Effects of diet on the fatty acid composition of body zones in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L. larvae: a chemometric study

The University of Stirling
Marine Biology (Impact Factor: 2.39). 11/1995; 124(2):177-183. DOI: 10.1007/BF00347121


Larvae of the sea bass Dicentrachus labrax were fed four Artemia sp. diets for 28 d. Three were nauplii enriched with emulsions of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the fourth nauplii enriched with baker's yeast. At the end of the experimental period, the fatty acids of the bodies, heads and eyes of the larvae were analysed. A multivariate statistical method (discriminant analysis, DA) applied to the data revealed anatomical as well as dietary fatty acid pattern-discrimination. We propose here the use of discriminant analysis as a pattern-recognition method that will help to integrate the fatty acid information obtained in nutritional studies.

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    • "It has been shown that these fatty acids contribute to proper development of the nervous system or sensory organs in fish larvae (Benitez-Santana et al., 2006; Navarro et al., 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: We examined trophic positions and fatty acid concentrations of riverine, lacustrine, and aquaculture diet and fish in Austrian pre-alpine aquatic ecosystems. It was hypothesized that dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles largely influence the FA composition of the salmonids Salvelinus alpinus, Salmo trutta, and Oncorhynchus mykiss. We analyzed trophic positions using stable isotopes (δ15N) and tested for correlations with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations. Gut content analysis revealed benthos (rivers), pellets (aquaculture), and zooplankton (lakes) as the predominant diet source. Results of dorsal muscle tissues analysis showed that the omega-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n−3), was the mostly retained PUFA in all fish of all ecosystems, yet with the highest concentrations in S. alpinus from aquaculture (mean: 20mg DHA/g dry weight). Moreover, we found that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n−3) in fish of natural habitats (rivers, lakes) was the second most abundant PUFA (3–5mg/g DW), whereas aquaculture-raised fish had higher concentrations of the omega-6 linoleic acid (18:2n–6; 9–11mg/g DW) than EPA. In addition, PUFA patterns showed that higher omega-3/-6 ratios in aquacultures than in both riverine and lacustrine fish. Data of this pilot field study suggest that salmonids did not seem to directly adjust their PUFA to dietary PUFA profiles in either natural habitats or aquaculture and that some alterations of PUFA are plausible. Finally, we suggest that trophic positions of these freshwater salmonids do not predict PUFA concentrations in their dorsal muscle tissues. KeywordsAquatic food webs-Dietary fatty acids-Stable isotopes-Aquatic habitats-Fish
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Hydrobiologia
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    • "Thus, increasing dietary EFA either in live food or in microdiets improves larval growth, survival and stress resistance (Koven et al., 1990;Rodríguez et al., 1994;Watanabe and Kiron, 1994;Izquierdo, 1996;Salhi, 1997;Bessonart, 1997;Sargent et al., 1999). EFA, particularly DHA, are also necessary for the normal development of nervous system and sensory organs, larval eye and brain fatty acid composition clearly reflecting that of the diet (Navarro et al., 1995). Despite variations in the dietary level of such fatty acids would markedly affect behaviour, few studies have been conducted to elucidate the effect of EFA on larval behaviour. "
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    ABSTRACT: Developmental changes in swimming speed were analysed in the seabream (Sparus aurata) larvae. Four feeding regimes using live preys (rotifer Brachionus plicatilis) enriched with fish oil, soybean oil, linseed oil and rapeseed oil, differing in fatty acid profile, were tested during the first weeks of larval life. There was an increase in burst swimming speed and cruise swimming speed during the visual stimulus experiment at day 16th of life in the present study in agreement with the better eye development in larvae of this age. Swimming activity before stimulus was significantly reduced when larvae were fed rotifers enriched with vegetable oils. Larvae fed with rotifers enriched with fish oil reacted with a higher burst swimming speed after a visual stimulus than after the sound stimulus (159.5 SL/s vs. 18.30 SL/s) denoting the importance of the vision during this period of development not only for predation but also for the burst. The reduction in dietary essential fatty acid contents, by the enrichment with vegetable oils, delays the appearance of response to visual stimulus, in agreement with the minor DHA content in eyes and brains of these larvae and suggesting a delay in the functional development of brain and vision.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · Aquaculture
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    • "stinguish between dietary and non - dietary components . Some fatty acids are deposited in adipose tissue with little modification and in a predictable way ( Iverson et al . , 2004 ) . The specific FA patterns are passed from prey to predator near the bottom of the food web ( Sargent et al . , 1988 ; Fraser et al . , 1989 ; Graeve et al . , 1994 : Navarro et al . , 1995 ; St . John and Lund , 1996 ; Kirsch et al . , 1998 ) , determining the FA composition of higher predator levels ( Hooper et al . , 1973 ) and indicating the presence of specific prey in predator diets ( Colby et al . , 1993 ; Pond et al . , 1995 ; Raclot et al . , 1998 ) . Tracking of dietary components through the food web cannot be e"
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    ABSTRACT: Net-cage fish farms attract a great number of wild fishes, altering their behaviour and possibly their physiology. Wild Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus), sampled from populations aggregated around two Mediterranean fish farms and from two natural control populations, were analyzed for differences in body condition, stomach content and fatty acid composition. Pellets used to feed caged fish in both farms were also analyzed to identify their relationship with the fatty acid composition of tissue of wild fish. T. mediterraneus aggregated around the farms throughout the year although large seasonal changes in abundance and biomass occurred. Wild fish aggregated at farms mainly ate food pellets while control fish fed principally on juvenile fish and cephalopods. Wild fish that fed around the cages had a significantly higher body fat content than the control fish (7.30+/-1.8% and 2.36+/-0.7%, respectively). The fatty acid composition also differed between farm-associated and control fish, principally because of the significantly increased levels of linoleic (C18:2omega6) and oleic (C18:1omega9) acids and decreased docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6omega3) in farm-associated fish. The increased condition of wild fish associated with farms could increase the spawning ability of coastal fish populations, if wild fish are protected from fishing while they are present at farms. The fatty acids compositions could also serve as biomarkers to infer the influence of a fish farm on the local fish community, helping to better describe the environmental impact of fish farming.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Marine Environmental Research
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