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Abstract

As words become more widely used, and especially as they become fashionable, they may often become more difficult to understand. One might think it would be the other way around, but this obfuscation of meaning has generally been the rule with the popularization of Buddhist vocabulary. While each had a precise technical meaning in its original context, terms like zen, yoga, karma, and nirvana can mean almost anything the modern writer wants them to mean. A similar trend may well be underway with mindfulness, and perhaps even with the more general word meditation. Understanding the sense in which these words are used in their original setting should prove to be a worthwhile undertaking as we see them applied in the current creative encounter between psychology and Buddhist thought.
2
Mindfulness and Meditation
Andrew Olendzki
What should be done for his followers by a teacher with compassion
and care for their welfare, that I have done for you. Here are the roots
of trees. Here are empty places. Meditate! Do not be lazy. Do not be
ones who later have regrets. This is my instruction to you.
Buddha (Majjhima Nik
¯
aya 8)
As words become more widely used, and especially as they become
fashionable, they may often become more difficult to understand. One might
think it would be the other way around, but this obfuscation of meaning
has generally been the rule with the popularization of Buddhist vocabulary.
While each had a precise technical meaning in its original context, terms like
zen, yoga, karma, and nirvana can mean almost anything the modern writer
wants them to mean. A similar trend may well be underway with mindful-
ness, and perhaps even with the more general word meditation.Understand-
ing the sense in which these words are used in their original setting should
prove to be a worthwhile undertaking as we see them applied in the current
creative encounter between psychology and Buddhist thought.
What Is Meditation?
The traditional sense of meditation in Western culture, before significant
encounter with Asian practices, involves sustained consideration or thought
upon a subject. Originating from the Indo-European root
med, primarily
meaning “to measure, it suggests a discourse upon a subject (as in the title
of Descartes’ famous work) or calm thought upon some subject (as with
structured religious prayers). As such, it is always an exercise of ordered
conceptual contemplation, involving the systematic and disciplined use of
language, symbol, and concept. As we shall see, this is exactly what one is
not doing in mindfulness meditation. While such a structured exploration of
a conceptual landscape can be important to some forms of psychotherapy
that focus on reframing the narrative of one’s prior experience, most forms
of Buddhist meditation are working in the other direction, toward less con-
ceptual modes of consciousness.
The most common word for meditation in the classical languages of
Buddhism (Sanskrit and Pali) is sam
¯
adhi. The etymology of this term sug-
gests gathering (sam-) the mind and placing (
dh
¯
a) it upon (-
¯
a-) an object.
In this broad sense, its meaning seems similar enough to English usage, but
there is a subtle and crucial difference between the Western and Buddhist
understanding of how the mind operates. As mentioned in the previous
37
38 Andr ew Olendzki
chapter, experience ensues from the confluence of three things: conscious-
ness, an organ, and an object. An organ cognizes an object; an object is cog-
nized by an organ; consciousness of an object arises by means of an organ—
these are three ways of describing the same event. What we consider concep-
tual thinking is only one of six modes of the mind, the other five being sen-
sory, so meditation may or may not involve conceptual thought. Placing the
mind upon a sensory object is just as much meditation as placing the mind
upon a conceptual object, and it is not possible to do both at once. The point
here is that while in Western usage meditation generally assumes the exer-
cise of “thinking about” something, in Buddhism it may mean this, but more
often refers to placing the mind upon physical sensations, upon raw sights or
sounds, or upon the tangible objects of smell and taste. This gives it a wider
range of meaning, and this difference will become important.
The primary characteristic of meditation, and the term most often used
to define it, is ekaggat
¯
a, which literally means one (ek-) pointed (-agga-)
ness (t
¯
a). Meditation is about focusing the mind to a single point, unifying
it, and placing it upon a particular object. To some extent this happens natu-
rally every mind moment, and it if did not, there would be a serious lack of
cohesion to mental experience. According to Buddhist models of mind, con-
sciousness takes a single object at a time and organizes various supporting
mental functions around it. This can be construed as a single episode of con-
sciousness, which is essentially an event that takes place rather than some-
thing that exists. The knowing of a particular object by means of a particular
organ arises in response to a stimulus, persists for only a very brief moment,
and then passes away almost immediately. Another mind moment arises right
away in response to another stimulus, and this too immediately ceases. Sub-
jective experience presents itself to us as a stream on conscious moments;
the sense of continuity, and of subject and object stability, is projected onto
the stream much as a narrative is constructed from rapidly presented frames
of a movie. One-pointedness is a factor in every frame, for each moment
has a single focus, but concentration meditation has to do with extending
this singularity of focus over multiple ensuing mind moments. Using the cin-
ema image further, concentration meditation is like holding the video camera
steady for a long time—one takes multiple pictures of the same scene.
This is something that does not come easily to the human mind and must
be practiced diligently if the skill is to be learned. We have evolved to stay
alert to all significant changes to our environment, and attention is naturally
drawn to sensory data that is out of the ordinary or that presents in sudden
or unexpected ways. Like a bird or chipmunk, rapidly casting around in all
directions to check for danger, our mind is habituated to lurching rapidly
from one sense object to another, or from one thought to another. As anyone
who has practiced meditation can attest, or as you can discover for yourself
in a few moments, holding the mind steady on a single object, such as the
breath or a repeated word, is exceedingly difficult to do. But like so many
other things, it is a skill that can be learned through patient and diligent
practice. Much of Buddhist meditation is a process of placing the mind on a
particular object, often called the primary object, and then noticing (sooner
or later) that it has wandered off that object. When one notices this, one
gently and forgivingly abandons the train of thought the mind has boarded
and returns the attention once again to the primary object. This process is
Chapter 2 Mindfulness and Meditation 39
then repeated again and again: The mind is placed on a particular object;
it wanders off on trails of association, reverie, recollection, judgment, plan-
ning, verbalizing, conceptualizing, calculation, commentary, fantasy, and day-
dream, only to be carefully and patiently retrieved from its adventuring and
settled back upon the primary object.
Obstacles to Meditation
As with every other learned skill, people have differing aptitudes for med-
itation; make progress in an apparently endless series of breakthroughs,
plateaus, and reversals; and can experience repeated episodes of triumph
and failure in rapid succession. Any given meditation session might be influ-
enced by how comfortable the body is, how much sleep one has had
recently, the overall state of health, the temperature in the room, whether
one has a problem on the mind or is working through some emotional
issues—all sorts of factors. An interesting feature of the traditional Buddhist
understanding of meditation is that it is always influenced by one’s overall
ethical behavior. The ability of the mind to concentrate is directly hampered
by such acts as deliberately harming living creatures, taking what has not
been given, speaking untruthfully or harshly, misbehaving sexually, or tak-
ing intoxicants of various kinds. Thus, the ethical precepts of Buddhism are
a matter of great practical importance, rather than mere moral injunction.
But if one is relatively free of the remorse and emotional turmoil that can
come from unhealthy behavior, it is reasonable to expect significant progress
in the enterprise of unifying and concentrating the mind such that it can
remain steadily upon a single object over multiple mind moments.
Buddhist psychology identifies five primary obstacles to meditation,
known appropriately as the five hindrances. The first of these is sense desire,
or the impulse of the senses to seek out their objects. It is as if the eye wants
to see forms, the ear is eager to hear sounds, and so on for the other senses,
including the mind liking to think the thoughts that please it in one way or
another. We are so used to having our senses connect with their correspond-
ing object that a considerable habit energy is present in any given moment
inclining the mind to “lean toward” or be attracted to their habitual forms
of stimulation. This pull of the senses, including mind as the sixth sense, is
subtle but can be viscerally discerned as the mind gets more sensitive. The
second hindrance is ill-will, a corresponding propensity to shy away or with-
draw from those objects of experience that do not please us or are painful
in some way. These first two hindrances act as a matched pair of polar oppo-
sites, pulling and pushing the mind and senses from one object to another in
ways that make it difficult to settle down. The third and fourth hindrances
also work together as an opposed pair, restlessness and sluggishness.Rest-
lessness is a matter of too much energy, driving the mind relentlessly from
one object to another, while sluggishness is too little energy, bogging the
mind down in slothful, sleepy, or lazy states. The antidote for restlessness
is to relax and tranquilize the mind, while the remedy for sluggishness is to
arouse greater interest and enthusiasm. Paradoxically, the goal is to reach a
state that is simultaneously tranquil and alert. The mind should be calm with-
out being sluggish and alert without being restless. The final hindrance is
40 Andr ew Olendzki
doubt, often manifest as recurring thoughts of self-doubt, doubt about mak-
ing progress, or doubt about the entire enterprise of learning such a daunting
thing as meditation. As long as any of these five states or factors is arising in
the mind, it will be difficult or impossible to focus the mind and hold it steady
upon a particular object. But they can, with patient practice, be temporar-
ily put aside or abandoned. They are likened to wind-blown waves on the
surface of water, and when they quiet down, the mind, like water, becomes
limpid and clear.
Deepening Meditation
Although at first the attention has an almost irresistible propensity to be
drawn to sounds, physical sensations, or stray thoughts—wherever the
action is—it eventually gets less and less diverted by random stimuli. At some
point the momentum shifts, and it becomes more compelling to remain with
the primary object than to pursue the shallow stimulation of some novel
input. It is not that the object itself is of particular interest, but rather the
quality of mind with which the object is cognized becomes more intriguing
as it gains in power, depth, and lucidity. Under the scrutiny of a concen-
trated mind, everything becomes fascinating. If this process of steadying the
mind on a single object is allowed to mature, it will eventually reach a stage
called absorption,orjh
¯
ana in Pali (the same word is rendered dhy
¯
ana in
Sanskrit, ch’an in Chinese, and zen in Japanese). In this state the mind is
so thoroughly attending to a particular object that it is no longer aware of
other objects that might present themselves at a sense door. A bird might
sing and the sound waves will reach the ear and may even be processed by
subliminal sensory systems, but it will not enter conscious awareness since
“the line is busy” as it is absorbed by the primary object of awareness. This
is a state most resembling a trance to the outside observer and is the target
of considerable caricature of meditation in popular culture. But while the
mind may appear non-functioning from the outside, it has reached a state
of remarkable capability when regarded from the practitioner’s subjective
standpoint.
The classical meditation literature of the Buddhist tradition describes a
systematic (and repeatable) four-stage process by which the mind becomes
gradually purified of its distractions as it becomes increasingly focused and
potent. Nothing significant happens until the mind has at least temporarily
abandoned the five hindrances mentioned above, and any progress is immedi-
ately canceled if any sort of harmful or unethical impulse arises in the stream
of consciousness. Again, this is not so much a proscription as it is a descrip-
tion of the natural qualities of the mind, which can only achieve an advanced
state of concentration if its thoughts and intentions remain ethically whole-
some. The first stage of absorption meditation is accompanied by intense
physical pleasure and mental joy, more a state of deep well-being permeat-
ing the body than of sensory titillation. This stage also involves the normal
conceptual or discursive functions of the mind. One can feel very focused
while retaining the ability to verbalize and direct thought at will. In the sec-
ond stage these discursive functions cease, while the joy that comes naturally
with concentration persists. It is not that the mind has stopped functioning,
rather certain functions of the mind, those that direct and sustain deliberative
Chapter 2 Mindfulness and Meditation 41
conceptual thought, come to rest. In Buddhist understanding the more pro-
found levels of mind, characterized by a strong inner clarity, are only reached
when the chatter of verbalization and symbol manipulation ceases. The third
stage of absorption sees the diminishing of the intensive joy permeating the
first two stages into a more subtle sense of happiness and well-being. With
the fourth and final stage, all pleasure is replaced with equanimity, a deep
evenness of mind that regards phenomena with compete objectivity. The
usual attraction toward what is pleasing and avoidance of what is displeasing,
both attitudes of mind that prevent us from seeing clearly, are surmounted by
equanimity. At this point the concentrated mind is said to be purified, bright,
and steady. Moreover, like gold purified in a crucible, it becomes malleable
and can be turned with great effect to a number of non-ordinary modes of
functioning.
The civilization into which the Buddha was born had been adept at the
contemplative arts for centuries. The world he inhabited was filled with a
marvelous diversity of spiritual teachers and teachings, and he learned many
meditation practices from others. The yogis of his day, those disciplined
practitioners of the meditative arts, were influenced considerably by ancient
shamanic practices and used deep mental training in the service of universal
religious pursuits such as gaining magical powers, traveling to other dimen-
sions of reality, and interacting with non-human beings. Many operated in
traditional Hindu contexts, employing meditative practices in the mystical
pursuit of realizing and uniting with god in various ways. The Buddha seemed
to have a very different set of interests, however, and both discouraged the
development of magical abilities and repudiated the theistic assumptions of
his day. He fully embraced the science of purifying and training the mind,
but directed it to the goal of understanding the nature of human experi-
ence. In particular, he was interested in investigating the moment-to-moment
functioning of mind and body, the synthetic construction of experience, and
the specific ways in which both suffering and well-being are conditioned by
interdependent factors. He saw humanity as being in an existentially chal-
lenging situation, given the ubiquity of change and the inevitability of aging,
sickness, and death. He also saw that human beings have deep instincts for
personal survival, which manifest as a whole array of afflictive emotional
responses rooted in greed, hatred, and delusion. The bulk of our difficulties,
he discerned, come not from the existential challenges themselves, but from
internally generated maladaptive responses activated by the relentless and
unreflective pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain. Through the exam-
ple of his own awakening and a subsequent life devoted to training others,
the Buddha demonstrated that these internal causes of suffering can be seen,
understood, and healed. His approach is basically psychological, his methods
are mostly empirical, and his goal is ultimately therapeutic, which is why his
teachings are of growing interest to modern psychologists.
Mindfulness Meditation
The primary tool for bringing about the radical transformation from reflexive
suffering to profound well-being is meditation, but the one-pointed concen-
tration meditations described so far are of only limited usefulness. The dis-
cipline and focus they bring to the mind are indispensible, but insight into
42 Andr ew Olendzki
the workings of the complex mind requires a more agile meditative tool.
That tool is mindfulness. Called sati in Pali, mindfulness derives from a root
(
smr¸t) meaning memory or recollection and refers to the cultivation of a
certain presence of mind that remembers to attend with persistent clarity
to the objects of present experience. Like meditation in general, it involves
placing attention deliberately upon an object and sustaining it over time,
but unlike one-pointedness and absorption, mindfulness tends to open to a
broader range of phenomena rather than restricting the focus to a singular
object. Like a floodlight rather than a spotlight, mindfulness illuminates a
more fluid phenomenological field of ever-changing experience rather than
isolating a particular object for intensive scrutiny. This alternative mode of
observation is necessary because mindfulness practice is more about investi-
gating a process than about examining an object. All mindfulness meditation
requires a certain degree of concentration in order to gather and focus the
powers of the mind, but the concentrated mind is then directed to a moving
target—the flowing stream of consciousness—rather than being allowed to
stabilize on a single point. Whereas concentration practice involves returning
the mind again and again to the primary object of meditation, mindfulness
practice allows the mind to follow whatever is arising in experience. There
is less a sense of controlling what the awareness is resting upon and more
care given to how awareness is manifesting.
In classical Buddhist psychology, mindfulness is regarded as a mental state,
one of the 52 functions of the mind that can arise in various combinations
to assist the cognizing of an object by consciousness. These mental factors
are similar to what are often called intentions, attitudes, or qualities of mind.
Among the mental states are found certain functions that are universal to
all mind moments, such as perception, feeling, volition, and attention, some
that may or may not arise in any given mind moment, such as decisiveness,
energy, or joy, and some that occur only in unwholesome states of mind such
as conceit, envy, or avarice. Mindfulness is among a list of factors that are
considered wholesome, and these serve as antidotes and alternatives to the
unwholesome factors. Mindfulness is always accompanied by such comple-
mentary mental factors as trust, equanimity, and kindness, along with factors
that contribute to the mind’s tranquility, malleability, and proficiency. This
system thus maps out a rather precise definition of mindfulness, which says
as much about what it is not as what it is. Mindfulness is not mere atten-
tiveness to experience; nor is it the deliberate turning of the mind toward
a particular object and the sustaining of attention upon that object; nor
can mindfulness ever co-arise with restlessness or any of the mental states
rooted in greed, hatred, or delusion. Mindfulness consists of a quality of
attention that is at once confident, benevolent, generous, and equanimous.
It is a manner of being aware, an attitude of mind toward experience, and a
mode of awareness that is paradoxically both intimately close and objectively
removed (Olendzki, 2008).
One more classical word for meditation that should be considered in this
context is bh
¯
avana. It is based on the causative construction of the verb “to
be” and is thus literally “causing to be”; it is generally translated as develop-
ment. One of the important functions of meditation is the development of
those qualities of mind that are beneficial to a path of transformation. There
are meditations that develop concentration, there are those that develop
Chapter 2 Mindfulness and Meditation 43
mindfulness, and there are those that develop other specific qualities such
as kindness, compassion, appreciative joy, and equanimity. The idea, as it
is stated in an early text, is that “Whatever a person frequently thinks and
ponders upon, that will become the inclination of his mind” (Majjhima 19)
(Nanamoli & Bodhi, 1995). In a model where each mind moment arises and
passes away in serial progression, with each moment taking a single object
and each object being regarded with either a wholesome or an unwhole-
some attitude, the quality of each mind moment becomes a matter of great
concern. In a moment of anger, for example, kindness cannot simultaneously
manifest. In a moment of confusions, there can be no mindfulness. Psycho-
logical cultivation thus involves abandoning the unwholesome states as they
naturally arise in the mind and encouraging or developing the wholesome
states that arise. Mindfulness is the mental factor of most benefit to those
seeking mental well-being, so the development of mindfulness is a universally
healthy thing to do. Much of Buddhist meditation consists of the cultivation
of mindfulness, and this can only be done with great patience and persever-
ance. Putting aside an hour or two each day or attending a full-immersion
retreat setting from time to time is among the ways to practice being mind-
ful. The content of experience in this pursuit is almost irrelevant—one can
be mindful of breathing, of walking, of eating, or of almost any ordinary activ-
ity. What is of most importance is the quality of attention brought to these
pursuits.
Summary
What we have outlined above can be seen as a continuum that appears at
this point to have returned to its beginning. We start with the workings
of the ordinary mind, which takes anything that happens to appear in the
mind or senses as an object of awareness, but in an undisciplined and appar-
ently random way. According to Buddhist thought, nothing is truly random
in the human mind and body, however, so what appears to be the sponta-
neously attentive mind is actually a mind reacting to phenomena with host
of unconscious habits, reflexes, and attitudes. To the extent these subliminal
conditioning factors are rooted in greed, hatred, and delusion, our behavior
will continually incline toward more suffering for ourselves and others. To
counter this tendency, we might embark upon the enterprise of deliberately
controlling and disciplining the mind to return to a primary object of aware-
ness during sessions of sustained concentration practice. To some extent this
involves countering the mind’s natural inclination to turn away to something
else, and like any form of discipline, it can seem onerous at first. But as the
mind concentrates it accesses considerable power, and one can chooses to
direct that power either to explore the deeper reaches of altered states of
consciousness or to investigate more carefully the flow of ordinary experi-
ence. When, in mindfulness meditation, awareness is encouraged to roam
freely over the phenomena of experience, it does so with qualitatively more
clarity and continuity than is accessible in ordinary states of mind.
The benefits of this heightened capability of awareness are manifold, both
within and outside the Buddhist context. Traditionally, mindfulness was seen
as a tool to be used for gaining wisdom, which consists of the direct,
44 Andr ew Olendzki
experiential understanding of the impermanence, selflessness, unsatisfactori-
ness, and interdependence of all phenomena. This might not seem like much
at first glance, but the implications of these insights are far reaching, leading
to no less than the thorough purification of human nature of its inherited
toxins and the complete emancipation of consciousness from its hedonic
conditioning. The usefulness of mindfulness to the modern psychotherapist
and researcher is being discovered and creatively explored in ever new ways
each day, as will be amply demonstrated in the rest of this book.
Refer ences
Nanamoli, B., & Bodhi, B. (1995). The middle length discourses of the Buddha.
Boston: Wisdom Publications, p. 208.
Olendzki, Andrew. (2008). The real practice of mindfulness. Buddhadharma, The
Practitioner’s Quarterly. Fall 2008, p. 50.
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Conference Paper
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The present consumption has far exceeded the earth’s capacity and it is being said that we are moving further and faster away from sustainability agenda. Extant literature suggests, embracing sustainable consumption (consuming products and services with minimal negative impact on the environment, and positive impact on societal wellbeing) could be the surest way to mitigate this detrimental effects. Increasingly studies propose adopting psychological approaches in boosting sustainable consumption behaviors but only a handful of them have investigated the association between facets of mindfulness and sustainable consumption behaviour. Based on extant literatures, the present study aims at conceptualizing and empirically investigate the relationship between mindfulness and sustainable consumption behaviour and shed light on how dispositional envy and pro-social behaviour mediates this relationship, especially in young Indian millennials.
Chapter
The concept of mindfulness has been widely applied in the fields of health and mental health. Mindfulness has been defined as “being in the present moment,” “paying attention on purpose,” and “being non-judgmental” by John Kabat-Zinn, the pioneer of mindfulness-based intervention for stress reduction. Despite the popularity of mindfulness among Western health researchers, however, there is no consensus on how to define and measure it. Existing mindfulness scales have uncertain content validity. To address this research gap, we developed a new Buddhist Trait Mindfulness Scale (BTMS) with two subscales: Body-Mind-Senses Awareness Subscale (BMSAS) and Greed-Distress Non-clinging Subscale (GDNCS) based on the Buddha’s original instructions for meditation practice. This endeavor was a response to a long-standing call for an understanding of mindfulness from its Buddhist roots. The study sample included Chinese adults with varied experiences in meditative practices. In validating these scales, we adopted multimodal assessment methods using self-report questionnaires, a semi-structured interview (assessing “rater-rated mindfulness”) and experience sampling (assessing “momentary mindfulness”). Our findings revealed satisfactory psychometric properties of both the BMSAS and GDNCS. BMSAS was significantly correlated with momentary mindfulness but was unrelated to rater-rated mindfulness, while the opposite held true of the GDNCS. Non-clinging, but not awareness, distinguished meditators from nonmeditators. In conclusion, the BTMS offer simple, concise, self-report tools to measure the trait mindfulness among Chinese participants. Further cross-cultural studies are needed to validate the scales cross-culturally.
Article
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Positive psychology, as a distinctive paradigm, focuses on the remedy of pathologies and, by contrast, the promotion of positive experiences and conditions in life (e.g., encouraging a state of flourishing). Positive psychology, in its simplistic form, may provide evidence and insightful understanding into the proactivity of human agency (Seligman, 1999; Seligman and Csíkszentmihályi, 2000). Drawing from this emphasis, we have developed the theory of optimization, which attempts to explain the achievement of optimal functioning in life (e.g., optimal cognitive functioning: academic performance). By the same token, in the course of our research development into the theory of optimization, we have also delved into a comparable theoretical orientation, namely: the multifaceted nature of mindfulness, consisting of three interrelated components – the psychological component of mindfulness, the philosophical component of mindfulness, and the spiritual component of mindfulness. This conceptualization of mindfulness is rather unique for its incorporation of both Western and Eastern knowledge, philosophical viewpoints, and epistemologies into one holistic framework. The main premise of this conceptual analysis article is to advance the study of positive psychology by specifically introducing our recently developed model of mindfulness, in this case, the multifaceted structure of mindfulness with its three distinct components. Importantly, we make attempts to highlight the significance of this multifaceted model by situating it within the theory of optimization for academic learning. Using philosophical psychology and personal-based teaching and research reasoning, we provide a valid rationale as to how aspects of our proposed model of mindfulness (e.g., reaching a state of enlightenment) could act to facilitate and optimize a person’s state of functioning (e.g., cognitive functioning). Moreover, we posit that our rationale regarding mindfulness as a potential “optimizing agent” for the purpose of optimal functioning could, indeed, emphasize and reflect the salient nature of positive psychology. In other words, we contend that an explanatory account of mindfulness from the perspectives of Confucianism and Buddhism could, in this analysis, coincide with and support the meaningful understanding and appreciation for the study of positive psychology in educational and non-educational contexts. We conclude the article by exploring the complex issue of methodology – that is, for example, how would a researcher measure, assess, and/or empirically validate the multifaceted nature of mindfulness?
Chapter
Chapter 13 provided a rationale for the use of the relaxation response in the treatment of stress-related disorders. We now explore several techniques used to create the relaxation response. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a clinically relevant introduction to meditation.
The real practice of mindfulness. Buddhadharma, The Practitioner’s Quarterly
  • Andrew Olendzki
The real practice of mindfulness. Buddhadharma, The Practitioner's Quarterly. Fall
  • Andrew Olendzki
Olendzki, Andrew. (2008). The real practice of mindfulness. Buddhadharma, The Practitioner's Quarterly. Fall 2008, p. 50.