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Curiosity and pathways to well-being and meaning in life: Traits, states, and everyday behaviors

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Abstract

This study examined curiosity as a mechanism for achieving and maintaining high levels of well-being and meaning in life. Of primary interest was whether people high in trait curiosity derive greater well-being on days when they are more curious. We also tested whether trait and daily curiosity led to greater, sustainable well-being. Predictions were tested using trait measures and 21 daily diary reports from 97 college students. We found that on days when they are more curious, people high in trait curiosity reported more frequent growth-oriented behaviors, and greater presence of meaning, search for meaning, and life satisfaction. Greater trait curiosity and greater curiosity on a given day also predicted greater persistence of meaning in life from one day into the next. People with greater trait curiosity reported more frequent hedonistic events but they were associated with less pleasure compared to the experiences of people with less trait curiosity. The benefits of hedonistic events did not last beyond the day of their occurrence. As evidence of construct specificity, curiosity effects were not attributable to Big Five personality traits or daily positive or negative mood. Our results provide support for curiosity as an ingredient in the development of well-being and meaning in life. The pattern of findings casts doubt on some distinctions drawn between eudaimonia and hedonic well-being traditions.

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... To clarify these aspects, we organize them according to the ABCDEs of personality (Wilt & Revelle, 2015), which refer to affect, behavior, cognition, desire (or motivation), and environment. With regard to affect, curiosity is defined in terms of positive emotions such as interest, joy, or feelings of wonder, as present in the concept of I-type curiosity and the role of curiosity in positive psychology (Kashdan & Steger, 2007;Neff, Rude, & Kirkpatrick, 2007). Conversely, negative emotions such as uncertainty and anxiety have also been proposed, for example in the context of information gap theory. ...
... That is, for curious individuals, changes may not be perceived as stressful. Relatedly, Kashdan and Steger (2007) found that individuals high on trait curiosity show higher levels of life satisfaction and well-being due to growthrelated behavior such as setting, pursuing, and achieving goals. The positive effects of curiosity on well-being have also been attributed to curious people's tendency to experience more positive emotions (Kashdan & Steger, 2007; and to make more positive, optimistic judgments (Maner & Gerend, 2007). ...
... Relatedly, Kashdan and Steger (2007) found that individuals high on trait curiosity show higher levels of life satisfaction and well-being due to growthrelated behavior such as setting, pursuing, and achieving goals. The positive effects of curiosity on well-being have also been attributed to curious people's tendency to experience more positive emotions (Kashdan & Steger, 2007; and to make more positive, optimistic judgments (Maner & Gerend, 2007). Especially when combined with mindfulness, curious people seem to appreciate what is unique in the present moment and to react less defensively to threatening situations (Kashdan, Afram, Brown, Birnbeck, & Drvoshanov, 2011). ...
... Another variable related to psychological adjustment is curiosity, understood as the tendency to seek novel, complex, and challenging interactions with the world [46,47]. The limited evidence in this regard indicates that as a state, curiosity facilitates the coordination of physiological states that are associated with concentration and action-oriented focus [48,49], in addition to increasing motivation to acquire new skills and knowledge [50], which could facilitate college students' greater willingness to acquire the skills needed to eat healthily. ...
... Regarding SWL, the scores are medium-high (25.07), being similar to those found in some studies [99] and slightly higher than those found in others [100,101]. Our participants showed mean scores in curiosity (33.62), that were slightly lower than those found by Kashdan and Steger [46]. Regarding SOC, we found mean-high scores (57.72), these numbers being slightly lower than those of other studies [102]. ...
... Concerning curiosity, in the model developed by Kashdan et al. [71,108], this is defined as a trait associated with SWL [46], and that in relation to healthy food consumption, some studies such as that of Conner et al. [109] maintain that curiosity is associated with personality traits of openness to experience and extroversion, and these traits are, in turn, associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Furthermore, consistent with the model of Kashdan et al. [71,108], studies such as Conner et al. [110] confirm that young adults who eat more fruits and vegetables show higher scores of psychological well-being and curiosity, as also indicated by the results obtained in our study. ...
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This study aims to identify the relationships between eating habits and psychological adjustment and health perception, and to analyze potential mediating role of healthy and unhealthy foods in the relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the psychological constructs and health perception. The sample was selected through stratified random cluster sampling and was composed of 788 university students. The participants responded to a MedDiet adherence screener and food consumption inventory to assess the eating habits, instruments measuring self-esteem, life satisfaction, curiosity and sense of coherence to assess the psychological adjustment, and single item measuring perceived health. The results revealed 41.9% of the participants had a high consumption of vegetables and 85.1% a low consumption of energy drinks, while 29.9% showed a high adherence to the MedDiet which was positively associated to each psychological variable and healthy foods and negatively with unhealthy foods. In conclusion, a higher adherence to the MedDiet, and the consumption of fruits and vegetables is related to higher psychological adjustment and health perception. However, the relationships between MedDiet and the psychological variables and health perception were fully or partially explained because of the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods.
... Curiosity is a facet of wellbeing and is related to beneficial outcomes. For example, individuals higher in trait curiosity tend to show more growth-oriented behaviours, have a greater sense of meaning in life, and have higher life satisfaction (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). Higher levels of curiosity are associated with greater creativity (Schutte & Malouff, 2019a). ...
... Curiosity may have an evolutionary and biological basis that influences neural functioning related to seeking information (Bromberg-Martin & Monosov, 2020;Gottlieb et al., 2013). Curiosity can involve deprivation sensitivity, or wanting to avoid or eliminate lack of knowledge (Loewenstein, 1994), as well as desire for information for its own sake (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). Conceptualised as information seeking, curiosity itself can be influenced by the apparent value of obtaining information (Sharot & Sunstein, 2020). ...
... The finding that across studies, curiosity was increased through interventions supports the potential of programs intended to raise curiosity as an end goal. The finding also supports the potential of programs that seek to raise curiosity to obtain related effects such as increases in creativity (Schutte & Malouff, 2019a), innovation (Celik et al., 2016), life satisfaction (Kashdan & Steger, 2007), life meaning, academic performance (Von Stumm et al., 2011), and job satisfaction (Kashdan et al., 2020). In such research the increases in curiosity can then be viewed as a manipulation check of the intended impact of the intervention. ...
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Curiosity is associated with a number of beneficial outcomes, such as greater life satisfaction, more work engagement and better academic performance. The connection between curiosity and beneficial outcomes supports the importance of examining whether it is possible to increase curiosity and to investigate what approaches may be effective in facilitating curiosity. This meta-analysis consolidated the effects of curiosity-enhancing interventions. Across 41 randomized controlled trials, with a total of 4,496 participants, interventions significantly increased curiosity. The weighted effect size was Hedges' g = 0.57 [0.44, 0.70]. These results indicated that interventions were effective across a variety of intervention principles used, with participants in various age groups, across various measures, and over different time periods. Interventions aiming to increase general curiosity showed larger effect sizes than interventions aiming to increase realm-specific curiosity. Interventions incorporating mystery or game playing had especially high effect sizes. Because higher levels of curiosity tend to be associated with various beneficial outcomes, the finding that across studies interventions are effective in increasing curiosity holds promise for future efforts to increase curiosity to bring about additional benefits.
... Diener and Ryan (2009) explained well-being as subjective state and outcome of person's experiences, which is based upon judgement and feeling associated with life satisfaction as well as emotional reactions to varieties of life experiences (ranging from joy to sadness). Studies reported that curiosity is related to satisfaction with life, pleasure in life, and meaning in life , work satisfaction (Peterson et al., 2010) and growth-oriented behavior with greater presence and search for meaning (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). More researches reported positive associations between well-being and intrinsic motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2000), flow (Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi, 2002), or openness to experience (McCrae & Costa, 1999) which are all related to curiosity (Kashdan et al., 2009). ...
... Findings of the present study are consistent with the outcomes of earlier researches; where CEI was found significantly positively associated with SWLS (Kashdan & Steger, 2007) and positive experience found positively correlated to both components of CEI and negative experience found negatively correlated with both the components (Gallagher & Lopez, 2007;Miljković & Jurčec, 2016). More researches reported scoring higher on trait curiosity found significantly related to higher well-being (Cacioppo et al., 1999;Park et al., 2004;Vittersø, 2003). ...
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The present study aimed to explore the mediating role of self-efficacy beliefs in the relationship of curiosity with subjective well-being (Life satisfaction, positive experience, and negative experience) in Hindi-speaking Indian youth. Eleven hundred forty-nine (N = 1149) participants with the mean age of 18.50 (SD = 1.6) completed the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory – II, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Scale of Positive and Negative Experience, and General Self-efficacy Scale. Correlational analysis indicates significant association of self-efficacy beliefs with both components of curiosity as well as all three components of subjective well-being. On the other hand, stretching component of curiosity measure found significantly correlated other variables used in the study, and the embracing components found correlated only with positive experience component of subjective well-being. Path analysis suggests that self-efficacy beliefs significantly mediate the association of new experiences with life satisfaction, negative experience and uncertain experiences with life satisfaction, negative experience of a person. Also, self-efficacy beliefs have partial mediation on the association of stretching and embracing with positive experience. Findings suggest that being able to control thoughts, behavior and actions contributes positively to emotional as well as cognitive development at all stages of life.
... In general, curiosity is associated with motivation and behavior that is conducive for learning, such as engagement and persistence in facing obstacles and setting goals (Kashdan and Steger, 2007), in developing sustained interests, which, in turn, can promote self-regulation, information-seeking, and motivation (Renninger, 2000;Hidi and Renninger, 2006), and with social, emotional, and cognitive development across the lifespan more generally (Kashdan, 2006;Kashdan and Steger, 2007;Keller et al., 2012). Aligned with associations between curiosity and learning, teachers have a positive perception of student curiosity and view its role in learning as distinct from traits, such as creativity and imagination (Chak, 2007). ...
... In general, curiosity is associated with motivation and behavior that is conducive for learning, such as engagement and persistence in facing obstacles and setting goals (Kashdan and Steger, 2007), in developing sustained interests, which, in turn, can promote self-regulation, information-seeking, and motivation (Renninger, 2000;Hidi and Renninger, 2006), and with social, emotional, and cognitive development across the lifespan more generally (Kashdan, 2006;Kashdan and Steger, 2007;Keller et al., 2012). Aligned with associations between curiosity and learning, teachers have a positive perception of student curiosity and view its role in learning as distinct from traits, such as creativity and imagination (Chak, 2007). ...
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Curiosity is widely acknowledged as a crucial aspect of children’s development and as an important part of the learning process, with prior research showing associations between curiosity and achievement. Despite this evidence, there is little research on the development of curiosity or on promoting curiosity in school settings, and measures of curiosity promotion in the classroom are absent from the published literature. This article introduces the Curiosity in Classrooms (CiC) Framework coding protocol, a tool for observing and coding instructional practices that support the promotion of curiosity. We describe the development of the framework and observation instrument and the results of a feasibility study using the protocol, which gives a descriptive overview of curiosity-promoting instruction in 35 elementary-level math lessons. Our discussion includes lessons learned from this work and suggestions for future research using the developed observation tool.
... A proactive personality has a relatively stable behavioral tendency to control contexts and to adapt them to one's own needs (Bateman and Crant 1993). The proactive individual strives for worthwhile pursuits and initiates actions that build opportunities to growth (Kashdan and Steger 2007). Life events are "experienced as an opportunity to render life meaningful or to find purpose in life" (p. ...
... In this sense, previous studies have highlighted the active role of people in creating meaning from specific events (Baumeister and Vohs 2002). In fact, empirical research findings support that people who have the tendency to seek out and face new challenging situations facilitates the pursuit of meaningful purposes (Greguras and Diefendorff 2010) and increase their meaning in life in a daily basis (Kashdan and Steger 2007). Based on this, we expect proactive subordinates to be more likely to take advantage of those days in which their direct supervisor behaves more as a servant leader enabling them to more easily exert influence on their own environment to actively find meaningfulness in their lives. ...
... While there is little research on the development of curiosity or on curiosity in school settings, it is widely believed that learning and innovative thinking are driven by curiosity (Kashdan et al., 2013;Livio, 2017). More broadly, curiosity promotes a range of positive outcomes from exploration and persistence in information seeking to academic performance and longer-term well-being (Kashdan & Silvia, 2009;Kashdan & Steger, 2007;von Stumm et al., 2011). For example, although a meta-analysis found that intelligence was the strongest predictor of academic performance, curiosity predicted performance beyond intelligence, even when Developing Intellectual Character controlling for students' effort and ability (von Stumm et al., 2011). ...
... Curiosity can also help to develop sustained interests, and, in turn, promote selfregulation, information seeking, and motivation for learning (Hidi & Renninger, 2006, Renninger, 2000. Curiosity relates to engagement and persistence even when facing obstacles and setting goals (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). Importantly, curiosity can be sparked at a momentary level during activities, but -as discussed above -it can also be developed as an approach to uncertainty, and this approach can likely be maintained and developed to lead to more stable curiosity. ...
... The personality research has investigated the impact of curiosity on key personal outcomes, such as well-being (e.g., Kashdan & Steger, 2007), however there are few studies focused on the impact of curiosity in the workplace (Kashdan et al., 2020). Overall, this stream of the literature has suggested that curiosity is conducive to positive outcomes (Kashdan et al., 2018). ...
... Fredrickson et al. (2008) argued that curiosity is a characteristic that makes the individual become more engaged with novel and challenging stimuli and situations, which results in higher levels of well-being. Other works demonstrated that a predisposition to curiosity leads to diverse wellbeing indicators, such as satisfaction, engagement and meaning in life (e.g., Kashdan & Steger, 2007). Thus, there is plenty evidence that high curiosity appears to promote well-being (Kashdan et al., 2018). ...
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Objective The present research explores the path between work-related curiosity and positive affect. To justify this relationship, we rely on the conservation of resources theory (COR) and include performance as a mediator of the curiosity-positive affect path, such that curiosity was expected to stimulate performance, resulting in higher positive affect. We also aimed to explore whether the Dark Triad personality would moderate this mediating path. Methodology Three studies were conducted. Study 1 analyzed the indirect path of curiosity on positive affect through performance (n = 241). Study 2 resorted to two samples, one with participants in telework (n = 406), and the other one with participants in face-to-face work (n = 240), to explore the mediated link. Study 3 (n = 653) explored the moderating role of the Dark Triad traits (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) on the mediated relationship. Findings Study 1 demonstrated that curiosity boosted positive affect through performance. Study 2 showed that, when workers were in telework, the mediated relationship occurred, however the same did not happen in face-to-face work. Study 3 showed that Machiavellianism and psychopathy moderated the indirect effect of curiosity on positive affect through performance, in a way that it was present for individuals low on these traits, but not for individuals high on such traits. Narcissism did not moderate the mediated relationship. Implications We discuss the impact that curiosity may have on behavioral and affective consequences (performance and affect), and the role that personality may have on this relationship.
... Frankl (1963) specified searching for meaning as a healthy, natural motivational force that fuels people to better understand their experiences, yet empirical research presents a mixed view. Much of the empirical research within US samples suggests searching for meaning relates to dysfunction (e.g., Steger et al., 2006); at the same time, search for meaning is positively correlated with otherwise desirable traits, such as curiosity and a tendency to become absorbed in one's experiences (e.g., Kashdan & Steger, 2007). Steger and colleagues (2008) proposed that the implications of searching for meaning might depend on individuals' reasons for searching, their extant sense of meaning in life, and other personality characteristics. ...
... Daily measures of presence of meaning and search for meaning included items used in previous daily studies on a scale of 1-7 (1= not at all, 7= very much) (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012;Kashdan & Steger, 2007). The daily presence scale included the items "How meaningful did you feel your life was today?" and "How much did you feel your life had purpose today?" ...
... Curiosity is the desire to gain deep knowledge and experience that arouse interest and excitement topics (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). We can also define curiosity as the ability to ask questions about the events and phenomena happening around us (Lindholm, 2018). ...
... They are more eager to understand complex situations (Clark & Seider, 2017). Curious people are more persistent in achieving academic success and more patient and resilient in finding solutions (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). People with scientific curiosity are interested in sub-branches of science such as astronomy, biology, chemistry, and physics. ...
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ABSTRACT: In this study, the Science Curiosity in Learning Environments (SCILE) scale, which was developed by Weible and Zimmerman (2016) to measure the scientific curiosity of young students in learning environments such as school, home, museum and society, was adapted into Turkish and its validity and reliability study was conducted. For a language validity study, the scale was translated into Turkish by the language and field experts. The Turkish form was translated into English again by a language specialist, compared to the original structure, and the scale was finalized. The data were collected from 284 students studying at two different high schools in a city in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The data were analyzed by Exploratory Factor Analysis. The exploratory factor analysis results demonstrated that the Turkish questionnaire has a two-dimensional structure and ten items. Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient of the scale was found in ,799. As a result, it was concluded that the scale adapted to Turkish is a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be used to measure high school students' scientific curiosity in learning environments such as schoola, homes, museums, and society in Turkey.
... This finding can be explained by the fact that, akin to dispositional curiosity, lower NFC tended to be associated with greater intolerance and suboptimal ways of coping with uncertainty, ambiguity, and novelty across diverse challenging yet possibly gratifying and enriching situations (Kashdan et al., 2009;Koerner, Mejia, & Kusec, 2017). It is also consistent with data that stronger dispositional curiosity dovetailed with various indices of psychological well-being, such as sense of purpose and meaning, life satisfaction, and growth-facilitating actions (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). ...
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Introduction: Decreased motivational tendency to seek out, engage in, and enjoy investing in complex cognitive processes in a sustained manner (need for cognition; NFC) may be a predictor and consequence of heightened anxiety and depression symptoms (ADS). However, the majority of investigations on this topic have been cross-sectional, which hinders causal inferences. Methods: The current study thus determined the within-person relations between NFC and ADS by using random intercept cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM) and bivariate dual latent change score (BLCS) approaches to separate between- and within-person effects. RI-CLPM and BLCS also present with advantages of adjusting for regression to the mean, baseline scores, autoregressive and lagged effects, and minimizing measurement error. Community-dwelling adults (n = 6750) completed the Mental Health Inventory-5 and trait-level NFC scales approximately every one year across 10 years. Results: RI-CLPM showed that within persons, lower level of NFC predicted higher future level of ADS, and vice versa (d = -0.852 to -0.498). Likewise, BLCS demonstrated that within persons, smaller change in NFC forecasted larger subsequent increase in ADS, and conversely (d = -0.631 to -0.519). Findings remained after adjusting for socio-demographic covariates. Conclusion: Consistent with theories, findings suggested that the within-person level-to-future level and change-to-future change relations among NFC and ADS were bi-directional and negative, with moderate-to-large effect sizes. Targeting NFC may treat or prevent the emergence of depression and anxiety disorders. Such efforts may include augmenting or personalizing evidence-based cognitive behavioral therapeutic strategies for individuals with or at-risk for heightened ADS.
... Regarding student academic activities during Covid19, individuals who are very curious and open to new experiences are more likely to seek and live out their purpose of life (Kashdan & McKnight, 2009). Curiosity increases one's sense of meaning in life (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). the purpose of life depends also on age. ...
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This article aims to explore aspects of the psychological well-being of Muslim students in Bandung during the Covid19 pandemic from the perspective of Islamic psychology. This study uses a quantitative approach with a survey method. The research participants consisted of 576 Muslim students in Bandung. Data were collected using a psychological well-being instrument developed by Ryff. The data analysis technique used is factor analysis. Based on the results of the study, it was obtained that the dominant aspects of psychological well being were ranked, namely positive relations with others at 74.1%; second, purpose in life by 73.2%; third, self-acceptance of 71.5%; fourth, autonomy of 71.4%; fifth, environmental mastery of 70.1% and the sixth, personal growth of 69.8%.Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi aspek-aspek kesejahteraan psikologis pada mahasiswa muslim di kota Bandung selama pandemi Covid19. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan metode survey. Partisipan penelitian terdiri dari 576 mahasiswa beragama Islam di kota Bandung dan Cimahi. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan instrumen kesejahteraan psikologis yang dikembangkan oleh Ryff. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan yaitu analisis faktor. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diperoleh peringkat aspek-aspek yang dominan terhadap psychological well being yaitu: Pertama positive relations with others sebesar 74.1%; Kedua, purpose in life sebesar 73.2%; Ketiga, self-acceptance sebesar 71.5%; Keempat, autonomy sebesar 71.4%; Kelima, environmental mastery sebesar 70.1%; dan Keenam, personal growth sebesar 69.8%.
... Curiosity and meaning are also related. For people with greater trait curiosity, greater daily curiosity was more likely to persist into the next day and in turn, greater daily curiosity led to persistent elevations in perceived meaning and purpose in life (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). This important link between curiosity and meaning sheds light on a key idea: curiosity, when practiced as a habit, can help us achieve what often feels elusive and unattainable, yet critical for a fulfilling life: meaning and purpose. ...
Article
Curiosity is a universal and malleable positive character strength. It has been linked to physical, social, emotional, and psychological well-being, academic success, and success in adulthood. Curiosity is especially important in early childhood because this is a critical stage of development when children’s curiosity is still abundant and organic. But for all its value, curiosity remains under-recognized and under-studied. There is no universally agreed upon definition of curiosity in adults or children. As a result, the research community has varying opinions on how to define, measure, and enhance curiosity. And in many current day classrooms, an overly rigid top-down structure contributes to a disconcerting trend of diminishing curiosity as children grow older. Reviewing the scientific research across various fields, I describe seven psychological constructs (attention, novelty, solitude, inquiry, exploration, surprise, and awe) that can foster curiosity behaviors. I designed a Curiosity Toy Kit incorporating these seven curiosity components to be used as positive interventions for enhancing curiosity in early childhood, when children are 5-6 years old and entering formal education. Adults can use the Curiosity Toy Kit to encourage children to develop positive curiosity behaviors, helping them to flourish in school and beyond.
... The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) measures the global sense of meaning in life, which is rather stable [54]. It differs from daily meaning which fluctuates and can change day to day [55,56]. It seems, therefore, that with such intervention planned, a better solution would be to measure daily meaning in life as this would more accurately capture possible changes. ...
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In recent years, the issue of the meaning in life has aroused particularly great interest in researchers considering the question of whether and how, using simple interventions, outside the therapeutic office, the sense of meaning in life and well-being can be strengthened. The aim of this study was to explore whether interventions based on reflection on everyday, stressful situations can contribute to fostering the sense of meaning in life and psychological well-being among emerging adults. Additionally, we aimed to explore relationships between the above-mentioned constructs and self-efficacy. The research focuses on emerging adults, who, as statistics show, are the most vulnerable among all adults to various mental problems. A pretest–posttest control group design was used. The study involved 80 emerging adults (56 women and 24 men) who were randomly assigned to the experimental group, which completed specially prepared diaries for a week, or the control group. Participants completed the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, the Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being twice. In the experimental group, significant differences were noted between pretest and posttest in psychological well-being, especially in the area of relationships with others (Mpretest = 59.3; Mposttest = 65.07; t(39) = −11.40; p = 0.001) and purpose in life (Mpretest = 54.85; Mposttest = 58.21; t(39) = −3.15; p = 0.003), as well as self-efficacy (Mpretest = 28.06; Mposttest = 29.60; t(39) = −2.82; p = 0.007). There were no differences in the level of meaning in life. The analysis carried out showed that self-efficacy mediates the relationship between presence of meaning in life and psychological well-being (the Aroian test: z = 4.48; SE = 0.11; p = 0.0007).
... The Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) proposes a framework for thinking about curiosity in the classroom, the framework comprises two dimensions: focusing curiosity and resolving 2.3 Why is Curiosity Important? ACER (2021b) have noted that curiosity has been found to positively correlate with several aspects that facilitate learning, including inquiry (Murayama, 2019;Murayama et al., 2019;Pekrun, 2019), knowledge acquisition (Kashdan et al., 2018), memory and effective learning experiences (Gruber et al., 2014), engagement (Vracheva et al., 2020), academic achievement and meaning of life and life satisfaction (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). Critical curiosity is a component of learner commitment and engagement, with learners taking more responsibility for their learning, demonstrating a willingness and enjoyment of asking questions and embracing deep learning strategies (Crick et al., 2004, p.255). ...
... Jones, Papadakis, Hogan, & Strauman, 2009)-characteristics that offer promising effects in recovery from social exclusion (Timeo, Riva, & Paladino, 2019) and contribute to the experience of life as meaningful (Wang, Lippke, Miao, & Gan, 2019). Accordingly, it should be noted that reflection is associated with curiosity, which performs a protective function against social rejection (Kawamoto, Ura, & Hiraki, 2017) and, in addition, longitudinally predicts meaning in life (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). Finally, this inward direction of looking for and restoring meaning seems to be natural for lonely people, as demonstrated by research showing that loneliness is accompanied by increased self-centeredness (Cacioppo, Chen, & Cacioppo, 2017). ...
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Previous research revealed that loneliness was related to a lowered sense of meaning in life. Little is known, however, about the variables moderating the loneliness-meaning link. Being an attempt to fill this gap, the present study examined the potential protective role of curiosity-driven cognitive interest in the self-namely, reflection, in the relationship between loneliness and two measures of meaning: general evaluation of meaning in life (i.e., presence of meaning, POM) and recent meaningful experiences (RME). It was hypothesized that in individuals high in reflection loneliness would impact both measures of meaning to a smaller degree than in people with a low level of reflection. The cross-sectional study included 269 Polish participants aged 19-45 years (M = 25.65, SD = 6.1), who completed measures of loneliness, POM, RME, reflection, and rumination (the last of these was considered as a covariate). As predicted, the results demonstrated that loneliness was negatively related both to POM and to RME and that the strength of both relationships decreased with an increase in reflection. Thus, the current study adds to the literature pointing to reflection as a protective resource against the loss of meaning in consequence of subjectively perceived social isolation.
... A person's perceptions about the extent to which he / she achieved his / her goals and ideals show their level of life satisfaction (Pavot & Diener, 1993;Bradley & Crowny, 2004). The level of satisfaction with life is affected by variables such as happiness in daily life, meaning attributed to life, compliance with achieving goals, positive individual identity, personality traits, level of informed awareness, physical wellbeing of the individual, economic security, social relationships, and professional and current state policy (Schmitter, 2003;Kashdan & Steger, 2007;Appleton & Song, 2008;Wang & Kong, 2014). Low levels of life satisfaction in university students may lead to a decrease in their academic success (Tuzgöl Dost, 2007), dropping out of school, high levels of state anxiety (Deniz, Dilmaç & Arıcak, 2009), While life satisfaction has been found as statistically significant with depression, anxiety in college years, young adults are responsible for their health, school life and financial situation. ...
Article
Background: Alfred W. Adler (1870-1937), psychotherapist and founder of the school of individual psychology, believed that education, marriage, and job play important role in human development. Higher learning is a demanding and challenging period for students that can result in high rates of psychological distress affecting their life satisfaction. Aim: The research is to study the links between family communications, perceived stress and resilience with life satisfaction among pre-university students in UPM. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 310 (females 158 and 152 males) pre-university students from a public university in Malaysia. Four instruments were used in this research namely the Family Communication Scale (FCS, Olson et al., 2004), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, Cohen et al., 1983) Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, Connor-Davidson, 2003) & The Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al. 1985). The data were analyzed using independent t-test, Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regressions. Results: The finding of this study revealed that there are simple and multiple relationships between family communications, perceived stress and resilience with life satisfaction among pre-university students. Conclusion: The research may guide university counselors to view adolescents’ life satisfaction holistically and assist them in developing preventive and intervention plans for the university new enrolled students. Also, the results will provide students with some knowledge on their life satisfaction and its effects on their future accomplishments. Keyword: Family Communication; Perceived Stress; Resilience; Life Satisfaction; Pre-University Students
... This constitutes a hedonistic theory of happiness. Some philosophers such as Epicurus, Hobbes and Bentham argued that pleasure seeking motivates human and pleasure lies in the virtue of life and hedonism is considered as the philosophical basis of subjective well-being and the pursuit of pleasure, avoidance of pain and life satisfaction judgments (cited in Kashdan & Steger, 2007). That's why the terms subjective well-being and hedonistic happiness are used interchangeably. ...
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The field of subjective well-being (SWP) or happiness have received increasing attention in the psychology literature. This increased interest has led researchers to examine SWB in relation to a variety of psychological, social, and cultural variables, including optimism and hope. Undoubtedly, all these variables are critical components for mental health. SWB is specifically used as a general term which consists of life satisfaction, mental health and happiness from life. Although hopefulness has been occasionally used interchangeably with optimism, many studies revealed that they are related but different concepts. Optimism is defined as a general expectancy that good things will happen in the future, on the other hand, hope refers to the general cognitive-motivational variable including one's belief in which one utilizes pathway thinking and agency thinking. In this study, we attempt to review the conceptualizations of SWB, optimism, and hope, and point out various recent studies on the relationships between SWB, hope, and optimism.
... Two components of meaning in life; the presence of meaning in life and the search for meaning in life have been found to improve life satisfaction during COVID-19 . The presence of meaning in life is related to a variety of positive psychological constructs like positive emotions (Zika & Chamberlain, 1992); feelings of happiness (Debats et al., 1995); life satisfaction (Kashdan & Steger, 2007); and individual development (Grouden & Jose, 2015). It can also stimulate a person's coping abilities by acting as a protective factor (Park & Ai, 2006;Taubman-Ben-Ari & Weintroub, 2008). ...
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The current study aims to examine (a) the mental well-being of university students, who were taking online classes, and (b) and test whether resilience would mediate the relationship between meaning in life and mental well-being. The sample of 302 university students (Mage = 20.25 years; 36.1% men, 63.9% women) was taken from the universities of Punjab, Pakistan. The participants were recruited online and they completed a cross-sectional survey comprising the scales of meaning in life, resilience, and mental well-being during COVID-19. Findings from the study indicated that participants had a normal to a satisfactory level of overall mental wellbeing during COVID-19. Resilience acted as a mediator for both the presence of meaning in life, the search for meaning in life, and mental well-being. Demographic variables including family size were significantly and positively related to resilience while the availability of personal room showed a significant positive relationship with mental well-being. These findings suggest that meaning in life and resilience supports mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic and that effective steps should be taken to make the lives of university students more meaningful and resilient.
... States, by contrast, are under the influence of contextual factors (Chaplin et al., 1988), though they may also be under the influence of dispositions. For example, curious people are more likely to experience satisfaction on days they also experience curiosity (Kashdan & Steger, 2007), which suggests that curiosity as a state is under the influence of both personality traits and may fluctuate from day to day depending on moment-to-moment factors. Therefore, considerations of our chosen instrument must involve understanding patterns in the stability or variability of the construct, and what may influence it. ...
Thesis
Children are born naturally curious and eager to learn, but as they go through school this inner motivation to learn diminishes. Yet children’s inner motivation to learn is essential to deep learning, positive attitudes to school and wellbeing. Self-Determination Theory suggests that supporting children’s need for autonomy – that is to say the feeling that actions stem from internal sources rather than being imposed externally – is essential to supporting inner motivational resources. This thesis is concerned with how teachers may be able to support children’s autonomy and inner motivation in the early Primary classroom in England and how we may be able to capture changes in children’s inner motivation in those settings. It is divided into two parts. In Part I, I used interpretive methods to understand teachers’ attempts to provide greater opportunities for children’s autonomy in Year 1 classrooms through a professional development programme. This programme was developed by a team of researchers at the PEDAL centre using a Community of Practice model and involved nine teachers in trying out strategies to support children’s autonomy. Through stories of change, I show that teachers’ use and interpretations of the strategies varied, and this was affected by the teachers’ school context and their own beliefs. Through thematic analysis, I show that the classrooms in the study functioned as ecosystems of teacher control, which was itself under pressure from top-down directions through governmental policies and institutions as well as senior leaders. This resulted in a teaching mindset focused on strict learning objectives which left little space for children to take ownership of their learning. Despite this, teachers were sometimes able to provide pockets of space for children’s autonomy, though these took diverse forms. The extent of these spaces for autonomy depended on individual school and classroom contexts. The proposed model – pockets of space within an ecosystem of teacher control – explains the tensions between teachers’ need for control in the classroom and opportunities for children’s autonomy, as well as areas where teachers’ attempts to increase children’s autonomy were successful. In particular, I show that teachers needed to provide support and stimulation as well as space in order to support both autonomy and inner motivation. Part II is concerned with measuring inner motivation for research purposes and in particular for future evaluations of the above professional development programme. This research focuses on the validity and reliability of an existing instrument, the Leuven Involvement Scale (LIS). This instrument aims to capture a form of engagement in learning activities that is related to inner motivation. The studies in Part II investigate the reliability and stability of the instrument, as well as factors associated with variation in engagement using multilevel modelling. I found that the LIS can be reliable as long as raters share a common understanding of different child behaviours in the classroom. In addition, I found that engagement varied hugely from one moment to the next, with very little variation between children. What little variation existed between children was explained by the association between engagement and aspects of children’s self-regulatory capacities, namely effortful control and negative emotions, measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Child Behaviour Questionnaire (CBQ). However, overall this research suggests that it is the individual moment that matters, rather than characteristics of the children. To better understand the influence of contextual factors, I investigated the association of activity setting (whether children are in teacher-directed, independent or free choice situations) with engagement. Children were significantly more engaged in free choice settings compared to whole class teacher-directed settings. However, there was a large amount of remaining variation and I discuss the implications this has for the role of teachers in supporting children’s engagement. Overall, this thesis makes a contribution towards our understanding of children’s autonomy and inner motivation in the classroom and teaching practices that support it, as well as how we may be able to study it in classroom contexts.
... The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected our daily social lives, physical and mental well-being 1,2 . Trait curiosity and access to adequate information are hypothesized to promote better coping with challenging situations, enhancing well-being, mood, and life satisfaction [6][7][8][9] . In the current study, we investigated three main questions. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic confronted humans with high uncertainty and lockdowns, which severely disrupted people’s daily social and health lifestyles, enhanced loneliness, and reduced well-being. Curiosity and information-seeking are central to behavior, fostering well-being and adaptation in changing environments. They may be particularly important to maintain well-being during the pandemic. Here, we investigated which motives drive information-seeking, and whether and how curiosity and information-seeking related to well-being and mood (excitement, anxiety). Additionally, we tested whether daily diet contributed to this relationship during lockdown. Participants (N = 183) completed questionnaires measuring curiosity, information-seeking, social and mental health. Using a smartphone app, participants submitted their daily food intake and lifestyle ratings for a week. We found participants had highest motivation to seek positive (vs. negative) information, concerning themselves more than others. Both trait curiosity and information-seeking predicted higher well-being, mediated by loneliness. Trait curiosity also predicted well-being and excitement days later. Considering diet, participants with lower trait curiosity ate food containing more tyrosine (i.e., dopamine precursor). Furthermore, participants consuming food high in sugar reported higher anxiety, which was specifically found in participants with relatively low, but not high, trait curiosity. Taken together, curiosity and information-seeking may benefit well-being and mood in high uncertain and challenging times, by interacting with lifestyle measures (loneliness and nutrition).
... In addition to investigations of curiosity that focus on between-person differences in the tendency to consistently experience high levels of curiosity across periods of time on the order of months and years [37,39], curiosity can also be a transient experience, lasting only moments [40,5]. We can additionally consider experiences of curiosity at intermediate timescales on the order of days [41,39,42]. These shorter-term fluctuations in curiosity are intimately tied to dynamic mental states, in particular to the waxing and waning of our emotional experiences [43,44,45]. ...
Preprint
Most theories of curiosity emphasize the acquisition of information. Such conceptualizations focus on the actions of the knower in seeking units of knowledge. Each unit is valued as an unknown and appropriated in becoming known. Yet, recent advances across a range of disciplines from philosophy to cognitive science suggest that it may be time to complement the acquisitional theory of curiosity with a connectional theory of curiosity. This alternative perspective focuses on the actions of the knower in seeking relations among informational units, laying down lines of intersection, and thereby building a scaffold or network of knowledge. Intuitively, curiosity becomes edgework. In this chapter, we dwell on the notion of edgework, wrestle with its relation to prior accounts, and exercise its unique features to craft alternative reasons for curiosity's value to humanity. To begin, we engage in a philosophical discussion of the evidence for connectional curiosity across the last two millennia in the Western intellectual tradition. We then move to a contemporary operationalization of connectional curiosity in the mathematical language of network science. To make our discussion more concrete, we walk through a case study of humans browsing Wikipedia. The groundwork laid, we turn to the practical question of how (if at all) the paradigm of curiosity as edgework manifests in the contemporary lives of humans today. Does such a conceptualization help us to better understand the relations between curiosity and mental health? Might the edgework paradigm explain the drive to build specific structures of knowledge? Would the account help us to encode, test, and validate existing theories of curiosity, or propose new ones? Could it clarify why and how our culture values curiosity, in its multiple manifestations, plethora of practices, and kindred kinds in many bodies? In considering interdisciplinary answers to these questions, we find that the notion of edgework offers a fresh, flexible, and explanatory account of curiosity. More broadly, it uncovers new opportunities to use the lens of science to examine, probe, and interrogate this important dimension of the human experience.
... Results related to the link between happiness and zest (vitality) are also likely related to the definition of zest as approaching life with excitement, energy, and positive feelings (Park et al., 2004;Peterson, 2006). Finally, our results on the strengths of curiositydefined as seeking out new knowledge and being open to new experiences -reflect those of Kashdan and Steger (2007), who found that curiosity is linked to a higher level of wellbeing, personal growth and meaning. ...
Article
In previous studies, using one’s Signature Strengths (SS) in a new way for one week, enhanced happiness and alleviated depression in Western cultures; but, whether this holds true in non-Western nations is unknown. Thus, we replicated Seligman et al.’s (2005) original study to explore the distribution of character strengths in Saudi Arabia, examine their link to happiness and depression, and evaluate the effect of using one’s signature strengths for one week. A sample of 377 Saudis aged 18 to 68 completed the Steen Happiness Index, Beck Depression Inventory, and Values In Action (VIA) survey and were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups: using SS alone, using SS with reminder, or, the control group. The highest strengths were honesty, kindness, fairness, appreciation of beauty, and judgment, while the lowest were self-regulation, zest, and humility. Positive correlations were found between happiness and hope, gratitude, zest, and curiosity, while negative correlations were found between depression and zest and hope. All participants, independent of the experimental group, reported being happier and less depressed (p < .005) post-intervention; yet, our results showed more modest results than Seligman et al.’s (2005) study. Participants receiving a reminder also reported the highest level of happiness. Such findings provide insights for further research and evidence of potential cultural differences to consider when tailoring this intervention to the Middle Eastern region.
... Soft skills should promote an individual's sense of fulfillment and wellbeing (Bruna et al., 2019;. This relation has been found repeatedly across all age groups, and all the six soft skills considered have emerged as important correlates of life satisfaction (Bruna et al., 2019;Credé et al., 2017;Kashdan & Steger, 2007;Martin et al., 2012;Robitschek & Keyes, 2009;Stevic & Ward, 2008). The additional relation identified between soft skills and achievement emotions (e.g., Dametto & Noronha, 2019;Robitschek & Keyes, 2009;Weber et al., 2016) should further contribute to a stronger sense of life satisfaction (Hagenauer et al., 2018;Heffner & Antaramian, 2016;Karatzias et al., 2002). ...
Article
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The role of soft skills at school is still debated, but they have emerged as important factors for students’ academic achievement and life satisfaction. This study focuses on the combined influence of soft skills (in terms of adaptability, curiosity, leadership, initiative, perseverance, and social awareness), extracurricular activities, achievement emotions, self-regulated learning, motivation, and cognitive abilities on academic achievement and life satisfaction. A sample of 603 students (5th to 12th graders) participated in the study. The results of a Bayesian path analysis based on meta-analytical priors show that soft skills were (i) directly positively associated with students’ achievement emotions, self-regulated learning, motivation, and life satisfaction and (ii) indirectly related with academic achievement through the mediation of self-regulated learning and motivation. On the other hand, only soft skills and achievement emotions were directly related to life satisfaction. Extracurricular activities showed a positive association with both soft skills and cognitive abilities. These results are the first to demonstrate the importance of soft skills and extracurricular activities when integrating all the above-mentioned factors in a model of students’ academic achievement and life satisfaction.
... Older adults are an emerging target of tourism marketing in Japan nowadays. People in their 60s are among the most frequent travellers (Odaka et al., 2011;Japan Tourism Agency, 2020), as they are often financially well off and have more leisure time to spare than younger people (Statistics Bureau of Japan, 2016). Also, while people over 70 exhibit a steep increase in amount of time spent on medical care, in hospital, and in recuperation (Statistics Bureau of Japan, 2016), people in their 60s are healthier and more able to travel. ...
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Aging societies are one of the major problems faced in the modern world. Promoting subjective wellbeing is a key component in helping individuals positively accept and adapt to psychological and physical changes during their aging process. Tourism is one of the activities that have been demonstrated to promote subjective wellbeing. However, motivation for tourism and its benefits to subjective wellbeing among the older adults have rarely been discussed. The current study aimed to investigate whether tourism contributes to the subjective wellbeing of older adults. We examined the relationships between travel frequency, subjective wellbeing, and the personal trait of curiosity, mediated by the factor of family budget situation. The results demonstrated that diverse curiosity motivates individuals to travel; thus, diverse curiosity positively correlates to subjective wellbeing, both directly as well as indirectly through travel frequency. However, this relationship is limited by the factor of family budget, with tourism contributing to the subjective wellbeing of only well-off older adults. This study concludes that tourism has potential to contribute to subjective wellbeing during later stages of life.
... Curiosity is a Latin word which means the aspiration to obtain new information through investigation (Litman & Spielberger, 2003) in order to grow and develop understanding (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). It is observed as an essential motivator in learning and important for the learning environment (Leslie, 2014). ...
Article
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This qualitative study was planned to identify the curiosity enhancing strategies (CES) and explore the challenges faced by teachers during the use of strategies at primary school students in the subject of science. Curiosity is the desire to acquire new knowledge through exploration in order to grow and expand understanding. Curiosity refers to the tendency of children to ask, investigate, and find out the new knowledge obtained from their environment. The researchers did not find a study in the literature that specifically examined identification of curiosity related strategies used by teachers in Pakistan. This research study was conducted to identify the curiosity related strategies used by the public sector school teachers in teaching Science to students enrolled in primary classes in Lahore. Purposive sampling technique was used for selection of the participants of the study. Data was collected from teachers and students of primary school (5th grade) level in science subject. Data from teachers was collected personally and on telephone. Data from students was collected through interviews by visiting the respective schools and after taking consent of the school principal. Two semi structured interview protocols were developed for taking responses at primary school level teachers and students. Data was analyzed by using thematic analysis technique. Findings of the study reflected that primary school teachers of the study were using different strategies for enhancing curiosity in students in the subject of Science. During the use of these strategies public sector primary school teachers faced many challenges like lack of resources, large strength of students in a classroom, lack of students attention, lack of parents cooperation. This study recommended that teachers and parents may use these strategies for enhancing curiosity in students.
... Studies suggest that the co-construction of emotion and knowledge occurs within sociopolitical structures such as schools (Habermas et al., 2009). Thus, to try to make sense of the role critical curiosity plays within the process of psychological pragmatics, this chapter builds on studies that suggest curiosity experienced during times of silence may help to drive learning, engagement, and well-being (Hulme et al., 2013;Kashdan & Steger, 2007). ...
Chapter
This chapter explores how loneliness, alienation and solitude set their stamp on ‘quiet professionalism’ in a climate of neoliberalism. This theme is considered in the context of a higher education system that is increasingly associated with efficiency, effectiveness and ‘time-management’ rather than passion or vocation. Departing from the example of Greta Garbo, who famously declared that she wanted to be let alone, the authors explore how the notion of correspondence – with its echoes of response, responsibility and responsiveness – sheds new light on the state of being ‘alone together’ as conducive to the freedom to think. They explore attacks on subjectivity through a novel reading of the psychoanalytical notion of impingement. This is considered against the background of a form of alone/togetherness that arises in and through a quest for ethical forms of collaboration.
... Meaning in life is also expressed as an indicator of well-being (Kashdan and Steger, 2007). In the literature, it is stated that meaning in life is related to life satisfaction (Pan et al., 2008); resilience and well-being (Lightsey, 2006); positive and negative well-being (Scannell et al., 2002). ...
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The current study investigated whether there are significant relationships between life satisfaction and meaning in life, hope and COVID-19 fear and the extent to which life satisfaction is predicted by these variables. The study group of this research consists of 1,186 adults with the mean age of 41.04. Study group participants are consists of different cities of different regions of Turkey. As the data collection tools, the life satisfaction scale, the meaning in life scale, the dispositional hope scale and the COVID-19 fear scale were used. The results of the analyses have revealed that meaning in life, hope (actuating thinking and alternative ways thinking) are significant predictors of life satisfaction as positively. Besides, it is seen COVID-19 fear, age, gender and the presence of people infected with COVID-19 around aren't significant predictors of life satisfaction in adults.
... Participants considered personal growth as the conduit to persistent alignment with their values, for example, amid changing external conditions or when certain social norms became incongruent with their core values. Personal growth pursuits could activate an Embodied Immersion wherein individuals participated in novel and challenging activities which, in turn, provided opportunities to gain new knowledge, perspectives, and experiences geared toward self-expansion (Aron et al., 2013;Fredrickson & Joiner, 2018) and meaning making (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). In addition, growth or self-expansive values can be expressed as anxiety-free states (Schwartz, 2012). ...
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Anxiety, stress, dissatisfaction, and disengagement at work have continued to rise in the United States, due partly to global conditions of volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. The persistent cadence of associated change requires individuals to develop an embodied integration of sophisticated cognitive, emotional, social, and meaning-making dexterity. In effect, in such conditions, individuals need curiosity. This phenomenological study examined the lived experience of curiosity of an individual within the context of receiving humanistic coaching based on a sample of nine executives. The resulting data revealed a biopsychosocial, multi-componential process associated with curiosity. Contextualizing state curiosity in this way may encourage researchers and practitioners to forgo the perspective that curiosity occurs in relatively discrete intervals and, instead, embrace the concept that curiosity states encompass experiential variability across the mind-body dimensions (e.g., cognitive activation, emotional intensity, somatic sensation) associated with distinct stages within a state curiosity framework. This multi-componential process view also suggests that the stages of state curiosity may involve a mechanism of linking separate states, thereby, influencing the intensity, sustainability and/or frequency of episodic curiosity. Finally, framing state curiosity as a multi-componential process may also help to bring a humanistic texturization, which could contribute to our intersubjective understanding of how individuals are curious.
... A person's perceptions about the extent to which they achieved their goals and ideals show their level of life satisfaction (Pavot & Diener, 1993;Bradley & Crowny, 2004). The level of satisfaction with life is affected by variables such as happiness in daily life, meaning attributed to life, compliance with achieving goals, positive individual identity, personality traits, level of informed awareness, physical wellbeing of the individual, economic security, social relationships, and professional and current state policy (Schmitter, 2003;Kashdan & Steger, 2007;Appleton & Song, 2008;Wang & Kong, 2014). Low levels of life satisfaction in university students may lead to a decrease in their academic success (Tuzgöl Dost, 2007), dropping out of school, high levels of state anxiety (Deniz, Dilmaç & Arıcak, 2009), low levels of motivation and expectation (Gündoğar et al., 2007), experiencing physical and mental problems, deterioration of the quality of their social relationships (Chechen, 2007;Damasio, Melo & Silva, 2013), and high levels of stress (Paschali & Tsitsas, 2010). ...
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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between revenge behavior and life satisfaction among students at a state university in Turkey, and to determine whether the revenge behavior and life satisfaction levels differed according to some variables such as gender and grade. A total number of 300 students; 178 female and 122 male, at the Faculty of Education participated in the study voluntarily. The participant students were selected randomly in the equal number of 75 from the1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , and 4 th grades. The data collection tools administered were the Vengeance Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. For the data analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficient, t-test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were utilized. The results of the study revealed that there was a low negative correlation (r =-.24) between the revenge behavior and the life satisfaction levels of the participants. In addition, the revenge and life satisfaction levels differed by gender variable; there was no significant difference between the grade levels and life satisfaction, and there was a significant difference among the grade levels regarding the revenge variable. It was also found out that the life satisfaction level of female students was significantly higher than male students while the revenge behavior levels of male students were significantly higher than those of female students. Among all participants in all grade levels the revenge behavior level of 3 rd grade students was found to be the highest.
... Curiosity, according to Kashdan and Steger (2007), is described as an individual's willingness to know, to experience, to observe, or to understand something new, which is what motivates inquiry into something completely new. Curiosity is termed as a desire to learn about a novel stimulus that causes people to engage in a search for information about that stimulus. ...
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Curiosity and academic self-concept as psychological constructs are often mentioned in education and psychology. These constructs are elusive in terms of how they are exhibited or portrayed and measured. Despite their elusive nature, they are highly significant to the success or otherwise of learners. Therefore, the current study explored curiosity and academic self-concept among students of category "A" Senior High schools in the Central Region of Ghana. Using a descriptive-quantitative method, a sample of 400 students was selected through proportionate-stratified and systematic sampling techniques. Adapted curiosity (Kashdan et al., 2018) and academic self-concept (Liu & Wang, 2005) scales were used for the data collection. The data collected were analysed using frequencies, percentages, and structural equation modelling (SEM). The study revealed that the majority of the students possessed low curious abilities and low academic self-concepts. The study further revealed that curiosity of deprivation sensitivity (b=.577, p<.001), the curiosity of stress tolerance (b=.248, p=.007), and curiosity of thrill-seeking (b=.544, p<.001) positively and significantly predicted academic self-concept of students but the curiosity of joyful exploration and social curiosity did not predict academic self-concept of students. It was concluded that students' curious abilities were precursors to their academic self-concept. Thereupon, teachers need to devise new approaches by allowing students to engage in other learning opportunities without much restrictions so that they could hone their natural potentials.
Article
This research investigates the motivational effect of nostalgia induced by aversive and threatening situations (e.g., COVID-19) on new product purchase intentions. Study 1 shows that perceived COVID severity induces feelings of nostalgia and that heightened nostalgia boosts purchase intentions for new products. We replicate the effect with nostalgia triggered by a different threat (i.e., social unrest) in Study 2. Further, by inducing nostalgia through a threatening personal situation (i.e., mortality salience, Study 3) and manipulating nostalgia directly (Study 4), we further generalize the link between nostalgia and new product purchase intentions beyond COVID-19. Our research offers both theoretical and practical implications.
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The COVID-19 pandemic confronted humans with high uncertainty and lockdowns, which severely disrupted people’s daily social and health lifestyles, enhanced loneliness and reduced well-being. Curiosity and information-seeking are central to behavior, fostering well-being and adaptation in changing environments. They may be particularly important to maintain well-being during the pandemic. Here, we investigated which motives drive information-seeking, and whether and how curiosity and information-seeking related to well-being and mood (excitement, anxiety). Additionally, we tested whether daily diet contributed to this relationship during lockdown. Participants (N=183) completed questionnaires measuring curiosity, information-seeking, social and mental health. Using a smartphone app, participants submitted their daily food intake and lifestyle ratings for a week. We found participants had highest motivation to seek positive (vs. negative) information, concerning themselves more than others. Both trait curiosity and information-seeking predicted higher well-being, by reduced loneliness. Trait curiosity also predicted well-being and excitement days later. Considering diet, people with lower curiosity consumed food high in dopamine precursor tyrosine, whereas high-sugar intake increased anxiety, only in people with relatively low, but not high, trait curiosity. Taken together, curiosity and information-seeking may benefit well-being and mood in high uncertain and challenging times, by interacting with lifestyle measures (loneliness and nutrition).
Article
Background Resilience and positive mental health may be negatively influenced by childhood maltreatment. While many scholars have noted that adolescents exposed to childhood emotional abuse could meet the criteria for flourishing, little research has investigated the mediating effect of self-compassion and the moderating effect of curiosity on the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and adolescent flourishing. Objective This study proposed and tested a moderated mediation model that attempted to explain the pathway from childhood emotional abuse to adolescent flourishing. Participants and setting The sample consisted of 315 female students (mean age 12.81 years, range 12–14 years) in a girls' secondary school in Hong Kong, China. Methods We conducted a three-wave study with six-month intervals. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires at school under the guidance of trained research assistants. Results Self-compassion at Time 2 mediated the relationship between childhood emotional abuse at Time 1 and adolescent flourishing at Time 3. Furthermore, the mediating effect was moderated by adolescent curiosity at Time 1 and Time 2. Conclusions The findings of this study suggested that although childhood emotional abuse may hinder the development of self-compassion, reduced levels of self-compassion and curiosity (especially the stretch dimension of curiosity) could work together to promote flourishing in adolescents with a history of childhood emotional abuse. The results lent further support to the developmental psychopathology and resilience perspectives in explaining the relationship between childhood trauma and positive developmental outcomes.
Article
Research on post-traumatic growth (PTG) has been compromised by methodological limitations. Recent process-oriented accounts of personality suggest, however, that positive changes may occur through short-term (i.e., state-level) changes in PTG. In the current year-long study, 1,247 participants provided weekly reports of significant negative events as well as state manifestations of PTG (up to 44 assessments per individual; 34,205 total). Trait assessments of eudaimonic well-being (EWB) were administered at intake and Weeks 45 and 52. Experiencing negative life events predicted increases in state PTG, which in turn predicted increases in EWB. However, stability was observed when modeling prospective changes in overall state PTG before and after the initial negative life event or across all negative life events occurring during the study time frame. These findings highlight the importance of studying PTG-related processes using appropriate research designs, analytic strategies, and time frames.
Article
Refugees and the displaced experience challenges which can lead to mental health illnesses, including depression. In this study, the effectiveness of gardening in reducing depression and improving the lives of displaced Syrian women in Lebanon was explored. Considering that the displaced had limited outdoor space and no access to land, vertical gardening units were used. Forty-four participants residing in four displaced communities in North Lebanon joined the 6-months gardening programme, which was designed as a quasi-experimental exploratory study. Data on depression scores were collected at the preparatory phase and at 24 weeks post-intervention using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and analysed using a paired t-test. Results revealed that participants were less depressed at the end of the gardening programme, with depression scores significantly lower than preparatory phase scores. Group interviews were also conducted to assess women’s perception of gardening halfway through the intervention phase. Women’s engagement in gardening activities was also reflected by estimating yields. Participants indicated that they joined the programme because they saw it as a stress relief activity, they were interested to learn about vertical gardening, they enjoyed the aesthetic value of plants, they wanted to produce food and they felt that gardening provided an opportunity to socialise. Our findings suggest that aid organisations may consider vertical gardening as a therapeutic and social activity in situations where displaced women are confined to limited open spaces.
Conference Paper
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Hintergrund: Der Ultraschall schmerzhafter Gelenke spielt eine wichtige Rolle in der Früherkennung von Arthritis, wie beispielsweise der Psoriasis Arthritis. Pathologische Befunde in der körperlichen Untersuchung können übersehen werden, vor allem, wenn sie von ungeübten Untersuchern erhoben werden [1]. Weiterhin, wurde die Bedeutsamkeit der Früherkennung von Psoriasis Arthritis bei Psoriasis Patienten und die Schlüsselrolle der Dermatologen in diesem Prozess in einigen Publikationen hervorgehoben [2], [3]. Ziele: Das Ziel dieser Pilotstudie war die Untersuchung eines, speziell für Dermatologen entwickelten, muskuloskelettalen Ultraschall (MSUS) Kurses. Methoden: Eine Umfrage zur Erfassung der Ultraschallkenntnisse der Teilnehmer wurde vor Beginn der Kurse durchgeführt. Das Kurskonzept, beinhaltete nur die wichtigsten Ultraschallschnittebenen aller Gelenke und konzentrierte sich auf die Erkennung von Gelenkergüssen und Hyperperfusion. Der Kurs bestand aus drei Modulen, basierend auf dem Kurssystem der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Ultraschall in der Medizin (DEGUM), und dauerte sechs Monate. Ein portables Ultraschallsystem in Verbindung mit einem Tablet wurde allen Teilnehmern zur Verfügung gestellt, um das Üben zwischen den Kursen zu ermöglichen. Die finale Lehrevaluation wurde als eine Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) durchgeführt bestehend aus drei Prüfstationen, die jeweils ein Kursmodul thematisierten. Die Leistungsergebnisse wurden anhand des folgenden Notensystems festgelegt: <60% „unzureichend“, ≥60-<70% „ausreichend“, ≥70%-<80% „befriedigend“, ≥80%-<90% „gut“, ≥90% „sehr gut“. Ergebnisse: Zwölf Dermatologen haben teilgenommen, darunter neun Frauen (75%). Der Mittelwert für das Alter betrug 39 Jahre (SD±9.99 Jahre). Acht waren Fachärzte für Dermatologie im Mittel seit 11.4 Jahren (SD±11 Jahre). Vier waren Assistenzärzte und im Mittel seit 3.06 Jahren (SD±0.97 Jahre) in der Dermatologie tätig. Die Umfrage ergab keine Kenntnisse des MSUS. Das OSCE Gesamtergebnis aller Teilnehmer lag im Mittel bei 21.86 (SD±2.12) (87.44%) von 25 erreichbaren Punkten und wurde mit der Note „Gut“ bewertet. Kein statistisch signifikanter Unterschied zwischen den Fachärzten für Dermatologie und den Assistenzärzten konnte festgestellt werden. Tabelle 1 [Tab. 1] zeigt die Ergebnisse aller OSCE Stationen. Schlussfolgerung: Wir konnten zeigen, dass das innvovative Ultraschall Kurskonzept zur Lehre des MSUS für Dermatologen angemessen ist. Darüber hinaus ist der Lernerfolg unabhängig vom Alter und Erfahrung sowohl in der Dermatologie, als auch im Ultraschall.
Article
Professional curiosity is vital in early intervention and in keeping children safe from abuse and neglect, its significance has been a recurrent theme in inquiries into child abuse and neglect in the UK over the last decade. However, there is a notable lack of research into the lived experience of practitioners in being professionally curious with parents and carers, perhaps particularly so regarding practitioners in schools, who hold significant safeguarding responsibilities, as part of a wider landscape of services responsible for keeping children safe. We present a qualitative empirical study into the lived experience of practitioners in pastoral support roles in schools across two local authorities in England. We found that professional curiosity was a highly emotive concept for participants, characterised by a myriad of emotional responses, support which appears inconsistent, expressed as a question of ‘luck’. Professional identity was found to be deeply significant in enacting curious practice, but this existed in a spectrum from determined and compassionate, to rejection of the need for curiosity and in these examples we also found othering, and less compassion for families. Overall, we call for consistent support for practitioners required to employ professional curiosity, both in terms of the emotional labour in this work, and the transition to seeing family orientated practice as part of the key function of their role.
Article
Purpose The study examined the impact of two dimensions of curiosity: joyous exploration (JE) and deprivation sensitivity (DSv) on informal learning effort (ILE) and attitude toward knowledge sharing (ATKS). The authors further explored the mediating effect of learning culture (LC) in the organization on the relationship of the two curiosity dimensions with ILE and ATKS. Additionally, the authors investigated the moderating effect of group dynamics in the form of intragroup task conflict (ITC) and relationship conflict (IRC) on the relationship of curiosity variables with LC, ILE and ATKS. Design/methodology/approach Survey instrument was distributed to 790 knowledge workers in various organizations through their HR managers. 403 responses were returned and used in the study. Findings JE, the self-determined manifestation of curiosity, impacts all elements of ILE and ATKS, while DSv influences a few aspects of ILE. The effect of JE on the dependent variables is, however, more substantial at low levels of ITC. ITC and IRC independently impact ILE, but only ITC moderates the relationships involving JE (but not DSv). LC emerges from JE (but not from DSv) and partially mediates its association with ILE and ATKS. Originality/value Through this work, we demonstrate the differential relevance of the curiosity dimensions and the intragroup conflict types – and their interaction effect – on learning effort and attitude toward knowledge sharing. The findings of the study open new avenues for interventions within the workplace learning and knowledge sharing domain.
Chapter
In this chapter, I present a pedagogy underpinned by mindfulness and positive psychology that values awareness, attention and intention; it promotes a way for all of us, teacher educator and pre-service teachers, to learn from one another and to explore self-care. Through poetry, I respond to pre-service teachers’ reflections, insights, worries, ruminations and moments of tension of becoming a teacher. In the process of responding, I highlight how the act of being grounded as a teacher educator supports an openness to explore the building of bridges between personal and professional growth, and individual and collective self-care that positions well-being at the heart of being and becoming a teacher.
Thesis
By Caplin and Leahy (1997), suspense is defined as a pleasure felt immediately prior to early resolution of uncertainty, and the assumption is that it is positively correlated (to a certain extent) with the amount of issues about the outcome of an event. In marketing, suspense is defined as an anticipatory global excitement associated with hope, fear and uncertainty which are felt and evaluated by a consumer according to probability of occurrence of a significant and imminent consumption or event (Moulard, Kroff and Folse 2012). In this context, experiential marketing incorporates some emotions to create a hedonic connection with consumers. Emotions have a crucial role in modern and post-modern marketing. This role is not big enough in itself to determine the purchase of a product/service, but it is essential to question and to understand how consumers produce emotions during consumption. Nevertheless, suspense is not only used to build an emotional state. In theory, first of all, a stimulus needs to be aroused by four drivers which are uncertainty, novelty, complexity and conflict. These drivers have been identified as key variables of an object or an event to create an effect of curiosity (Berlyne 1960). In parallel, hope and fear are defined as well as the antecedents of suspense with uncertainty (Madrigal and Bee 2005; Moulard, Kroff and Folse 2012). The strong link between suspense and uncertainty leads this research to discuss about specific curiosity. Specific curiosity is a type of curiosity which is based on two important drivers : Complexity and Uncertainty. Briefly, this research consists of four models and a theory to explain the role of suspense and specific curiosity, accompanied by their antecedents, through the experiences of hedonic consumption.
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Meaning in life (MIL) has been proposed to improve coping and resilience. Yet MIL’s association with coping has primarily been investigated in the context of extreme stressors and trauma, often using varied measures of MIL. Is MIL associated with varied coping strategies, coping self-efficacy, and distress in relation to commonly experienced, everyday challenges? Using diverse methodological designs, five studies (total N = 1,646) investigated the association between MIL and coping strategies/appraisals pertaining to varied challenging, stressful events. Across recalled (Studies 1 and 2), anticipated (Study 3), and experienced stressors (Studies 3–5), MIL was consistently associated with positive reinterpretation, proactive planning, coping self-efficacy, and stress. MIL was inconsistently related to threat/emotion-coping.
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The aim of the research was to examine the moderating role of search for meaning in the relationship between loneliness and presence of meaning. The authors hypothesized that loneliness would be negatively associated with presence of meaning and that with an increase in search for meaning this relationship would weaken. To test these predictions adults from Poland were invited to participate in three cross-sectional studies: one paper-and-pencil study (Study 1, N = 563) and two online studies (Study 2, N = 306; Study 2, N = 206). In Studies 1 and 2 the moderating effect of search for meaning manifested itself in the case of general loneliness, and in Study 3 in the case of each of the three domains of loneliness (i.e., social, romantic, and family). The studies add to the large body of research on the interpersonal sources of meaning in life and provide preliminary evidence of the moderating role of motivation to seek meaning in the relationship between loneliness and presence of meaning. The results suggest that actively striving to augment one's sense of meaning may prevent the loss of meaning as a result of subjectively perceived social isolation.
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Представлен обзор отечественной и зарубежной научной литературы по теме взаимодействия системы ценностей спортсменов и спортивного долголетия. Произведен анализ научных исследований, затрагивающих тематику ценностных ориентаций спортсменов – представителей различных видов спорта на различных этапах спортивного мастерства, а также взаимосвязи ценностей и спортивного долголетия. Приведен исчерпывающий обзор возможных подходов к анализу и интерпретации системы ценностей в спорте для дальнейших исследований ее трансляции и формирования.
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The aim of this preregistered study was to identify dispositional predictors of podcast listening and examine the associations between aspects of podcast listening, dispositional predictors, and psychological outcomes. Three hundred and six adults from a range of countries completed an online questionnaire that assessed individual difference predictors (the Big Five personality factors, curiosity, need for cognition, need to belong, age, and gender), aspects of podcast listening (amount, format, setting, device, and social aspects), and potential outcomes (autonomy, competence, relatedness, meaning, mindfulness, and smartphone addiction). As predicted, openness to experience, interest-based curiosity, and need for cognition positively predicted podcast listening. Contrary to predictions, need to belong negatively predicted podcast listening, and time spent listening to podcasts was not associated with autonomy, competence, relatedness, meaning, mindfulness, or smartphone addiction. However, certain aspects of podcast listening (e.g., parasocial relationships and social engagement) were related to positive outcomes and to our predictor variables. Furthermore, neuroticism negatively predicted podcast listening. Overall, the findings support the idea that informational motives can play a role in podcast listening, and that some aspects of listening are associated with positive outcomes.
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Objectives: Over the past few decades, technological advances in both ultrasound (US) and the application of telemedicine have been made [1]. Medical education has shifted to online classes during the COVID-19 pandemic, creating challenges in adequate training of US. In the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic and the discontinuation of traditional classroom teaching, a tele-didactic US course for undergraduate medical students was developed. This study is examining the educational outcome of a new digital US course of the abdomen, thorax and the thyroid gland with the implementation of a modern portable US system. Methods: A tele-guided US course was established between April 1st and June 20th, 2020, at the University Hospital in Bonn, Germany (see figure 1 [Fig. 1]). Students completed pre-and post-course surveys and underwent six US organ modules. Each module took place in a flipped-classroom concept including a digital learning platform. An objective structured assessment of US skills (OSAUS) [2] was implemented as final exam. Further, US images of the course and exam were rated by the Brightness Mode Quality Ultrasound Imaging Examination Technique (B-QUIET) [3]. Achieved points in image rating were compared to the OSAUS exam and survey results. Results: A total of 15 medical students were enrolled. There was a significant increase in self-assessed theoretical and practical ability (p<0.001). Students achieved an average score of 154.5 (SD±11.72) out of 175 points (88.29%) in OSAUS, which corresponded to the image rating using B-QUIET and self-assessment data obtained in surveys. Interrater analysis of US images showed a favorable agreement with an ICC (2,1) of 0.895 (95% confidence interval 0.858<ICC<0.924). Discussion: This is the first pilot study to investigate the individual learning outcome of German medical students in a newly developed, automated, tele-guided ultrasound course of the abdomen, the thyroid gland and the thorax using a modern PUM device. In addition, it is the first study to test the use of the B-QUIET [3] image analysis method as well as the OSAUS [2] protocol in a digital tele-guided US course together. Take home messages: US training via teleguidance should be considered in medical education. Our pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of this concept that can be used in the future to improve US training of medical students even during a pandemic. The digital implementation with an affordable, portable point-of-care-US device could be an incredible opportunity to expedite US training worldwide.
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Hedonism is a way of life, characterised by openness to pleasurable experience. There are many qualms about hedonism. It is rejected on moral grounds and said to be detrimental to long-term happiness. Several mechanisms for this 'paradox of hedonism' have been suggested and telling examples of pleasure seekers ending up in despair have been given. But is that the rule? If so, how much pleasure is too much? An overview of the available knowledge is given in this paper. The relation between hedonism and happiness has been studied at two levels: that of the nation and the individual. At the national level average happiness is correlated with moral acceptance of pleasure and with active leisure. At the individual level it is similarly linked with hedonistic attitudes and also correlated with hedonistic behaviours such as frequent sex and use of stimulants. In most cases the pattern is linearly positive. The relation between happiness and consumption of stimulants follows an inverted U-curve, spoilsports and guzzlers are less happy than modest consumers.Yet, these data cannot settle the issue, since the observed relations may be spurious or due to the effects of happiness on hedonism rather than the reverse. Even if we can prove a positive effect of (mild) hedonism on happiness, there is still the question of how that gains balances against a possible loss of health. A solution is to assess the effect of hedonistic living on the number of years lived happily.
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The primary objectives of this article are (a) to put forth an explicit operational formulation of positive human health that goes beyond prevailing "absence of illness" criteria; (b) to clarify that positive human health does not derive from extant medical considerations, which are not about wellness, but necessarily require a base in philosophical accounts of the "goods" in life; (c) to provoke a change of emphasis from strong tendencies to construe human health as exclusively about the mind or the body toward an integrated and positive spiral of mind-body influences; (d) to delineate possible physiological substrates of human flourishing and offer future directions for understanding the biology of positive health; and (e) to discuss implications of positive health for diverse scientific agendas (e.g., stress, class and health, work and family life) and for practice in health fields (e.g., training, health examinations, psychotherapy, and wellness intervention programs).
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This article develops a perspective on interest and interests as aspects of motivation, emotion, and personality. Interest is viewed as a capricious emotion with few, if any, immediate adaptational functions; it serves long-term adaptational goals by cultivating knowledge and diversifying skills and experience. Interests are viewed as idiosyncratic intrinsic motives that promote expertise. Theories of how interests arise are reviewed and organized. A model of how the emotion of interest participates in the development of enduring interests is proposed. The author concludes that apparently frivolous aspects of motivation and personality such as "idle curiosity" and avocations seem to play complex roles in human experience and development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Aristotle's concept of eudaimonia and hedonic enjoyment constitute 2 philosophical conceptions of happiness. Two studies involving combined samples of undergraduate and graduate students (Study 1, n = 209; Study 2, n = 249) were undertaken to identify the convergent and divergent aspects of these constructs. As expected, there was a strong positive correlation between personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Analyses revealed significant differences between the 2 conceptions of happiness experienced in conjunction with activities for the variables of (1) opportunities for satisfaction, (2) strength of cognitive-affective components, (3) level of challenges, (4) level of skills, and (5) importance. It thus appears that the 2 conceptions of happiness are related but distinguishable and that personal expressiveness, but not hedonic enjoyment, is a signifier of success in the process of self-realization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Compared cognitive and affective responses of 10 naive female, 10 trained female, 10 naive male, and 10 trained male university students to 12 paintings. Ss rated the paintings individually on a series of scales and made comparative judgments of relative interest and pleasure between 66 possible pairs of the paintings. Naive females were significantly more sensitive to the emotional arousal (EA) dimension. Trained females were the least responsive to the EA dimension. Naive females and trained males were the most sensitive to the aesthetic effectance dimension. Comparative judgments of interest and pleasure were each based on 2 dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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J. A. Gray (1981, 1982) holds that 2 general motivational systems underlie behavior and affect: a behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and a behavioral activation system (BAS). Self-report scales to assess dispositional BIS and BAS sensitivities were created. Scale development (Study 1) and convergent and discriminant validity in the form of correlations with alternative measures are reported (Study 2). In Study 3, a situation in which Ss anticipated a punishment was created. Controlling for initial nervousness, Ss high in BIS sensitivity (assessed earlier) were more nervous than those low in BIS sensitivity. In Study 4, a situation in which Ss anticipated a reward was created. Controlling for initial happiness, Ss high in BAS sensitivity (Reward Responsiveness and Drive scales) were happier than those low in BAS sensitivity. In each case the new scales predicted better than an alternative measure. Discussion is focused on conceptual implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Counseling psychologists often work with clients to increase their well-being as well as to decrease their distress. One important aspect of well-being, highlighted particularly in humanistic theories of the counseling process, is perceived meaning in life. However, poor measurement has hampered research on meaning in life. In 3 studies, evidence is provided for the internal consistency, temporal stability, factor structure, and validity of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), a new 10-item measure of the presence of, and the search for, meaning in life. A multitrait-multimethod matrix demonstrates the convergent and discriminant validity of the MLQ subscales across time and informants, in comparison with 2 other meaning scales. The MLQ offers several improvements over current meaning in life measures, including no item overlap with distress measures, a stable factor structure, better discriminant validity, a briefer format, and the ability to measure the search for meaning.
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This article presents a social cognitive framework for understanding three intricately linked aspects of career development: (a) the formation and elaboration of career-relevant interests, (b) selection of academic and career choice options, and (c) performance and persistence in educational and occupational pursuits. The framework, derived primarily from Bandura's (1986) general social cognitive theory, emphasizes the means by which individuals exercise personal agency in the career development process, as well as extra-personal factors that enhance or constrain agency. In particular, we focus on self-efficacy, expected outcome, and goal mechanisms and how they may interrelate with other person (e.g., gender), contextual (e.g., support system), and experiential/learning factors. Twelve sets of propositions are offered to organize existing findings and guide future research on the theory. We also present a meta-analysis of relevant findings and suggest specific directions for future empirical and theory-extension activity.
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Although influences of interest on learning are well documented, mediating processes have not been clarified. The authors investigated how individual and situational interest factors contribute to topic interest and text learning. Traditional self-report measures were combined with novel interactive computerized methods of recording cognitive and affective reactions to science and popular culture texts, monitoring their development in real time. Australian and Canadian students read 4 expository texts. Both individual interest variables and specific text titles influenced topic interest. Examination of processes predictive of text learning indicated that topic interest was related to affective response, affect to persistence, and persistence to learning. Combining self-rating scales with dynamic measures of student activities provided new insight into how interest influences learning.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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Joint effects of daily events and dispositional sensitivities to cues of reward and punishment on daily positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) were examined in 3 diary studies. Study 1 showed that positive events were strongly related to PA but not NA, whereas negative events were strongly related to NA but not PA. Studies 2 and 3 examined how the dispositional sensitivities of independent appetitive and aversive motivational systems, the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) and the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS), moderated these relationships. Participants in Study 2 with higher BAS sensitivity reported more PA on average; those with more sensitive BIS reported more NA. Also, BIS moderated reactions to negative events, such that higher BIS sensitivity magnified reactions to negative events. Study 3 replicated these findings and showed that BAS predisposed people to experience more positive events. Results demonstrate the value of distinguishing within-person and between-person effects to clarify the functionally independent processes by which dispositional sensitivities influence affect.
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Gray (1981, 1982) holds that 2 general motivational systems underlie behavior and affect: a behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and a behavioral activation system (BAS). Self-report scales to assess dispositional BIS and BAS sensitivities were created. Scale development (Study 1) and convergent and discriminant validity in the form of correlations with alternative measures are reported (Study 2). In Study 3, a situation in which Ss anticipated a punishment was created. Controlling for initial nervousness, Ss high in BIS sensitivity (assessed earlier) were more nervous than those low. In Study 4, a situation in which Ss anticipated a reward was created. Controlling for initial happiness, Ss high in BAS sensitivity (Reward Responsiveness and Drive scales) were happier than those low. In each case the new scales predicted better than an alternative measure. Discussion is focused on conceptual implications.
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SAS PROC MIXED is a flexible program suitable for fitting multilevel models, hierarchical linear models, and individual growth models. Its position as an integrated program within the SAS statistical package makes it an ideal choice for empirical researchers and applied statisticians seeking to do data reduction, management, and analysis within a single statistical package. Because the program was developed from the perspective of a "mixed" statistical model with both random and fixed effects, its syntax and programming logic may appear unfamiliar to users in education and the social and behavioral sciences who tend to express these models as multilevel or hierarchical models. The purpose of this paper is to help users familiar with fitting multilevel models using other statistical packages (e.g., HLM, MLwiN, MIXREG) add SAS PROC MIXED to their array of analytic options. The paper is written as a step-by-step tutorial that shows how to fit the two most common multilevel models: (a) school effects models, designed for data on individuals nested within naturally occurring hierarchies (e.g., students within classes); and (b) individual growth models, designed for exploring longitudinal data (on individuals) over time. The conclusion discusses how these ideas can be extended straighforwardly to the case of three level models. An appendix presents general strategies for working with multilevel data in SAS and for creating data sets at several levels.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
Book
Psychologists have always been intrigued in interest, and modern research on interest can be found in nearly every area of the field: researchers studying emotions, cognition, development, education, aesthetics, personality, motivation, and vocations have developed intriguing ideas about what interest is and how it works. This book presents an integrated picture of how interest has been studied in all of the wide-ranging areas of psychology. Using modern theories of cognition and emotion as an integrative framework, it examines the nature of interest, what makes things interesting, the role of interest in personality, and the development of people's idiosyncratic interests, hobbies, and avocations. The examination reveals deep similarities between seemingly different fields of psychology and illustrates the profound importance of interest, curiosity, and intrinsic motivation for understanding why people do what they do. A comprehensive work devoted to interest, this book reviews the history of psychological thought on interest, presents classic and modern research, and suggests fruitful directions for future work.
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The SWLS consists of 5-items that require a ratingon a 7-point Likert scale. Administration is rarely morethan a minute or 2 and can be completed by interview(including phone) or paper and pencil response. The in-strumentshouldnotbecompletedbyaproxyansweringfortheperson.Itemsofthe SWLSaresummedtocreatea total score that can range from 5 to 35.The SWLS is in the public domain. Permission isnot needed to use it. Further information regardingthe use and interpretation of the SWLS can be foundat the author’s Web site http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/∼ediener/SWLS.html. The Web site alsoincludes links to translations of the scale into 27languages.
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We examined the roles of curiosity, social anxiety, and positive affect (PA) and neg- ative affect (NA) in the development of interpersonal closeness. A reciprocal self-disclosure task was used wherein participants and trained confederates asked and answered questions escalating in personal and emotional depth (mimicking closeness-development). Relationships between curiosity and relationship out- comes were examined using regression analyses. Controlling for trait measures of social anxiety, PA, and NA, trait curiosity predicted greater partner ratings of attrac- tion and closeness. Social anxiety moderated the relationship between trait curios- ity and self-ratings of attraction such that curiosity was associated with greater attraction among those low in social anxiety compared to those high in social anxi- ety. In contrast, trait PA was related to greater self-ratings of attraction but had no relationship with partners' ratings. Trait curiosity predicted positive relationship outcomes as a function of state curiosity generated during the interaction, even after controlling for state PA.
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We investigated the relationship between various character strengths and life satisfaction among 5,299 adults from three Internet samples using the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths. Consistently and robustly associated with life satisfaction were hope, zest, gratitude, love, and curiosity. Only weakly associated with life satisfaction, in contrast, were modesty and the intellectual strengths of appreciation of beauty, creativity, judgment, and love of learning. In general, the relationship between character strengths and life satisfaction was monotonic, indicating that excess on any one character strength does not diminish life satisfaction.
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SAS PROC MIXED is a flexible program suitable for fitting multilevel models, hierarchical linear models, and individual growth models. Its position as an integrated program within the SAS statistical package makes it an ideal choice for empirical researchers and applied statisticians seeking to do data reduction, management, and analysis within a single statistical package. Because the program was developed from the perspective of a "mixed" statistical model with both random and fixed effects, its syntax and programming logic may appear unfamiliar to users in education and the social and behavioral sciences who tend to express these models as multilevel or hierarchical models. The purpose of this paper is to help users familiar with fitting multilevel models using other statistical packages (e.g., HLM, MLwiN, MIXREG) add SAS PROC MIXED to their array of analytic options. The paper is written as a step-by-step tutorial that shows how to fit the two most common multilevel models: (a) school effects models, designed for data on individuals nested within naturally occurring hierarchies (e.g., students within classes); and (b) individual growth models, designed for exploring longitudinal data (on individuals) over time. The conclusion discusses how these ideas can be extended straighforwardly to the case of three level models. An appendix presents general strategies for working with multilevel data in SAS and for creating data sets at several levels.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
Pleasures of the mind are different from pleasures of the body. There are two types of pleasures of the body: tonic pleasures and relief pleasures. Pleasures of the body are given by the contact senses and by the distance senses (seeing and hearing). The distance senses provide a special category of pleasure. Pleasures of the mind are not emotions; they are collections of emotions distributed over time. Some distributions of emotions over time are particularly pleasurable, such as episodes in which the peak emotion is strong and the final emotion is positive. The idea that all pleasurable stimuli share some general characteristic should be supplanted by the idea that humans have evolved domain-specific responses of attraction to stimuli. The emotions that characterize pleasures of the mind arise when expectations are violated, causing autonomic nervous system arousal and thereby triggering a search for an interpretation. Thus pleasures of the mind occur when an individual has a definite set of expectations (usually tacit) and the wherewithal to interpret the violation (usually by placing it in a narrative framework). Pleasures of the mind differ in the objects of the emotions they comprise. There is probably a
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The aims of this symposium were "to consider problems relevant to education, to allow researchers already in this area to communicate directly about common problems and to suggest new ideas and directions for research in the field of psychology in education." The proceedings were published because, in addition to the fact that there is no text or overview of the different theoretical positions on intrinsic motivation, there has been no attempt to relate the various theoretical positions to educationally relevant problems. Among the 15 contributions are: 1) Toward a History of Intrinsic Motivation; 2) The Psychological Significance of Success in Competitive Achievement Situations: A Threat as Well as a Promise; 3) Motivation Inherent in the Pursuit of Meaning: Or the Desire to Inquire; 4) Differences in the Personalities of Children Differing in Curiosity; and, 5) Intrinsic Motivation: Unlearned, Learned, and Modifiable. A few of the contributors to the book have extended their research on intrinsic motivation into an examination of maturity, mental health, creativity, vocational choice, and other factors in growth and development. Bibliographic references accompany each essay. (Author/JLB)
Article
Five studies were conducted to map the content and structure of laypeople's conceptions of pleasure. Instances of the pleasure concept collected in Study 1 consisted predominantly of objects, events or persons described as sources of pleasure. Content analysis suggested that the pleasure category, like emotional response categories, might be formed at an implicit level where various pleasure antecedents are grouped based on common phenomenological qualities of the affective experience. Studies 2 and 3a showed that the pleasure category possesses a graded structure and fuzzy boundaries. Results further revealed that, either when explicitly presented with labels (Study 3b) or left to their own implicit categories during a sorting task (Study 4), laypeople represented pleasure as a hierarchical concept in which differentiated pleasure types (i.e., intellectual, emotional, social and physical) were subsumed under a higher level unitary form of pleasure. In this structure, unitary and differentiated pleasures shared a set of common affective qualities but were also distinguishable by unique and distinctive affective characteristics (Study 5). Ties to prior theories of pleasure and implications for decision making and behavioural research are discussed.
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AN ATTEMPT TO ARRIVE AT A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF REINFORCEMENT BY STUDYING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AROUSAL AND REINFORCEMENT. EFFECTS OF AROUSAL LEVEL AND THE INTERACTION OF AROUSAL LEVEL AND AROUSAL POTENTIAL ARE DISCUSSED USING FINDINGS FROM HUMAN AND ANIMAL, VERBAL LEARNING, AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES. PSYCHOPHYSICAL, ECOLOGICAL, AND COLLATIVE STIMULUS PROPERTIES ARE FOUND TO "AFFECT REWARD VALUE AND, MORE GENERALLY, REINFORCEMENT VALUE IN SIMILAR WAYS." AROUSAL REDUCTION IS REJECTED AS NECESSARY FOR PRODUCING REINFORCEMENT. (322 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The pursuit of happiness is an important goal for many people. However, surprisingly little scientific research has focused on the question of how happiness can be increased and then sustained, probably because of pessimism engendered by the concepts of genetic determinism and hedonic adaptation. Nevertheless, emerging sources of optimism exist regarding the possibility of permanent increases in happiness. Drawing on the past well-being literature, the authors propose that a person's chronic happiness level is governed by 3 major factors: a genetically determined set point for happiness, happiness-relevant circumstantial factors, and happiness-relevant activities and practices. The authors then consider adaptation and dynamic processes to show why the activity category offers the best opportunities for sustainably increasing happiness. Finally, existing research is discussed in support of the model, including 2 preliminary happiness-increasing interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
believe that attempts to relate the structure of central nervous system neurobiology and neurochemistry to the structure of personality . . . require a clear conceptual framework / a theoretical strategy is needed to guide selection of the neurobiological and personality variables hypothesized to relate / our theoretical approach to the neurobiology of personality is first explicated / began by broadening our understanding of [personality] structure by assessing the structure of behavioral systems as defined by ethology and psychology / the structure of behavior reflects the existence of neurobehavioral-emotional systems that elicit and motivate certain subjective emotional experiences and overt patterns of behavior to particular classes of stimulus / thus, a particular class of stimulus, the emotional feelings and motivation generated, and the behavior patterns expressed all form integral components of a coherent emotional system analogous structure of neurobehavioral-emotional systems and personality [types and organization of neurobehavioral systems, the structure of a general neurobehavioral-emotional system, the structure of personality and its superfactors] / putative neurobiology of three personality superfactors [positive emotionality, constraint, negative emotionality] / studies of the relationship of DA [dopamine] to positive emotionality and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) to constraint / implications for personality disorders [implications for the development of substance abuse] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The topics that are to be treated in this book were unduly neglected by psychology for many years but are now beginning to come to the fore. My own researches into attention and exploratory behavior began in 1947, and at about the same time several other psychologists became independently impressed with the importance of these matters and started to study them experimentally. It is interesting that those were also the years when information theory was making its appearance and when the reticular formation of the brain stem was first attracting the notice of neurophysiologists. During the last ten years, the tempo of research into exploratory behavior and related phenomena has been steadily quickening. The book is prompted by the feeling that it is now time to pause and take stock: to review relevant data contributed by several different specialties, to consider what conclusions, whether firm or tentative, are justified at the present juncture, and to clarify what remains to be done. The primary aim of the book is, in fact, to raise problems. The book is intended as a contribution to behavior theory, i.e., to psychology conceived as a branch of science with the circumscribed objective of explaining and predicting behavior. But interest in attention and exploratory behavior and in other topics indissociably bound up with them, such as art, humor and thinking, has by no means been confined to professional psychologists. The book has two features that would have surprised me when I first set out to plan it. One is that it ends up sketching a highly modified form of drive-reduction theory. Drive-reduction theory has appeared more and more to be full of shortcomings, even for the phenomena that it was originally designed to handle. The second surprising feature is the prominence of neurophysiology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Theoretical relations between anxiety and curiosity have been suggested, and analogies have been drawn between the state-trait formulation in anxiety theory and research and a similar formulation in curiosity. Individual differences in the potential for curiosity experiences suggest a trait (C-Trait) formulation; while individual differences in curiosity experiences themselves (C-State) suggest a state formulation. Three studies reporting psychometric aspects of the Melbourne Curiosity Inventory concern descriptive statistical characteristics of the C-Trait and C-State scales, and the validity of the state-trait distinction for curiosity research. It is concluded that the scales have acceptable levels of reliability and validity to justify their use as research instruments.
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In two daily diary studies we examined the moderating role of sensation seeking in the patterns of relations between physical pleasure and life satisfaction. In study 1 (a 52-day daily diary study), daily physical pleasure was a signi®cantly stronger predictor of daily social satisfaction among high sensation seekers than among low sensation seekers. We extended the ®nding of study 1 to more general daily satisfaction in study 2 (a 23-day diary study). The present ®ndings indicate that physical pleasure is associated with daily satisfaction to the degree that one seeks for such an experience. In addition, we tested whether the association between physical pleasure and daily satisfaction would be moderated also by other facets of extraversion and extraversion as a whole. With the exception of the positive emotion facet in study 1, no facet or extraversion as a whole moderated the relation between physical pleasure and daily satisfaction. The present studies show speci®city and replicability of the role that sensation seeking plays in understanding the link between daily physical pleasure and daily satisfaction.
Article
In two daily diary studies we examined the moderating role of sensation seeking in the patterns of relations between physical pleasure and life satisfaction. In study 1 (a 52-day daily diary study), daily physical pleasure was a significantly stronger predictor of daily social satisfaction among high sensation seekers than among low sensation seekers. We extended the finding of study 1 to more general daily satisfaction in study 2 (a 23-day diary study). The present findings indicate that physical pleasure is associated with daily satisfaction to the degree that one seeks for such an experience. In addition, we tested whether the association between physical pleasure and daily satisfaction would be moderated also by other facets of extraversion and extraversion as a whole. With the exception of the positive emotion facet in study 1, no facet or extraversion as a whole moderated the relation between physical pleasure and daily satisfaction. The present studies show specificity and replicability of the role that sensation seeking plays in understanding the link between daily physical pleasure and daily satisfaction. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Eudaimonic theories of well-being assert the importance of achieving one’s full potential through engaging in inherently meaningful endeavors. In two daily diary studies, we assessed whether reports of engagement in behaviors representative of eudaimonic theories were associated with well-being. We also examined whether eudaimonic behaviors were more strongly related to well-being than behaviors directed toward obtaining pleasure or material goods. In both studies, eudaimonic behaviors had consistently stronger relations to well-being than hedonic behaviors. Data also provided support for a temporal sequence in which eudaimonic behaviors were related to greater well-being the next day. Overall, our results suggest that “doing good” may be an important avenue by which people create meaningful and satisfying lives.
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When time is limited, researchers may be faced with the choice of using an extremely brief measure of the Big-Five personality dimensions or using no measure at all. To meet the need for a very brief measure, 5 and 10-item inventories were developed and evaluated. Although somewhat inferior to standard multi-item instruments, the instruments reached adequate levels in terms of: (a) convergence with widely used Big-Five measures in self, observer, and peer reports, (b) test–retest reliability, (c) patterns of predicted external correlates, and (d) convergence between self and observer ratings. On the basis of these tests, a 10-item measure of the Big-Five dimensions is offered for situations where very short measures are needed, personality is not the primary topic of interest, or researchers can tolerate the somewhat diminished psychometric properties associated with very brief measures.
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This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual's physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed.