ArticlePDF Available

Maladaptive Daydreaming: A Qualitative Inquiry

Article

Maladaptive Daydreaming: A Qualitative Inquiry

Abstract

Maladaptive daydreaming (MD) is extensive fantasy activity that replaces human interaction and/or interferes with academic, interpersonal, or vocational functioning. This qualitative inquiry explored the nature and experience of MD. Six patients in a trauma practice were identified as displaying MD. Four participants were diagnosed as suffering from a dissociative disorder; two were given the diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder. Cross-sectional analysis of respondents' verbatim transcripts yielded nine themes clustered into three categories (Functions, Themes, and Dynamics) that best captured the fantasizing experience. Identified MD functions included Disengagement from Stress and Pain by Mood Enhancement and Wish Fulfillment Fantasies; and Companionship, Intimacy, and Soothing. Recurrent MD themes were Violence; Idealized Self; Power and Control; Captivity; Rescue and Escape; and Sexual Arousal. Motifs that were classified as describing MD dynamics were Onset and Kinesthetic elements. Although MD seemed to have been preceded by a normal childhood propensity for creative imagination, aversive circumstances were seen to have contributed to the development of MD. Theoretical explanations for the development and function of MD are discussed.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Maladaptive Daydreaming (MD) is a proposed mental disorder characterized by excessive, compulsive immersion in vivid and complex fantastical daydreamed plots, generating intense emotional involvement, often accompanied by stereotypical movements (1)(2)(3). This addictive absorption in daydreaming becomes maladaptive as it consumes many hours a day, generates shame or guilt, hinders achievement of shortand long-term goals or tasks, and overall causes clinically significant distress and/or interferes with functioning in social or occupational realms (2,(4)(5)(6)(7). ...
... Maladaptive Daydreaming (MD) is a proposed mental disorder characterized by excessive, compulsive immersion in vivid and complex fantastical daydreamed plots, generating intense emotional involvement, often accompanied by stereotypical movements (1)(2)(3). This addictive absorption in daydreaming becomes maladaptive as it consumes many hours a day, generates shame or guilt, hinders achievement of shortand long-term goals or tasks, and overall causes clinically significant distress and/or interferes with functioning in social or occupational realms (2,(4)(5)(6)(7). Maladaptive Daydreamers (MDers) report a strong urge to daydream whenever they can and annoyance whenever they cannot, and, repeated unsuccessful efforts to control, cut back, or stop daydreaming, like other behavioral addictions (4,7). ...
... Scores over 40 suggest suspected clinical-level MD [(3) and see corrigendum]. 2 For the clinical interviews, we used the Structured Clinical Interview for Maladaptive Daydreaming (SCIMD) (3). This assessment tool was designed based on the proposed diagnostic criteria for MD and was carried out in a structured interview format based on the SCID (24) for DSM-5. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Maladaptive Daydreaming (MD) is a recently identified psychological disorder, 28 characterized by excessively and addictively engaging in vivid, narrative, intensely emotional fantasy 29 activity, at times with the aid of music and/or repetitive movements, causing distress and functional 30 impairment. Over 100,000 self-diagnosed individuals are active online and thousands of them have 31 been researched; yet there are no studies using clinical interviews on large, systematic general (non-32 MD) samples, to assess the estimated prevalence of this suggested disorder, and establish norms for 33 its main psychometric tool. 34 Methods: Four independent Israeli samples (three student samples, and one sample representing the 35 general Jewish-Israeli population; total N=1,023) self-reported MD. In two samples, those exceeding 36 the cutoff score for suspected MD were invited for a structured clinical interview. 37 Results: The skewness of most items of the 16-item Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-16) 38 supports the notion of MD as a binary construct rather than a normally distributed trait. In the 39 community sample, 4.2% exceeded the cutoff for suspected MD. Rates were higher when focusing 40 on the young adult age group or student samples (5.5%-8.5%), suggesting a likely age effect. 41 Following clinical interviews, only 60% of interviewed respondents met criteria for diagnosis, 42 suggesting a true point-prevalence of 2.5% in the Israeli-Jewish population. 43 Conclusions: This is the first systematic clinical evaluation of the prevalence of MD. In an Israeli 44 sample, a point-prevalence of 2.5% was found, like several other internalizing psychiatric syndromes. 45 This result, along with the non-normal nature of item distribution, both support the validity of MD as 46 a psychological disorder, which should be considered as a potential addition to future psychiatric 47 diagnostic manuals.
... The literature has presented case studies related to maladaptive daydreaming experience, (Bigelsen, Lehrfeld, Jopp & Sommer, 2016;Glausiusz, 2011;Schupak & Rosenthal, 2009;Somer, 2002Somer, , 2013. Case studies have been mainly used to highlight people's struggles with their maladaptive daydreaming (Glausiusz, 2011;Schupak & Rosenthal, 2009;Somer, 2002;Witkin, 2019). ...
... The literature has presented case studies related to maladaptive daydreaming experience, (Bigelsen, Lehrfeld, Jopp & Sommer, 2016;Glausiusz, 2011;Schupak & Rosenthal, 2009;Somer, 2002Somer, , 2013. Case studies have been mainly used to highlight people's struggles with their maladaptive daydreaming (Glausiusz, 2011;Schupak & Rosenthal, 2009;Somer, 2002;Witkin, 2019). The case studies provide description of people's struggles with concentration, as a result of the excessive daydreaming. ...
... Most of the research into maladaptive daydreaming has explored the maladaptive nature of the experience, whereby the experience has been expressed as entirely dysfunctional. Initially, maladaptive daydreaming was linked to childhood trauma (Somer, 2002). Somer, who named the phenomenon, depicted maladaptive daydreaming as a coping tool, which might have been developed in early childhood, in order to cope with adversity. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis presents an original contribution to knowledge in the form of the Differential Emotional Processing Theory of Maladaptive Daydreaming. This theory provides new theoretical understanding of the maladaptive daydreaming experience. maladaptive daydreaming is a widely researched topic, but research into daydreaming, that is not maladaptive, but absorptive and vividly experienced, is newly emerging, with a need for more research to be conducted. Uncertainty is evident in how to theoretically explain maladaptive daydreaming beyond psychopathological suggestions. A constructivist grounded theory methodology enabled the researcher and 16 participants to co-construct a theory that provides a theoretical understanding of maladaptive daydreaming. In line with human research requirements, ethical approval was obtained from the Charles Sturt University Human Research Ethics Board (study one: case studies approval number: H17118) and (study two: forum approval number: H18078). The research data was derived from two research stages. These were two case study interviews and an online forum that involved 16 adult participants. Extensive coding was carried out across both research stages involving memo writing and a simultaneous literature review, along with an updated literature review in 2019 to 2022. The theory presented in this thesis relates to maladaptive daydreaming, positing that maladaptive daydreaming is one pathway of a wider construct ‘absorptive daydreaming’, with features that are maladaptive, whilst the other pathway is one that relates to emotional growth that is adaptive, through emotional processing factors. Key contributions of this thesis include: a move towards seeing maladaptive daydreaming as a potential emotional processing mechanism; ideas for meeting emotional processing needs in other ways than maladaptive daydreaming; and, moving treatment towards emotional processing rather than focusing on psychopathology. In conclusion, this thesis presents the first constructed grounded theory of maladaptive daydreaming. The theory provides a new theoretical understanding that may be able to be tested and extended into other populations in order to develop interventions that may assist the worldwide maladaptive daydreaming community. This thesis’s theory of maladaptive daydreaming and the wider construct of ‘absorptive daydreaming’ suggests that maladaptive daydreaming research would benefit from adopting broader understandings of maladaptive daydreaming, to include further areas of daydreaming experience, such as immersive daydreaming, which may be the emotional growth pathway within the current theory, that was found within this current study.
... Among these groups at-risk of psychological distress during the pandemic are maladaptive daydreamers (MDers; Musetti et al., 2021). Somer (2002) was the first author who identified and defined maladaptive daydreaming (MD) as "extensive fantasy activity that replaces human interaction and/or interferes with academic, interpersonal, or vocational functioning" (p. 199). ...
... Starting from the idea that MD is associated with a peculiar psychic functioning, based on intensive imaginary activity with a compulsive nature, used to deal with stressful life circumstances and traumatic experience (Bigelsen & Schupak, 2011;Somer, 2002;Somer et al., 2016aSomer et al., , 2016b, we were interested in exploring the night-dreaming functioning of probable MDers compared to non-MDers. In our approach, it is important to investigate the contents and the functions of the dreams at the same time, looking at dreaming as an index of mental functioning in accordance with Bion's (1962) theory, focused on the elaboration of an emotional experience (Grotstein, 2000;Margherita et al., 2015Margherita et al., , 2017Margherita et al., , 2020. ...
Article
Starting from the idea that dreaming could be considered an index of the psychological health of individuals regarding the COVID-19 outbreak, a major risk of psychological maladjustment has been registered for maladaptive daydreamers (MDers; i.e., people with a compulsive fantasy activity associated with distress and psychological impairment). Nevertheless, there is a gap in literature about dreaming in MDers in general and particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dreaming and dream content between probable MDers and non-MDers during the COVID- 19 lockdown in Italy. A total of 3,857 Italian adults (664 probable MDers), completed the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-16) and the Mannheim Dream Questionnaire (MADRE). Among them, 1,095 participants (222 probable MDers) decided to recount their dreams, subsequently analysed through a cluster analysis performed by T-LAB software. Significantly higher levels of dream recall, emotional intensity of dreams, nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, recurring nightmares about daytime, lucid dreams, interest toward dreams, problem solving and creative dreams, and dreams affecting daytime mood emerged in probable MDers compared to non-MDers. No differences were observed in the emotional tone of dreams. From the quali–quantitative analysis of dream narratives, similar themes emerged in probable MDers and non-MDers, except for a cluster named Dreaming the loss of others, where the non-MDers variable is highly represented. Our results highlight some significant differences between probable MDers and non-MDers with respect to dreaming activity. The massive use of dream activity as an affective regulator emerges for both probable MDers and non-MDers during lockdown.
... Some authors have also focused on cognitive control as key to separate normative from dysfunctional forms (Seli et al., 2013(Seli et al., , 2015 and several studies have indicated that unintentional daydreaming is more frequent in individuals with poor executive functioning, influencing their ability to remain on task and address upcoming goals (Kane et al., 2007;McVay & Kane, 2009). In some cases, daydreaming may even be an intrusive and hardly controllable phenomenon which replaces real-life interactions, a condition conceptualized as 'maladaptive daydreaming' by Somer (2002). Maladaptive daydreaming differs from daydreaming due to a higher level of unrealistic content, elevated recurrence, difficulties in controlling the episodes and higher risk of affecting life goals (Bigelsen et al., 2016) and is also often accompanied by kinesthetic activity (Bigelsen & Schupak, 2011). ...
... (Podsakoff et al., 2003;Steenkamp et al., 2010). Lastly, daydreaming as defined and investigated by the DDFS cannot be considered the same as maladaptive daydreaming as defined by Somer (2002). To gain more insight on such peculiar clinical disorder and on dysfunctional forms of daydreaming, future studies would benefit from the use of clinicianrated instruments or measures evaluating functional impairment and perceived distress. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Daydreaming is a cognitive phenomenon characterized by the redirection of attention from the external world to inner representations. Although serving several adaptive functions, excessive daydreaming has been related to emotional problems and poor psychosocial adjustment. During adolescence, this phenomenon has been scarcely explored as potential psychopathological correlate. This study aims to explore daydreaming frequency and association with psychopathological symptoms in a non‐referred population. Methods: Participants were adolescents from a community sample (N = 251). Daydreaming was assessed through the Daydreaming Frequency Scale (DDFS). Youth Self‐Report (YSR) and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used as self‐reports to evaluate psychopathological problems and adaptive functioning. Results: Excessive daydreaming was present in 12.7% of participants. DDFS scores were significantly elevated in respondents with clinical scores for internalizing, depressive, obsessive–compulsive, and post‐traumatic stress problems. Symptom severity correlated positively with the DDFS. Higher daydreaming was also associated with emotional symptoms, conduct problems and total difficulties on the SDQ. Conclusions: Adolescents who daydream show increased depressive, obsessive–compulsive, and post‐traumatic stress symptoms. Possible cognitive processes at play in the relationship between daydreaming and psychopathology are discussed. Daydreaming may represent a silent psychopathological index that deserves better recognition in the clinical practice and in mental health initiatives for adolescents.
... Maladaptive Daydreaming (MD) is a clinical condition, characterized by persistent and 2 recurrent absorption in vivid, detailed fantasies, that interferes with interpersonal, academic 3 or vocational functioning (Somer, 2002). Differently from MD, daydreaming is a normal and 4 widespread mental activity (Klinger, 1990) characterized by a conscious off-task thought 5 (Smallwood et al., 2003) which an individual can develop as an internalized form of play 6 (Singer, 1975). ...
... Hem dissosiyatif vakaların maladaptif dalgınlıkları hem de depresyon ve travma sonrası stres bozukluğu hastalarının ruminatif meşguliyetleri, entegre edilmemiş psikopatolojik bir sürecin yansımaları olarak ifade edilebilmektedir. 45, 46 Öztürk, travmatik anıların adeta bir "travmatik obsesyon" fırtınasıyla her an yüzlerce kez zihne hücum ederek dissosiye bireylerin bütün zamanlarını işgal ettiğini hatta kuşattığını önemle vurgulamaktadır ki travmatize bireylerin kendilerine zarar verme davranışları ise dissosiyojen bir savunma olarak intihar girişimlerine bir engel niteliği taşımaktadır yani intihar girişimlerinden kişiyi belirli oranda uzaklaştırmaktadır. 1,6,9,47 Dissosiyatif yaşantıların -özellikle derealizasyonolumlu etkileri, birçok insanın travma karşısında belirli ölçüde ruhsal açıdan stabilitesini korumasına yardımcı olmaktadır. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
ÖZET Modern psikotravmatoloji: travma ve dissosiyasyon çalışmaları, erken yaşta başlayan kronik ve kompleks çocukluk çağı travmalarının hem kısa hem de uzun dönemli ruhsal sonuçları ile karakterize olan dissosiyatif bozukluklar ve travma sonrası stres bozukluğu temel alınarak gerçekleştirilmektedir. Olumsuz yaşam olayları ile en yakın ilişkiyi gösteren dissosiyatif bozukluklar nve travma sonrası stres bozukluğu, modern psikotravmatoloji uygulamalarının temel bileşenlerini ve ana psikiyatrik tanılarını oluşturmaktadır. Klinik psikoloji, psikiyatri ve psikotarih disiplinleri ile eşlenik bir zeminde bilimsel araştırmaların yürütüldüğü ve hem bir travma terapisti hem de bir dissoanalist ve bilim ikonu olan Pierre Janet’in dissosiyasyon çalışmalarının başlangıç noktası kabul edildiği modern psikotravmatoloji, travma kökenli olaylarla ilişkili hem insanların hem de toplumların dissosiyatif psikososyal tepkileri ile bu olumsuz yaşam olaylarının psikoterapilerine ve önleme stratejilerine odaklanan psikolojinin klinik kökenli esas çalışma alanı yöneliminde Öztürk tarafından tanımlanmıştır. Janet’in modern psikotravmatoloji konusundaki fikir ve düşünceleri, o dönemden günümüze olan zamandizinselde birçok kuram ve tedavi yöntemi için bir rehber ya da kılavuz niteliği taşımaktadır. Psikotravmatolojinin modern ve bütüncül bir perspektifte gelişim göstermesinde Janet’in teorik görüşlerini temel alarak Hilgard’ın yapılandırdığı “Yeni Dissosiyasyon Teorisi” önemli bir köşebaşı taşı olarak fonksiyon görmektedir. Hilgard’ın teorisinde, dissosiyatif fenomenlerin sadece histeri ile sınırlı kalmayan “evrensel” bir fenomen olduğu net olarak ortaya konulmuştur ki “aktüel hayatın dissosiyasyonu” kavramı da bu doğrultuda ön plana çıkmıştır. Hilgard, bilincin tekliğinin bir yanılsama olduğunu ve normal zihinsel işlevler içerisinde dissosiyatif bir yelpazenin bulunduğunu önemle vurgulamaktadır ki bu vurgu, dissosiyasyonun kendisini olağanlaştırmaktadır. Uluslararası ve ulusal bilimsel platformlarda modern psikotravmatoloji: travma ve dissosiyasyon çalışmalarıyla birçok ruh sağlığı uzmanına akademik ve klinik yönelimde rehberlik eden Öztürk tarafından geliştirilen “Psikotoplumsal Bilinç Alyansı Kuramı” ya da diğer ismiyle “Travmatik Anılardan Uzaklaştırıcı Olağan Yaşam Deneyimleri Kuramı” ile “Dissosiyatif Yansıtımlı Kimlik Geçişi Kuramı” bu çalışmada detaylı bir şekilde açıklanmaktadır. Aynı çalışmada; aktüel hayatın dissosiyasyonu: normatif dissosiyasyon teorisi, eşbilinçlilik, bilinçli tekillik, çift bilinçlilik ve kolektif kimlik fenomenleri, psikotravmatolojik ve bütüncül bir eksende ele alınmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Psikotravmatoloji; psikotoplumsal bilinç alyansı kuramı; dissosiyatif yansıtımlı kimlik geçişi kuramı; dissosiyatif bozukluklar; çocukluk çağı travmaları; neodissosiyasyon teorisi; normatif dissosiyasyon; eşbilinçlilik; çift bilinçlilik; kolektif kimlik; dissoanaliz ABSTRACT Modern psychotraumatology, trauma and dissociation studies are carried out on the basis of dissociative disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder, which are characterized by both short-term and long-term psychological consequences of chronic and complex childhood traumas. Dissociative disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder, which are most closely related to negative life events, are the main components and the primary psychiatric diagnoses of modern psychotraumatology practices. Modern psychotraumatology, in which scientific research is carried out on a congruent basis with the disciplines of clinical psychology, psychiatry and psychohistory, whose starting point is the studies of Pierre Janet on dissociation, who is both a trauma therapist and a dissoanalyst and a scientific icon, has been defined as “the clinically oriented main field of study of psychology that focuses on the dissociative psychosocial reactions of both people and societies related to traumatic events, and the psychotherapy and prevention strategies of these negative life events” by Öztürk. Janet's ideas and thoughts on modern psychotraumatology have been a guide for many theories and treatment methods in the chronology from that period to the present. The “Neodissociation Theory” created by Hilgard, based on Janet's theoretical views, functions as an important cornerstone in the development of psychotraumatology in a modern and holistic perspective. In Hilgard's theory, it has been clearly demonstrated that dissociative phenomena are “universal” and not limited to hysteria, and the concept of “dissociation of actual life” has come to the fore in this direction. Hilgard emphasizes that the unity of consciousness is an illusion and that there is a dissociative spectrum within normal mental functions, which normalizes dissociation itself. The “Theory of Psychosocial Consciousness Alliance;” or the “Theory of Traumatic Memory Repellent Ordinary Life Experiences” and the “Theory of Dissociative Projective Identity Transition” developed by Öztürk, who academically and clinically guided many mental health professionals with his work on modern psychotraumatology, namely, trauma and dissociation studies in international and national scientific platforms, is explained in detail in this study. In this study, the dissociation of actual life, that is, the “normative dissociation theory”, the phenomena of co-consciousness, conscious singularity, dual consciousness and collective identity are discussed on a psychotraumatological and holistic axis. Keywords: Psychotraumatology; theory of psychosocial consciousness alliance; theory of dissociative projective identity transition; dissociative disorders; childhood trauma; neodissociation theory; normative dissociation; co-consciousness; dual consciousness; collective identity; dissoanalysis
... Maladaptive daydreaming (MD) refers to compulsive fantasy activity characterized by immersive imagination and shifting of attention toward a rich inner world while neglecting social, occupational, and academic activities (Bigelsen & Schupak, 2011;Somer, 2002). It is a form of behavioral addiction embodied by a constant urge to daydream and to be absorbed in a self-directed imaginary world (Pietkiewicz et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Maladaptive daydreaming (MD) entails excessive immersion and engagement in complex fantasy worlds, causing distress and impairing functioning. Maladaptive Daydreamers often report that existing diagnostic labels are unhelpful for them. Previous studies reported high rates of comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among persons with MD, raising the question of their separateness. The present study explored whether MD differs essentially from ADHD by examining an ADHD sample, hypothesizing a much lower incidence of MD. Method: Adults diagnosed with ADHD (N=83) were assessed for ADHD symptoms, MD, depression, loneliness, and self-esteem. Participants who exceeded the study’s cutoff score for suspected MD were invited to participate in a structured diagnostic interview for MD. Results: In accordance with the hypothesis, only 20.5% of the ADHD sample met the proposed diagnostic criteria for MD. Compared to ADHD-only participants, this subgroup presented increased depression, loneliness, and lowered self-esteem. Conclusion: MD has unique clinical characteristics that are distinct from ADHD. We suggest that in some cases presenting with ADHD symptoms, an MD conceptualization may better explain the clinical picture. Future research should aim at a better differentiation of daydreaming, ADHD, and related constructs such as mind-wandering.
... Indeed, like dreams, which are predominantly negative, stories tend toward strife, stress, and drama because they are threat rehearsal spaces (Revonsuo 2000;Pesonen et al. 2020). These imaginings can become pathological (Somer 2002) but are not generally ego trip indulgences of wishful thinking. They are ways of pragmatic sense-making. ...
Article
A mythopoetic paradigm or perspective sees the world primarily as a dramatic story of competing personal intentions, rather than a system of objective impersonal laws. Asma (2017) argued that our contemporary imaginative cognition is evolutionarily conserved-it has structural and functional similarities to premodern Homo sapiens’s cognition. This article will (i) outline the essential features of mythopoetic cognition or adaptive imagination, (ii) delineate the adaptive sociocultural advantages of mythopoetic cognition, (iii) explain the phylogenetic and ontogenetic mechanisms that give rise to human mythopoetic mind (i.e., genetically endowed simulation and associational systems that underwrite diverse symbolic systems), (iv) show how mythopoetic cognition challeng­es contemporary trends in cognitive science and philosophy, and (v) recognize and outline empirical approaches for a new cognitive science of the imagination.
Article
Background and objectives The counter-app method is often used to assess the frequency of intrusions. The method requires the participants to press a button on a smartphone whenever an intrusion occurs during a predefined time period. We evaluated the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the counter-app method in two studies. Methods In the first study, we assessed the frequency of intrusions with a counter-app method, thought-sampling method, and a retrospective measure in N = 77 students. Additionally, we assessed retrospectively-estimated duration, percentage of time, intensity, and intrusiveness of intrusions. The second study (N = 65) was identical to the first except the thinking-aloud method replaced the thought-sampling method, and additionally we assessed behavioral neutralizing. Results The counter-app frequency was positively correlated with the convergent (thought-sampling and thinking-aloud frequencies, and retrospectively-estimated frequencies of intrusions) and predictive (behavioral neutralizing) validity criteria. The correlations between counter-app frequency and discriminant validity criteria (retrospectively-estimated duration, percentage of time, intensity, and intrusiveness of intrusions) were not smaller than the correlations between counter-app frequency and convergent validity criteria. Limitations We evaluated the predictive validity of the counter-app method using a criterion typical of obsessive-compulsive disorder research. Thus, the result for predictive validity might not transfer to other areas. Conclusions Our findings support convergent and predictive, but not discriminant, validity of the counter-app method. The counter-app method can validly assess the frequency of intrusions but is not appropriate if the study requires the differentiation of frequency from other constructs such as duration.
Research
Full-text available
ABSTACT-Daydreaming, a common mental activity, can be excessive and accompanied by distress and impaired functioning in daily life. Daydream usually occurs as a coping mechanism in response to trauma, loneliness or abuse. Due to quarantine, many of us are facing challenges that can be stressful, lonesome and cause strong emotions which in turn lead to daydreams in adult and children. Those who suffer from this condition reportedly spend almost 60% of their waking hours in imaginary world of their own creation.
Chapter
Perhaps symbolic of some deep irony in the history of psychology, the death of William James in 1910 coincided with the dramatic emergence of behaviorism in American psychology and with the turn from sensitive introspection toward a kind of mindless but well-documented motor responsiveness that characterized behaviorism. The young psychologists who emerged during the next half-century, establishing their bastions and rat-laboratories in Indiana, Iowa, and dozens of the land-grant universities scattered over the face of America, had no patience with the quiet speculations about the self and consciousness of William James. Indeed, led by Watson, they mocked the dry efforts of Titchner and his students to separate out sensation, perception, and imagery in consciousness by introspecting about the degree of ”purpleness” of a light. American psychologists wanted facts, hard data, and precise methodologies that could lead to replicable experiments.
Article
Throughout the history of hypnosis, excellent hypnotic subjects (sometimes referred to as somnambules or somnambulists) have been studied in terms of how they respond and what they experience when given suggestions to hallucinate, to age regress, to experience anesthesia, to go into a trance, etc. Although their behavior in a hypnotic or suggestive setting has been looked at extensively, there has been very little research in which they were intensively interviewed to discover how their extremely high responsiveness to suggestions is related to their life histories.
Article
Current models of test anxiety emphasize the mediating role of negative and disruptive internal cognitive activity. Highly test anxious students have been reported to engage in more negative thoughts and fewer positive thoughts during an actual exam. The present study examined the relationship between school related daydreams and level of test anxiety. It was hypothesized that daydream outcome and mood would be correlated with self reported test anxiety, grade point average and self reported arousal and self talk during an exam. Overall the grade point average was the measure most relevant to daydreams. Students with high grade point averages tended to have more happy and successful daydreams and fewer failure daydreams. Self talk during the exam was unrelated to daydream measures. Suggestions for further research were presented.