin negatif duygularının daha yüksek olduğunu dile getirmektedirler. Elde edilen bulgulardan yola çıkarak sosyal görünüş kaygısı ile akılcı olmayan inançlar arasında pozitif yönlü doğrusal bir ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiş olup elde ettiğimiz bulguları destekleyici nitelikte olduğu söylenebilmektedir. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bu araştırmanın amacı, üniversite öğrencilerinde değerler, akılcı olmayan inançlar ve sosyal görünüş kaygısı değişkenleri arasındaki yordayıcı ilişkinin araştırılması Yapılan araştırmada değerler, akılcı olmayan inançlar ve sosyal görünüş kaygısı değişkenleri arasındaki ilişkinin sınanması amacıyla yapısal eşitlik modellemesi analizi yapılmıştır. Yapısal eşitlik modellemesi olarak belirlenmiştir. analizi AMOS 19 Programı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yapılan araştırmada gerekli verilerin toplanması için, Kişisel Bilgi Formu, üniversite öğrencilerinin sahip oldukları değerleri belirlemek için “Değerler Ölçeği”, akılcı olmayan inançlarını belirlemek için “Akılcı Olmayan İnançlar Ölçeği” ve sosyal görünüş kaygılarını belirlemek için “Sosyal Görünüş Kaygısı Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Toplanan verilerin yüzde ve frekans hesapları SPSS 18 paket programı ile oluşturulmuştur.Ölçekler, 2017-2018 eğitim öğretim döneminde İstanbul’da çeşitli üniversitelerde öğrenim gören üniversite öğrencilerinden oluşmaktadır. 544 katılımcının 217’si erkek 327’si kız katılımcıdır. Araştırmadan elde edilen analiz sonuçlarına göre, değerler ile akılcı olmayan inançlar arasında negatif yönlü doğrusal ilişki ortaya çıkmıştır. Bununla beraber değerler değişkeni ve bir diğer değişken olan sosyal görünüş kaygısı değişkeni arasında negatif yönlü doğrusal bir ilişkinin olduğu saptanmıştır.Son olarak üniversite öğrencilerinin akılcı olmayan inançları ve sosyal görünüş kaygısı değişkenleri arasındaki ilişki gözlemlendiğinde, pozitif yönlü doğrusal bir ilişkinin ortaya çıktığı görülmüştür.
... There are different kinds of curiosity during the COVID-19, including trait curiosity, perceptual curiosity, epistemic curiosity, and interpersonal curiosity (Huang et al., 2021). Many researchers have studied curiosity alongside anxiety, marking their fundamentally intertwined relationship (Gruber & Ranganath, 2019;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004, 2006Litman, 2010;Litman & Jimerson, 2004;Spielberger & Starr, 1994). For example, previous research have shown that probabilistic electric shock, inducing stress, inhibits the risk behavior of relieving the curiosity (Lau, Ozono, Kuratomi, Komiya, & Murayama, 2020) or exploratory behavior (Brown, Gagnon, & Wagner, 2020). ...
... We found that the correlation between trait curiosity and trait anxiety and the correlation between perceptual curiosity and state anxiety were negative, which were in line with previous studies. The previous studies showed that trait curiosity and state curiosity were both significantly negatively correlated with social anxiety (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004, 2006. Our research found that trait anxiety and social anxiety were both significantly negatively correlated with trait curiosity. ...
Article
With the worldwide implementation of quarantine regulations to suppress the spread of the COVID-19, anxiety, interpersonal distancing and autistic tendency may decrease individuals' desire to seek interpersonal information and thus might have negative effects on their interpersonal curiosity. Through behavioral paradigms and scales, two studies were conducted (Study 1: n = 570; Study 2: n = 501). We explored the predictive effect of anxiety on interpersonal curiosity in situations when mandatory isolation measures have led to dramatic changes in interpersonal distancing and autistic tendency. We found that interpersonal distancing and autistic tendency negatively predicted interpersonal curiosity, and these predictive effects suppressed the positive prediction of state anxiety to interpersonal curiosity. Our research provides insights into the relationships among anxiety, curiosity, interpersonal distancing, and autistic tendency during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... By introducing SSE as a mediator, we found that individuals with high level of shyness are less likely to develop high level of SSE, thereby inhibiting their prosocial engagement. Shy individuals often experience tension and anxiety, and are afraid of negative evaluation, which may weaken their self-confidence in interpersonal communication (Zimbardo, 1977;Kashdan and Roberts, 2004). PSB requires positive social interactions between the helper and the recipient. ...
Article
Full-text available
Using a sample of 1383 undergraduate students (Mage = 20.06, Nfemale = 817), this study tested a moderated mediation model in which shyness moderated the association between agreeableness and prosocial behavior, as well as the relation between agreeableness and social self-efficacy (SSE). Results showed (when gender, age, and family socio-economic status were controlled) that agreeableness exerted a positive effect on prosocial behavior (PSB) toward three types of recipients (i.e., family members, friends/acquaintances, strangers), and this effect was mediated by SSE and moderated by shyness. The relationships between agreeableness and PSB were more positive under low shyness than that under high shyness condition. In addition, shyness also moderated the first stage of mediation model (i.e., the agreeableness-SSE association), showing that the relation between agreeableness and SSE was more positive under low shyness than that under high shyness condition. Identifying the moderation effect of shyness provides evidence that personality traits may operate in an interactive manner. This may shed new light on why there are inconsistent findings regarding the agreeableness-prosociality association.
... This idea has recently been questioned because investigations have found new links between affective dimensions and social anxiety. On the one hand, Kashdan and Roberts [17] identified in a non-clinical adult sample (M = 78.0; SD = 20.5) that social anxiety positively correlated to NA, according to the TME, but they also discovered that PA negatively correlated to social anxiety. ...
Article
Full-text available
Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are related with aspects that are part of people’s psychological well-being, and the possibility of combining both dimensions to create four affective profiles, self-fulfilling (high PA and low NA), low affective (low PA and low NA), high affective (high PA and high NA) and self-destructive (low PA and high NA), has recently appeared. The current work aims to validate the short version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in Ecuador, test the existence of the four affective profiles and analyze its relation with social anxiety. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents was employed in a sample of 1786 Ecuadorian students aged from 15 to 18 years (M = 16.31, SD = 1.01). The factorial invariance of the scale across sex and age groups was proved and latent mean analyses showed that girls and 18-year-old students obtained the highest scores in negative affect. With regard to the affective profiles, the cluster analyses confirmed the existence of the four mentioned profiles, and the self-fulfilling profile obtained the lowest scores in all the dimensions of social anxiety, whereas the self-destructive profile obtained the highest scores.
... A rich literature in children without DLD suggests that protection for developing internalizing symptoms includes, amongst others, having high levels of positive emotions, emotion awareness, and the ability to communicate about emotions. Positive emotions have the power to momentarily broaden people's repertoires of thoughts and actions (Fredrickson and Branigan 2005), improve mental and physical health (Lyubomirsky et al. 2005), and are linked to experiencing fewer symptoms in a variety of psychopathologies, including internalizing disorders (Hechtman et al. 2013;Kashdan and Roberts 2004). Positive emotions may protect mental health since they serve as a buffer against the adverse psychological and physiological consequences of negative emotions (Fredrickson 2001;Tugade and Fredrickson 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
In order to better understand protective factors for internalizing problems, this longitudinal study examined positive emotions, emotion awareness and (non-)emotional communication skills in relation to somatic complaints and social anxiety in children with (N=104) and without (N=183) Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) using self-reported measures twice with a 9-month interval. Additionally, parents reported on their child’s communication problems and emotion communication at Time 1. Most importantly, since we found that increasing levels of emotion awareness related to decreases in social anxiety and somatic complaints in children with and without DLD, we conclude that children with DLD are likely to benefit from interventions aimed at improving their emotion awareness in addition to language interventions.
... Bu özellikler ayrıca sosyal açıdan yetersizliği ve güvengen olmamayı tanımlayan niteliklerdir. Sosyal yetkinlik beklentisi az olanların sosyal kaygıları da yüksektir (Kashdan ve Roberts, (2004). Bunun sonucu olarak da sosyal ilişki kurmakta zorlananların yaşam alanları daralmaktadır. ...
... Psychology is more consistent with their negatively distorted self-views, worldviews (Rohner, 1975(Rohner, , 1986 or mental representations (Baldwin, 1992;Epstein, 1994;Rohner & Khaleque, 2016). These distortions and biases impair their ability to respond to social interactions, a variable that is potentially fueling positive interpersonal outcomes such as intimacy (Davis, 1982;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004b), or positive resonance (Fredrickson, 2013). Perceived interpersonal rejection (see also Rohner, 2014;Rohner, 2016) may contribute to more generalized biased cognitive estimations. ...
... Next, we used a series of multilevel models (MLMs) to understand the interactive effects of social anxiety and the social environment on momentary affect. This enabled us to test whether socially anxious individuals experience heightened NA and attenuated PA in the presence of distant others, as one would expect based on laboratory studies of interactions with unfamiliar peers and researchers (Meleshko and Alden, 1993;Creed and Funder, 1998;Coles et al., 2002;Kashdan and Roberts, 2004Heerey and Kring, 2007;Kashdan et al., 2013b;Crişan et al., 2016). This expectation is reinforced by evidence from EMA studies that children with social anxiety disorder experience diminished PA in the presence of distant others (Morgan et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Social anxiety lies on a continuum, and young adults with elevated symptoms are at risk for developing a range of psychiatric disorders. Yet relatively little is known about the factors that govern the hour-by-hour experience and expression of social anxiety in the real world. Methods Here we used smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to intensively sample emotional experience across different social contexts in the daily lives of 228 young adults selectively recruited to represent a broad spectrum of social anxiety symptoms. Results Leveraging data from over 11 000 real-world assessments, our results highlight the central role of close friends, family members, and romantic partners. The presence of such close companions was associated with enhanced mood, yet socially anxious individuals had fewer confidants and spent less time with the close companions that they do have. Although higher levels of social anxiety were associated with a general worsening of mood, socially anxious individuals appear to derive larger benefits – lower levels of negative affect, anxiety, and depression – from their close companions. In contrast, variation in social anxiety was unrelated to the amount of time spent with strangers, co-workers, and acquaintances; and we uncovered no evidence of emotional hypersensitivity to these less-familiar individuals. Conclusions These findings provide a framework for understanding the deleterious consequences of social anxiety in emerging adulthood and set the stage for developing improved intervention strategies.
... For example, adults with SAD report that positive events are less likely to occur (Gilboa-Schechtman, Franklin, & Foa, 2000), indicate greater difficulty expressing positive emotions (Turk, Heimberg, Luterek, Mennin, & Fresco, 2005), and demonstrate a reduced tendency to sustain or savor positive emotions once experienced (Eisner, Johnson, & Carver, 2009). They further report lower levels of curiosity, exploration and life satisfaction (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004), which impact day-to-day aspects of functioning. For example, state-like changes in positive subjective experiences are strongly related to the severity of daily self-reported social anxiety symptoms (Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Kashdan & Steger, 2006). ...
Article
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and impairing condition that emerges in early adolescence, confers significant interpersonal disability and often persists into adulthood. Prevailing interventions for socially anxious youth are largely based on cognitive-behavioral models originally developed in adult samples, but produce only modest rates of remission in adolescents. The purposes of this review are to examine plausible explanations for these modest rates of treatment response and to critically evaluate the relevance of developmental mechanisms related to reward circuitry function. In doing so, we propose Sensitivity Shift Theory (SST), an integrated theoretical model addressing the development of social anhedonia in a meaningful subset of adolescents and adults with SAD. The central prediction of SST involves a shift, or developmental transition from social sensitivity during the late childhood/early adolescent period into later-emerging social anhedonia that includes reductions in positive affect, infrequent social approach behaviors and social skills deficits. We further provide a complementary mechanistic account by which these newly identified processes may be addressed using available evidence-based treatments that influence positive affect, including mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Collectively, SST provides a mechanisms-focused framework for explaining relatively modest rates of response to current front-line treatments in socially anxious youth, as well as discrepant observations in SAD samples of both high- and low- levels of social motivation depending on developmental factors and learning history.
... Epistemic Curiosity Scale (1971)29) and the State-Trait Curiosity Inventory (1980)30) were referred to, so there was no possibility of confusion with trait curiosity in the interpretation, particularly with reference to the children's state "at a particular moment in time".When developing food-specific items based on the review described above, it should be noted that "food" can be interpreted differently by individuals : some might refer to cooking or consumption, whereas others might associate it with production or agriculture. To avoid such a uni-dimensionally biased interpretation, food-specific items were divided into the three domains employed by Gaignaire et al.(2011) 5) , namely production (including purchase), processing (including cooking and preparation) and consumption. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although it is founded on a modern and progressive basis, Japan's food education initiative, locally known as Shokuiku, has met with limited success since its inception in 2005. In response to this stagnant situation, so-called an "evidence-based" approach, in which the educational programme is improved through a system of impact evaluation, was recently re-emphasised by food education researchers in Japan. One of such evidence-based models, l'éducation sensorielle (sensory or taste education), has been visited by a growing number of researchers in Japan, however past studies on taste education in Japan are largely characterised by an ad hoc impact evaluation, i.e. an impact evaluation for only this programme. Among these, only Ueda (2017) developed the impact evaluation system based on the past studies in Europe and proved its educational impacts on children's dietary behaviours. In this recent research the three challenges in improving the educational impacts were elucidated : (1) optimisation of its evaluation system on "food curiosity", (2) extension of its programme duration and (3) refinement of the existing educational programme based on related academic discourse. In order to escape from the ad hoc evidence-based approach prevailing in taste education research in Japan and ameliorate the existing programme, the aim of this study is to address these three challenges proposed in Ueda's study (2017). The first step was to integrate theoretical perspectives of educational psychology and thus to redevelop the impact evaluation system of "food curiosity", one of most important indicators for the development of children's dietary behaviours. Secondly, in order to respond to the other two challenges, the existing taste education programme, together with suggesting additional content for the school lunch programmes, was refined based on academic discourse on food education research. Lastly, this upgraded programme was tested on 10-to 12-year-old children (intervention : n=22, control : n=21) to evaluate its educational impacts. The updated programme was shown to have more extensive educational impacts on the cognitive and attitudinal aspects of children's dietary behaviours than the initial programme. This study could propose the improved evaluation system and upgraded programme of taste education as well as making an effective methodological orientation for the taste education research in Japan.
... According to this difference, the highest rank average was in vocational and technical high school, which was followed by Imam Hatip high school, Anatolian high school, and science high school, respectively. Some of the studies in the literature (Coleman, 2003;Dindar, 2008;Durmaz, 2008;Karan, 2012;Kashdan and Roberts, 2004;Şencan, 2009;Taşkıran, 2008) are consistent with the findings of this study. Taşkıran (2008) and Dindar (2008) concluded that students in vocational high schools studied subjects that they were interested in and which they chose according to their abilities, and that this had a positive effect on their school connectedness scores. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to investigate the extent to which perceived social support and school climate in high school students predicted the school connectedness. The study was carried out with a total of 796 students including 421 girls and 375 boys attending different grades in 10 different secondary schools. Data collection tools included the Perceived School Experiences Scale, the Perceived Social Support Scale, and the School Climate Scale. Data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, Multiple Linear Regression, independent groups t-test, One-way ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis H Test. According to the results of the study, all of the variables were found to be significantly correlated with each other. The results of the regression analysis indicated that school climate and family, friends, and teacher’s variables, which are the sub-dimensions of social support, explained 42.7% of the total variance of school connectedness. As a result of the difference analysis, the school connectedness score was determined to not differ significantly by gender, while it yielded a significant difference by grade level. Also, the school connectedness scores of the students indicated a significant difference by school type and reasons for selecting the school.
... Next, we used a series of multilevel models (MLMs) to understand the interactive effects of social anxiety and the social environment on momentary affect. This enabled us to test whether socially anxious individuals experience heightened NA and attenuated PA in the presence of distant others, as one would expect based on laboratory studies of interactions with unfamiliar peers and researchers (Meleshko and Alden, 1993;Creed and Funder, 1998;Coles et al., 2002;Kashdan and Roberts, 2004Heerey and Kring, 2007;Kashdan et al., 2013b;Crişan et al., 2016). This expectation is reinforced by evidence from EMA studies that children with social anxiety disorder experience diminished PA in the presence of distant others (Morgan et al., 2017). ...
Preprint
Social anxiety lies on a continuum, and young adults with elevated symptoms are at risk for developing a range of debilitating psychiatric disorders. Yet, relatively little is known about the factors that govern the momentary expression of social anxiety in daily life, close to clinically significant end-points. Here, we used smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment to intensively sample emotional experience across different social contexts in the daily lives of 228 young adults selectively recruited to represent a broad spectrum of social anxiety symptoms. Leveraging data from over 11,000 assessments, results highlight the vital role of close friends, family members, and romantic partners. Socially anxious individuals report smaller confidant networks and spend significantly less time with their close companions. As a consequence, they are less frequent beneficiaries of close companions’ mood-enhancing effects. Although higher levels of social anxiety are associated with a general reduction in the quality of momentary emotional experience, socially anxious individuals derived significantly larger benefits—lower levels of negative affect, anxiety, and depression—from the company of close companions. Collectively, these findings provide a novel framework for understanding the deleterious consequences of social anxiety and set the stage for developing improved intervention strategies.
... Character strengths and psychopathology have been examined together in other studies providing additional groundwork for the reappraisal function. These include character strengths and gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at, Proyer et al. 2014a, b), character strengths and veterans with and without PTSD (Kashdan et al. 2006), curiosity and social anxiety disorder (Kashdan and Roberts 2004), and strengths-based approaches for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (Climie and Mastoras 2015). The explanation of psychological disorders as Bdisorders of character strengths^was proposed by Peterson (2006) noting, in which an example is to consider the Bdisorders of courage^which would contain the exaggeration, absence, and opposite of each strength. ...
Article
Full-text available
Life is a collection of moments, some light and pleasant, some dark and unpleasant, some neutral. Character strengths contribute to the full range of human experiences, influencing and creating positive opportunities while also helping us to endure the mundane and embrace and navigate the struggles. Some researchers have argued that thriving, which casts a wider net on the human experience than constructs such as flourishing or resilience, constitutes strong well-being and performance at times of both adversity and opportunity (Brown et al. 2017). With this and the many findings in the science of character in mind, six character strengths functions are theorized and then applied across time orientations, making the case for the integral role of character strengths in these matters of thriving. Three opportunity functions are offered, including priming in which character strengths prompt and prepare for strengths awareness and use; mindfulness in which character strengths serve in synergy with mindful awareness of the present reality; and appreciation in which character strengths use expresses value for what has occurred. The three adversity functions include: buffering – character strengths use prevents problems; reappraisal – character strengths explain or reinterpret problems; and resilience – character strengths support the bounce-back from life setbacks. Several applications of these six functions for vocational and educational settings are explored.
... Studies of neural activation and memory show that when people are more curious, they better remember information related to what they are curious about, and also have better memory for unrelated material observed during their curious state, effects which last over time [12]. In addition to learning benefits, curiosity relates to positive social outcomes [25], including adaptive social behaviors as rated both by friends and independent observers [2]. At a more basic level, curiosity is positively related to general well-being [26]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Curiosity is essential for scientific discovery and innovation [1, 2] and, more universally, is a natural and irrepressible characteristic of young children [3, 4, 5]. Yet it is also sometimes considered maladaptive in its influence later in development [6]. In the U. S. education system, which is now heavily focused on students meeting fixed standards and performing well on standardized tests, curiosity can actually create a type of risk for teachers, insofar as it threatens performance toward these rigid goals [5]. While curiosity and learning have traditionally been viewed as symbiotic, there are ample reasons to be concerned that our current education system suppresses rather than promotes students' natural curiosity. Why does this inconsistency exist? What would curiosity-promoting educational practice look like, and how does this differ from what happens more typically in classrooms? In this chapter, we explore these questions. After a brief review of why curiosity should be a priority in education, we discuss how curiosity might be promoted or suppressed in educational settings based on prior research, what curiosity in classrooms might look like, and how research on curiosity can be applied to educational settings. We will focus on the process of qualitatively observing educational practice and linking the observations to this prior work to identify ways of influencing students' preferences for uncertainty. We will then shift direction to argue for the need to study curiosity in classrooms and naturalistic learning environments, and the difficulty in doing this if curiosity is understood and studied as a unitary, independent construct. We end with potential future directions to bridge and broaden research on curiosity for educational application.
... The feeling of being evaluated can produce far-reaching negative consequences on cognitive performance. For example, social-evaluative threat (SET) can lead athletes to "choke" under pressure, can impair one's social abilities, and can heighten errors during cognitive tasks (Baumeister & Showers, 1986;Eysenck & Derakshan, 2011;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;Mesagno, Harvey, & Janelle, 2012;Schmader, Johns, & Forbes, 2008). Individuals high in social anxiety, a trait characterized by excessive fear of being evaluated by others, may be especially sensitive to the deleterious effects of SET. ...
Article
Full-text available
Socially anxious individuals exhibit cognitive performance impairments; it is unclear whether this is due to trait differences in abilities or effects of the experimental context. This study sought to determine how social context, individual differences in fear of negative evaluation (FNE), and task difficulty interact to influence working memory performance as indicated by effectiveness (accuracy) and efficiency (reaction times). Participants (N = 61) performed the n-back task at 2-back and 3-back difficulty levels under three conditions: alone (“Anonymous”), in presence of a non-evaluative experimenter (“Presence”), and under explicit performance evaluation by the experimenter (“Threat”). Overall, participants showed improved accuracy during Threat, but only on 2-back trials. FNE was positively associated with longer reaction times during Threat on 3-back trials. FNE did not relate to accuracy, suggesting that threat-related impairments tied to social anxiety may alter efficiency rather than effectiveness. Thus, social anxiety may elicit cognitive performance impairments even in minimally evaluative environments.
... They also tend to devalue their capacity and are excessively concerned about negative evaluation in social interactions. These features suggest that shy individuals are less likely to develop high level of selfefficacy in social settings (Hermann & Betz, 2004;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;Zimbardo, 1977). Hill (1989) found that shy individuals' weaker willingness to enact social behavior could be attributed to the combination of low self-efficacy and conservative behavioral appropriateness standards in some situations, rather than deficient social skills knowledge. ...
... The causal direction of this connection cannot be determined here -whether anxiety is caused by social difficulties and awareness of them, or whether having social difficulties and being aware of these difficulties causes anxiety, or both. Even amongst neurotypical populations, and specifically neurotypical women, the direction of this association between anxiety and social difficulties has not been specified, although there is ample evidence for its existence in both adolescents (Storch & Masia-Warner, 2004) and adults (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;Voncken, Alden, & Bogels, 2006). Some research has investigated whether there is a relationship between anxiety and social difficulties, especially victimisation, in autistic children and young people. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Despite a wealth of interest in, and research on, gender differences in the friendships and social relationships of neurotypical children and adults, there is a paucity of research on such differences in individuals on the autism spectrum. Only three published papers focus specifically on the friendships of autistic individuals in the same age range as the work of this PhD, and these have included predominantly male participants, who do not represent the range of female experiences. This PhD therefore sought to redress this imbalance by focussing on the peer relationship, friendships, and conflict experiences of adolescent girls, as well as women on the autism spectrum, in comparison to their autistic male and neurotypical female peers. Parental views on the relationships of autistic girls were also sought. In Chapter One, I review the literature investigating peer relationships amongst autistic adolescents, neurotypical adolescents, and autistic adults, focussing on their experiences of conflict within those relationships and their potential impact. Chapters Two and Three focus on data from adolescents. In Chapter Two, I present data from a mixed-methods study showing that autistic adolescents rate their best-friendships as like those of neurotypical adolescents, but that autistic adolescents experience far more peer conflict, and these experiences are qualitatively different for autistic girls compared to all other groups. In Chapter Three, I examine the factors that potentially underpin friendship strength and victimisation for male and female adolescents, following the results of Chapter Two and using data from the same participants. In Chapter Four, which focuses specifically on adult women, I report data from autistic and neurotypical adult women, examining similar constructs and questions to the adolescent study (Chapter Two). In Chapter Five, I directly compare the qualitative data from autistic girls, autistic women, and the girls’ parents. I take a developmental perspective, examining which factors might lead to the potential vulnerability described in Chapter Four, to understand which preventative measures might be used to support autistic girls as they grow up. In Chapter Six, I discuss the significance of these findings in the context of the extant literature on both autism in girls and women, and of the peer relationships of autistic adolescents. I conclude by suggesting that the relationships and social experiences of autistic girls and women are qualitatively different to those of both autistic boys and neurotypical girls and women. These findings suggest that autistic girls and women require specialised and targeted support to enable them to successfully and safely engage with their peers in adolescence and beyond.
... Lack of ability to distinguish positive aspects from negative emotions is a marking characteristic of depression [30]. However, individuals feeling greater positive affect are less likely to undergo from stressful situation [31], social phobia or anxiety [32]. Extent of reaction also varies for example individuals with eminent negative affect are prone to respond extremely negative to distressful situations and displayed far more complex physiological and mental health difficulties in alexithymia than those having low negative affects [33]. ...
... Strukturdefizite liegen vor, wenn spezifische Basisfähigkeiten nicht ausgebildet werden konnten (Arbeitskreis OPD, 2014). chopathologie assoziiert ist (Arnstein, 2000;Arnstein, Caudill, Mandle, Norris, & Beasley, 1999;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;Takaki et al., 2003) und andererseits ein signifikanter Prädiktor für das Auftreten psychischer Störungen darstellt (Blackburn & Owens, 2015;Maciejewski, Prigerson, & Mazure, 2000;Peng, Schaubroeck, & Xie, 2015;Schönfeld, Brailovskaia, Bieda, Zhang, & Margraf, 2016). Weiterhin gelten Strukturveränderungen aus psychodynamischen Perspektive als zentrale Wirkgrößen in der Psychotherapie (Gold & Stricker, 2011). ...
... Regarding cognitive well-being, curiosity was linked to better memory performance in both behavioral (McGillivray et al. 2015) and fMRI (Kang et al. 2009) studies. With respect to social well-being, a higher level of trait curiosity is linked to better emotional intelligence or better capability to monitor self and others' emotions (Leonard and Harvey 2007), better emotion expression, better sense of humor, greater tolerance to anxiety, and less usage of aggression (Kashdan et al. 2013a, b;Kashdan et al. 2011;Kashdan and Roberts 2004), which all seem to be important for maintaining healthy social relationships. In brief, being curious is related to many outcomes that are desirable for both younger and older adults. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to examine the underlying mechanism behind the association of age and intellectual curiosity. Previous studies generally showed a negative association between age and intellectual curiosity. To shed light on this association, we hypothesize that older adults become more selective in where they invest their curiosity compared with younger adults. The present study (N = 857) first examined the association between age and intellectual curiosity and then the mediation roles of future time perspective and perceived importance of curiosity in the association. The moderation effect of culture was also included to test the generalizability of this model across European Americans, Chinese Americans, and Hong Kong Chinese. The findings suggested that there was a significant negative association between age and intellectual curiosity, even after controlling for sex, culture, and education level. The moderated serial multiple mediation model demonstrated that the indirect effect of age on curiosity through future time perspective and importance of curiosity was significant across all three cultural groups while age did not have a direct effect on intellectual curiosity. This finding suggested that, as future time becomes more limited with age, curiosity is less valued; hence, curiosity is negatively associated with the advance of age. This study illustrates the importance of future time and perceived importance of curiosity in explaining age-related differences in curiosity and sheds light on the situations in which older adults may be as intellectually curious as younger adults.
... In 1988, Watson, Clark, and Tellegen defined positive affect as a reflection of 'the extent to which a person feels enthusiastic, active and alert' (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988, p. 1063. Since then, positive affective experiences, usually referred to as positive emotions, have been shown to relate to numerous adaptive functions, such as attentional and cognitive broadening (Isen, 2003), approach motivation (Gable & Harmon-Jones, 2008), resource building (Lyubomirsky, 2001), engagement in pleasant activities and social interactions (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004), and adoption of flexible strategies in setting and pursuing goals (Carver, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study explores women clients’ experiences of the therapeutic relationship and their meaning making of the effective therapeutic dyad. The participants of the study were 27 female psychotherapy and counselling clients. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted and the data was analysed with the use of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The findings indicated: (a) women clients’ attempt to define their relationship with their counsellor by comparing it to other interpersonal relationships, mostly to friendship or to family relationships; (b) their experience of the qualitative characteristics and the feelings associated with an effective therapeutic relationship; and (c) their experience of the counsellors’ role to the therapeutic outcome. The above results are fully discussed along with implications for practice.
... Applications from these fields make curiosity also important for the everyday life of people. An exemplary but not exhaustive list of curiosity's correlates includes cognitive development (Trudewind, 2000), academic learning (von Stumm et al., 2011), interpersonal closeness (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004), and personal as well as professional growth (Mussel et al., 2011). ...
Preprint
The five-dimensional curiosity-scale revised by Kashdan et al. (2020) is the most comprehensive inventory of curiosity. We provide the first validation of this newly proposed structure of curiosity in cultures (Germany and UK) other than the United States. In the process, we develop the first adaptation of this inventory in another language, namely German (6DNS). We also provide the first measurement invariance analyses for this curiosity inventory across two cultures and the socio-demographics age, sex, and education. We use two diverse quota samples from Germany (N = 486) and the UK (N = 483). In both countries, we investigate the single facets' reliability, factorial validity, and convergent and divergent validity with a large set of individual-differences constructs. Findings demonstrate that both the new German version (6DNS) and the English version (5DCR) show psychometric properties similar to the original findings by Kashdan et al. (2020). Moreover, all facets of the inventory reach at least scalar invariance across cultures, sex, education, and largely across age. The findings support the six-faceted theory of curiosity and show that 5DCR/6DNS is the first curiosity inventory that allows an assessment of a multifaceted curiosity across cultures and for heterogeneous samples.
... These symptoms caused the respondent to suffer from mental health problems. This result is in line with prior studies that found that low self-efficacy is regularly linked to anxiety and depression issues Kashdan & Roberts, 2004). In critical situations such as flooding events, self-efficacy elements are very important to generate a resilient society. ...
Article
Full-text available
In December 2014, Malaysia was shocked by the massive floods that affect physical destruction and also leaving flood victims with psychological problems. Based on previous research, resiliency is an element that can protect the flood victims from experiencing severe psychological issues. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the factors influencing resiliency among flood victims in Kelantan, Malaysia. To carry out this study, a qualitative approach using case study as a research design was employed. A total of 28 flood victims were selected for in-depth interview sessions. Respondents were selected by using purposive sampling. The data were collected and analysed using thematic analysis. The findings reported that there were four factors that influenced respondents’ resiliency, which emerged as themes namely self-efficiency, coping strategies, characteristics of community spirit and social support. The finding would provide information for relevant intervention programme which will lead to improve the physical and psychological well-being of flood victims in Malaysia.
... Therefore, we capture fluid intelligence comprehensively using measures of reasoning ability, processing speed, and memory capacity (Ackerman, 1996). As knowledge acquisition and curiosity are related to anxiousness and conscientiousness (e.g., Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;Von Stumm, Hell, et al., 2011), both traits were considered as control variables. ...
Article
Curiosity is a basic driver for learning and development. It has been conceptualized as a desire for new information and knowledge that motivates people to explore their physical and social environment. This raises the question of whether curiosity facilitates the acquisition of knowledge. The present study ( N = 100) assessed epistemic curiosity and general knowledge as well as fluid intelligence (i.e., reasoning ability, processing speed, memory) in a student sample. The results indicate that epistemic curiosity is moderately related to knowledge ( r = .24) and reasoning ability ( r = .30). None of the fluid intelligence measures did moderate the relationship between curiosity and knowledge (interaction terms β < |.08|). Rather, reasoning ability mediated the relationship between epistemic curiosity and general knowledge (indirect effect: β = .10, p < .05). The findings suggest that epistemic curiosity facilitates the acquisition of knowledge by promoting reasoning. One might speculate that epistemically curious individuals enrich their environment, which in turn enhances their cognitive ability.
... In addition, the self-negative belief held by socially anxious individuals has an influence on their meta-evaluation of mood; therefore, their regulatory emotional self-efficacy is lower than that of other individuals (Mennin et al., 2005;Bassi et al., 2018). Kashdan and Roberts (2004) found a negative correlation between social anxiety and self-efficacy. Individuals with a high social anxiety level experience stronger negative effects and worse self-efficacy than those with a low social anxiety level. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study explores the underlying mechanism of the relationship between college students’ social anxiety and mobile phone addiction. Adopting college students’ social anxiety scale, regulatory emotional self-efficacy scale, subjective well-being scale and mobile phone addiction scale, this research tested valid samples of 680 Chinese college students. The results indicated that social anxiety exerted a significant and positive impact on mobile phone addiction. Regulatory emotional self-efficacy played a partial mediating role between social anxiety and mobile phone addiction. Subjective well-being also played a partial mediating role between social anxiety and mobile phone addiction. Moreover, both regulatory emotional self-efficacy and subjective well-being were found to play a chain mediating role between social anxiety and mobile phone addiction. The study provides valuable insights into the impact of college students’ social anxiety on mobile phone addiction.
... Curiosity is defined as the positive emotional-motivational system oriented toward the recognition, pursuit, and self-regulation of novel and challenging information and experiences (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004). Research has shown that curiosity is associated with resilience against aggression and promotes personal growth . ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to identify and analyze the determinants of prison inmates’ psychosocial quality of life (PQol) as a positive and negative correlates. Three hundred ninety prison inmates were recruited from the correctional facilities administered by the Warsaw District Inspectorate of Prisons. Data were collected by means of the SQLQ, SOC-29, SWS, SPI/TPI, SIPR, COPE, GSES questionnaires and analyzed by means of SEM. The positive correlates for prison inmates’ PQol are: sense of coherence, self-efficacy, intensity of religious attitude, social support, and trait curiosity. Among the strategies of coping with stress, only seeking social support for emotional reasons is a significant factor that directly predicts PQol. Substance use and planning play only a mediating role in PQol prediction. The negative correlate for inmates’ PQol is trait depression. Contrary to predictions, anxiety is not a negative correlate—as noted above, it is associated with a positive score on PQol.
... This negative view incorporates stored self-related knowledge, the processing of self-related information in social situations and behaviour regulation (Gregory, Peters, & Rapee, 2016;Jazzaieri, Morrison, Goldin, & Gross, 2015;Stopa, 2009). As, by definition, 'flaws' cannot be overcome, such fixed attitudes towards the self exacerbate vulnerability to negative evaluation and are associated with high levels of selfcriticism and self-dissatisfaction (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004). Psycho-evolutionary theorists suggest that this fear of negative evaluation is fuelled by basic social motivational systems relating to social rank and affiliation (Gilbert, 2017). ...
Article
Objectives: Self-compassion and emotional regulation have been identified as constructive attitudes towards the self which can reduce emotional distress. This study is the first to examine the role of a self-compassionate attitude towards the self in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. The study also explored the role of emotional regulation strategies of cognitive reappraisal (CR) and expressive suppression (ES) as mechanisms that mediate the impact of self-compassion on social anxiety. Design: Structural equation modelling (SEM) was conducted on cross-sectional correlational data with MPlus version 6. Methods: A sample of 750 undergraduate students (378 men and 372 women) completed an online survey comprised of well validated self-report measures of social anxiety, emotional regulation and self-compassion. Results: Structural equation modelling showed that self-compassion predicted lower social anxiety directly and indirectly through lower ES. Higher self-compassion also predicted higher CR. Contrary to expectation, CR did not predict lower social anxiety. Exploratory analyses of self-compassion divided into Compassionate Self-responding (CSR) and Refraining from Non-compassionate Responding (RUSR) identified RUSR as a predictor of lower social anxiety directly and indirectly via ES and CR. CSR had no direct effect on social anxiety but did so indirectly via CR. Conclusions: The findings provide preliminary evidence that self-compassion can play an important role in alleviating social anxiety and that emotion regulation through ES and CR are important mechanisms of that influence. Practitioner points: Adopting a more compassionate attitude towards the self can reduce the symptoms of social anxiety Emotional regulation through reducing emotional suppression may be a mechanism whereby higher levels of self-compassion reduce symptoms of social anxiety. Although higher levels of self-compassion predict greater use of emotional regulation through cognitive appraisal, cognitive appraisal does not predict levels of symptoms of social anxiety The capacity to refrain from non-compassionate self-responding may reduce symptoms of social anxiety directly and indirectly through lower levels of emotional suppression and greater cognitive reappraisal (CR). However, compassionate self-responding only influences symptoms of social anxiety through CR.
... Applications from various fields make curiosity also important for the everyday life of people. An exemplary but not exhaustive list of curiosity's correlates includes cognitive development (Trudewind, 2000), academic learning (von Stumm et al., 2011), interpersonal closeness (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004), and personal as well as professional growth (Mussel et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The five-dimensional curiosity-scale revised (5DCR) by Kashdan et al. (2020) is the most comprehensive curiosity inventory available to date. 5DCR measures six facets of curiosity with four items each. Here, we present a German-language adaptation of the 5DCR and comprehensively validate this adaptation in a diverse sample of adults from Germany (N = 486). Moreover, we provide new evidence on the original English-language 5DCR in a parallel sample from the UK (N = 483). In both countries, we investigate the six facets' reliability, factorial validity, and convergent and discriminant validity with a large set of individual-differences constructs. In addition, we analyze the measurement invariance of the curiosity facets across the UK and Germany and across socio-demographic subgroups defined by age, sex, and education. Findings demonstrate that the new German-language adaptation of 5DCR and its English-language source version show psychometric properties similar to the original studies by Kashdan et al. (2020) in the United States. All six curiosity facets reach at least partial scalar invariance across cultures, sex, education, and mostly also across age groups. The findings support the six-faceted theory of curiosity and show that 5DCR allows for a valid assessment of curiosity across cultures.
... Given the exploratory nature of this study, we focused on variables that could (a) reflect individuallevel dispositions, (b) shape perceptions of affiliation, and/or (c) influence physiological responding. Several variables cut across these domains, including attachment (for a review Schwartz et al., 2007;Ravitz et al., 2010;Schreiber et al., 2021), social anhedonia (i.e., the reduced ability to experience pleasure from social experiences; Meehl, 1962;Llerena et al., 2012), social skills (i.e., verbal and non-verbal behaviors necessary for initiation of the affiliative process; Walker et al., 1995;Blanchard et al., 2015), and social anxiousness (Leary, 1983;Kashdan and Roberts, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study explores physiological linkage (i.e., any form of statistical interdependence between the physiological signals of interacting partners; PL) using data from 65 same-sex, same ethnicity stranger dyads. Participants completed a knot-tying task with either a cooperative or competitive framing while either talking or remaining silent. Autonomic nervous system activity was measured continuously by electrocardiograph for both individuals during the interaction. Using a recently developed R statistical package (i.e., rties ), we modeled different oscillatory patterns of coordination between partner's interbeat interval (i.e., the time between consecutive heart beats) over the course of the task. Three patterns of PL emerged, characterized by differences in frequency of oscillation, phase, and damping or amplification. To address gaps in the literature, we explored (a) PL patterns as predictors of affiliation and (b) the interaction between individual differences and experimental condition as predictors of PL patterns. In contrast to prior analyses using this dataset for PL operationalized as covariation, the present analyses showed that oscillatory PL patterns did not predict affiliation, but the interaction of individual differences and condition differentially predicted PL patterns. This study represents a next step toward understanding the roles of individual differences, context, and PL among strangers.
... In the present study, the participants were not clinical patients. Previous studies have indicated that self-focus manipulation is effective for highly depressed and highly anxious people's negative emotions [21,22]. In this study, we conducted a correlation analyses between the effects of the manipulations and participants' trait-anxiety. ...
Article
Full-text available
Self-focus is a type of cognitive processing that maintains negative emotions. Moreover, bodily feedback is also essential for maintaining emotions. This study investigated the effect of interactions between self-focused attention and facial expressions on emotions. The results indicated that control facial expression manipulation after self-focus reduced happiness scores. On the contrary, the smiling facial expression manipulation after self-focus increased happiness scores marginally. However, facial expressions did not affect positive emotions after the other-focus manipulation. These findings suggest that self-focus plays a pivotal role in facial expressions’ effect on positive emotions. However, self-focusing is insufficient for decreasing positive emotions, and the interaction between self-focus and facial expressions is crucial for developing positive emotions.
... Although there is less research on how psychological distress impacts social selfefficacy, there is some empirical evidence supporting this direction of effect. For instance, some research has found that individuals high in social anxiety and attachment anxiety experience lower social self-efficacy compared to others (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;Mallinckrodt & Wei, 2005). It has been established that psychologically distressed individuals often withdraw from social interactions, have unsatisfactory functioning in their social environment, and perceive family and peers as less supportive compared to others (Jaycox et al., 2009;Schaefer, Kornienko, & Fox, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the temporal relationship between social self‐efficacy and psychological distress during 3 years in middle to late adolescence. The sample comprised 1508 participants (60.7% female; baseline mean age = 16.33, SD = .62; 52.9% high perceived family wealth; 70.6% born in Norway). We used a random intercept cross‐lagged panel model to investigate the concurrent and subsequent associations between the two constructs. The results indicated (1) small to moderate and negative associations between the trait‐like components and within‐person fluctuations of social self‐efficacy and psychological distress, (2) positive and significant carry‐over stability effects on both constructs across time, and (3) that psychological distress predicted subsequent social self‐efficacy more consistently across four time points, than social self‐efficacy predicted later psychological distress.
... Second, unfavorable social comparisons may perpetuate low positive emotionality, a characteristic feature of SAD (Brown et al., 1998;Watson et al., 1988) even after controlling for depression (Kashdan, 2007;Kashdan et al., 2013). Positive emotions are critical for social bonding and connectedness (Ramsey & Gentzler, 2015), and deficits may perpetuate relationship difficulties for people with elevated social anxiety (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;Taylor et al., 2017). Findings from our research can extend social anxiety research suggesting that social rank concerns are linked with diminished positive affectivity (e.g., Weeks & Howell, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Judgments about the self compared to internalized standards are central to theoretical frameworks of social anxiety. Yet, empirical research on social comparisons-how people view themselves relative to others-and social anxiety is sparse. This research program examines the nature of everyday social comparisons in the context of social anxiety across 2 experience-sampling studies containing 8,396 unique entries from 273 adults. Hypotheses and analyses were preregistered with the Open Science Foundation (OSF) prior to data analysis. Study 1 was a 3-week daily diary study with undergraduates, and Study 2 was a 2-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study with a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and a psychologically healthy comparison group. In both studies, social anxiety was associated with less favorable, more unstable social comparisons. In both studies, favorable social comparisons were associated with higher positive affect and lower negative affect and social anxiety. In both studies, social comparisons and momentary affect/social anxiety were more strongly linked in people with elevated trait social anxiety/SAD compared to less socially anxious participants. Participants in Study 2-even those with SAD-made more favorable social comparisons when they were with other people than when alone. Taken together, results suggest that social anxiety is associated with unfavorable, unstable self-views that are linked to compromised well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Yüksek yaşam doyumuna sahip olan ergenlerin sosyal stres ve sosyal kaygı puanları da düşük düzeydedir (Gilman & Huebner, 2006). Öğrencilerdeki olumlu yöndeki beden imajının psikolojik iyi oluşu pozitif yönde etkilediği, kendileri ile ilgili olumlu düşünce ve duygulara sahip olunması sosyal kaygı ve sosyal yetkinlik algılarını negatif yönde etkilemektedir (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Strah od negativne evaluacije ima snažan uticaj na funkcioniranja mladih osoba, od socijalnih odnosa preko školskog uspjeha, pa sve do zaposlenja. Kod mladih se javlja zabrinutost za ishode različitih socijalnih situacija, odnosno mogućnosti da se bude negativno evaluirano od strane drugih. Faktori koji mogu uticati na pojavu straha od negativne evaluacije su i samopoštovanje odnosno samoefikasnost. Ako osoba ima dobro mišljenje o sebi i svojim sposobnostima, mogla bi biti opuštenija u socijalnim situacijama koje uvijek podrazumijevaju određeno izlaganje vlastitih osobina drugima. Da bi čovjek uspješno funkcionirao, pored određenih sposobnosti potrebno mu je i uvjerenje da će ih moći efikasno upotrijebiti. Važnu ulogu u formiranju ponašanja i ciljeva općeg ljudskog djelovanja imaju i očekivanja vezana za ishod aktivnosti koje mogu biti socijalno evaluirane. Cilj ovog rada je ispitati ulogu samopoštovanja i samoefikasnosti u objašnjenju straha od negativne evaluacije kod adolescenata. Populaciju u istraživanju su činili adolescenti uzrasta od 16 do 19 godina, čiji je uzorak brojao 1172 ispitanika. U istraživanju su korišteni sociodemografski upitnik, skala straha od negativne evaluacije koju je adaptirao Leary (1983), skala samopoštovanja (Rosenberg 1965), skala opće samoefiasnosti Schwarzera i sar. (1997) koju su adaptirali Ivanov i Penezić (1998). Upitnici su u ovom istraživanju pokazali dobre metrijske karkteristike. Dobijeni rezultati pokazuju da je samopoštovanje značajan prediktor straha od negativne evaluacije, dok se samoefikasnost nije pokazala kao značajan prediktor, međutim zajedno objašnjavaju 8,8 % varijance straha od negativne evaluacije. Nije pronađena značajna razlika u strahu od negativne evaluacije s obzirom na školski uspjeh. Utvrđene su spolne razlike s obzirom na strah od negativne evaluacije. Postoji značajna razlika u strahu od negativne evaluacije s Nermin Mulaosmanović Samopoštovanje i samoefikasnost kao determinante straha od negativne evaluacije kod adolescenata DHS 3 (12) (2020), 309-330
Article
Full-text available
Purpose How psychological variables especially self-efficacy plays significant role to attain workplace well-being is yet to be explained. The extant literature calls for further research works in the field of sustainability practices to bridge the gap between self-efficacy and workplace well-being. The purpose of this paper is to extend the literature of workplace well-being while scientifically examining the moderating role of sustainability practices. Design/methodology/approach The study collected data from 527 full-time executives of Indian public and private manufacturing industries. The authors performed moderated regression analysis through a series of hierarchical models to test the hypotheses of the study. Findings The result indicates positive relationship between self-efficacy and workplace well-being. Furthermore, the result suggests that the relationship between self-efficacy and workplace well-being was stronger among executives with high level of sustainability practices and vice versa. Research limitations/implications The cross-sectional sample of executives employed in Indian manufacturing organizations limits the generalizability of the findings. Practical implications HR functionaries and senior management may benefit by closely examining their sustainability practices along with their employees perceived ability to address workplace well-being. Originality/value The study contributes to extend the literature on self-efficacy and workplace well-being. This research work is one of the first few studies to examine the moderating effect of sustainability practices.
Article
Full-text available
p>Gradualmente se incrementa la investigación acerca de la fobia social, argumentando asociación entre ésta y diversas medidas de disfuncionalidad. Se obtuvieron datos sociodemográficos, mediciones de ansiedad social y de consumo de alcohol, de 3164 adolescentes mexicanos escolarizados voluntarios (hombres y mujeres) entre 12 y 18 años de edad ( = 14.7, DE 1.7), turno escolar (matutino o vespertino) y actividades extracurriculares (realizar o no actividades deportivas, artísticas y tener o no una relación de noviazgo). Se formaron dos grupos: el primero con bajo y el segundo con alto grado de ansiedad social, y se compararon sus niveles de consumo de alcohol, encontrando que: contrario a lo que establece la literatura del tema en adultos, el patrón de consumo de alcohol en los grupos de adolescentes de alta y baja ansiedad social, no presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas (X<sup>2 </sup>= 1.201, gl = 2, p = .361). Probablemente, las diferencias reportadas en el consumo de alcohol entre adultos social y no socialmente ansiosos, surjan sólo en ciertas variantes de la fobia social, o bien, se requiere de otras variables mediadoras, entre fobia social y el consumo abusivo de alcohol.</p
Article
Full-text available
A more dynamic perspective of threats to the self may contribute to an enhanced understanding of the processes that develop and maintain anxiety and thus, potentially inform psychological interventions. This article presents the looming vulnerability of anxiety, which stresses the threat or risk prospection and dynamic mental simulation of the course of threat. Individuals do not become anxious simply because they picture distant or static possible threats that represent threats to the self. Rather, their anxiety results from interpreting potential threats as dynamic, growing and approaching. Following a review of a wide range of literature from clinical, personality, and social psychology, we present the looming vulnerability and its underpinnings in evolution and examine its applications to cognitive vulnerability to anxiety and its therapeutic alleviation. We also address the associations of the model to other self‐related concepts that are involved in anxiety. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Cognitive Reactivity (CR), an established diathesis for depression, has been defined as the within-person strength of association between sad affect and dysfunctional attitudes. Watson and Tellegen (1985) proposed that sad affect is a combination of high negative affect (NA) and low positive affect (PA). The current study integrated the CR and the affect literatures by examining the differential and conjoint roles of cognitive reactivity to high negative affect (CR-highNA) and cognitive reactivity to low positive affect (CR-lowPA). In the current study, college student participants completed daily diary measures of CR-highNA, CR-lowPA, and CR to sadness (CR-Sad). Results showed that naturally occurring NA and PA accounted for the relation of sadness to dysfunctional cognitions. Further, the relation of depressive symptoms to CR-Sad was explained by high levels of CR-highNA and CR-lowPA. Born out of the integration of research on CR and affective structures, the current results have implications for both theory and treatment of depression.
Article
What drives positive affective and interpersonal experiences during social interaction? Undergraduates with high (n = 63) or low (n = 56) trait social anxiety (SA) were paired with unfamiliar low SA partners in a 45-minute conversation task. Throughout the task, participants and their conversation partners completed measures of affiliative goals, affect, curiosity, authenticity, and attentional focus. Both affective and interpersonal outcomes were assessed. Dyadic analyses revealed that participants’ affiliative goals during the social interaction predicted positive outcomes for both themselves and their partners, although the link between affiliative goals and positive affect was weaker for participants with high SA. Mediation analyses demonstrated that adopting affiliative goals may promote more positive outcomes by increasing participants’ curiosity and felt authenticity. Taken together, results illuminate the pathways through which people with varying levels of trait SA may derive interpersonally generated positive affect and positive social outcomes, with implications for clinical theory and practice.
Article
Objective: Guided by a functional account of awe, we aimed to test the hypothesis that people who often feel awe are also more curious (Studies 1 and 2), and that this relationship in turn related to academic outcomes (Study 3). Method: In Study 1 (n = 1,005), we used a self-report approach to test the relationship between dispositional awe and curiosity. In Study 2 (n = 100), we used a peer-report approach to test if participants' dispositional awe related to how curious they were rated by their friends. In Study 3, in a sample of 447 high school adolescents we tested if dispositional awe predicted academic outcomes via curiosity. Results: We found that dispositional awe was positively related to people's self-rated curiosity (Study 1) and how curious they were rated by their friends (Study 2). In Study 3, we found that dispositional awe was related to academic outcomes via curiosity. Conclusions: We conclude that among the seven positive emotion dispositions tested, awe was related to unique variance in curiosity, and this link in turn predicted academic outcomes. This work further characterizes awe as an epistemic emotion and suggests that activities that inspire awe may improve academic outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
Social curiosity has been found to have great benefits in human life, especially in fostering interpersonal relationships. Nevertheless there is indication of other benefit of social curiosity that have not yet been explored, namely overcoming the anxiety of death. This indication is based on previous research which found a positive relationship between anxiety and social curiosity. In this study, social curiosity is framed as representation of symbolic immortality, which people use to overcome the terror of death. To support this conjecture, two studies were conducted using the Terror Management Theory (TMT) framework. Study 1 (N = 352, M age = 19.39) found a positive relationship between death anxiety and social curiosity. In Study 2 (N = 507, M age = 20.68) it was found that intolerance of uncertainty and desire for self-verification mediated the relationship between death anxiety and social curiosity. The results of this study indicate that increasing interest in obtaining information about how other people think, feel, or act is a form of mechanism used by people to control anxiety related to death.
Book
Full-text available
The publication focuses on pre-service teachers’ beliefs as the key prerequisite for teaching mathematics. This construct is considered an inseparable part of the teacher’s personality, which needs to be positively shaped during undergraduate training. The theoretical part shows its correlation with other psychological determinants such as motivation, perceived self-efficacy, or attitudes. The construct is also placed in an educational context. The empirical part describes the results of the research and provides specific suggestions for undergraduate teacher training.
Article
Background: Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is associated with pervasive functional impairments and chronicity. Romantic relationship functioning and quality for individuals with SAD has been previously explored but existing studies have not been synthesised. Aims: This scoping review charted existing literature regarding the quality and functioning of romantic relationships for people with SAD and high sub-clinical social anxiety (SA). Methods: The review used a scoping approach to explore the current evidence base relating to SA, romantic relationship quality and functioning. Articles published in English after 1980 that reported either clinical or high sub-clinical SA were eligible. Double screening, data extraction, quality assessment, and thematic analysis of studies was conducted. Results: 50 studies from 46 articles were identified, involving a range of community, college, adolescent, and clinical samples. Thematic analysis identified four themes; Relationship Quality, Satisfaction and Commitment; Communication and Self-Disclosure; Conflict, Social Support and Trust; Intimacy, Closeness and Sexual Satisfaction. Conclusions: The review highlights that evidence relating to romantic relationship functioning for individuals with SAD and high sub-clinical SA is heterogeneous, with relationship initiation in particular relatively under-explored. Further research is required to elucidate key constructs and interpersonal processes related to relationship functioning, and to inform treatment approaches with this group.
Article
Background Social anxiety has long been related to reduced eye contact, and this feature is seen as a causal and a maintaining factor of social anxiety disorder. The present research adds to the literature by investigating the relationship between social anxiety and visual avoidance of faces in a reciprocal face-to-face conversation, while taking into account two aspects of conversations as potential moderating factors: conversational role and level of intimacy. Method Eighty-five female students (17–25 years) completed the Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale and had a face-to-face getting-acquainted conversation with a female confederate. We alternated conversational role (talking versus listening) and manipulated intimacy of the topics (low versus high). Participants’ gaze behavior was registered with Tobii eye-tracking glasses. Three dependent measures were extracted regarding fixations on the face of the confederate: total duration, proportion of fixations, and mean duration. Results The results revealed that higher levels of social anxiety were associated with reduced face gaze on all three measures. The relation with total fixation duration was stronger for low intimate topics. The relation with mean fixation duration was stronger during listening than during speaking. Conclusion The results highlight the importance of studying gaze behavior in a naturalistic social interaction.
Article
Full-text available
Working largely independently, numerous investigators have explored the role of self-focused attention in various clinical disorders. This article reviews research examining increased self-focused attention in these disorders. Using information processing constructs, a model of self-focused attention is proposed, and it is suggested that certain deviations in this process constitute a psychopathological kind of attention. A meta-construct model of descriptive psychopathology is then outlined to examine how certain aspects of attention can be considered specific to certain disorders and others common to different disorders
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Full-text available
The Concept of CuriosityA Framework for Factors that Support CuriosityElaborating the Framework for Curiosity Supportive FactorsCuriosity InterventionsConclusion
Article
Full-text available
The psychometric adequacy of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clark, 1989), a measure of social interaction anxiety, and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clark, 1989), a measure of anxiety while being observed by others, was evaluated in anxious patients and normal controls. Social phobia patients scored higher on both scales and were more likely to be identified as having social phobia than other anxious patients (except for agoraphobic patients on the SPS) or controls. Clinician-rated severity of social phobia was moderately related to SIAS and SPS scores. Additional diagnoses of mood or panic disorder did not affect SIAS or SPS scores among social phobia patients, but an additional diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder was associated with SIAS scores. Number of reported feared social interaction situations was more highly correlated with scores on the SIAS, whereas number of reported feared performance situations was more highly correlated with scores on the SPS. These scales appear to be useful in screening, designing individualized treatments, and evaluating the outcomes of treatments for social phobia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The independence of positive and negative affect has been heralded as a major and counterintuitive finding in the psychology of mood and emotion. Still, other findings support the older view that positive and negative fall at opposite ends of a single bipolar continuum. Independence versus bipolarity can be reconciled by considering (a) the activation dimension of affect, (b) random and systematic measurement error, and (c) how items are selected to achieve an appropriate test of bipolarity. In 3 studies of self-reported current affect, random and systematic error were controlled through multiformat measurement and confirmatory factor analysis. Valence was found to be independent of activation, positive affect the bipolar opposite of negative affect, and deactivation the bipolar opposite of activation. The dimensions underlying D. Watson, L. A. Clark, and A. Tellegen's (1988) Positive and Negative Affect schedule were accounted for by the valence and activation dimensions.
Article
Full-text available
This study sought to test hypotheses derived from Trower and Gilbert's (1989) psychobiological/ethological model of social anxiety. This model purports that social anxiety should be characterized by less social cooperation and dominance and greater submission and escape/avoidance. Individuals with social phobia and non-anxious participants completed a structured social interaction. Behavioral measures related to cooperativeness, dominance, submissiveness, and escape/avoidance were coded by independent observers. Those with social phobia exhibited fewer behaviors of social cooperativeness and dominance than did nonanxious participants. The groups did not differ with regard to submissive and escape/avoidance behaviors. Two dominance behaviors correlated with a self-report measure of social anxiety. Implications for the Trower and Gilbert model and for social anxiety theory and treatment are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Working largely independently, numerous investigators have explored the role of self-focused attention in various clinical disorders. This article reviews research examining increased self-focused attention in these disorders. Results indicate that regardless of the particular disorder under investigation, a heightened degree of self-focused attention is found. Hence, as ordinarily conceptualized, self-focused attention has little discriminatory power among different psychological disorders. Using information processing constructs, a somewhat different model of self-focused attention is proposed, and it is suggested that certain deviations in this process constitute a psychopathological kind of attention. A meta-construct model of descriptive psychopathology is then outlined to examine how certain aspects of attention can be considered specific to certain disorders and others common to different disorders.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
Article
Self-focused attention has been linked to social anxiety and poor social performance, but the causal direction of this relationship has not been established. For this study, focus of attention was manipulated during a speech task, conducted in pairs for 38 individuals with generalized social phobia. Results indicated that intensifying self-focused attention increased anticipated anxiety and anxious appearance, regardless of whether the individual was giving a speech or passively standing before the audience. The self-focus manipulation also increased self-reported anxiety during the task, but only for individuals assigned to a passive role. Contrary to expectation, self-focused attention did not affect any measure of social performance. These results indicate that self-focused attention may play a causal role in exacerbating social anxiety.
Article
During the past ten years, psychologists have begun to devote considerable attention to the sequential properties of social interaction. The majority of this research has focused on description of sequential contingencies between the behaviors of interaction partners, inferences concerning the conversational control functions of the observed behaviors, and/or assessment of the degree of mutual influence between the behaviors of interaction partners. For example, the first two strategies are embodied by research designed to examine the turn taking system in dyadic conversation (e.g., Duncan & Fiske, 1977; Jaffe & Feldstein, 1970); and the third by the various research programs investigating such processes as mutual influence between mothers and infants (e.g., Thomas & Malone, 1979; Thomas & Martin, 1976), reciprocity of self-disclosure (e.g., Warner, Kenney, & Stoto, 1979), matching of paralinguistic variables such as vocal pitch and intensity or lengths of utterances and pauses (e.g., Feldstein & Welkowitz, 1978), and synchrony of body movements (e.g., Kendon, 1970; McDowall, 1978) (see Cappella, 1981, for a review of mutual influence processes for a variety of behaviors).
Article
Using outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders (N = 350), the authors tested several models of the structural relationships of dimensions of key features of selected emotional disorders and dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. Results supported the discriminant validity of the 5 symptom domains examined (mood disorders; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; panic disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder; social phobia). Of various structural models evaluated, the best fitting involved a structure consistent with the tripartite model (e.g., the higher order factors, negative affect and positive affect, influenced emotional disorder factors in the expected manner). The latent factor, GAD, influenced the latent factor, autonomic arousal, in a direction consistent with recent laboratory findings (autonomic suppression); Findings are discussed in the context of the growing literature on higher order trait dimensions (e.g., negative affect) that may be of considerable importance to the understanding of the pathogenesis, course, and co-occurrence of emotional disorders.
Article
Previous research has identified nonobvious, cognitive indexes of including other in the self (self-other overlap) that differentiate close from nonclose relationships. These indexes include a reaction time measure and a measure focusing on attributional perspective. This study demonstrated for the first time that these cognitive indices differentiated among romantic relationships of varying degrees of closeness, suggesting that self-other overlap is not an either-or phenomenon. Further, the degree of self-other overlap was associated with subjective feelings of closeness, but little if at all with amount and diversity of interaction, suggesting that cognitive self-other overlap is not a direct product of behavioral interaction. Finally, these indexes predicted relationship maintenance and other variables over 3 months and correlated with self-reports of love, suggesting a broad linkage of cognitive self-other overlap to other aspects of relational experience.
Article
Self-focused attention has been demonstrated to influence and be influenced by situational social anxiety in clients with social phobia, but the mechanisms of this relationship have yet to be established. This study examines the degree to which self-focus exacerbates anxiety and impairs social performance in normal controls as well as social phobics. In addition, the role of fear of negative evaluation as a moderator of this relationship is examined. Results supported the hypothesis of a functional role of self-focused attention in anxiety but not social performance, and this relationship held true for participants in the normal control group as well as the social phobia group. Fear of negative evaluation was surprisingly not a factor in this relationship. These results are discussed in a framework of shifting attributions for social effectiveness based on the shift in perspective engendered by self-focused attention.
Article
We examined the roles of curiosity, social anxiety, and positive affect (PA) and neg- ative affect (NA) in the development of interpersonal closeness. A reciprocal self-disclosure task was used wherein participants and trained confederates asked and answered questions escalating in personal and emotional depth (mimicking closeness-development). Relationships between curiosity and relationship out- comes were examined using regression analyses. Controlling for trait measures of social anxiety, PA, and NA, trait curiosity predicted greater partner ratings of attrac- tion and closeness. Social anxiety moderated the relationship between trait curios- ity and self-ratings of attraction such that curiosity was associated with greater attraction among those low in social anxiety compared to those high in social anxi- ety. In contrast, trait PA was related to greater self-ratings of attraction but had no relationship with partners' ratings. Trait curiosity predicted positive relationship outcomes as a function of state curiosity generated during the interaction, even after controlling for state PA.
Article
A flood of new studies explores people's subjective well-being (SWB) Frequent positive affect, infrequent negative affect, and a global sense of satisfaction with life define high SWB These studies reveal that happiness and life satisfaction are similarly available to the young and the old, women and men, blacks and whites, the rich and the working-class Better clues to well-being come from knowing about a person's traits, close relationships, work experiences, culture, and religiosity We present the elements of an appraisal-based theory of happiness that recognizes the importance of adaptation, cultural world-view, and personal goals
Article
A practical methodology is presented for creating closeness in an experimental context. Whether or not an individual is in a relationship, particular pairings of individuals in the relationship, and circumstances of relationship development become manipulated variables. Over a 45-min period subject pairs carry out self-disclosure and relationship-building tasks that gradually escalate in intensity. Study 1 found greater postinteraction closeness with these tasks versus comparable small-talk tasks. Studies 2 and 3 found no significant closeness effects, inspite of adequate power, for (a) whether pairs were matched for nondisagreement on important attitudes, (b) whether pairs were led to expect mutual liking, or (c) whether getting close was made an explicit goal. These studies also illustrated applications for addressing theoretical issues, yielding provocative tentative findings relating to attachment style and introversion/extraversion.
Article
The development and validation of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) two companion measures for assessing social phobia fears is described. The SPS assesses fears of being scrutinised during routine activities (eating, drinking, writing, etc.), while the SIAS assesses fears of more general social interaction, the scales corresponding to the DSM-III-R descriptions of Social Phobia—Circumscribed and Generalised types, respectively. Both scales were shown to possess high levels of internal consistency and test–retest reliability. They discriminated between social phobia, agoraphobia and simple phobia samples, and between social phobia and normal samples. The scales correlated well with established measures of social anxiety, but were found to have low or non-significant (partial) correlations with established measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, locus of control, and social desirability. The scales were found to change with treatment and to remain stable in the face of no-treatment. It appears that these scales are valid, useful, and easily scored measures for clinical and research applications, and that they represent an improvement over existing measures of social phobia.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study sought to replicate and extend a previous study in which social anxiety was associated with poorer recall of the details of a social interaction as well as to test various hypotheses derived from Trower and Gilbert's (1989) psychobiological/ethological theory of social anxiety. Socially anxious and nonanxious undergraduate students participated in a heterosocial conversation with a confederate under the observation of a second subject. Consistent with the previous study, there was some evidence that social anxiety was associated with poorer recall of interaction details for women. Social anxiety and recall were unrelated for men. Men demonstrated poorer recall than women overall. The hypotheses derived from Trower and Gilbert's theory were largely supported, suggesting socially anxious individuals view social interactions as competitive endeavors in which they are ill equipped to challenge the other person. Rather, they adopt self-effacing strategies, but still doubt their success. Finally, the judgments of nonanxious individuals about their impact on others appeared to be positively biased. Implications for cognitive theories of social anxiety are discussed.
Article
In 2 studies, the Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) Scale, a single-item, pictorial measure of closeness, demonstrated alternate-form and test–retest reliability; convergent validity with the Relationship Closeness Inventory (E. Berscheid et al, 1989), the R. J. Sternberg (1988) Intimacy Scale, and other measures; discriminant validity; minimal social desirability correlations; and predictive validity for whether romantic relationships were intact 3 mo later. Also identified and cross-validated were (1) a 2-factor closeness model (Feeling Close and Behaving Close) and (2) longevity–closeness correlations that were small for women vs moderately positive for men. Five supplementary studies showed convergent and construct validity with marital satisfaction and commitment and with a reaction-time (RT)-based cognitive measure of closeness in married couples; and with intimacy and attraction measures in stranger dyads following laboratory closeness-generating tasks. In 3 final studies most Ss interpreted IOS Scale diagrams as depicting interconnectedness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
There are 2 broad aims in writing this book. The first is to produce a comprehensive practical text of cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders. In order for a treatment guide to be of most value it should offer a detailed description of not only what to do in treatment but also an account of how to do it. This book does both. The book is illustrated throughout with case examples and examples of therapeutic dialogues. All of the material used is based on actual cases. The second aim of this work is to present a pure approach to cognitive therapy that makes a significant contribution to advancing theory and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study explored the relationships among dispositional self-consciousness, situationally induced-states of self-awareness, ego-involvement, and intrinsic motivation Cognitive evaluation theory, as applied to both the interpersonal and intrapersonal spheres, was used as the basis for making predictions about the effects of various types of self-focus Public self-consciousness, social anxiety, video surveillance and mirror manipulations of self-awareness, and induced ego-involvement were predicted and found to have negative effects on intrinsic motivation since all were hypothesized to involve controlling forms of regulation In contrast, dispositional private self-consciousness and a no-self-focus condition were both found to be unrelated to intrinsic motivation The relationship among these constructs and manipulations was discussed in the context of both Carver and Scheier's (1981) control theory and Deci and Ryan's (1985) motivation theory
Article
This study investigated the effects of heightened self-awareness (SAW) on various aspects of social anxiety. High and low socially anxious (SA) participants (N = 72) had a conversation with two confederates. SAW was manipulated with mirrors: half of the participants could see their reflection in three large mirrors during the conversation. In contrast with expectations, SAW did not increase fear, blushing, physiological arousal (skin conductance and facial coloration), and negative thinking, and did not interfere with task performance. Independent of the experimental manipulation, high SA persons displayed a generally higher level of facial coloration (blushing) than low SA persons. No evidence was found for the prediction that high SA persons overpredict their blushing and underpredict their social skills, compared to low SA persons.
Article
Women high and low in social self-efficacy participated in a social interaction either under conditions of heightened public self-awareness or in a control condition. The self-awareness manipulation increased self-focused attention and self-evaluation, but only among low-efficacy subjects. Low-efficacy subjects withdrew from the interaction more quickly than did high-efficacy subjects, but only when self-awareness was heightened. Both groups of low-efficacy subjects believed their partners would not like them, and the partners did indeed like these subjects less than the high-efficacy women. These results suggest that low-efficacy women are distinguished by a number of cognitive factors, even in the absence of self-directed attention. Faced with social scrutiny, these individuals engage in a perservative self-evaluation process, which ultimately leads to social withdrawal. The results are interpreted from the perspective of Ingram's (1990) interaction model of self-directed attention.
Article
Socially anxious and nonanxious college students provided detailed personal information and were led to believe that they would soon interact with a person of the opposite sex who was either similar or dissimilar to them in terms of background, experience, and other attributes. In accord with the social psychological literature, nonanxious students greatly preferred similar to dissimilar partners. Socially anxious students showed no difference between their ratings of similar and dissimilar partners and assigned much less extreme ratings to both partners than did nonanxious subjects. Subjects' predictions about partners' likely anxiety and how partners would evaluate subjects' anxiety also differed according to subjects' anxiety levels, but these differences did not parallel attraction scores. Results are compared with other research on social anxiety and contrasted to past research on social anxiety, attitude similarity, and attraction. Directions for future research are addressed, and questions about the validity of the thought-listing technique are discussed.
Article
Although decades of research have examined relationships between social anxiety and negative outcomes, this study examined relations with indices of positive psychological functioning. In college students (n = 204), a factor analysis on self-report measures of positive psychological functioning derived 3 conceptually meaningful broad domains: Positive Subjective Experiences, Curiosity, and Appetitive Motivations. Analyses were conducted to test whether social interaction anxiety demonstrated unique relationships with positive psychological domains after controlling for shared variance with social observation anxiety (e.g., eating in public, public speaking) and neuroticism. Social interaction anxiety explained unique variance in all 3 domains after separately controlling for social observation anxiety and neuroticism. In contrast, social observation anxiety demonstrated near-zero relationships with all 3 domains, and neuroticism predicted Positive Subjective Experiences, and to a lesser degree, Curiosity. These data provide evidence for the unique association between social interaction anxiety and positive psychological functioning, with implications for future basic and applied research.
Article
Social phobics, anxious controls and non-patient controls took part in a brief videotaped conversation with a stooge in order to investigate the cognitive model of social phobia. Thoughts, behaviour, and attention during the conversation were assessed. Compared to the control groups, social phobics had more negative self-evaluative thoughts, performed less well, and systematically underestimated their performance. There were no differences in attention between the three groups. Content analysis of thought sampling data from the conversation, and from three hypothetical situations, revealed that few of the negative thoughts reported by social phobics explicitly mentioned evaluation by other people. This suggests that social phobics may not closely monitor other people's responses in social situations and hence that their thoughts are not data driven. The results are discussed in relation to the cognitive model of social phobia and suggestions are made for improvements in the treatment of social phobia.
Article
When entering anxiety-provoking social situations, individuals with social phobia tend to shift attention inward, toward the self. This tendency is likely to diminish the potential for exposure to correct negative beliefs and associated anxiety. The present study tested the hypothesis that by shifting to an external attention focus on disconfirmatory information, the effectiveness of brief exposure is increased. This hypothesis was tested in a single-case series of 8 socially phobic patients. Following an initial behavior test, half of the patients received one session of exposure alone followed by one session of exposure plus external attention focus, while the other half of the patients received these sessions in reversed order. Both conditions were rated as equally credible. Exposure plus external attention focus was significantly more effective than exposure alone in reducing within-situation anxiety and belief in feared catastrophes. Moreover, the attention condition produced a shift from an observer to a field perspective in patients' images of the feared social situation. A manipulation-check measure of degree of self-focused attention confirmed that the attention manipulation had influenced self-focus as intended. The role of attention manipulations in the treatment of social phobia is discussed.
Article
This article represents an attempt to clarify questions posed by evidence of varying pathways to change in social anxiety. A new perspective is developed which addresses these questions and, importantly, lays the foundation for an innovative treatment approach. Essentially, social anxiety is construed here as the product of a disorganization in which feelings and cognitions (both conscious and preconscious) about the self, about other people, and about the relations between self and others are organized. Specifically, the socially anxious client experiences others autocentrically: that is, in terms of how the other person perceives, evaluates and affects one's own self. The result is a narrowed capacity for experiencing others. The goal of treatment in the new approach advocated here is to allow the individual to understand, appreciate and share the feelings, thoughts and experience of other people. Therapy is directed toward getting clients out of themselves and into other people.
Article
This article reviews the social psychological literature on attentional focus and causal attributions as they apply to social phobia. Excessive self-focused attention is increased by physiological arousal, interferes with task performance under some conditions, increases the probability of internal attributions, and intensifies emotional reactions. Social anxiety is also associated with a reversal of the self-serving bias for causal attributions. Implications of these findings for the maintenance and treatment of social phobia are discussed.
Article
This review critically discusses the empirical evidence for information-processing biases in social phobia. Distortions in attention, interpretation, and memory processes are analyzed as they apply to individuals with social phobia. The literature provides evidence for a specific attentional bias towards socially threatening stimuli and a specific interpretational/judgment bias towards self-relevant social information. However, there is little evidence to suggest that social phobia is associated with a memory bias for socially threatening stimuli. Furthermore, the relationship between the empirical evidence from information processing studies and the cognitive model of social phobia by Clark and Wells (1995) will be discussed.
Article
This paper presents a simple and widely ap- plicable multiple test procedure of the sequentially rejective type, i.e. hypotheses are rejected one at a tine until no further rejections can be done. It is shown that the test has a prescribed level of significance protection against error of the first kind for any combination of true hypotheses. The power properties of the test and a number of possible applications are also discussed.
Article
This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual's physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed.
Article
Reliability coefficients often take the form of intraclass correlation coefficients. In this article, guidelines are given for choosing among 6 different forms of the intraclass correlation for reliability studies in which n targets are rated by k judges. Relevant to the choice of the coefficient are the appropriate statistical model for the reliability study and the applications to be made of the reliability results. Confidence intervals for each of the forms are reviewed. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Investigated the verbal behavior of 152 undergraduates in 4 different classes. Trait anxiety, trait curiosity, and perceived instructor threat were measured by the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, the State–Trait Curiosity Inventory, and the Tuckman Teacher Feedback Form. Student-initiated questions and responses to instructor questions were rated by trained observers during 8 1-hr class sessions. In general, males gave more responses than females, and Ss who perceived their instructors as threatening gave fewer responses than those who rated their instructors as nonthreatening. High curiosity stimulated student-initiated verbal behavior for both sexes, but only when the instructor was perceived as nonthreatening. For males, high anxiety inhibited the students' responses to instructor questions when the instructor was perceived as threatening, whereas females gave few responses to instructor questions regardless of their personality characteristics. (20 ref)
Article
The present article presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of per- sonal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of ob- stacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from four principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. The more de- pendable the experiential sources, the greater are the changes in perceived self- efficacy. A number of factors are identified as influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arising from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and be- havioral changes. Possible directions for further research are discussed.
Article
Twenty-eight subjects meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (rev. 3rd ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) criteria for social phobia and without a comorbid affective disorder and 33 nonclinical controls were asked to present a brief, impromptu speech to a small audience. Speakers themselves, as well as members of the audience, rated each speaker on a public speaking questionnaire that included both specific items (e.g., voice shook) and global items (e.g., appeared confident). For global items, no significant difference was indicated between the two groups on observers' ratings of public speaking performance. However, social phobics rated their own performance worse than did nonclinical controls, and there was a significantly greater discrepancy between self and other ratings for social phobics than controls. Fear of negative evaluation was the only significant predictor of the self-other discrepancy on global items.
Article
Distinguishing between depression and anxiety has been a matter of concern and controversy for some time. Studies in normal samples have suggested, however, that assessment of two broad mood factors—Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA)—may improve their differentiation. The present study extends these findings to a clinical sample. As part of an ongoing twin study, 90 inpatient probands and 60 cotwins were interviewed with the anxiety and depression sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS; Robins, Helzer, Croughan, & Ratcliff, 1981). Respondents also completed trait NA and PA scales. Consistent with previous research, NA was broadly correlated with symptoms and diagnoses of both anxiety and depression, and acted as a general predictor of psychiatric disorder. In contrast, PA was consistently related (negatively) only to symptoms and diagnoses of depression, indicating that the loss of pleasurable engagement is a distinctive feature of depression. The results suggest that strengthening the PA component in depression measures may enhance their discriminative power.