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Word reading fluency: A transfer appropriate processing account of fluency transfer

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Word reading fluency, as indexed by the fast and accurate identification of single words, predicts both general reading ability and reading comprehension. This study compared the effects of context training and isolated word training on subsequent measures of word reading fluency. Good and poor readers were given 12 repetitions of two sets of words; 48 new words were learned in each condition. Words were presented in a story during context training and on a computer screen during isolated word training. Target words were read in isolation at test, randomly displayed within a series containing 72 untrained words. Results show that words trained in isolation are remembered longer and read faster when presented in isolation at test compared to words trained in context. Theoretical implications are discussed in relation to transfer appropriate processing.
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... Recent work found a similar interaction of learning approach by task demand (or the particular aspect of word knowledge being recruited in the task) in skilled readers: Undergraduate students remembered semantic information better from words read in context and remembered orthographic information better from words that were presented in lists (Martin-Chang & Levesque, 2015). In addition, Martin-Chang and Levy (2006) found that (a) the type of task influenced performance and (b) the method of reading instruction was directly linked with the intended reading outcomes. More specifically, they found that across two reader groups (skilled and unskilled), words learned in isolation were read faster when tested in list form, whereas words learned in context were read faster when tested in context. ...
Article
Learning to read relies upon the integration of phonological, orthographic, and semantic information. However, no studies have investigated how children with varying reading abilities learn phonological-orthographic (PO) and semantic aspects of novel words as a function of both learning approach (LA; e.g., learning new words in isolation or context) and outcome (fluency or comprehension). In this study, 45 children participated in three tasks that differentially tested PO and semantic attributes of novel pseudo-words learned through two learning approaches. Children were classified into groups as having dyslexia (DYS), having specific reading comprehension deficits (S-RCDs), or being typically developing readers (TD). Differences were found between groups, with S-RCD poorer than TD on semantic but not PO components of learning. Children with DYS displayed impaired results on both semantic and PO learning but showed an interaction on task by LA performance. Specifically, in the DYS group, isolation LA yielded better performance on PO learning, while context LA was better for semantic learning. These results indicate that (a) children with S-RCDs have a unique learning profile that is dissociable from DYS and TD and (b) reading impairments are not static but rather influence acquisition of reading skill in different ways, depending on reading profile.
... DeKeyser (1997) showed that practice of comprehension led to proceduralization of comprehension skills, while production practice led to production skills. In a reading fluency study, Martin-Chang and Levy (2005Levy ( , 2006) compared isolatedtraining involving computerized word-naming games and context-training providing learners with the target words in a story. The results showed that learners who were given isolated training scored higher on the test in which individual words were presented on a computer screen, while learners in the context-training group, who were taught words in passages, outperformed the isolated-training group in the reading passage test. ...
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This study explored the impact of contextualized practice on second language (L2) learners’ production of wh -questions in the L2 classroom. It examined the quality of practice (correct vs. incorrect production) and the contribution of declarative knowledge to proceduralization. Thirty-four university-level English as a foreign language learners first completed a declarative knowledge test. Then, they engaged in various communicative activities over five weeks. Their production of wh -questions was coded for accuracy (absence of errors) and fluency (speech rate, mean length of pauses, and repair phenomena). Improvement was measured as the difference between the first and last practice sessions. The results showed that accuracy, speech rate, and pauses improved but with distinct patterns. Regression models showed that declarative knowledge did not predict accuracy or fluency; however, declarative knowledge assisted the learners to engage in targetlike behaviors at the initial stage of proceduralization. Furthermore, whereas production of accurate wh -questions predicted accuracy improvement, it had no impact on fluency.
... On the other hand, word list reading fluency is typically used in reading research and practice to assess one's ability to read aloud (accurately and quickly) multiple unrelated words that are presented simultaneously (typically in columns; e.g., Torgesen et al., 1999). Therefore, although the measures for word recognition versus word list reading fluency differ in the format in which words are presented (individually vs. simultaneously) and processed (in a discrete vs. continuous manner, respectively), word list reading has been treated in theory as similar to individual word recognition, in that both are supposed to index one's ability to identify single words rapidly and accurately without the benefit of contextual information from surrounding words (e.g., Berninger et al., 2010;Katzir et al., 2006;Martin-Chang & Levy, 2006;Schwanenflugel et al., 2006). According to this view, in the absence of higher-order comprehension requirements, reading fluency attainment should be fully determined by one's ability to recognize individual words efficiently, that is, with accuracy and speed (Ehri, 1997(Ehri, , 2005Schwanenflugel et al., 2006;Wolf & Katzir-Cohen, 2001). ...
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This study aimed to examine (a) the developing interrelations between the efficiency of reading individually presented words (i.e., isolated word recognition speed) and the efficiency of reading multiword sequences (i.e., word list and text reading fluency), (b) whether serial digit naming, indexing the ability to process multi-item sequences, accounts for variance in word list and text reading fluency beyond isolated word recognition speed, and (c) if these patterns of relations/effects differ between two alphabetic languages varying in orthographic consistency (English and Greek). In total, 710 Greek- and English-speaking children from Grades 1, 3, and 5 completed a serial digit naming task and a set of reading tasks, including unconnected words presented individually, unconnected words presented in lists, and sentences forming a meaningful passage. Our results showed that the relation between isolated word recognition speed and both word list and text reading fluency gradually decreased across grades, irrespective of contextual processing requirements. Moreover, serial digit naming uniquely predicted both word-list and text reading fluency in Grades 3 and 5, beyond isolated word recognition speed. The same pattern of results was observed across languages. These findings challenge the notion that individual word recognition and reading fluency differ only in text-level processing requirements. Instead, an additional component of processing multi-item sequences appears to emerge by Grade 3, after a basic level of both accuracy and speed in word recognition has been achieved, offering a potential mechanism underlying the transition from dealing with words one at a time to efficient processing of word sequences.
... On the other hand, word list reading fluency is typically used in reading research and practice to assess one's ability to read aloud (accurately and quickly) multiple unrelated words that are presented simultaneously (typically in columns; e.g., Torgesen et al., 1999). Therefore, although the measures for word recognition vs. word list reading fluency differ in the format in which words are presented (individually vs. simultaneously) and processed (in a discrete vs. continuous manner, respectively), word list reading has been treated in theory as similar to individual word recognition, in that both are supposed to index one's ability to identify single words rapidly and accurately without the benefit of contextual information from surrounding words (e.g., Berninger et al., 2010;Katzir et al., 2006;Martin-Chang & Levy, 2006;Schwanenflugel et al., 2006). According to this view, in the absence of higher-order comprehension requirements, reading fluency attainment should be fully determined by one's ability to recognize individual words efficiently, that is, with accuracy and speed (Ehri 1997;2005;Schwanenflugel et al., 2006;Wolf & Katzir-Cohen, 2001). ...
Preprint
This study aimed to examine (a) the developing interrelations between the efficiency of reading individually presented words (i.e., isolated word recognition speed) and the efficiency of reading multiword sequences (i.e., word list and text reading fluency), (b) whether serial digit naming, indexing the ability to process multi-item sequences, accounts for variance in word list and text reading fluency beyond isolated word recognition speed, and (c) if these patterns of relations/effects differ between two alphabetic languages varying in orthographic consistency (English and Greek). In total, 710 Greek- and English-speaking children from Grades 1, 3, and 5 completed a serial digit naming task and a set of reading tasks, including unconnected words presented individually, unconnected words presented in lists, and sentences forming a meaningful passage. Our results showed that the relation between isolated word recognition speed and both word list and text reading fluency gradually decreased across grades, irrespective of contextual processing requirements. Moreover, serial digit naming uniquely predicted both word-list and text reading fluency in Grades 3 and 5, beyond isolated word recognition speed. The same pattern of results was observed across languages. These findings challenge the notion that individual word recognition and reading fluency differ only in text-level processing requirements. Instead, an additional component of processing multi-item sequences appears to emerge by Grade 3, after a basic level of both accuracy and speed in word recognition has been achieved, offering a potential mechanism underlying the transition from dealing with words one at a time to efficient processing of word sequences.
... With regard to phonological encoding, Mulligan and Picklesimer [21] found that phonological led to better recollection than did semantic encoding on a rhyme recognition test. Martin-Chang and Levy [22] found similar results in their experiment, in which words in isolation and in context were presented to elementary school students. Students showed greater reading fluency in the isolated word test after the isolated word training. ...
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Thesis
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Preprint
Full-text available
This study explored the impact of contextualized practice on L2 learners' production of wh-questions in the L2 classroom. It examined the quality of practice (correct vs. incorrect production) and the contribution of declarative knowledge to proceduralization. Thirty-four university-level EFL learners first completed a declarative knowledge test. Then, they engaged in various communicative activities over five weeks. Their production of wh-questions was coded for accuracy (absence of errors) and fluency (speech rate, mean length of pauses, and repair phenomena). Improvement was measured as the difference between the first and last practice sessions. The results showed that accuracy, speech rate, and pauses improved but with distinct patterns. Regression models showed that declarative knowledge did not predict accuracy or fluency; however, declarative knowledge assisted the learners to engage in target-like behaviors at the initial stage of proceduralization. Furthermore, whereas production of accurate wh-questions predicted accuracy improvement, it had no impact on fluency.
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Full-text available
In this study, students in Grade 2 read different sets of words under 4 experimental training conditions (context/feedback, isolation/feedback, context/no-feedback, isolation/no-feedback). Training took place over 10 trials, followed by a spelling test and a delayed reading posttest. Reading in context boosted reading accuracy initially; in contrast, the external support garnered from feedback resulted in heightened reading accuracy throughout training, as well as 1 week later. Different patterns were noted in spelling transfer; first, there was no effect of reading feedback on spelling at posttest. Second, the highest spelling scores were observed when children practiced reading words in isolation versus in context. In sum, providing feedback and/or context helps children read words accurately, which in turn seems to create orthographic representations that are “good enough” to support reading accuracy. However, reading in isolation seems to produce orthographic representations that are higher in quality, and therefore better able to support precise spelling.
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The study was designed to investigate the effect of two repeated reading procedures on second-grade transitional readers' (Chall, 1983) oral reading performance with practiced and unpracticed passages. Seventeen transitional readers were selected on the basis of average or better decoding ability but below-average reading rate and were assigned to one of two types of repeated reading training, using either a read-along procedure or independent practice. Results showed that transitional readers' rate, accuracy, comprehension, and prosodic reading (reading in meaningful phrases) were significantly improved by repeated reading practice regardless of the training procedure employed. Gains in repeated reading of practiced passages transferred to unpracticed, similar passages; however, practice on a single passage was not as effective as practice on a series of passages. Prosodic reading was most facilitated by the read-along procedure. /// [French] Cette recherche veut étudier l'effet produit par deux procédés de lecture répétée sur les performances d'élèves de deuxième année ayant atteint un niveau de lecture dit transitionnel (lequel se réfère à la capacité de découpage des syllabes) lorsqu'ils doivent lire à haute voix certains passages déjà lus et certains inconnus. On a sélectionné 17 de ces lecteurs démontrant une habileté au décodage moyenne ou supérieure, mais une vitesse de lecture sous la moyenne. Ils ont été soumis à l'un des deux types d'apprentissage de la lecture répétée, soit un procédé de lire avec le voix d'un lecteur met en bande, soit la pratique individuelle. La vitesse de lecture, l'exactitude, la compréhension et l'intonation (à la lecture de phrases significatives) ont été grandement améliorées grâce à l'exercice de lecture répétée, peu importe le procédé utilisé. On a observé le transfert du progrès réalisé par la lecture répétée lors de passages connus sur des passages semblables mais inconnus. Toutefois, l'exercice avec un seul passage ne s'est pas révélé aussi efficace que l'exercice avec une série de passages. Le procédé de lecture en groupe permettait de lire avec une meilleure intonation. /// [Spanish] El estudio fue diseñado para investigar el efecto que dos procedimientos de lectura repetida tienen en la abilidad de lectura con pasajes practicados y no practicados en lectores transicionales de segundo año. Se seleccionaron 17 estudiantes transicionales en base de su habilidad superior o promedio para decodificar material combinada esta con una velocidad de lectura por debajo del promedio, y fueron asignados a uno de dos tipos de entrenamiento de lectura repetida, utilizando un procedimiento de lectura simultánea con la voz de un lector registrada en cinta, o práctica independiente. La velocidad de lectura, la exactitud, comprensión, y lectura prosódica (lectura en frases con significado) de los lectores transicionales mejoraron significativamente debido a la práctica de la lectura repetida independientemente del procedimiento de entrenamiento empleado. Las mejoras en la lectura repetida de pasajes practicados fue transferida a pasajes similares no practicados; con todo, la práctica de un solo pasaje no fue tan efectiva como la práctica de un serie de pasajes. La lectura simultánea con otro lector fue el procedimiento que más facilitó la lectura prosódica. /// [German] Diese studie wurde entworfen, um den Einfluß von zwei Wiederholungslesen-Vorgängen bei mündlichem Vorlesen von geübten und ungeübten Abschnitten bei Uebergangslesern im zweiten Schuljahr zu erforschen. Siebzehn Uebergangsleser wurden ausgewählt aufgrund von Durchschnitts- oder besserer Entzifferungsfähigkeit, jedoch aufgrund weniger als durchschnittlicher Lesefähigkeit, und diese wurden einer von den beiden Typen von Wiederholungslesen-Klassen zugeteilt, wobei entweder eine Zusammen-Lesen-Prozedur oder aber unabhängiges Lesen durchgeführt wurden. Die Leseschnelle, die Genauigkeit, das Verständnis und Silbenlesen (Lesen in logischen Sätzen) von Uebergangslesern wurde wesentlich verbessert durch wiederholtes Lesen, gleich welche Uebungsmethode benutzt wurde. Fortschritte in wiederholtem Lesen von geübten Abschnitten wurden auf ungeübte Abschnitte übertragen; allerdings war das Ueben eines einzelnen Abschnittes nicht so wirkungsvoll wie das Ueben einer Serie von Abschnitten. Silbenlesen wurde am meisten gefördert durch das Miteinander-Lesen.
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First graders practiced reading 10 unfamiliar function words (i.e., might, which, enough). Half of the children studied the words embedded in printed sentences. Half studied the words in unstructured lists of words and then listened to sentences comprised of the words. Posttest measures revealed that the sentence readers learned more about the syntactic/semantic identities of function words, whereas list readers remembered their orthographic identities better and could pronounce the words faster and more accurately in isolation. Findings show that there are multiple aspects of printed words to be learned by beginning readers. Which aspect gets learned depends upon how the words are practiced. Results are interpreted to support a theory of printed word learning in which various identities of words become amalgamated in lexical memory as a consequence of reading experiences with the words./// [French] Des élèves de cours préparatoire ont pratiqué la lecture de dix mots de fonction qui ne leur étaient pas familiers (par exemple: pourrait (might), qui (which), assez (enough). La moitié des enfants a étudié les mots placés dans des phrases imprimées. L'autre moitié a étudié les mots dans des listes de mots sans structure, et ensuite a écouté des phrases comprenant ces mots. Des mesures post-test ont révélé que les lecteurs de phrases ont plus appris sur les identités syntaxiques et sémantiques des mots de fonction, tandis que les lecteurs de listes se sont mieux souvenus de leurs identités orthographiques et ont pu prononcer les mots plus vite et de manière plus précise en isolement. Les découvertes montrent qu'il y a des aspects multiples des mots imprimés qui peuvent être appris par des lecteurs débutants. L'aspect qui est appris dépend de la méthode utilisée pour pratiquer les mots. Les résultats sont interprétés pour soutenir une théorie d'instruction de mots imprimés selon laquelle différentes identités de mots sont amalgamées dans la mémoire lexicologique à la suite des expériences de lecture avec les mots./// [Spanish] Alumnos de primer grado practicaron la lectura de 10 palabras de función previamente desconocidas (v.gr.: el que, bastante). La mitad del grupo de niños estudió las palabras incluidas en oraciones impresas. La otra mitad estudió las palabras en listas no estructuradas, escuchando luego oraciones compuestas por estas palabras. Medidas de examenes que siguieron revelaron que los lectores de oraciones aprendieron más sobre las identidades sintáctico-semánticas de palabras de función, mientras que los lectores de listas recordaron mejor las identidades ortográficas, pronunciando las palabras aisladas más rápidamente y con más precisión. Los resultados muestran que existe una multiplicidad de aspectos de la palabra impresa que el principiante necesita aprender. Qué aspecto deberá aprenderse, dependerá de cómo se practican las palabras. Se interpretan los resultados para respaldar una teoría de aprendizaje de la palabra impresa en la que las varias identidades de palabras se amalgaman en la memoria lexicológica como consecuencia de la práctica de lectura con las palabras.
Article
Studied the effect of presenting 4 printed words in 4 different ways on the acquisition of reading responses of 164 first and second graders. The printed word was presented alone, in association with a picture, embedded in a sentence, or in a combination of sentence plus a picture. The study attempted to resolve the seeming conflict between Samuels' focal attention theory and Goodman's findings that presenting words in a context facilitates children in identifying the words. The focal attention theory contends that picture and context cues deter acquisition of reading responses because they enable the child to identify the word in practice without focusing on its graphic features. Comparing both on trials to a criterion and on correct responses on test trials, the subjects scored best on word alone, next on word plus picture, third on word plus sentence, and worst on word plus sentence and picture. The results are seen as support for Samuels' theory./// [French] A étudié comment une présentation de 4 mots imprimés de 4 façons différentes a pu agir sur l'acquisition de réactions à la lecture chez 164 élèves de première et de deuxième année. On a presenté le mot d'abord par lui-même, ensuite associé à une image, puis inserré dans une phrase et enfin dans une combination de phrase et d'image. Le but était de résoudre le soi-disant conflit entre la théorie de Samuels d'une part sur l'attention focale et d'autre part les recherches de Goodman qui a découvert qu'une présentation de mots dans un contexte facilite l'identification de mots par les enfants. Par contre, la théorie d'attention focale prétend que les suggestions proférées par l'image et le contexte sont autant d'obstacles à l'acquisition des réactions à la lecture, puisqu'elles permettent à l'enfant de n'identifier le mot qu'en pratique sans faire attention à son aspect graphique. Une comparaison des 2 théories au cours d'épreuves selon un même critère et selon la fréquence de réponses correctes montre que les élèves ont réussi le mieux avec la présentation du mot isolé, et de moins en moins bien quand on a présenté le mot avec une image, dans une phrase, ou avec une image et une phrase. Ces résultats semblent soutenir la théorie de Samuels./// [Spanish] Estudio el efecto que la presentación de 4 palabras impresas de 4 maneras diferentes tiene en la adquisición de respuestas de lectura en 164 niños de primer y segundo grado. La palabra impresa se presentaba sola, junto a un dibujo, inserta en una oración, o en una combinación de oración y dibujo. El estudio pretendia resolver el aparente conflicto que existe entre la teoría de atención focal de Samuels y los descubrimientos de Goodman, en el sentido de que la presentación de palabras dentro de un contexto, facilita a los niños la identificación de las palabras. La teoría de atención focal sostiene que los indicios del dibujo y del contexto, disuaden la adquisición de respuestas de lectura porque permiten que el niño identifique la palabra en la práctica, sin enfocarse en sus caracteres gráficos. Poniendo a prueba tanto el criterio como las respuestas correctas examinadas, los sujetos obtuvieron los mejores resultados en la palabra sola, luego en la palabra y el dibujo, en tercer lugar en la palabra y la oración, y los peores resultados correspondieron a la palabra junto con la oración y el dibujo. Los resultados indican una sustentación de la teoría de Samuels.
Article
Beginning readers' reported word identification strategies for identifying unfamiliar words in text were examined in relation to reading achievement, reading-related skills, and academic self-perceptions. Children who were participating in a three-year longitudinal study of reading acquisition in a whole language instructional context were placed in two groups according to their reported word identification strategies obtained towards the end of their first year of schooling. Results indicated that children who reported using word-based strategies showed superior reading and reading-related performance, and reported more positive self-efficacy beliefs in reading and more positive academic self-concepts than children who reported using text-based strategies. The results are discussed in terms of predictions stemming from the different theoretical assumptions about reading acquisition that underlie the code-emphasis and whole language approaches to beginning reading instruction.