Administration with Bushenkangshuai Tang alleviates UV irradiation- and oxidative stress-induced lifespan defects in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
During normal metabolism, oxidative byproducts will inevitably generate and damage molecules thereby impairing their biological
functions, including the aging process. Bushenkangshuai Tang (补肾抗衰方, BT) is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used for clinically treating premature ovarian failure. In the present study, BT administration at high concentrations significantly increased lifespan, slowed aging-related decline, and delayed accumulation
of aging-related cellular damage in wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans. BT administration could further largely alleviate the aging defects induced by UV and oxidative stresses, and BT administration at different concentrations could largely rescue the aging defects in mev-1 mutant animals. The protective effects of BT administration on aging process were at least partially dependent on the Ins/IGF-like signaling pathway. Moreover, BT administration at different concentrations obviously altered the expression patterns of antioxidant genes and suppressed
the severe stress responses induced by UV and oxidative stresses, suggesting that BT-induced tolerance to UV or oxidative stress might result from reactive oxygen species scavenging. BT administration during development was not necessarily a requirement for UV and oxidative stress resistance, and the concentrations
of administrated BT examined were not toxic for nematodes. Therefore, BT administration could effectively retrieve the aging defects induced by UV irradiation and oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Available from: Yunli Zhao
- "It has been proven that C. elegans can be further used for toxicological study of drugs –. Especially, several studies have been performed on the investigations on beneficial or adverse effects of components isolated from specific plants and beneficial effects of specific Chinese medicines with the aid of C. elegans as the assay system –. "
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ABSTRACT: Genkwa Flos (GF), the dried flower bud from Daphne genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (Thymelaeaceae), is a well-known and widely used traditional Chinese medicine. However, we know little about the in vivo mechanism of GF toxicity. Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been considered as a useful toxicity assay system by offering a system best suited for asking the in vivo questions. In the present study, we employed the prolonged exposure assay system of C. elegans to perform the full in vivo toxicity assessment of raw-processed GF. Our data show that GF exposure could induce the toxicity on lifespan, development, reproduction, and locomotion behavior. GF exposure not only decreased body length but also induced the formation of abnormal vulva. The decrease in brood size in GF exposed nematodes appeared mainly at day-1 during the development of adult nematodes. The decrease of locomotion behavior in GF exposed nematodes might be due to the damage on development of D-type GABAergic motor neurons. Moreover, we observed the induction of intestinal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and alteration of expression patterns of genes required for development of apical domain, microvilli, and apical junction of intestine in GF exposed nematodes, implying the possible dysfunction of the primary targeted organ. In addition, GF exposure induced increase in defecation cycle length and deficits in development of AVL and DVB neurons controlling the defecation behavior. Therefore, our study implies the usefulness of C. elegans assay system for toxicity assessment from a certain Chinese medicine or plant extract. The observed toxicity of GF might be the combinational effects of oxidative stress, dysfunction of intestine, and altered defecation behavior in nematodes.
Available from: Yunli Zhao
- "C. elegans has been widely accepted and utilized as an important alternative animal model for toxicity testing , –. A number of toxicity studies have been conducted with the aid of both lethal and sub-lethal endpoints for metallic salts –, organic compounds –, drugs –, and engineered nanomaterials –. C. elegans is useful for toxicological studies from whole-animal level down to single cell level . "
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to investigate in vivo toxicity from clentuberol and ractopamine and the possible underlying mechanism. Both acute and prolonged exposures to clentuberol or ractopamine decreased brood size and locomotion behavior, and induced intestinal autofluorescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Although acute exposure to the examined concentrations of clentuberol or ractopamine did not induce lethality, prolonged exposure to 10 µg/L of clentuberol and ractopamine reduced lifespan. At relatively high concentrations, ractopamine exhibited more severe toxicity than clentuberol on nematodes. Overexpression of sod-2 gene encoding a Mn-SOD to prevent induction of oxidative stress effectively inhibited toxicity from clentuberol or ractopamine. Besides oxidative stress, we found that clentuberol might reduce lifespan through influencing insulin/IGF signaling pathway; however, ractopamine might reduce lifespan through affecting both insulin/IGF signaling pathway and TOR signaling pathway. Ractopamine more severely decreased expression levels of daf-16, sgk-1, skn-1, and aak-2 genes than clentuberol, and increased expression levels of daf-2 and age-1 genes at the examined concentration. Therefore, the C. elegans assay system may be useful for assessing the possible toxicity from weight loss agents, and clentuberol and ractopamine may induce toxicity through different molecular mechanisms.
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