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Jewish Involvement in Shaping American Immigration Policy, 1881–1965: A Historical Review

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This paper discusses Jewish involvement in shaping United States immigration policy. In addition to a periodic interest in fostering the immigration of co-religionists as a result of anti-Semitic movements, Jews have an interest in opposing the establishment of ethnically and culturally homogeneous societies in which they reside as minorities. Jews have been at the forefront in supporting movements aimed at altering the ethnic status quo in the United States in favor of immigration of non-European peoples. These activities have involved leadership in Congress, organizing and funding anti-restrictionist groups composed of Jews and gentiles, and originating intellectual movements opposed to evolutionary and biological perspectives in the social sciences.

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... It is unclear whether such an altruistic course of action is sustainable in the long run, and indeed, I suggest that such altruism will not continue if there are obvious signs that the status and political power of Europeanderived groups is decreasing while the power of other groups increases. The prediction, both on theoretical grounds and on the basis of psychological research (see MacDonald, 1998a, b) , is that as other groups become increasingly powerful and salient in a multicultural society, there will be increasing tensions between the groups. ...
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This paper illustrates evolutionary approaches to population issues. Life history theory is a general theoretical framework that incorporates environmental influences, contextual influences, and heritable variation. In general, physically or psychologically stressful environments delay maturation and the onset of reproductive competence. Perceptions of scarcity also result in lower fertility by delaying reproduction or having fewer children—a phenomenon viewed as an adaptation to ancestral environments. The desire for upward social mobility is viewed as an evolved motive disposition affecting fertility decisions. The opportunity for upward social mobility typically results in delaying reproduction and lowering fertility in the interest of increasing investment in children. Variation in life history strategies is also influenced by genetic variation, but genetic variation interacts with cultural shifts in the social control of sexual behavior. Finally, I discuss the effects of between-group competition for resources on population issues. Immigration policy and group differences in fertility influence political power within and between societies, often with explosive results. Demographic expansion has often been an instrument of ethnic competition and is an important source of conflict in the contemporary world.
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For hundreds of years, the large, gentile nations have been reacting to the Jewish communities within them as “hosts” would to “parasites.” In recent years, Kevin MacDonald (MacDonald, A people that shall dwell alone: Judaism as a group evolutionary strategy, Praeger, Westport, CT, 1994, MacDonald, Separation and its discontents: Toward an evolutionary theory of anti-semitism, Praeger, Westport, CT, 1998a, MacDonald, The culture of critique: An evolutionary analysis of Jewish involvement in twentieth-century intellectual and political movements, Praeger, Westport, CT, 1998b) put what appears to be a new twist on the host–parasite, gentile–Jew metaphor. In this version, Jews are portrayed as inherently superior beings, possessing traits that are actually considered admirable, e.g., diligence, high motivation for achievement, high levels of altruism to other members of the group, and a high level of investment in their children. However, this is merely a modernized, deceptive version of the host–parasite metaphor. The positive attributes MacDonald ascribes to Jews are used to bolster his claim to scientific objectivity, arguing that this theory cannot be racist antisemitism if it says positive things about Jews. In the end, MacDonald’s Jew is a superior competitor whose (unfair) success inevitably instigates an often violent, antisemitic reaction. Individualistic gentiles are out-competed by Jews who don’t play according to the same rules. In contrast to the individualistic gentile who plays fair, the Jews are more collectivistic, i.e., they are biologically more ingroup-identified, more strongly favor members of their own group, and are closed and hostile to non-Jews. The gentiles then react with violent hatred to prevent total domination by the superior, collectivistic Jew. Antisemitism—even in its ugliest, genocidal forms—is merely a natural, adaptive reaction of one group (white, European gentiles) to being unfairly beaten in the competition between groups over resources. Violent antisemitism is then seen as an ugly but extremely predictable and adaptive reaction to Jewish success based on unfair advantages. MacDonald’s misunderstanding and misrepresentation of evolutionary biology has been readily embraced by white nationalists and other antisemites. In this article MacDonald’s errors in logic and science are elucidated, revealing a pseudoscientific dressing on ancient antisemitism.
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Reviews the relationship between political policies within psychology and the passage of the 1924 Immigration Act, in response to M. Snyderman and R. J. Herrnstein's (see record 1984-09428-001) article on the same topic. In Snyderman and Herrnstein's conclusion that the racially biased Immigration Act was not passed with the help of the intelligence testing community, the biological determinism that provided a philosophical underpinning for the mental measurement movement is not considered. If the long-standing acceptance of racial, ethnic, and sexual bias with intellectual circles prior to 1924 is considered, Snyderman and Herrnstein's conclusion becomes invalid. (5 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The book presents Dr. E. Fuller Torrey's cogent, meticulously researched examination of the negative impact on American thought and culture of Freud's theory that early childhood experiences, particularly those sexual in nature, are crucial determinants for personality development. In recounting the history of Freudian thought in America, Dr. E. Fuller Torrey examines several questions. Most importantly, why did Freud's theory spread so much more widely here than in any other country? How was the nature–nurture controversy essential to this spread? In answering these questions, "Freudian Fraud" also probes the motivations of the well-known figures who have been instrumental in spreading Freudian thought into every corner of our lives, including individuals as diverse as Emma Goldman, Walter Lippman, Karl Menninger, Margaret Mead, Dr. Benjamin Spock, and John Bradshaw. The book closes with an assessment of Freud's theory and its effect on America. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This paper presents a theory of the intelligence of the Mongoloids consisting of three linked sub-theories. The first concerns the psychometric features of Mongoloid intelligence and proposes that Mongoloids are characterised by high general intelligence (Spearman's g), high visuospatial abilities and low verbal abilities. Mongoloid abilities also display slow maturation in infancy and early childhood. It is proposed that this pattern of abilities cannot be explained in environmental terms and should be regarded as substantially genetically programmed. The second sub-theory presents an evolutionary explanation for this pattern of abilities in Mongoloids, whereby it is proposed that the extreme cold of the ice ages acted as a selection pressure for increases in Spearman's g and the visuospatial abilities. The low verbal abilities and slow maturation rates are interpreted as by-products of these adaptations. The third sub-theory presents a neurological model for the Mongoloid brain in which it is proposed that cortex devoted to the visuospatial abilities was expanded at the expense of the cortex devoted to the verbal abilities. The implication that there exists a negative correlation between the visuospatial abilities and the verbal abilities is considered in the concluding part of the paper and shown to be correct.
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With the conversion of Constantine in AD 312, Christianity began a period of political and cultural dominance that it would enjoy until the twentieth century. Jacob Neusner contradicts the prevailing view that following Christianity's ascendancy, Judaism continued to evolve in isolation. He argues that because of the political need to defend its claims to religious authenticity, Judaism was forced to review itself in the context of a triumphant Christianity. The definition of issues long discussed in Judaism—the meaning of history, the coming of the Messiah, and the political identity of Israel—became of immediate and urgent concern to both parties. What emerged was a polemical dialogue between Christian and Jewish teachers that was unprecedented. In a close analysis of texts by the Christian theologians Eusebius, Aphrahat, and Chrysostom, and of central Jewish works such as the Talmud of the Land of Israel, the Genesis Rabbah, and the Leviticus Rabbah, Neusner finds that both religious groups turned to the same corpus of Hebrew scripture to examine the same fundamental issues. Eusebius and Genesis Rabbah both address the issue of history, Chrysostom and the Talmud the issue of the Messiah, and Aphrahat and Leviticus Rabbah the issue of Israel. As Neusner demonstrates, the conclusions drawn shaped the dialogue between the two religions for the rest of their shared history in the West.
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In this provocative book, Benjamin Ginsberg examines the cycle of Jewish success and anti-Semitic attack throughout the history of the Diaspora, with a concentrated focus on the "special case" of America. For Ginsberg, the essential issue is not anti-Jewish feeling, but the conditions under which such sentiment is likely to be used in the political arena. The Fatal Embrace identifies the political dynamics that, historically, have set the stage for the persecution of Jews.
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"We have, at long last, a real historian with real historical skills and no intra-professional ax to grind. . . . All these pieces show the virtues one finds missing in . . . nearly all of anthropological history work but [Stocking's]: extensive and critical use of archival sources, tracing of real rather than merely plausible intellectual connections, and contextualization of ideas and movements in terms of broader social and cultural currents. Stocking writes very clearly; attacks important topics—race and evolution, the influence of scientism, the interaction between anthropology and other disciplines; and is methodologically very sophisticated. Though his main theme is the development of racialism and of opposition to it, his book bears on a range of issues very much alive in anthropology. . . . I would think no apprentice anthropologist ought to be pronounced a journeyman until he or she has absorbed what Stocking has to say."—Clifford Geertz, The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton
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Giving an historical perspective on the changes in scientific thought over the last 100 years, this book explores the study of social evolution and the ongoing search for human nature. The book provides a detailed perspective on the reasons behind the shifting emphasis in social thought from biology, to culture, and again to biology. The book examines why these changes took place, the evidence and people fostering these changes and why students of human nature decided to accept this momentous change in thought. It suggests varying ideologies as the underlying force behind this shift in the study of social science. From Darwin's theory that human social behaviour has drastically evolved from animals, to the belief that human experience serves as the basic differentiating factor in humans, this book provides an examination of the roots of human behaviour.