Article

Social Anxiety Dimensions, Neuroticism, and the Contours of Positive Psychological Functioning

Article

Social Anxiety Dimensions, Neuroticism, and the Contours of Positive Psychological Functioning

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Abstract

Although decades of research have examined relationships between social anxiety and negative outcomes, this study examined relations with indices of positive psychological functioning. In college students (n = 204), a factor analysis on self-report measures of positive psychological functioning derived 3 conceptually meaningful broad domains: Positive Subjective Experiences, Curiosity, and Appetitive Motivations. Analyses were conducted to test whether social interaction anxiety demonstrated unique relationships with positive psychological domains after controlling for shared variance with social observation anxiety (e.g., eating in public, public speaking) and neuroticism. Social interaction anxiety explained unique variance in all 3 domains after separately controlling for social observation anxiety and neuroticism. In contrast, social observation anxiety demonstrated near-zero relationships with all 3 domains, and neuroticism predicted Positive Subjective Experiences, and to a lesser degree, Curiosity. These data provide evidence for the unique association between social interaction anxiety and positive psychological functioning, with implications for future basic and applied research.

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... Social phobics are overly focused on the negative outcomes which interfere with their ability to recognize and respond to the potential rewards that come from the environment. It is expected that they experience high levels of negative affect and very low level of positive affect when anticipating participation, participating or constantly thinking about participating in social situation [36]. ...
... Recent studies show that this deficit is also associated with social anxiety (e.g. 3,36,38). Socially anxious people have decreased positive affect and other positive psychological experiences (e.g., curiosity), even after controlling depressive symptoms, and have less frequent and less intense emotional response to positive social events [39]. ...
... It has been found that especially those aspects related to social interaction are related to low positive affect [8]. The significant and negative association of anxiety related to social interaction with all domains of positive psychological functioning, after controlling neuroticism, has been found [36], while anxiety and fear of being observed by others did not show significant association with these domains. ...
... Kimbrel's (2008) model of social anxiety builds upon this hypothesis by proposing that low levels of BAS sensitivity facilitate the effects of BIS-FFFS sensitivity on social anxiety such that individuals high on BIS and FFFS sensitivity and low on BAS sensitivity will experience the highest overall levels of social anxiety. While some studies have failed to find the hypothesized negative association between BAS and social anxiety (e.g., Kashdan & Roberts, 2006;Kimbrel et al., 2008;Ly & Gomez, 2014), the majority of studies have observed small, yet statistically significant, negative associations between BAS and social anxiety (e.g., Coplan et al., 2006;Kashdan, 2002;Kimbrel et al., 2010Kimbrel et al., , 2012Booth & Hasking, 2009;Levinson et al., 2011). ...
... BAS sensitivity appears to be more strongly associated with the social interaction subdimension of social anxiety (e.g., Kashdan, 2002;Kimbrel et al., 2008Kimbrel et al., , 2010Levinson et al., 2011). For example, Kimbrel et al. (2010) examined the association between BAS sensitivity and the subdimensions of social anxiety across three samples of undergraduates and found that BAS was negatively associated with social interaction anxiety in all three samples, whereas it was unrelated to social observation anxiety across samples. ...
... For example, Kimbrel et al. (2010) examined the association between BAS sensitivity and the subdimensions of social anxiety across three samples of undergraduates and found that BAS was negatively associated with social interaction anxiety in all three samples, whereas it was unrelated to social observation anxiety across samples. Notably, this finding is consistent with prior research indicating that social interaction anxiety is strongly associated with low levels of positive affect (e.g., Kashdan, 2002Kashdan, , 2007, a closely related construct (e.g., Carver & White, 1994). However, when Kimbrel and colleagues' (2010) explicitly tested whether positive affect might mediate the effect of BAS on social interaction anxiety, they found that BAS continued to predict social interaction anxiety over and above the effects of positive affect. ...
Article
Objective: The present study tested the hypothesis that low behavioral approach system (BAS) sensitivity is associated with social anxiety in combat veterans. Method: Self-report measures of reinforcement sensitivity, combat exposure, social interaction anxiety, and social observation anxiety were administered to 197 Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans. Results: As expected, combat exposure, behavioral inhibition system (BIS) sensitivity, and fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS) sensitivity were positively associated with both social interaction anxiety and social observation anxiety. In contrast, BAS sensitivity was negatively associated with social interaction anxiety only. An analysis of the BAS subscales revealed that the Reward Responsiveness subscale was the only BAS subscale associated with social interaction anxiety. BAS-Reward Responsiveness was also associated with social observation anxiety. Conclusion: The findings from the present research provide further evidence that low BAS sensitivity may be associated with social anxiety over and above the effects of BIS and FFFS sensitivity.
... Apart from this, in some studies, there was a significant negative correlation between BAS and social anxiety (e.g. Coplan et al., 2006;Kashdan, 2002), while in some other studies there was no correlation whatsoever (Kashdan & Robert, 2006;Kimbrel et al., 2008). Based on available research studies, it can be concluded that BIS is the strongest positive correlate of both modalities of social anxiety, while the activation of FFFS is primarily linked with the situations associated with fear stimuli (e.g. ...
... On the other hand, even though a significant link between the BAS and the fear of negative evaluation and social anxiety was not found in the this study, we cannot assume that BAS is not important in explaining and predicting the measures of social anxiety. In contrary to our results, previous studies confirmed a negative correlation between BAS and social anxiety (Coplan et al., 2006;Kashdan, 2002). A possible explanation of obtained results and the main limitation of this study is the sample used in this research. ...
... However, this explanation should be taken with a pinch of salt, and the findings obtained should be checked in one of the following surveys, which should include a larger and more representative survey sample. Moreover, some of the former survey results (Kashdan, 2002;Kimbrel, Mitchell, & Nelson-Gray, 2010) indicate an important role of BAS for the prediction of social anxiety in interactions, but not observational social anxiety (e.g. Kimbrel et al., 2008). ...
Article
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The main goal of this research paper is to examine the predictive power of personality traits in relation to fear of negative evaluation and social anxiety. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (rRST) postulates the existence of three major personality systems - Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS), Behavioural Activation System (BAS), and Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS). In order to assess the personality traits, the Reinforcement Sensitivity Questionnaire was used (RSQ). Fear of negative evaluation was assessed using the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale - Brief form (FNE-B), while social anxiety evaluation was obtained by Social Anxiety Scale (SA2). The sample consisted of 222 psychology students engaged in 1st and 2nd year of studies at the University of Niš and the University of Novi Sad. In order to respond to the research questions, two separate multiple regression analyses were performed. In both analyses, personality traits were the predictors, while the differences were linked to the criteria variables - Model1 - fear of negative evaluation, and Model2 - social anxiety. Both models were statistically significant. According to the results, Fear of negative evaluation model explains a total of 41% of the criteria variance, while Social anxiety model explains 46% of the criteria variance. In both models, BIS stands out as the statistically significant and the best predictor. When comparing the results of both models, the differences relate to the second significant predictor. Namely, Fight response stands out in the first model, while Freeze response stands out in the second one. The obtained findings are discussed and interpreted in the context of rRST.
... Social interaction anxiety is characterized as fear and avoidance in interpersonal exchanges (e.g., initiating and maintaining a conversation, meeting with others, etc.) On the other hand, performance anxiety refers to fear and avoidance of doing activities in front of other people (e.g., public speaking, writing, playing a musical instrument, etc.) (Mattick & Clarke, 1998). Studies have shown that social interaction anxiety is more closely associated with anhedonia, which is a specific marker of depression, whereas performance anxiety is more relevant to the symptoms of anxious physiological arousal (Clark & Watson, 1991;Hughes et al., 2006;Kashdan, 2002Kashdan, , 2004. ...
... While we focused on social interaction anxiety, social anxiety can also manifest in performance settings (performance anxiety). Although previous findings demonstrate that social interaction anxiety has a greater relevance to depression than performance anxiety does (Hughes et al., 2006;Kashdan, 2002Kashdan, , 2004, the effects of performance anxiety on depressive symptoms have not been tested with respect to gender differences, and therefore, it is still unknown whether similar relationships hold with specific subtypes of social anxiety. This can be assessed in future studies by administering questionnaires that cover broader domains of social anxiety (e.g., The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS; Safren et al., 1999), The Social Phobia Diagnostic Questionnaire (SPDQ; Newman et al., 2003)) or focus on a specific component of social anxiety symptoms (e.g., the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; Mattick & Clarke, 1998), Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE; Leary, 1983)). ...
Article
Full-text available
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly comorbid with each other, and comorbidity exacerbates distress and impairment. The prevalence of comorbid depression is higher in women with SAD than in men with SAD, but this is based on global depression scores and cannot speak to heterogeneous individual depression symptoms. The current study bridges this gap by examining gender differences in the relationship between social interaction anxiety and individual depression symptoms. 165 community adults (113 women, 52 men) were included in a series of bootstrapped moderation analyses to examine the main and interaction effects of social interaction anxiety and gender on total depression and individual depressive symptom scores while controlling for age and racial/ethnic background. Social interaction anxiety positively predicted total and individual depression scores. Greater social interaction anxiety predicted greater self-dislike and worthlessness in men than in women. Our findings replicate the finding that social anxiety and depression are highly comorbid with respect to total scores and extend this finding to individual symptoms. Our findings also demonstrate that the relationship between social interaction anxiety and depressive symptoms can be modulated by gender identities. Men with social interaction anxiety may be more prone to distress associated with self/identity. These findings elucidate the specific ways in which social interaction anxiety relates to the constellation of depression symptoms in men and women and highlights the need for more tailored assessment and intervention for socially anxious men and women to target individual dimensions of symptom presentations.
... Participants' subjective ratings of the threat value of the presented stimuli were collected after picture offset. Participants' trait anxiety levels were assessed via self-report to control for emotional reactivity (Kashdan, 2002), and we controlled for the use of expressive suppression to ensure that the results would not be due to individual differences in regulating emotion via a different regulation strategy. We expected to observe a decreased amplitude of the LPP in response to threatening pictures in participants who more frequently used cognitive reappraisal in their daily lives. ...
... While we did not explicitly control for emotional reactivity, we instead measured trait anxiety (using the STAI trait version), which is known to be a proxy for emotional reactivity (Kashdan, 2002), with high positive correlations (r = $.70) between the STAI trait version and different measures of emotional reactivity (e.g., Fox, Cahill, & Zougkou, 2010;Marshall, Wortman, Vickers, Kusulas, & Hervig, 1994). While the STAI measures general anxiety levels, more specific anxiety measures could be used in future studies, such as those measuring social anxiety, as different types of anxiety are known to influence different ERP components (e.g., Rossignol, Philippot, Bissot, Rigoulot, & Campanella, 2012). ...
Article
In contrast to our knowledge about instructed emotion regulation, rather little is known about the effects of habitual (or "spontaneous") emotion regulation on neural processing. We analyzed the relationship between everyday use of cognitive reappraisal (measured by the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, ERQ-R), and the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP), which is sensitive to down-regulation of negative emotions via reappraisal. Participants viewed a series of neutral and threatening images, and rated them for level of threat. We found increased LPP amplitude for threatening compared to neutral pictures between 500 and 1,500 ms. Crucially, we found smaller LPP amplitudes to threatening versus neutral pictures for participants who used reappraisal more often in everyday life. This relationship between LPP amplitude and the ERQ-R was observed in the 1,000-1,500 ms interval of the LPP, over right centro-parietal electrodes. The current findings indicate that habitual tendency to use reappraisal is associated with reduced amplitude of the LPP in response to threatening pictures, in the absence of any explicit instruction to regulate emotions.
... Social interaction anxiety is characterized as fear and avoidance in interpersonal exchanges (e.g., initiating and maintaining a conversation, meeting with others, etc.) On the other hand, performance anxiety refers to fear and avoidance of doing activities in front of other people (e.g., public speaking, writing, playing a musical instrument, etc.) (Mattick & Clarke, 1998). Studies have shown that social interaction anxiety is more closely associated with anhedonia, which is a specific marker of depression, whereas performance anxiety is more relevant to the symptoms of anxious physiological arousal (Clark & Watson, 1991;Hughes et al., 2006;Kashdan, 2002Kashdan, , 2004. ...
... While we focused on social interaction anxiety, social anxiety can also manifest in performance settings (performance anxiety). Although previous findings demonstrate that social interaction anxiety has a greater relevance to depression than performance anxiety does (Hughes et al., 2006;Kashdan, 2002Kashdan, , 2004, the effects of performance anxiety on depressive symptoms have not been tested with respect to gender differences, and therefore, it is still unknown whether similar relationships hold with specific subtypes of social anxiety. This can be assessed in future studies by administering questionnaires that cover broader domains of social anxiety (e.g., The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS; Safren et al., 1999), The Social Phobia Diagnostic Questionnaire (SPDQ; Newman et al., 2003)) or focus on a specific component of social anxiety symptoms (e.g., the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; Mattick & Clarke, 1998), Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE; Leary, 1983)). ...
Preprint
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly comorbid with each other, and comorbidity exacerbates distress and impairment. The prevalence of comorbid depression is higher in women with SAD than in men with SAD, but this is based on global depression scores and cannot speak to heterogeneous individual depression symptoms. The current study bridges this gap by examining gender differences in the relationship between social interaction anxiety and individual depression symptoms. 165 community adults (113 women, 52 men) were included in a series of bootstrapped moderation analyses to examine the main and interaction effects of social interaction anxiety and gender on total depression and individual depressive symptom scores while controlling for age and ethnic background. Social interaction anxiety positively predicted total and individual depression scores. Greater social interaction anxiety predicted greater self-dislike and worthlessness in men than in women. Our findings replicate the finding that social anxiety and depression are highly comorbid with respect to total scores and extend this finding to individual symptoms. Our findings also demonstrate that the relationship between social interaction anxiety and depressive symptoms can be modulated by gender identities. Men with social interaction anxiety may be more prone to distress associated with self/identity. These findings elucidate the specific ways in which social interaction anxiety relates to the constellation of depression symptoms in men and women and highlights the need for more tailored assessment and intervention for socially anxious men and women to target individual dimensions of symptom presentations.
... Social anxiety can be defined as "the fear and avoidance of situations in which the person will socialize or be assessed" (Leary, 1983 ; Cited by: Kashdan, 2002). Discomfort and tension of socially anxious individuals can decrease in social networks, simply because they do not have to interact people face to face. ...
... Posljednjih su se nekoliko desetljeća istraživanja usmjeravala na negativna iskustva i događaje te probleme u funkcioniranju prouzročene socijalnom anksioznošću i povezane s njome (Kashdan, 2007b;Kashdan i Steger, 2006). Kashdan (2007b) je dokazao da je povezanost socijalne anksioznosti i pozitivnog afekta stabilna i negativna, čak i uz kontrolu depresivnih simptoma i depresivnog poremećaja (vidjeti još Kashdan, 2002;Kashdan, 2004). U skladu s time, Kashdan i Steger (2006) navode kako unutar svoga prirodnoga socijalnog okruženja socijalno anksiozne osobe izvještavaju o manje svakodnevnih pozitivnih emocija i pozitivnih događaja od neanksioznih. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social anxiety often leads to various interpersonal problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of the need to hide the true self from others and of experiencing positive emotions in explaining the friendship quality of socially anxious students. The study was conducted with 630 students from three Croatian universities. The participants filled out the following questionnaires: General data questionnaire, Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, The Core Extrusion Schema Measure and Friendship Quality Questionnaire. The results of hierarchical regression analysis, after controlling for gender and both types of social fears, indicate that the specific significant predictors of students' friendship quality are the need to hide the true self and the frequency of experiencing positive emotions. Gender is the consistent significant predictor, but does not moderate the relationship between social anxiety and friendship quality. The obtained results are useful in theoretical understanding of self-disclosure and the development of close relationships, and have practical implications that can be useful in therapy for socially anxious people who tend to use the strategy of hiding the true self.
... The former term denotes a relatively stable personality disposition to experience particular emotional states in a long time perspective, while the latter -an emotional response of possibly varying intensity to new and ambiguous stimuli. A similar approach is represented by Kashdan (2002), who defines trait curiosity as a general tendency towards the recognition, pursuit, and integration of novel and challenging information and experiences. Likewise, exploring curiosity in the context of motivational mechanisms Łukaszewski and Doliński (2000) in their analysis distinguish two perspectives: situational and dispositional. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study is a continuation of the work of Professor Kazimierz Wrześniewski. It concerns the role of curiositytrait in the dynamics of changes in coping and quality of life after a heart attack. The study was attended by 222 people after a heart attack (73% men), of whom 140 participated in the three stages of the study: at the beginning and at the end of cardiac rehabilitation and a year after leaving the resort. The participants aged 24-64 years (M = 54.19; SD = 6.51). Curiosity-trait was measured by Spielberger and Wrześniewski’s STPI questionnaire. To assess coping strategies a modified version of the COPE by Carver et al., was used. The specific and general quality of life were measured by the Polish adaptations of MacNew and NHP questionnaires. The level of curiosity-trait significantly differentiated changes in the dynamics of positive reinterpretation, problem solving and resignation, but did not affect the change in quality of life within the year after a heart attack.
... The most obvious behavioral symptom of social anxiety is the avoidance of social environments (Kashdan, 2002). When being rejected, individuals with high social anxiety are inclined to avoid more of the new social interactions that can be a source of positive experiences (Hirsch and Mathews, 2000). ...
... There is evidence that diminished positive emotions and curiosity relate primarily to generalized social interaction fears, whereas small to near-zero relationships exist with social performance and observation fears (Hughes et al., 2006;Kashdan, 2002). Furthermore, compared to people with generalized SAD, those with the non-generalized (e.g., primarily public speaking) SAD subtype are less likely to be classified with severe impairment in quality of life (Safren, Heimberg, Brown, & Holle, 1996;Stein & Kean, 2000). ...
Chapter
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The primary purpose of this chapter is to review neglected, under-appreciated elements of positivity that are relevant to the phenomenology and treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD), and distinguish SAD from other emotional disorders. We present theory and research on infrequent positive events, attenuated positive experiences, impaired attention to positive stimuli, atypical reactions to overtly positive social situations, and a meaningful subset of individuals who show signs of impulsive, short-lived positive events. Methodological advances are introduced along with new avenues for enhancing positive experiences, positive events, and a sense of meaning and purpose in life in individuals with social anxiety difficulties. Taken together, this chapter broadens theory, research, and treatment efforts to encapsulate the positive spectrum of human functioning.
... Cette force est à la base des processus de motivation puisqu'elle incite à explorer, apprendre. Elle peut être source de créativité et être favorisée par la confiance en soi (Deci & Ryan, 2000) et inhibée par la peur et l'anxiété (Kashdan, 2002) mais peut avoir des effets négatifs lorsqu'il s'agit, par exemple, de consommer des substances illégales ou d'avoir des comportements à risques au niveau sexuel. ...
Thesis
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L’EMDR est une thérapie intégrative créée en 1987 par Shapiro évaluée comme efficace et rapide sur les états de stress post traumatiques. En 1995, elle améliore pour arriver à ce qu’elle appelle le Traitement Adaptatif de l’Information – TAI - (« Adaptative Informational Process : AIP »), révisé en 2001 et 2006. Cette théorie postule qu’il existe au plan cérébral un système de traitement des informations capable d’intégrer les nouvelles expériences à des réseaux de mémoire existants. Depuis d’autres pathologies ont été traitées avec l’EMDR. D’autre part, en 1998, Seligman donne naissance à la psychologie positive. Au lieu de considérer la «santé mentale » comme la « réduction des troubles neuropsychiatriques », il propose non plus d’aider les gens à passer de - 5 à 0 sur l’échelle de bonheur, mais de permettre à chacun de passer de 0 à + 5 sur un continuum de bonheur. Allier ces deux perspectives pose un certain nombre d’interrogations mais ouvre également des perspectives enthousiasmantes. Trois études ont porté sur les forces de caractères avec un échantillon de 60 sujets, pour la première, 100 sujets pour la seconde et une étude de cas avec pour objectif d’évaluer l’optimisation de l’intégration des forces avec des éléments provenant de l’EMDR. Les deux études suivantes ont porté sur la création d’un protocole EMDR d’optimisme et l’étude de ses possibilités. Nos conclusions sont que, plus que jamais, une théorisation rigoureuse est nécessaire (et elle est déjà à l’œuvre dans le cadre de la psychologie positive) et la validation scientifique des assertions est déterminante pour l’efficacité des interventions alliant psychologie positive et EMD
... Instead, fear leads to avoidance of situations or focus on their own internal physiological reactions to anxiety ) Spector, Pecknold, & Libman, 2003(. Consequently, they can appear to others as disinterested in social relations, as they avoid meeting with new people, making conversations and attending social activities, as well public speaking and functioning ) Kashdan, 2002(. Calhoun and Tedeschi (1999) show that individuals that survive trauma experience The Relationship between Exposure to Trauma and Child Social Phobia emotional distress that can manifest itself through worry and fear, shame and apprehension, guilt and terror, depression and anxiety, anger and irritability. ...
... Bostic, Rubio and Hood (2000) believe that vitality is an internal state of experiencing full energy. Vitality has a close relationship with the individual's mental health (Reinhoudt, 2004;Kashdan, 2002). Positive experiences promote vitality and retrieve human's lost powers (Muraven, Gagne & Rosman, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Stress is one of the most important social factors which are effective in disturbing psychological balance. Regarding the length of time the people spend in working environment, this issue is of high importance in the field of employees. One the other hand, during past decades, there has been much attention paid to psychological features and positive psychological processes in positive organizational research in the studies; specifically, it is well known that these constructs are effective in the human's welfare, optimism, vitality, and self-mastery are some cases in point. The effectiveness of the above-mentioned variables on the stress has been investigated in the present study. The study sample includes 110 employees working at Isfahan industrial companies. The sample has been selected using stratified random sampling method appropriate for the sample size. The study instruments include Eliot Job Stress Questionnaire, Scheier and Carver optimism questionnaire, Nix, Ryan, Manly & Deci vitality questionnaire and Pearlin and Schoolers Self-mastery. The data analysis method adopted was step-wise regression. In regression analysis, first, optimism, second, vitality, then self-mastery were recognized as perceived stress predictors. The relationships between positive variables and stress have been reported to be opposite. Based on the results analyzed, the three above-mentioned variables had the capability to explain 36% of stress variance. The results of the study imply that working on positive variables to make them act effectively on decreasing stress is of high value in the organizations.
... Generalized SAD refers to fearing most social situations involving direct interactions with others, whereas nongeneralized SAD refers to the fear of circumscribed social situations such as public speaking or being observed by others while writing or eating (APA, 2000). There is evidence that diminished positive emotions and curiosity relate primarily to generalized social interaction fears, whereas small to near-zero relationships exist with social performance and observation fears (Hughes et al., 2006;Kashdan, 2002). Accordingly, people in the community with generalized SAD had a seven times greater likelihood of being classified with severely diminished quality of life (on indicators such as energy and satisfaction with relationships) (Stein & Kean, 2000), but this failed to hold for people with only performance fears or trait anxiety (Safren, Heimberg, Brown, & Holle, 1997). ...
Article
When there is an opportunity to engage in an activity that can generate positive experiences, people with emotional disturbances might be expected to be less successful than other people. Despite the appeal of this formulation, there is reason to believe that attenuated positive experiences are only relevant to a selective number of disturbances. This chapter discusses recent advances in the phenomenology of social anxiety. This includes data showing that social anxiety is associated with low intensity, short-lived positive experiences, infrequent positive events, and distinct cognitive biases that restrict the quality of life. For decades, psychologists have advocated a single, bipolar continuum with positive emotions and approach behavior at one endpoint, and negative emotions and avoidance behavior as the other endpoint. However, recent research in personality, motivation, and social neuroscience suggests that there are two separate biobehavioral systems that reflect very different purposes. Specifically, on the one hand, there is an avoidance system whose purpose is to prevent people from being exposed to danger. To meet this aim, behavior that might lead to pain, punishment, or other undesirable outcomes is inhibited. On the other hand, independent from the avoidance system, there is an approach system whose purpose is to guide people toward situations that might offer rewards. To meet this aim, attention and energy are mobilized to pursue activities that can generate resources such as food, the cooperation of others, sexual partners, and knowledge that provides an evolutionary advantage for survival and reproduction.
... In prior research examining personality factors that influence risk behavior, Capra et al. (2013) found lower gambling propensity (i.e., lower δ) among individuals high in neuroticism and inhibition. Given the relevance of these personality traits to anxiety disorders broadly and SAD in particular (Kashdan, 2002), our finding that SA instead predicted greater risk optimism may reflect the unique role of SA-related risk behaviors in the context of affective symptoms. Conversely, our results did not support the notion that individuals with higher levels of SA might exhibit poorer discrimination of potential reward values. ...
Article
Background and objectives: Although approaches combining behavioral genetics and neuroeconomics have advanced models of addiction, no study has synthesized these methods to elucidate mechanisms of competing risk-approachand risk-avoidance in social anxiety (SA). Grounded in dual-mode models of serotonergic systems and self-regulation, this study investigated associations between SA, serotonin transporter 5-HTT (LPR; rs25531) and receptor 5-HT1A genes, and risk-taking on behavioral and self-report measures. Design and methods: Young adults (N = 309) completed a neuroeconomic task measuring gambling attractiveness (δ), reward probability discrimination (γ), and risk attitudes (α). Risk genotypes included 5-HTT (LPR; rs25531) low-expression variants (SS/SLG/LGLG), and 5-HT1A (rs6295) GG. Results: Path analysis revealed that SA related to increased gambling attractiveness, but only for 5-HT1A risk groups. Although the 5-HTT (LPR; rs25531) risk genotypes and self-reported SA predicted lower social risk-taking, high-SA individuals who exhibited more accurate reward probability discrimination (γ) reported taking increased social risks. Conclusion: In line with dual-mode models, results suggest that SA predicts behavioral risk-approach at the basic decision-making level, along with self-reported social risk-avoidance, modulated by serotonergic genotypes. High-SA individuals with more accurate assessments of reward probabilities may engage in greater social risk-taking, perhaps reflecting an adaptive tendency to approach feared situations.
... For example, Beetlestone (1998) assumed that learners try to find their own innate drive which leads them to deliver their curiosity toward an effective way of satisfaction. On the other hand, Kashdan (2002) considered curiosity as a self-regulatory mechanism that facilitates intrinsic goal effort, perseverance, personal growth, and creativity under right conditions. Curiosity is the human evolutionary drive to adapt and survive. ...
Conference Paper
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The personality approach is a vital method of studying and enhancing creative potential. In response, present paper identifies instructional strategies that may be used by teachers to enhance intrinsic motivation and curiosity for developing creative thinking. The proposed strategies have been coined from the nature of the intrinsic motivation and curiosity, and their relationship with creative thinking abilities. I review theories, models and latest researches that tried to relate these two traits with creativity. However, the challenge of how could we enhance these two personality traits among students through the learning process is still vigorous. These specified strategies may practically participate in solving this problem.
... (a) potenciarla, como adquirir conocimientos específicos (Loewenstein et al., 1992); o (b) disminuirla, como las creencias dogmáticas ) o la ansiedad de interacción social, la cual se ejemplifica con el temor a conocer nueva gente o iniciar conversaciones (Kashdan, 2002). ...
Thesis
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Good character is a principal area in Positive Psychology. The current thesis assesses character strengths with mixed method: quantitative though factor analysis and qualitative using content analysis. Main purpose is evaluate and analyze the character strengths factors in participants from Ecuador, Peru and Paraguay to identify whether international findings are replicated; and verify replication in each country independently. A non probabilistic intentional sample was used: 854 university students (273 Ecuadorians, 277 Peruvians and 304 Paraguayan). Participants completed Inventario de Virtudes y Fortalezas del Carácter IVyF (Cosentino & Castro Solano, 2012) and Protocolo de Cualidades Positivas (Castro Solano & Cosentino, 2013). Main results show three character strengths factors: moderation, progress and fraternity. Secondly, this three factor model is the most parsimonious and replicable despite some differences. Finally, dimensional structure has intercultural differences because each countries have specific relations. Main conclusion show three factors of character strengths and intercultural differences in dimensional structure of each country. Data has limitations: used sample could not be an average citizen of each culture and countries were considered as national culture. Future studies should research intracultural differences in character strengths, identify causes of intercultural differences in each population and analyze character strengths in others Latin-American countries.
... Sheffield Hallam University, Collegiate Crescent, Broomhall, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, S10 2BP, UK. E-mail: andy.r.du.rocher@gmail.com or ad7910@exchange.shu.ac.uk interaction anxiety (fearfulness and avoidance concerning social situations requiring interpersonal communication with other people) and social observation anxiety (fearfulness and avoidance concerning social situations involving observation or scrutiny from other people; Habke, Hewitt, Norton, & Asmundson, 1997;Hughes et al., 2006;Kashdan, 2002). Many studies assess trait social anxiety using the social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS) and social phobia scale (SPS; Mattick & Clarke, 1998). ...
Article
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Social anxiety is related to normal variation in personality and manifests as anxiety concerning interactions with others (social interaction anxiety), and/or as a fear of social scrutiny whilst performing tasks when under observation from others (social phobia). In revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (rRST) a behavioral inhibition system (BIS) facilitates defensive approach behaviors and anxiety in situations of uncertainty. A fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS) facilitates fear and avoidance behaviors, and a behavioral approach system (BAS) facilitates anticipated reward and/or approach-based behaviors. rRST suggests that a socially anxious phenotype would experience elevated BIS sensitivity, elevated FFFS sensitivity, and dampened BAS sensitivity. We used self-report measures to test if the effects of social interaction anxiety and social phobia (which reflects the fear of social scrutiny) are separable within rRST, as in rRST anxiety and fear are separate constructs. Low levels of self-esteem are a risk factor for social anxiety, thus we tested how two sub-components of self-esteem referred to as self-acceptance and self-assessment predict social interaction anxiety and social phobia. 405 participants (mean age = 30.6; 86% female) completed the online study. Social interaction anxiety and social phobia were positively correlated with BIS and FFFS-flight sensitivity, and were negatively correlated with BAS, and FFFS-fight sensitivity in males and females. Social interaction anxiety and social phobia were negatively correlated with self-acceptance in males and females. Multiple regression showed that for females BIS and FFFS-flight scores were prominent positive predictors of social interaction anxiety whereas BIS was a prominent positive predictor of social phobia. For males the FFFS-fight subscale was a prominent negative predictor of social interaction anxiety. Overall, a synthesis of the present study and previous studies suggests that there may be subtle differences in how trait social interaction anxiety and trait social phobia relate to reinforcement sensitivity.
... Each of the anxiety disorders, SAD, GAD and PD, is associated with certain personality traits. SAD has been positively correlated with perfectionism and neuroticism (Flett, Hewitt, & Dyck, 1989;Kashdan, 2002). GAD has been positively correlated with harm avoidance (a behavioral pattern of avoiding punishing stimuli) and neuroticism (Sharma, 2003;Starcevic, Uhlenhuth, Fallon, & Pathak, 1996). ...
Article
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Background Personality has been implicated in the development and continuation of mental disorders. One major advance in the personality field came with the reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST). The study of personality can help explicate the pathology of anxiety disorders. To this end, the present study compared the profile of the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (r-RST) of personality in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety dis-order (SAD), and panic disorder (PD). Participants and procedure Seventy-eight GAD patients, 76 SAD patients, 72 PD patients, and 85 healthy individuals participated in the present study. All participants were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I), Beck Depression Inventory, Jackson-5 Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, and Social Phobia Inventory. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Research Deputy of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. Participants were given information about the study and provided informed consent in writing. Results Data were analyzed by chi-square, independent t-test, analysis of variance, and multivariate analysis of vari-ance. All patients were higher on Flight than the control group. Also, all patients and healthy controls differed in the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory. Conclusions The more nuanced knowledge from the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory may be helpful in the diagno-sis, etiology, and psychotherapy of anxiety disorders.
... This has been suggested as a source of individual differences in personality traits Knyazev, Schutter, & van Honk, 2006;. For example, Miskovic et al. (2010) found that slow-and fast-wave coupling in the resting state related to social anxiety (which relates to neuroticism; Kashdan, 2002). Future researchers could use similar methods to explore the present data, perhaps specifically focusing on neuroticism. ...
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Can personality be predicted from oscillatory patterns produced by the brain at rest? To date, relatively few electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have yielded consistent relations between personality trait measures and spectral power, suggesting that new exploratory research may help develop targeted hypotheses about how neural processes associated with EEG activity may relate to personality differences. We used multivariate pattern analysis to decode personality scores (i.e., Big Five traits) from resting EEG frequency power spectra. Up to 8 minutes of EEG data was recorded per participant prior to completing an unrelated task (N = 168, Mage = 23.51, 57% female) and, in a subset of participants, after task completion (N = 96, Mage = 23.22, 52% female), measuring the resting state with open and closed eyes. Linear support vector regression with 10-fold cross validation was performed using the power from 62 scalp electrodes within 1 Hz frequency bins from 1-30 Hz. One Big Five trait, agreeableness, could be decoded from EEG power ranging from 8-19 Hz, and this was consistent across all four recording periods. Neuroticism was decodable using data within the 3-6 Hz range, albeit less consistently. Posterior alpha power negatively correlated with agreeableness, whereas parietal beta power positively correlated with agreeableness. We suggest methods to draw from our results and develop targeted future hypotheses, such as linking to individual alpha frequency and incorporating self-reported emotional states. Our open dataset can be harnessed to reproduce results or investigate new research questions concerning the biological basis of personality.
... In a recent study, Samson and colleagues (2010) found that gelotophobia was negatively related with the perseverance and passion for long-term goals ( grit), gratitude, and different indicators of subjective well-being. Kashdan (2002) explored positive psychological factors in social interaction and social observation anxiety. Results revealed a complex pattern between the social anxiety dimension and positive concepts like curiosity. ...
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The fear of being laughed at (gelotophobia) was examined in its relations to concepts from positive psychology in Austria, China, and Switzerland. It was related to satisfaction with life and Peterson et al.’s (2005) three orientations to happiness; the life of pleasure (hedonism), life of engagement (related to flow-experiences), and life of meaning (eudaimonia). Participants (N = 744) completed self-report measures of gelotophobia, satisfaction with life, and orientations to happiness. The results revealed that gelotophobia could be found in all three countries. The participants exceeded cut-off points indicating gelotophobia in Austria (5.80%), China (7.31%), and Switzerland (7.23%). The fear of being laughed at was negatively related to life-satisfaction in all three countries. Gelotophobes described themselves with lower overall estimations of their lives. Gelotophobia was negatively correlated with life engagement (i.e., flow experiences). In China, gelotophobia was also related to a lower life of pleasure and life of meaning. Overall, the results show that gelotophobes do not pursue any of the three orientations to happiness. Interventions from positive psychology (e.g., enhancing satisfaction with life, strengthening the routes to happiness) are discussed as possible treatments of gelotophobia.
... Their correlation analyses indicated that cognitive and emotional hope have a relatively strong positive relationship with subjective well-being. There is also strong evidence in the rehabilitation literature to support the positive relationship between hope and life satisfaction among people with chronic illnesses and disabilities (Blake et al., 2018;Chan et al., 2013;Kashdan et al., 2002;Smedema et al., 2013Smedema et al., , 2014. A study investigated the effects of hope on individuals with PPS in comparison with healthy controls (Shiri et al., 2012). ...
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The purpose of the study was to examine whether disability acceptance, hope, and resilience mediate the relationship between functional disability and life satisfaction in people with a lived experience of an infectious viral disease (i.e., polio and postpolio syndrome [PPS]). Participants consisted of 157 individuals diagnosed with polio or PPS who were recruited from two community support organizations in Taiwan. Participants completed self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed with a simultaneous regression analysis. The tri-mediation model indicated that disability acceptance, hope, and resilience were associated with life satisfaction, accounting for a large effect size of 46% of the variance in the life satisfaction scores. The direct effect of functional disability on life satisfaction became insignificant when the mediators were controlled for in the model. Hope, disability acceptance, and resilience were found to fully explain the association between functional disability and life satisfaction. This study demonstrated that positive psychosocial factors might help to buffer the indirect and direct negative effects of functional disability on life satisfaction. Implications of these findings for future research and clinical practice when supporting individuals with a lived experience of an infectious viral disease, including COVID-19, are discussed.
... Bununla birlikte yalnızken ya da herhangi bir tehdit algılamadığında kendileri hakkındaki daha olumlu değerlendirme yapma eğilimindedirler (Eren-Gümüş, 2006). Sosyal kaygının en belirgin davranışsal belirtisi sosyal ortamlardan "kaçınmak"tır (Kashdan, 2002). Bu durumun tam tersi olarak sosyal kaygısı yüksek bireyler reddedildiklerinde olumlu yaşantıların bir kaynağı olabilecek yeni sosyal etkileşimlerden daha fazla kaçınma eğilimindedirler (Hirsch ve Mathews, 2000). ...
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The purpose of the present study is to find out whether there is a significant correlation between university students' social anxiety and their coping with stress styles, and whether coping with stress styles predict social anxiety at a significant level. The findings of the study show that there are significant negative correlations between self confident and optimistic approaches to coping with stress and social anxiety and its sub-scales of social avoidance/shyness, low self appraisal and expectancy of criticism by others and that there are positive correlations between social anxiety and following helpless, submissive approaches and receiving social support. It has also been observed that different styles of coping with stress explain social avoidance, expectancy of criticism by others and lack of self-value subscales of social anxiety.
... Another study found that people who suffer from social anxiety express significant deficiency in either the social, academic or professional sphere (Schneier et al., 1994). Social anxiety is also negatively related to quality of life (McShane, Walter, & Rey, 2004), and mental health (Kashdan, 2002). A study that examined 961 students in Spain found that adolescents, who suffered from low self-esteem and evaluated themselves as failing, had a higher average on the variables of depression-anxiety, criminal behavior, violent behavior, attention disorders, and communication problems with others than those who evaluated themselves as successful (Zubeidat, Fernández-Parra, Sierra, Vallejo, & Ortega, 2009). ...
... It arises when people want to make a particular impression on others but doubt they will do so (Schlenker and Leary, 1982). Research shows that individuals with high social interaction anxiety avoid meeting (Mattick and Clarke, 1998), interacting with, or expressing themselves around others (Kashdan, 2004) and initiating or maintaining conversations (Kashdan, 2002). They also minimize their chances of making undesired impressions on others to reduce anxiety (Caplan, 2007). ...
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Purpose This paper aims to explore the physical attractiveness stereotype in service encounters. Specifically, this paper examines how physical attractiveness affects a customer’s response and whether a customer’s social interaction anxiety and the consumption situation moderate this relationship. Design/methodology/approach Three experiments were used to test hypotheses. Participants were subject to scenarios of varying levels of physical attractiveness (more vs less), social interaction anxiety (high vs low) and consumption situation (private vs public). Customer participation intention and citizenship behavior were measured along scales. Findings The results indicate that the physical attractiveness of service providers positively affects customer citizenship behavior, and customer participation intention mediates this relationship. However, the effect only exists for a customer with low social interaction anxiety or presents itself under public consumption conditions. Research limitations/implications This work paints a more nuanced picture of missing links in the understanding of the influence of service providers’ physical attractiveness. It enriches the physical attractiveness stereotype literature by identifying the mediating role of customer participation intention while bounding the relationship within conditions related to a customer’s social interaction anxiety and the service consumption situation. Practical implications Management may alter the performance of service employees by considering the employee’s physical attractiveness and gauging customer social interaction anxiety while keeping in mind the consumption situation. Originality/value This study advances physical attractiveness stereotype research by examining its effect on customer participation intention and citizenship behavior in the service industry. Additionally, this study adds customer social interaction anxiety and consumption situation to the existing literature that addresses employee factors affecting customer behavior.
... Furthermore, gelotophobes also report higher scores in neuroticism than individuals with no fear (see Ruch et al., 2014, for a review). Kashdan (2002) showed that individuals high in neuroticism are more socially anxious and hypothesized that they would express their emotions less often to avoid unwelcome attention of others. For gelotophobes, this may be specific to avoiding the laughter of others. ...
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In a paradigm facilitating smile misattribution, facial responses and ratings to contempt and joy were investigated in individuals with or without gelotophobia (fear of being laughed at). Participants from two independent samples (N1 = 83, N2 = 50) rated the intensity of eight emotions in 16 photos depicting joy, contempt, and different smiles. Facial responses were coded by the Facial Action Coding System in the second study. Compared with non-fearful individuals, gelotophobes rated joy smiles as less joyful and more contemptuous. Moreover, gelotophobes showed less facial joy and more contempt markers. The contempt ratings were comparable between the two groups. Looking at the photos of smiles lifted the positive mood of non-gelotophobes, whereas gelotophobes did not experience an increase. We hypothesize that the interpretation bias of “joyful faces hiding evil minds” (i.e., being also contemptuous) and exhibiting less joy facially may complicate social interactions for gelotophobes and serve as a maintaining factor of gelotophobia.
... The present research seeks to extend prior studies that have tested the direct relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and social anxiety (Glinski & Page, 2010;Hewitt et al., 1998;Kashdan, 2002) exploring courage as a possible mediator. Psychological courage is defined as the cognitive process of defining risk, recognizing and detecting substitute behaviour, and preferring to act in spite of probable negative outcomes in an effort to acquire 'good' outcomes for oneself or others (O'Connor et al., 1985). ...
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Social anxiety is one of the most prevalent and chronic mental-health conditions in young adults. To date, no studies have been conducted about the relationships between the Big Five personality dimensions, courage, and social anxiety among Malaysian undergraduate students. Therefore, this study was designed to examine courage as a potential mediator of the association between the Big Five personality dimensions and social anxiety among Malaysian Undergraduates. In this study, 500 Malaysian undergraduate students (205 males and 295 females) completed a series of questionnaires. Structural equation modelling (AMOS-SEM) revealed that, of the Big Five, neuroticism and social anxiety were positively correlated. Extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and agreeableness, as well as courage, were negatively correlated with social anxiety. Courage mediated the relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and social anxiety. The main contribution of the present research is to show how the Big Five personality dimensions may contribute to social anxiety. The findings of this study also could be implicated for counselling practice for undergraduate students in Malaysia as a collectivist setting and other collectivist settings around the world.
... Given the instructions in the affect sharing task that were used in the studies reviewed (i.e., assessing how you as a perceiver feel when watching a target recount an autobiographical story), it is likely that difficulty identifying emotions may impact performance on this task. Similarly, depression is highly comorbid with SA (Kessler et al., 2005) and shares an affective profile with SA of high negative and low positive affect (Kashdan, 2002), highlighting the importance of controlling for one when examining the other. As with studies that examined gender moderation, future work is needed to replicate the few findings of SA with affect sharing with a particular emphasis on these variables. ...
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Previous research has shown a weak association between self-reported empathy and performance on behavioral assessments of social cognition. However, previous studies have often overlooked important distinctions within these multifaceted constructs (e.g., differences among the subcomponents of self-reported empathy, distinctions in tasks assessing lower- vs. high-level social cognition, and potential covariates that represent competing predictors). Using data from three separate studies (total N = 2,376), we tested whether the tendency to take the perspective of others (i.e., perspective-taking), and the tendency to catch the emotions of others (i.e., emotional contagion for positive and negative emotions), were associated with performance on tasks assessing lower- to higher-level social-cognitive ability (i.e., emotion recognition, theory of mind, and empathic accuracy) and affect sharing. Results showed little evidence of an association between any of the self-reported empathy measures and either social-cognitive ability or affect sharing. Using several large samples, our findings add additional evidence to previous work showing that self-report measures of empathy are not valid proxies of behaviorally assessed social cognition. Moreover, we find that the ease with which individuals recognize and understand their own emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is more related to social-cognitive abilities and affect sharing, than their tendency to take the perspective of others, or to vicariously experience the emotions of others. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Given the instructions in the affect sharing task that were used in the studies reviewed (i.e., assessing how you as a perceiver feel when watching a target recount an autobiographical story), it is likely that difficulty identifying emotions may impact performance on this task. Similarly, depression is highly comorbid with SA (Kessler et al., 2005) and shares an affective profile with SA of high negative and low positive affect (Kashdan, 2002), highlighting the importance of controlling for one when examining the other. As with studies that examined gender moderation, future work is needed to replicate the few findings of SA with affect sharing with a particular emphasis on these variables. ...
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Background Social anxiety is highly prevalent and has increased in young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Since social anxiety negatively impacts interpersonal functioning, identifying aspects of social cognition that may be impaired can increase our understanding of the development and maintenance of social anxiety disorder. However, to date, studies examining associations between social anxiety and social cognition have resulted in mixed findings. Methods The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the literature on the association between social anxiety and social cognition, while also considering several potential moderators and covariates that may influence findings. Results A systematic search identified 48 studies. Results showed mixed evidence for the association between social anxiety and lower-level social cognitive processes (emotion recognition and affect sharing) and a trend for a negative association with higher-level social cognitive processes (theory of mind and empathic accuracy). Most studies examining valence-specific effects found a significant negative association for positive and neutral stimuli. Limitations. Not all aspects of social cognition were included (e.g., attributional bias) and we focused on adults and not children, limiting the scope of the review. Conclusions Future studies would benefit from the inclusion of relevant moderators and covariates, multiple well-validated measures within the same domain of social cognition, and assessments of interpersonal functioning outside of the laboratory. Additional research examining the moderating role of attention or interpretation biases on social cognitive performance, and the potential benefit of social cognitive skills training for social anxiety could inform and improve existing cognitive behavioral interventions.
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The origins, nature, and value of leadership to organizations of all types have been explored in numerous academic business studies. Adding to the discussions – writers, poets, philosophers, historians, and military theoreticians have contributed their perspectives. A relatively recent development in this stream of inquiry has been the concept of the “authentic leader.” Around the world there is an ongoing emergence of women as leaders. Whether assuming the responsibilities of leading organizations, social movements, or on a particular issue, women in these positions are becoming more common. In particular, Europe has witnessed the rise of women in politics, the arts, and business. Consequently, an examination of what constitutes an authentic leader generally, and specifically whether men and women view them differently, is worthwhile. The current study, exploratory in nature, examines the views of approximately 90 graduate business students at a major business school in Rome, Italy. While there is significant overlap between the genders concerning the traits of authentic leaders, personal contact and experience has led the two groups to identify different examples of those who exemplify the concept.
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The role of individual differences in anxiety sensitivity was explored in a sample of 67 college-level music students. Individuals high in anxiety sensitivity report greater fear of bodily sensations. Although developed in research on panic disorder, anxiety sensitivity was hypothesized to predict performance anxiety. Anxiety sensitivity was found to predict performance anxiety and was a better predictor than trait anxiety. Overall, anxiety sensitivity was a better predictor of performance anxiety in women than men, and sensitivity to cognitive symptoms was a better predictor of performance anxiety than sensitivity to physiologic symptoms for both men and women. Gender differences emerged in the patterns of anxiety sensitivity, with men having stronger associations between fears of cognitive dyscontrol and performance anxiety than women, while women alone had associations between fears of cardiovascular and respiratory symptoms and performance anxiety. Those highest in anxiety sensitivity were found also to report less enjoyment while playing and more pain. Suggestions for future research are made, and implications for treatment programs are explored.
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Evidence suggests that the behavior inhibition system (BIS) and fight-flight-freeze system play a role in the individual differences seen in social anxiety disorder; however, findings concerning the role of the behavior approach system (BAS) have been mixed. To date, the role of revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) subsystems underlying social anxiety has been measured with scales designed for the original RST. This study examined how the BIS, BAS, and fight, flight, freeze components of the fight-flight-freeze system uniquely relate to social interaction anxiety and social observation anxiety using both a measure specifically designed for the revised RST and a commonly used original RST measure. Comparison of regression analyses with the Jackson-5 and the commonly used BIS/BAS Scales revealed important differences in the relationships between RST subsystems and social anxiety depending on how RST was assessed. Limitations and future directions for revised RST measurement are discussed.
Conference Paper
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هراس اجتماعی عموماً یک تخریب اساسی در فرایند پردازش اطلاعات افکار نگرش ها و اعتقادات در نظر گرفته شده که باعث تحریک و نگهداری عواطف و رفتارهای وابسته به هراس اجتماعی می‌شود. پژوهشگران تحریف های فکری معینی چون بی‌کفایتی ادراک شده و ترس از ارزیابی منفی را از عوامل ایجاد هراس اجتماعی معرفی کردند اما انتظار می‌رود که اگر فردی محیط را حمایتگر ارزیابی کند در شرایط تنش زا بتواند به طور موثرتری با موقعیت کنار آمده و راهکارهای لازم را اتخاذ کند. بر این اساس هدف پژوهش حاضر رابطه بین جهت گیری زندگی و هراس اجتماعی در دانشجویان می باشد. ۱۱۸ دانشجو (۶۶ دختر و ۵۲ پسر) که به روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای تصادفی انتخاب شده بودند مقیاس جهت گیری زندگی و مقیاس هراس اجتماعی را تکمیل نمودند. اعتبار و روایی ابزار های مورد استفاده احراز گردیده است. اطلاعات جمع آوری شده با استفاده از تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه به‌روش همزمان مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. یافته ها نشان داد که جهت گیری زندگی قادر به پیش بینی منفی و معنادار هراس اجتماعی است. همچنین بین دختران و پسران از لحاظ جهت گیری به زندگی تفاوتی مشاهده نشد. نتیجه اینکه هر چه افراد نگرش مثبت تری به زندگی داشته باشند موقعیت های اجتماعی یا غیر اجتماعی را بیشتر موافق با خواسته خود ارزیابی کرده و بنابراین هراس اجتماعی کمتری را تجربه میکنند
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The present study investigated the predictors of hope among university students via a meditational causal model, in which perceived parenting styles were proposed to interact with attachment dimensions and loneliness to predict hope. The sample consisted of 550 undergraduate students (378 females, 172 males) selected from Ankara University Faculty of Educational Science by convenient sampling. Demographics Information Form, The Measure of Child Rearing Styles Inventory (CRSI), Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised Inventory (ECR-R), University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale, Dispositional Hope Scale (DHS), and State Hope Scale (SHS) were used in data collection. Structural equation analysis was utilized to test the causal model. The results which are conducted by structural model analysis revealed that agentic and pathway thinking of state hope as well as agentic and pathway thinking of dispositional hope were positively predicted by loneliness; whereas loneliness was positively predicted by both avoidance attachment and anxiety attachment dimensions. While anxiety dimension was only predicted by perceived demandingness of mother, avoidance dimension was weakly predicted by perceived responsiveness of father. Findings are discussed within the developmental model of hope.
Chapter
This chapter is aimed at emphasizing the importance of promoting positive functioning in clinical settings. Common technical strategies shared by positive and clinical interventions are discussed. In order to provide clinicians with a toolkit of positive psychology strategies, the main positive psychotherapeutic strategies aimed at promoting positive functioning, that have been developed and tested in clinical trials are described: Well-being Therapy, Quality of Life therapy, Positive Psychotherapy and Strengths based Counseling. Finally, the chapter provides an overview on the beneficial effects of positive interventions, as well as on their possible paradoxical effects. Clinical implications are then discussed, with a special recommendation of integrating psychotherapy research design when testing and implementing positive interventions.
Chapter
This chapter offers a brief overview of various personality traits and models that were found to be linked with happiness and positive functioning. Among these, Cloninger’s psychobiological model and Peterson and Seligman’s character’s strengths model are described, underlying their specificities, as well as their commonalities. A particular emphasis is given to the importance of evaluating and considering positive personality traits together with personality disorders (and their mutual relationships) in the clinical practice. Individuals may present different combinations of strengths and vulnerabilities, and a balanced expressions of positive traits could be considered a manifestation of positive human functioning.
Chapter
This chapter explores the associations between positive emotional experience and major forms of psychopathology. In reviewing this evidence, it uses the hierarchical structure of affect as an organizing framework. The chapter examines three types of psychopathology that are clearly associated with anhedoniaand deficits in positive affect: depression, social anxiety/social phobia and schizophrenia/schizotypy. It also describes an examination of the bipolar disorders, which show a very different relation to positive affect. Heightened positive affect is clearly relevant to mania, in that the definition of manic episodes includes abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood. The chapter concludes by highlighting three basic considerations that should inform future work in this area. First, specificity evidence still is limited in a number of key areas. Second, this review demonstrates the importance of distinguishing carefully between strongly related, but separable, constructs. Third, future studies should clarify the nature and source of these observed deficits.
Thesis
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Objetivos: (1) Aferir se existe um padrão de forças de caráter (FC) através da VIA-IS (Values In Action – Inventory of Strengths; Peterson & Seligman, 2004), autopercecionado por psicoterapeutas de quatro países, que contribua para que alguns psicoterapeutas tenham mais sucesso do que outros; e (2) aferir se existem outras qualidades humanas (para além das aferidas com a VIA-IS) que distingam os psicoterapeutas com maior sucesso (PTS) dos com menor sucesso (PTMS). Métodos: Para o primeiro objetivo foram usados métodos quantitativos (para analisar os resultados da VIA-IS, uma escala do tipo Likert de concordância com 5 pontos) e para o segundo objetivo foram usados métodos qualitativos (a análise de conteúdo dedutiva e indutiva) seguidos de uma análise quantitativa. Resultados: Obteve-se um padrão de FC (autopercecionadas pelos psicoterapeutas), que distingue a eficiência dos PTS face aos PTMS, bem como um conjunto de qualidades humanas (comunicabilidade, reflexividade, contenção e presença) associadas ao sucesso clínico dos psicoterapeutas, mas que não os diferencia na autoperceção de eficiência. Conclusões: Os psicoterapeutas amorosos, perseverantes, curiosos, entusiastas, honestos e com uma boa perspetiva, poderão obter mais sucesso no seu trabalho clínico. Porém são necessários mais estudos que validem também esta conclusão a fim de que se criem formações específicas que fomentem estas FC, para ampliar a quantidade de terapeutas de topo e a qualidade dos serviços de saúde mental. Sugere-se ainda a criação de um Inventário de Forças de Caráter dos Psicoterapeutas para aprofundar o conhecimento sobre as qualidades humanas que contribuem para o sucesso das psicoterapias. Objectives: (1) To verify if there is a pattern of character strengths (CS), through VIA-IS (Values In Action – Inventory of Strengths; Peterson & Seligman, 2004), self-perceived by psychotherapists from four countries, that contributes for some psychotherapists to have more success than others; and (2) gauge if there are other human qualities (beyond those captured by VIA-IS) that distinguish the most successful psychotherapists (MSP) from the least successful psychotherapists (LSP). Methods: For the first objective, quantitative methods were used (to analyze the results of the VIA-IS, a 5-point Likert scale of agreement) and for the second objective qualitative methods (deductive and inductive content analysis) were used followed by a quantitative analysis. Results: A CS pattern (self-identified by psychotherapists) was obtained, which distinguishes the efficiency of the MSP from the LSP, as well as a set of human qualities (communicability, reflexivity, containment and presence) associated with the clinical success of psychotherapists, but that doesn't differentiate them in their self-perception of efficiency. Conclusions: The psychotherapists that are loving, persevering, curious, enthusiastic, honest, and with a good perspective, may be more successful in their clinical work. Yet, further studies are needed to validate this conclusion in order to create specific trainings that promote these CS, to increase the quantity of top therapists and the quality of mental health services. It is also suggested the creation of an Inventory of Character Strengths of Psychotherapists to deepen the knowledge about the human qualities that contribute to the success of psychotherapies.
Conference Paper
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هراس اجتماعی عموماً یک تخریب اساسی در فرایند پردازش اطلاعات، افکار، نگرش ها و اعتقادات در نظر گرفته شده که باعث تحریک و نگهداری عواطف و رفتارهای وابسته به هراس اجتماعی می‌شود. پژوهشگران تحریف های فکری معینی چون بی‌کفایتی ادراک شده و ترس از ارزیابی منفی را از عوامل ایجاد هراس اجتماعی معرفی کرده اند اما انتظار می‌رود که اگر فردی محیط را حمایتگر ارزیابی کند در شرایط تنش زا بتواند به طور موثرتری با موقعیت کنار آمده و راهکارهای لازم را اتخاذ کند. بر این اساس هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی رابطه بین حمایت جتماعی ادراک شده و هراس اجتماعی در دانشجویان میباشد. ۱۱۸ دانشجو (۶۶ دختر و ۵۲ پسر) که به روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای تصادفی انتخاب شده بودند مقیاس چند وجهی حمایت اجتماعی ادراک شده و مقیاس هراس اجتماعی را تکمیل نمودند .اعتبار و روایی ابزار های مورد استفاده احراز گردیده است. اطلاعات جمع آوری شده با استفاده از تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه به‌روش همزمان مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. یافته ها نشان داد که حمایت اجتماعی ادراک شده و قادر به پیش بینی منفی و معنادار هراس اجتماعی می باشد. همچنین بین میانگین نمرات دانشجویان دختر و پسر از لحاظ هراس اجتماعی نیز تفاوت معناداری مشاهده نگردید. نتیجه اینکه ادراک محیط اجتماعی و خانواده به عنوان محیطی حمایتگر پیش بینی کننده کاهش میزان هراس اجتماعی در دانشجویان است
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Purpose This paper aims to explore the influence of frontline employees’ (FLEs’) positive psychological capacities (PPCs) (optimism, hope, resilience and self-efficacy) on service recovery. Design/methodology/approach A model of FLE PPCs is tested using two studies: a field study (Nretail = 205; Nrestaurant = 160) and between-subject experimental design (Neducation = 206) in three service settings. Findings Results show that positive emotions mediate the relationship between PPCs and problem-solving adaptability, and that authenticity of positive emotions moderates the relationship between positive emotions and interactional justice. Surprisingly, problem-solving adaptability positively influences perceptions of distributive justice and interactional justice. A small interaction effect between positive emotions and problem-solving adaptability also was found. Research limitations/implications The dependent variable (problem-solving adaptability) was measured using an open-ended question evaluated by objective, independent raters rather than a self-reported structured metric, to minimize social desirability bias. Practical implications Given that the customer complaints to the Better Business Bureau in 2016 were close to one million, most of them occurring in the service sector, service firms need continuous research into improving service recovery. This study argues that firms can improve FLEs’ problem-solving adaptability behavior by training existing FLEs to strengthen PPCs, hiring FLEs that have strong PPCs and fostering positive emotions. Originality/value This is the first study that examines the effect of PPCs on service recovery outcomes. By incorporating PPCs as antecedents of positive emotions, this paper explains how FLEs can offer a better recovery rather than dictating what they ought to display and say. An explanation of how FLE PPCs influence customer outcomes via the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and emotion contagion theory is offered, highlighting a novel path/relationship between FLE positive emotions and problem-solving abilities, and extending emotion contagion to service recovery.
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Objective: Guided by a functional account of awe, we aimed to test the hypothesis that people who often feel awe are also more curious (Studies 1 and 2), and that this relationship in turn related to academic outcomes (Study 3). Method: In Study 1 (n = 1,005), we used a self-report approach to test the relationship between dispositional awe and curiosity. In Study 2 (n = 100), we used a peer-report approach to test if participants' dispositional awe related to how curious they were rated by their friends. In Study 3, in a sample of 447 high school adolescents we tested if dispositional awe predicted academic outcomes via curiosity. Results: We found that dispositional awe was positively related to people's self-rated curiosity (Study 1) and how curious they were rated by their friends (Study 2). In Study 3, we found that dispositional awe was related to academic outcomes via curiosity. Conclusions: We conclude that among the seven positive emotion dispositions tested, awe was related to unique variance in curiosity, and this link in turn predicted academic outcomes. This work further characterizes awe as an epistemic emotion and suggests that activities that inspire awe may improve academic outcomes.
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The present paper aimed to investigate the effects of relationship status on positive psychological functioning among adults with different marital statuses. The sample comprised of N = 246Pakistanis, 95 males and 151 females, with their age ranging from 20-30 years (M=21.17, SD=3.10). The objectives of the current study were achieved through demographic information form and Positive Psychological Functioning Scales (PPF), which were administered to participants through online channels. It was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference among different relationship status on positive psychological functioning. The findings of the study showed that different relationship statuses do not have a significant effect on positive psychological functioning, which do not support the current hypothesis, due to the presence of factors such as Pakistan being a collectivistic culture has already a strong social support system existing prior to marriages, also the sample consisted of educated individuals, an uneven sample in terms of gender, also the critical aspect of religion. Factors such as these played a key role in influencing the participants' positive psychological functioning. The results have important implications for further researches as it opens up the notion that positive psychological functioning in collectivistic cultures may operate according to different principles as compared to individualistic cultures especially where religion is of fundamental importance in the community.
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Social curiosity has been found to have great benefits in human life, especially in fostering interpersonal relationships. Nevertheless there is indication of other benefit of social curiosity that have not yet been explored, namely overcoming the anxiety of death. This indication is based on previous research which found a positive relationship between anxiety and social curiosity. In this study, social curiosity is framed as representation of symbolic immortality, which people use to overcome the terror of death. To support this conjecture, two studies were conducted using the Terror Management Theory (TMT) framework. Study 1 (N = 352, M age = 19.39) found a positive relationship between death anxiety and social curiosity. In Study 2 (N = 507, M age = 20.68) it was found that intolerance of uncertainty and desire for self-verification mediated the relationship between death anxiety and social curiosity. The results of this study indicate that increasing interest in obtaining information about how other people think, feel, or act is a form of mechanism used by people to control anxiety related to death.
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The article reveals the conceptualization of the notion of positive psychological functioning of a person. It has been shown that the beginning of the conceptualization of this issue falls on the formation of the humanistic paradigm in psychology, but still the concept of positive functioning is defined ambiguously and is used unsystematically. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to clarify the concept of positive psychological functioning. The two-factor structure of positive functioning has been theoretically substantiated.
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خودکارآمدی و اجتماعی به باور افراد در مورد توانایی هایشان برای صحیح عمل کردن در موقعیت های اجتماعی اشاره دارد. افرادی که دارای نگرش مثبتی به زندگی هستند به ارزیابی آنچه می توانند به دست آورند در برابر آنچه قادر به کسب آن نیستند، می‌پردازند. اینگونه افراد موفقیت های اجتماعی خود را به توانایی های درونی خود نسبت می‌دهند که همین مسئله می‌تواند زمینه‌ساز افزایش میزان خودکارآمدی اجتماعی در این افراد باشد. بر این اساس هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی رابطه بین جهت گیری زندگی و خودکارآمدی اجتماعی در دانشجویان میباشد. ۱۱۸ دانشجو (۶۶ دختر و ۵۲ پسر) که به روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای تصادفی انتخاب شده بودند مقیاس جهت گیری زندگی و پرسشنامه خودکارآمدی در موقعیت های اجتماعی را تکمیل نمودند. پایایی و روایی ابزار های مورد استفاده احراز گردیده است. اطلاعات جمع آوری شده با استفاده از تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه به‌روش همزمان مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار قرار گرفت. یافته ها نشان داد که جهت‌گیری به زندگی قادر به پیش بینی مثبت و معنادار خودکارآمدی اجتماعی است. همچنین بین دختران و پسران از لحاظ خودکارآمدی اجتماعی تفاوتی مشاهده نشد. نتیجه اینکه هر چه افراد نگرش مثبت تری به زندگی داشته باشند موقعیت های اجتماعی یا غیر اجتماعی را بیشتر موافق با خواست خود ارزیابی کرده و بنابراین خودکارآمدی اجتماعی بیشتری را احساس می کنند
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The validity of the social phobia subtype distinction was examined in a large sample of carefully diagnosed social phobics (N=89). Generalized and specific subtypes were diagnosed reliably, and the generalized subtype showed a consistent pattern of greater symptom severity than dit the specific subtype. In addition, generalized social phobics with and without avoidant personality disorder were compared, and a difference was found for only 1 of 4 parameters. The results are discussed in terms of the validity of subtyping in social phobia and the diagnostic boundary between social phobia and avoidant personality disorder
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Evaluative processes refer to the operations by which organisms discriminate threatening from nurturant environments. Low activation of positive and negative evaluative processes by a stimulus reflects neutrality, whereas high activation of such processes reflects maximal conflict. Attitudes, an important class of manifestations of evaluative processes, have traditionally been conceptualized as falling along a bipolar dimension, and the positive and negative evaluative processes underlying attitudes have been conceptualized as being reciprocally activated, making the bipolar rating scale the measure of choice. Research is reviewed suggesting that this bipolar dimension is insufficient to portray comprehensively positive and negative evaluative processes and that the question is not whether such processes are reciprocally activated but under what conditions they are reciprocally, nonreciprocally, or independently activated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The authors used a semistructured clinical interview and a self-report battery of questionnaires to measure key features of the anxiety disorders in a large sample of patients seeking treatment at an outpatient anxiety disorders clinic and in a no mental disorder group. Results were consistent with hierarchical models of anxiety and the anxiety disorders such as the model implicit in American Psychiatric Association (1987, 1994) and trait models positing a trait diathesis common to all the anxiety disorders. A higher order general factor differentiated each of the patient groups from the no mental disorder group. Several lower order factors provided the basis for differentiation among the patient groups. Conclusions regarding the degree to which models predicting a hierarchical structure of anxiety and the anxiety disorders are empirically supported must await replication of these results with additional samples.
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The psychometric adequacy of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clark, 1989), a measure of social interaction anxiety, and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clark, 1989), a measure of anxiety while being observed by others, was evaluated in anxious patients and normal controls. Social phobia patients scored higher on both scales and were more likely to be identified as having social phobia than other anxious patients (except for agoraphobic patients on the SPS) or controls. Clinician-rated severity of social phobia was moderately related to SIAS and SPS scores. Additional diagnoses of mood or panic disorder did not affect SIAS or SPS scores among social phobia patients, but an additional diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder was associated with SIAS scores. Number of reported feared social interaction situations was more highly correlated with scores on the SIAS, whereas number of reported feared performance situations was more highly correlated with scores on the SPS. These scales appear to be useful in screening, designing individualized treatments, and evaluating the outcomes of treatments for social phobia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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J. A. Gray (1981, 1982) holds that 2 general motivational systems underlie behavior and affect: a behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and a behavioral activation system (BAS). Self-report scales to assess dispositional BIS and BAS sensitivities were created. Scale development (Study 1) and convergent and discriminant validity in the form of correlations with alternative measures are reported (Study 2). In Study 3, a situation in which Ss anticipated a punishment was created. Controlling for initial nervousness, Ss high in BIS sensitivity (assessed earlier) were more nervous than those low in BIS sensitivity. In Study 4, a situation in which Ss anticipated a reward was created. Controlling for initial happiness, Ss high in BAS sensitivity (Reward Responsiveness and Drive scales) were happier than those low in BAS sensitivity. In each case the new scales predicted better than an alternative measure. Discussion is focused on conceptual implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents an overview of research on the effects of an optimistic orientation to life on psychological well-being. The chapter begins by commenting on a distinction between two ways of assessing optimism and pessimism. Then the authors review some of the empirical evidence linking positive thinking to well-being, focusing on prospective studies in both health- and nonhealth-related contexts. They then consider why optimism might confer benefits, arguing that the benefits are due, in part, to the way in which optimists and pessimists cope with problems. The conclusion addresses whether or not the effects of optimism are always good and the effects of pessimism are always bad. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research on curiosity has undergone 2 waves of intense activity. The 1st, in the 1960s, focused mainly on curiosity's psychological underpinnings. The 2nd, in the 1970s and 1980s, was characterized by attempts to measure curiosity and assess its dimensionality. This article reviews these contributions with a concentration on the 1st wave. It is argued that theoretical accounts of curiosity proposed during the 1st period fell short in 2 areas: They did not offer an adequate explanation for why people voluntarily seek out curiosity, and they failed to delineate situational determinants of curiosity. Furthermore, these accounts did not draw attention to, and thus did not explain, certain salient characteristics of curiosity: its intensity, transience, association with impulsivity, and tendency to disappoint when satisfied. A new account of curiosity is offered that attempts to address these shortcomings. The new account interprets curiosity as a form of cognitively induced deprivation that arises from the perception of a gap in knowledge or understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Evaluative processes refer to the operations by which organisms discriminate threatening from nurturant environments. Low activation of positive and negative evaluative processes by a stimulus reflects neutrality, whereas high activation of such processes reflects maximal conflict. Attitudes, an important class of manifestations of evaluative processes, have traditionally been conceptualized as falling along a bipolar dimension, and the positive and negative evaluative processes underlying attitudes have been conceptualized as being reciprocally activated, making the bipolar rating scale the measure of choice. Research is reviewed suggesting that this bipolar dimension is insufficient to portray comprehensively positive and negative evaluative processes and that the question is not whether such processes are reciprocally activated but under what conditions they are reciprocally, nonreciprocally, or independently activated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies investigated the relationship between shyness (tension and inhibition with others) and sociability (preference for being with others rather than being alone) using 952 undergraduates. A factor analysis of shyness and sociability items revealed 2 distinct factors, indicating that shyness and sociability are distinct personality dispositions. Self-reported shyness showed only a moderate negative correlation with self-reported sociability. Furthermore, the measures of shyness and sociability had different patterns of correlations with other personality scales (e.g., the Public and Private Self-Consciousness scales of the Self-Consciousness Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the EASI [Emotionality, Activity, Sociability, Impulsivity] Temperament Survey). On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that shyness is not just low sociability. Next, 4 groups of Ss were selected: shy–sociable, shy–unsociable, unshy–sociable, and unshy–unsociable. Pairs of these Ss, matched for both traits, interacted for 5 min. Shy–sociable Ss talked less, averted their gaze more, and engaged in more self-manipulation than did the other 3 groups. In studying social behavior, it should be known whether Ss are shy but also whether they are sociable. (38 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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A cognitive, two-component model of hope proposed by Snyder and colleagues is reviewed. Hope is defined as the perceived capability to (1) derive pathways to desired goals and (2) motivate oneself via agentic thinking to initiate and sustain movement along those pathways. The roles of these pathways and agency components of hope theory are described along with similarities and differences relative to other motivational and emotional theories, including optimism, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and problem solving. The goal focus, agentic thought, and pathways thought of hope theory are used as a framework for understanding the adaptive processes in the various phases of cognitive-behavior therapies, including relapse prevention. It is concluded that hope theory offers a valuable overarching framework for understanding common factors in behavior therapies.
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The present studies examined the role of independent and interdependent goal pursuits in the subjective well-being (SWB) of Asian and European American college students. In Study 1, the authors found that independent goal pursuit (i.e., goal pursuit for fun and enjoyment) increased the benefit of goal attainment on SWB among European Americans but not among Asian Americans. In Study 2, the authors found that interdependent goal pursuit (i.e., goal pursuit to please parents and friends) increased the benefit of goal attainment on the SWB of Asian Americans, whereas it did not increase the benefit of goal attainment on the SWB of European Americans. In Study 3, the authors found that whereas interdependent goal pursuit increased the benefit of goal attainment, independent goal pursuit did not increase the benefit of goal attainment among Japanese college students. Altogether, the present findings suggest that independent and interdependent goal pursuits result in divergent affective consequences across cultures.
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Defining hope as a cognitive set that is composed of a reciprocally derived sense of successful (1) agency (goal-directed determination) and (2) pathways (planning of ways to meet goals), an individual-differences measure is developed. Studies with college students and patients demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and test–retest reliability, and the factor structure identifies the agency and pathways components of the Hope Scale. Convergent and discriminant validity are documented, along with evidence suggesting that Hope Scale scores augmented the prediction of goal-related activities and coping strategies beyond other self-report measures. Construct validational support is provided in regard to predicted goal-setting behaviors; moreover, the hypothesized goal appraisal processes that accompany the various levels of hope are corroborated.
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Social phobia is increasingly recognized as a prevalent and socially impairing mental disorder. However, little data is available regarding the general and disease-specific impairments and disabilities associated with social phobia. Furthermore, most studies have not controlled for the confounding effects of comorbid conditions. This study investigates: (a) the generic quality of life; (b) work productivity; and, (c) various other disorder-specific social impairments in current cases with pure (n = 65), comorbid (n = 51) and subthreshold (n = 34) DSM-IV social phobia as compared to controls with no social phobia (subjects with a history of herpes infections). Social phobia cases reported a mean illness duration of 22.9 years with onset in childhood or adolescence. Current quality of life, as assessed by the SF-36, was significantly reduced in all social phobia groups, particularly in the scales measuring vitality, general health, mental health, role limitations due to emotional health, and social functioning. Comorbid cases revealed more severe reductions than pure and subthreshold social phobics. Findings from the Liebowitz self-rated disability scale indicated that: (a) social phobia affects most areas of life, but in particular education, career, and romantic relationship; (b) the presence of past and current comorbid conditions increases the frequency of disease-specific impairments; and, (c) subthreshold social phobia revealed slightly lower overall impairments than comorbid social phobics. Past week work productivity of social phobics was significantly diminished as indicated by: (a) a three-fold higher rate of unemployed cases; (b) elevated rates of work hours missed due to social phobia problems; and, (c) a reduced work performance. Overall, these findings underline that social phobia in our sample of adults, whether comorbid, subthreshold, or pure was a persisting and impairing condition, resulting in considerable subjective suffering and negative impact on work performance and social relationships. The current disabilities and impairments were usually less pronounced than in the past, presumably due to adaptive behaviors in life style of the respondents. Data also confirmed that social phobia is poorly recognized and rarely treated by the mental health system.
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Joint effects of daily events and dispositional sensitivities to cues of reward and punishment on daily positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) were examined in 3 diary studies. Study 1 showed that positive events were strongly related to PA but not NA, whereas negative events were strongly related to NA but not PA. Studies 2 and 3 examined how the dispositional sensitivities of independent appetitive and aversive motivational systems, the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) and the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS), moderated these relationships. Participants in Study 2 with higher BAS sensitivity reported more PA on average; those with more sensitive BIS reported more NA. Also, BIS moderated reactions to negative events, such that higher BIS sensitivity magnified reactions to negative events. Study 3 replicated these findings and showed that BAS predisposed people to experience more positive events. Results demonstrate the value of distinguishing within-person and between-person effects to clarify the functionally independent processes by which dispositional sensitivities influence affect.
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Gray (1981, 1982) holds that 2 general motivational systems underlie behavior and affect: a behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and a behavioral activation system (BAS). Self-report scales to assess dispositional BIS and BAS sensitivities were created. Scale development (Study 1) and convergent and discriminant validity in the form of correlations with alternative measures are reported (Study 2). In Study 3, a situation in which Ss anticipated a punishment was created. Controlling for initial nervousness, Ss high in BIS sensitivity (assessed earlier) were more nervous than those low. In Study 4, a situation in which Ss anticipated a reward was created. Controlling for initial happiness, Ss high in BAS sensitivity (Reward Responsiveness and Drive scales) were happier than those low. In each case the new scales predicted better than an alternative measure. Discussion is focused on conceptual implications.
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Using outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders (N = 350), the authors tested several models of the structural relationships of dimensions of key features of selected emotional disorders and dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. Results supported the discriminant validity of the 5 symptom domains examined (mood disorders; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; panic disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder; social phobia). Of various structural models evaluated, the best fitting involved a structure consistent with the tripartite model (e.g., the higher order factors, negative affect and positive affect, influenced emotional disorder factors in the expected manner). The latent factor, GAD, influenced the latent factor, autonomic arousal, in a direction consistent with recent laboratory findings (autonomic suppression); Findings are discussed in the context of the growing literature on higher order trait dimensions (e.g., negative affect) that may be of considerable importance to the understanding of the pathogenesis, course, and co-occurrence of emotional disorders.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
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Socially anxious people often report high negative affect (NA) and low positive affect (PA). This mood state may be associated with elevated or undesired social evaluation, such as interactions with unfamiliar people or poor quality communication. In this study, high and low anxious undergraduates completed structured diaries assessing interaction partner familiarity, quality of communication, PA, and NA after conversations in their natural environment. Results supported hypotheses of higher NA and lower quality of communication in the anxious group. In addition, quality of communication and familiarity were differently related to NA in the high versus low anxious groups. Results suggest that social-interaction parameters affect high anxious individuals' mood. Implications of the current social interaction based results are contrasted with time-interval diary research.
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The SWLS consists of 5-items that require a ratingon a 7-point Likert scale. Administration is rarely morethan a minute or 2 and can be completed by interview(including phone) or paper and pencil response. The in-strumentshouldnotbecompletedbyaproxyansweringfortheperson.Itemsofthe SWLSaresummedtocreatea total score that can range from 5 to 35.The SWLS is in the public domain. Permission isnot needed to use it. Further information regardingthe use and interpretation of the SWLS can be foundat the author’s Web site http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/∼ediener/SWLS.html. The Web site alsoincludes links to translations of the scale into 27languages.
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Social phobia has become a focus of increased research since its inclusion in DSM-III. However, assessment of social phobia has remained an underdeveloped area, especially self-report assessment. Clinical researchers have relied on measures that were developed on college populations, and these measures may not provide sufficient coverage of the range of situations feared by social phobic individuals. There is a need for additional instruments that consider differences in the types of situations (social interaction vs. situations involving observation by others) that may be feared by social phobics and between subgroups of social phobic patients. This study provides validational data on two instruments developed by Mattick and Clarke (1989): the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), a measure of anxiety in social interactional situations, and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), a measure of anxiety in situations involving observation by others. These data support the use of the SIAS and SPS in the assessment of individuals with social phobia.
Article
The development and validation of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) two companion measures for assessing social phobia fears is described. The SPS assesses fears of being scrutinised during routine activities (eating, drinking, writing, etc.), while the SIAS assesses fears of more general social interaction, the scales corresponding to the DSM-III-R descriptions of Social Phobia—Circumscribed and Generalised types, respectively. Both scales were shown to possess high levels of internal consistency and test–retest reliability. They discriminated between social phobia, agoraphobia and simple phobia samples, and between social phobia and normal samples. The scales correlated well with established measures of social anxiety, but were found to have low or non-significant (partial) correlations with established measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, locus of control, and social desirability. The scales were found to change with treatment and to remain stable in the face of no-treatment. It appears that these scales are valid, useful, and easily scored measures for clinical and research applications, and that they represent an improvement over existing measures of social phobia.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Discusses shyness as most often used term to label feelings of anxiety and inhibition in social situations. Cheek, J.M. (2000). Shyness. In A.E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Psychology (vol. 7, pp. 272-274). Washington DC and New York: American Psychological Association and Oxford University Press
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The aims of this symposium were "to consider problems relevant to education, to allow researchers already in this area to communicate directly about common problems and to suggest new ideas and directions for research in the field of psychology in education." The proceedings were published because, in addition to the fact that there is no text or overview of the different theoretical positions on intrinsic motivation, there has been no attempt to relate the various theoretical positions to educationally relevant problems. Among the 15 contributions are: 1) Toward a History of Intrinsic Motivation; 2) The Psychological Significance of Success in Competitive Achievement Situations: A Threat as Well as a Promise; 3) Motivation Inherent in the Pursuit of Meaning: Or the Desire to Inquire; 4) Differences in the Personalities of Children Differing in Curiosity; and, 5) Intrinsic Motivation: Unlearned, Learned, and Modifiable. A few of the contributors to the book have extended their research on intrinsic motivation into an examination of maturity, mental health, creativity, vocational choice, and other factors in growth and development. Bibliographic references accompany each essay. (Author/JLB)
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Provides a brief overview of the broad model, based on the expectancy–value perspective on motivation, to explain the role of optimism and pessimism in the self-regulation of behavior. The model uses the idea that behavior embodies feedback control processes. The basic unit of analysis is the discrepancy-reducing feedback loop, which is a system of 4 elements in a particular organization: an input function, equivalent to perception; a reference value, or goals; a comparator, or comparison of input and reference value; and an output function, which is equivalent to behavior. This view of optimism connects to a dynamic and very broad model of the creation of behavior and feelings. This connection means that optimism need not be a topic that stands out from the rest of psychology, and provides a broader context for studies of behavioral and emotional consequences of optimism and pessimism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Describes the clinical presentation of social phobia, discusses theoretical perspectives on etiology, and surveys empirically supported treatments used to treat the disorder. Although social phobia occurs in children and adults, its manifestation and treatment differ in various age groups. The authors describe the similarities and differences in the syndrome across all ages. Drawing from the clinical, social, and developmental literatures, as well as from their own extensive clinical experience, the authors illustrate the impact of developmental stage on phenomenology, diagnoses, and assessment and treatment of social phobia. Within the different age groups, issues of etiology, prevalence, and clinical management are presented. The volume includes many case illustrations and practical information. This book will be useful for practitioners, researchers, and students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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believe that attempts to relate the structure of central nervous system neurobiology and neurochemistry to the structure of personality . . . require a clear conceptual framework / a theoretical strategy is needed to guide selection of the neurobiological and personality variables hypothesized to relate / our theoretical approach to the neurobiology of personality is first explicated / began by broadening our understanding of [personality] structure by assessing the structure of behavioral systems as defined by ethology and psychology / the structure of behavior reflects the existence of neurobehavioral-emotional systems that elicit and motivate certain subjective emotional experiences and overt patterns of behavior to particular classes of stimulus / thus, a particular class of stimulus, the emotional feelings and motivation generated, and the behavior patterns expressed all form integral components of a coherent emotional system analogous structure of neurobehavioral-emotional systems and personality [types and organization of neurobehavioral systems, the structure of a general neurobehavioral-emotional system, the structure of personality and its superfactors] / putative neurobiology of three personality superfactors [positive emotionality, constraint, negative emotionality] / studies of the relationship of DA [dopamine] to positive emotionality and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) to constraint / implications for personality disorders [implications for the development of substance abuse] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examines thinking and research relevant to the self-expansion model of motivation and cognition in close relationships. It begins with an explanation of the key elements of the model, followed by a comment on the utility of a model of this kind in terms of the role of metaphor in science. The chapter then considers 2 key processes suggested by the model, discussing the theoretical foundation and research relevant to each. These 2 processes are, first, that relationship satisfaction is increased through the association of the relationship with self-expansion and, second, that the relationship means cognitively that each partner has included the other in his or her self. Implications of the model for 3 other relationship-relevant issues (selectivity in attraction, motivations for unrequited love, and the effects on the self of falling in love) are considered. Concludes with a brief consideration of other relationship-relevant ramifications of the model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined relations between social activity and state and trait measures of Positive and Negative Affect. In Study 1, Ss completed scales relevant to 3-factor models of personality and a weekly mood and social activity questionnaire for 13 wks. In Study 2, Ss completed measures of the 5-factor model of personality and a daily mood and social activity survey for 6–7 wks. In within- and between-Ss analyses, socializing correlated significantly with state measures of Positive Affect and with trait measures of Extraversion/Positive Emotionality. These relations were relatively general across various types of positive affect and social events; however, specific types of social events also were differentially related to affect. In contrast, social activity had no consistent association with measures of Negative Affect or the other personality dimensions. The results support a temperamental view of Extraversion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study explored the relationships among dispositional self-consciousness, situationally induced-states of self-awareness, ego-involvement, and intrinsic motivation Cognitive evaluation theory, as applied to both the interpersonal and intrapersonal spheres, was used as the basis for making predictions about the effects of various types of self-focus Public self-consciousness, social anxiety, video surveillance and mirror manipulations of self-awareness, and induced ego-involvement were predicted and found to have negative effects on intrinsic motivation since all were hypothesized to involve controlling forms of regulation In contrast, dispositional private self-consciousness and a no-self-focus condition were both found to be unrelated to intrinsic motivation The relationship among these constructs and manipulations was discussed in the context of both Carver and Scheier's (1981) control theory and Deci and Ryan's (1985) motivation theory
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daily variations may be understood in terms of the degree to which three basic needs, autonomy, competence, and related-ness, are satisfied in daily activity. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine this hypothesis across 2 weeks of daily activ-ity and well-being reports controlling for trait-level individual differences. Results strongly supported the hypothesis. The authors also examined the social activities that contribute to sat-isfaction of relatedness needs. The best predictors were meaning-ful talk and feeling understood and appreciated by interaction partners. Finally, the authors found systematic day-of-the-week variations in emotional well-being and need satisfaction. These results are discussed in terms of the importance of daily activities and the need to consider both trait and day-level determinants of well-being.
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Baumeister and Tice's (this issue) social exclusion theory of anxiety proposes that a primary source of anxiety is perceived exclusion from important social groups. This article elaborates the basic propositions of social exclusion theory, then applies the theory to a broader analysis of affective reactions to exclusion. Specifically, the article examines the relationship between perceived social exclusion and social anxiety, jealousy, loneliness, and depression. The function of self-esteem and its role in moderating reactions to perceived exclusion are also discussed.
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This study examined the specificity to depression of the attributional style hypothesized by the reformulated model of learned helplessness. Scores on a modified version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire of patients with dysthymic disorder were compared with those of anxiety disorder patients (social phobic, agoraphobic, and panic disorder) and normal subjects. While dysthymic patients demonstrated more internal, global, and stable attributions for negative events than normals, they did not systematically differ from social phobic or agoraphobic subjects. All groups differed from all the other groups on the Beck Depression Inventory. Analysis of covariance that controlled for depression scores suggested that depression contributed substantially to attributional style, but anxiety disorder diagnosis also exerted a significant effect on some attributional measures. These findings are discussed in terms of their meaning for the reformulated model of learned helplessness and the role of attributional processes in anxiety disorders.
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Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the Positive Self-Statements (SSPS-P) and the Negative Self-Statements subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument.
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This article represents an attempt to clarify questions posed by evidence of varying pathways to change in social anxiety. A new perspective is developed which addresses these questions and, importantly, lays the foundation for an innovative treatment approach. Essentially, social anxiety is construed here as the product of a disorganization in which feelings and cognitions (both conscious and preconscious) about the self, about other people, and about the relations between self and others are organized. Specifically, the socially anxious client experiences others autocentrically: that is, in terms of how the other person perceives, evaluates and affects one's own self. The result is a narrowed capacity for experiencing others. The goal of treatment in the new approach advocated here is to allow the individual to understand, appreciate and share the feelings, thoughts and experience of other people. Therapy is directed toward getting clients out of themselves and into other people.
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This article reviews the social psychological literature on attentional focus and causal attributions as they apply to social phobia. Excessive self-focused attention is increased by physiological arousal, interferes with task performance under some conditions, increases the probability of internal attributions, and intensifies emotional reactions. Social anxiety is also associated with a reversal of the self-serving bias for causal attributions. Implications of these findings for the maintenance and treatment of social phobia are discussed.
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Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.
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Investigated the verbal behavior of 152 undergraduates in 4 different classes. Trait anxiety, trait curiosity, and perceived instructor threat were measured by the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, the State–Trait Curiosity Inventory, and the Tuckman Teacher Feedback Form. Student-initiated questions and responses to instructor questions were rated by trained observers during 8 1-hr class sessions. In general, males gave more responses than females, and Ss who perceived their instructors as threatening gave fewer responses than those who rated their instructors as nonthreatening. High curiosity stimulated student-initiated verbal behavior for both sexes, but only when the instructor was perceived as nonthreatening. For males, high anxiety inhibited the students' responses to instructor questions when the instructor was perceived as threatening, whereas females gave few responses to instructor questions regardless of their personality characteristics. (20 ref)