Article

Diversity of Rhizobium-Phaseolus vulgaris symbiosis: overview and perspectives. Plant Soil

Plant and Soil (Impact Factor: 2.95). 04/2003; 252(1):11-23. DOI: 10.1023/A:1024199013926

ABSTRACT

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has become a cosmopolitan crop, but was originally domesticated in the Americas and has been grown in Latin America for several thousand years. Consequently an enormous diversity of bean nodulating bacteria have developed and in the centers of origin the predominant species in bean nodules is R. etli. In some areas of Latin America, inoculation, which normally promotes nodulation and nitrogen fixation is hampered by the prevalence of native strains. Many other species in addition to R. etli have been found in bean nodules in regions where bean has been introduced. Some of these species such as R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, R. gallicum bv. phaseoli and R. giardinii bv. phaseoli might have arisen by acquiring the phaseoli plasmid from R. etli. Others, like R. tropici, are well adapted to acid soils and high temperatures and are good inoculants for bean under these conditions. The large number of rhizobia species capable of nodulating bean supports that bean is a promiscuous host and a diversity of bean-rhizobia interactions exists. Large ranges of dinitrogen fixing capabilities have been documented among bean cultivars and commercial beans have the lowest values among legume crops. Knowledge on bean symbiosis is still incipient but could help to improve bean biological nitrogen fixation.

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    • "Results indicate that in very young leaves, ethylene is not able to induce leaf senescence, but when the leaves reach a certain level of maturity, ethylene will induce senescence, and as senescence is progressing, the process will run independently of ethylene presence (Fan et al., 2000). Harvested leafy vegetables produce small amounts of ethylene; however, senescence is accelerated if they are stored together with ethylene producing products (Ludford, 2003; Martinez-Romero et al., 2007; Whitaker, 2003). Ethylene can also motivate and accelerate wounding of membranes, loss of chlorophyll and vitamin C, toughening, and undesirable flavor changes (Kader, 2005). "

    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
    • "Nodulation genes of B. paxllaeri and B. icense belong to clade IV, which is found in rhizobia isolated mostly in subtropical regions from a wide range of legume plants growing in the Mediterranean region, Australia and China (Cardinale et al., 2008; Durán et al., 2013; Ormeño-Orrillo et al., 2013; Stepkowski et al., 2012). It is now recognized that most species of Phaseolus associate preferentially with Bradyrhizobium and only a minority, like P. vulgaris and P. coccineus, prefer to enter in symbiosis with fast growing rhizobial genera like Rhizobium or Sinorhizobium (Martínez-Romero, 2003; Servín- Garcidueñas et al., 2014). Occasionally, fast-growing rhizobia have been isolated from Lima bean in Peru (Matos-Cuzcano et al., 1998; Ormeño et al., 2007; Zúñiga-Dávila, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Like other leguminous plants, the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) establishes a mutualistic symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria commonly known as rhizobia. These bacteria elicit the formation of nodule structures on the roots where they become intracellular and fix atmospheric nitrogen for the plant. The Lima bean shows a preference to form nodules with slow-growing bacteria of the genus Bradyrhizobium unlike its congeneric species, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), which prefer fast-growing rhizobial strains. P. lunatus was independently domesticated in the Andes and Mesoamerica by pre Columbian societies. Knowledge of the genetic biodiversity of Lima bean symbionts has increased in recent years with data obtained in its domestication areas. In Peru, Lima beans host Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri, Bradyrhizobium icense, and a yet unnamed genospecies. At least seven Bradyrhizobium genospecies have been found in P. lunatus nodules in Mexico. This rhizobial richness indicates a relative promiscuity of Lima bean in contrast to previous statements that this plant was a restricted host for nodulation. Interestingly, Mexican and Peruvian bradyrhizobia are distinct, perhaps in relation to the different plant gene pools from which domestication occurred in those geographic areas. Besides Bradyrhizobium, other rhizobial genera such as Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium can be found in Lima bean nodules in its domestication centers and in other areas. Although effective nodulation with these genera has been reported, the ecological relevance of those associations is presently unknown.
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    • "Also genotype-specific selection by legume depends on the diversity of the rhizobial population present in the soil (Amarger 2001). The large number of rhizobial population that nodulated cowpea in the three locations supports the fact that cowpea is a promiscuous host (Martínez-Romero 2003). Also,Nour et al. (1994)reported high specificity of rhizobial strains for TGx soybean genotype and that soybean genotypes are more specific in the type of rhizobia they nodulate with than cowpea. "
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    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science
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